WorldWideScience

Sample records for iodine 117

  1. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  2. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed. The thyroid gland needs iodine ... most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be ...

  3. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  4. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  5. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  6. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid problems, such as nodules, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease. Administration of large amounts of iodine through medications ( ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  7. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  8. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  9. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  10. Low iodine content in the diets of hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Preterm formula provided 16.4-28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0-17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

  11. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Elizabeth N. Pearce

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  12. Iodine concentration in cow's milk and its relation with urinary iodine concentrations in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriguer, Federico; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Gonzalez-Romero, Stella; Olveira, Gabriel; Garriga, Maria J; Velasco, Ines; Santiago, Piedad; de Escobar, Gabriella M; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The importance of milk intake to the supply of dietary iodine is not fully known. We therefore undertook a study in Spain of the iodine concentration in cow's milk and the impact of the frequency of milk consumption on urinary iodine concentrations in three study populations. We studied the iodine concentration in 362 samples of milk from 45 commercial brands and compared it with the milk iodine status in studies undertaken 17 years earlier. The epidemiologic studies were performed in three different places in the south of Spain: two in school-age children (N = 757 and N = 1205 children) and one in adults (N = 1051). A milk consumption questionnaire was given and urinary iodine concentrations measured. The mean concentration of iodine in the milk rose from 1991 (117 ± 37 μg/L) to 2008 (259 ± 58 μg/L) (P milk (273 ± 52 μg/L) than in semi-skimmed milk (254 ± 57 μg/L) or whole milk (251 ± 61 μg/L) (P milk. The urinary iodine concentrations in all three epidemiologic studies were significantly associated with the frequency of milk intake. The concentration of iodine in cow's milk has risen over recent years, and it is higher in skimmed milk. The results also show that cow's milk is a relevant source of dietary iodine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  15. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  16. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  17. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  18. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  19. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  20. Semiquantitative test for iodine vapor above "complexed" iodine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, M; Kleinmann, K

    1975-04-01

    A test to determine the extent to which free iodine exists in the vapor phase above the surface of "complexed iodine" solutions is described. The procedure is based on the qualitative starch-iodine test. The results can be related to the degree of complexation occurring between the polymer used in the preparation and iodine. Four products were tested: nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine complex; polyvinyl pyrrolidine-iodine complex; popoxamer-iodine complex; and nonylphenoxypoly ethanol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine complex. Free iodine in the vapor phase of the first product was detected in 90 minutes; the time for the other three was five days. For the tincture of iodine control, the time was 30 minutes.

  1. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  2. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  3. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  4. Production of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses and compares various ways of Iodine-123 production using different targets such as 124 Xe, 122 Te, 123 Te, 124 Te and others. Requirements to targets and their design are discussed as well as nuclear reactions that lead to 123 I. Separation of the Iodine radioisotope is briefly presented along with comparison of the pathways in terms of the isotopic purity of target 123 I

  5. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  6. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloucif, A.

    1995-01-01

    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Iodination-deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.; Refetoff, S.

    1977-01-01

    Bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. The rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature or pH and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. The rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from RNA. Experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides showed that pairing of the substituted nucleotide protected the iodine bond. The rates of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of several radioiodinated RNAs were measured. The action of bisulfite on all single-stranded RNAs tested was multiphasic consisting of a rapid early deiodination reaction supplanted by a slower phase which was followed by reacceleration of release. The release of iodine from double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes was retarded in comparison with the release from ribosomal and messenger RNA fractions. The deiodination profiles of single- and double-stranded RNA suggested that in the intermediate stage iodine release is governed by melting of paired zones of low stability. Late release may result from destabilization of the molecule through the addition of bisulfite to the pyrimidine ring or deamination. The effect of several substances expected to complex with polynucleotides was tested. The results show that a change in sensitivity to chemical deiodination may follow the interaction of small amounts of protein with polynucleotides

  8. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  10. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  11. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  12. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  15. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  16. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  17. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  18. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, A.; Mirpour, S.; Saghari, M.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Pourmoslemi, A.; Yarmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  19. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  20. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  1. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  2. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  3. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  4. 33 CFR 117.403 - Wabash River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wabash River. 117.403 Section 117.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.403 Wabash River. See § 117.397, Wabash River...

  5. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  6. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  7. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  8. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  9. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  10. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  11. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  12. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  13. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  14. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  15. Iodine laser program: SAIL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The iodine laser is the most highly developed near-infrared gas laser available for large-scale laser development. Its fast-repetition-rate potential and prospects for improvements in efficiency make it a primary laser candidate to meet mid-term laser-fusion requirements. It may have adequate efficiency for commercial laser-fusion applications in a hybrid fission/fusion reactor, for fusion-fuel breeding and for laser-fusion power generation using complex pellets. Research progress is reported on: (1) SAIL-1; (2) iodine laser-code development; (3) collision and radiation coupling for iodine atoms; (4) development of multilevel Block-Maxwell equations; (5) approximations for iodine amplifiers; and (6) studies based on the ISTAR code

  16. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  17. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  18. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  19. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  20. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  1. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  2. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  3. 33 CFR 117.457 - Houston River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houston River. 117.457 Section 117.457 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.457 Houston River. The draw of the...

  4. 25 CFR 117.11 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 117.11 Section 117.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.11 Insurance. The superintendent may obtain policies of insurance covering the restricted property, real or personal, of minor...

  5. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety review...

  6. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  7. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern Railway...

  8. 33 CFR 117.241 - Mispillion River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mispillion River. 117.241 Section 117.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.241 Mispillion River. The draw of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.381 - Clearwater River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearwater River. 117.381 Section 117.381 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.381 Clearwater River. The draws of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.113 - Tensaw River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tensaw River. 117.113 Section 117.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.113 Tensaw River. The draw of the CSX...

  11. 33 CFR 117.127 - Current River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Current River. 117.127 Section 117.127 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.127 Current River. The draws of the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.367 - Ogeechee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ogeechee River. 117.367 Section 117.367 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.367 Ogeechee River. (a) The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.305 - Miami River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miami River. 117.305 Section 117.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.305 Miami River. (a) General. Public vessels of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.141 - American River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false American River. 117.141 Section 117.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.141 American River. The draw of the...

  15. 33 CFR 117.473 - Little River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River. 117.473 Section 117.473 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.473 Little River. The draw of the Louisiana and...

  16. 33 CFR 117.493 - Sabine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine River. 117.493 Section 117.493 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.493 Sabine River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  17. 33 CFR 117.121 - Arkansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arkansas River 117.121 Section 117.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.121 Arkansas River The draw of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.215 - Niantic River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Niantic River. 117.215 Section 117.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.215 Niantic River. (a) The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.423 - Atchafalaya River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River. 117.423 Section 117.423 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.423 Atchafalaya River. The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.365 - Oconee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oconee River. 117.365 Section 117.365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.365 Oconee River. The draw of the SR46 bridge...

  1. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.109 - Coosa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosa River. 117.109 Section 117.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.109 Coosa River. The draw of the CSX...

  3. 33 CFR 117.422 - Amite River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amite River. 117.422 Section 117.422 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.422 Amite River. (a) The draw of the S22 bridge...

  4. 33 CFR 117.224 - Thames River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thames River. 117.224 Section 117.224 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.224 Thames River. The draw of the Amtrak...

  5. 33 CFR 117.245 - Smyrna River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smyrna River. 117.245 Section 117.245 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.245 Smyrna River. The draw of the Delaware...

  6. 33 CFR 117.337 - Trout River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trout River. 117.337 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.337 Trout River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Trout River, mile 0.9 at Jacksonville, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is not...

  7. 33 CFR 117.131 - Little River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River. 117.131 Section 117.131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.131 Little River. The draws of the Burlington...

  8. 33 CFR 117.553 - Choptank River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Choptank River. 117.553 Section 117.553 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.553 Choptank River. (a) The draw of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.529 - Narraguagus River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narraguagus River. 117.529 Section 117.529 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.529 Narraguagus River. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  11. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route S370...

  12. 33 CFR 117.295 - Kissimmee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kissimmee River. 117.295 Section 117.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.295 Kissimmee River. The draw of the DSX...

  13. 33 CFR 117.207 - Housatonic River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housatonic River. 117.207 Section 117.207 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.207 Housatonic River. (a) The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St. Louis...

  15. 33 CFR 117.125 - Black River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black River. 117.125 Section 117.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.125 Black River. The following draws need not be...

  16. 33 CFR 117.575 - Susquehanna River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Susquehanna River. 117.575 Section 117.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.575 Susquehanna River. The draw of the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.427 - Black River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black River. 117.427 Section 117.427 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.427 Black River. The draw of the US84 bridge...

  18. 33 CFR 117.407 - Missouri River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missouri River. 117.407 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Iowa § 117.407 Missouri River. See § 117.691, Missouri River listed under Nebraska. Kansas ...

  19. 33 CFR 117.480 - Mermentau River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mermentau River. 117.480 Section 117.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.480 Mermentau River. The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.569 - Pocomoke River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pocomoke River. 117.569 Section 117.569 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.569 Pocomoke River. (a) The Conrail...

  1. 33 CFR 117.551 - Chester River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chester River. 117.551 Section 117.551 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.551 Chester River. The draw of the S213...

  2. 33 CFR 117.319 - Oklawaha River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River. 117.319 Section 117.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.319 Oklawaha River. (a) The draw of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.107 - Chattahoochee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattahoochee River. 117.107 Section 117.107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.107 Chattahoochee River. The draws of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.585 - Acushnet River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acushnet River. 117.585 Section 117.585 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.585 Acushnet River. (a) The...

  5. 33 CFR 117.221 - Saugatuck River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saugatuck River. 117.221 Section 117.221 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.221 Saugatuck River. (a) Public...

  6. 33 CFR 117.500 - Tchefuncta River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tchefuncta River. 117.500 Section 117.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.500 Tchefuncta River. The draw of the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.525 - Kennebec River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River. 117.525 Section 117.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.525 Kennebec River. (a) The draw of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The Alabama...

  9. 33 CFR 117.271 - Blackwater River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackwater River. 117.271 Section 117.271 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.271 Blackwater River. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.219 - Pequonnock River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pequonnock River. 117.219 Section 117.219 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.219 Pequonnock River. (a) Public...

  11. 33 CFR 117.361 - Flint River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flint River. 117.361 Section 117.361 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.361 Flint River. The draws of the CSX...

  12. 33 CFR 117.389 - Calumet River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calumet River. 117.389 Section 117.389 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Illinois § 117.389 Calumet River. The draws of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.503 - Tensas River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tensas River. 117.503 Section 117.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.503 Tensas River. The draws of the S15 bridge...

  14. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday...

  15. 33 CFR 117.483 - Ouachita River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ouachita River. 117.483 Section 117.483 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.483 Ouachita River. The draw of the S8...

  16. 33 CFR 117.183 - Old River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Old River. 117.183 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.183 Old River. The draw of the California... notice is given to the drawtender at the Rio Vista bridge across the Sacramento River, mile 12.8. ...

  17. 33 CFR 117.359 - Chattahoochee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattahoochee River. 117.359... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.359 Chattahoochee River. See § 117.107, Chattahoochee River, listed under Alabama. ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.133 - Ouachita River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ouachita River. 117.133 Section 117.133 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.133 Ouachita River. The draw of the St...

  19. 33 CFR 117.567 - Patuxent River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patuxent River. 117.567 Section 117.567 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.567 Patuxent River. The draw of S231...

  20. 33 CFR 117.587 - Apponagansett River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apponagansett River. 117.587 Section 117.587 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.587 Apponagansett River. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 117.187 - Petaluma River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petaluma River. 117.187 Section 117.187 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.187 Petaluma River. (a) The draws of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.205 - Connecticut River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecticut River. 117.205 Section 117.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.205 Connecticut River. (a) The...

  3. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker Bridge...

  4. 33 CFR 117.533 - Sheepscot River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheepscot River. 117.533 Section 117.533 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.533 Sheepscot River. The draw of the Maine...

  5. 33 CFR 117.211 - Mystic River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mystic River. 117.211 Section 117.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.211 Mystic River. (a) The draw of the Amtrak...

  6. 33 CFR 117.243 - Nanticoke River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nanticoke River. 117.243 Section 117.243 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.243 Nanticoke River. (a) The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.255 - Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River. 117.255 Section 117.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements District of Columbia § 117.255 Potomac River. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.253 - Anacostia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anacostia River. 117.253 Section 117.253 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements District of Columbia § 117.253 Anacostia River. (a...

  9. 33 CFR 117.363 - Ocmulgee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ocmulgee River. 117.363 Section 117.363 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.363 Ocmulgee River. The draws of each...

  10. 33 CFR 117.369 - Satilla River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satilla River. 117.369 Section 117.369 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.369 Satilla River. The draw of the...

  11. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX...

  12. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above...

  13. 33 CFR 117.209 - Mianus River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mianus River. 117.209 Section 117.209 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.209 Mianus River. The draw of the Metro-North...

  14. 33 CFR 117.509 - Vermilion River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vermilion River. 117.509 Section 117.509 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.509 Vermilion River. (a) The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.351 - Altamaha River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Altamaha River. 117.351 Section 117.351 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.351 Altamaha River. (a) The draws of all...

  16. 33 CFR 117.371 - Savannah River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah River. 117.371 Section 117.371 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Georgia § 117.371 Savannah River. (a) The draw of the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.313 - New River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New River. 117.313 Section 117.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.313 New River. (a) The draw of the SE. Third...

  18. 33 CFR 117.397 - Wabash River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wabash River. 117.397 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Illinois § 117.397 Wabash River. The draws of the bridges across the Wabash River need not be opened for the passage of vessels. Indiana ...

  19. 33 CFR 117.486 - Pearl River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pearl River. 117.486 Section 117.486 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.486 Pearl River. (a) The draw of the CSX...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific...

  1. 13 CFR 117.16 - Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearings. 117.16 Section 117.16 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117.16...

  2. 13 CFR 117.18 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 117.18 Section 117.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  3. 13 CFR 117.10 - Review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review procedures. 117.10 Section 117.10 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  4. 13 CFR 117.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative applications. 117.5 Section 117.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  5. 13 CFR 117.9 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance information. 117.9 Section 117.9 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  6. 13 CFR 117.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 117.1 Section 117.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117.1...

  7. 13 CFR 117.11 - Complaint procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complaint procedures. 117.11 Section 117.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  8. 13 CFR 117.7 - Assurances required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurances required. 117.7 Section 117.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  9. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.4...

  10. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  11. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  12. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  13. 40 CFR 117.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 117.2 Section 117.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 117.2 Abbreviations. NPDES equals...

  14. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  15. 33 CFR 117.469 - Liberty Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liberty Bayou. 117.469 Section 117.469 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.469 Liberty Bayou. The draw of the...

  16. 47 CFR 97.117 - International communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International communications. 97.117 Section 97.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.117 International communications. Transmissions to...

  17. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117 Transportation... Response Plans § 194.117 Training. (a) Each operator shall conduct training to ensure that: (1) All... of equipment, fire suits, and breathing apparatus. (b) Each operator shall maintain a training record...

  18. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  19. 14 CFR 171.117 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 171.117 Section 171.117... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) § 171.117 Reports. The owner of each facility to which this subpart applies shall make the following reports, at the time...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1095 - Root River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Root River. 117.1095 Section 117.1095 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1095 Root River. (a) The draw of the Main Street...

  1. 33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern...

  2. 40 CFR 35.117 - Unused funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused funds. 35.117 Section 35.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Post-Award Requirements § 35.117 Unused funds. If funds for an...

  3. 33 CFR 117.979 - Sabine Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine Lake. 117.979 Section 117.979 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.979 Sabine Lake. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 10...

  4. 33 CFR 117.434 - Caddo Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caddo Lake. 117.434 Section 117.434 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.434 Caddo Lake. The draw of the Kansas City...

  5. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.

    1985-10-15

    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  6. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  7. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  8. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  9. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  10. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  11. Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J; Panicucci, R; Duan, Y; Dinehart, K; Murphy, J; Kessler, J; Gottardi, W

    1997-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been used to generate iodine compositions that comprised principally free molecular iodine. The concentration of free molecular iodine in these enzyme-based compositions ranged from 44 to 63% of the thiosulphate titratable iodine; this is substantially higher than the corresponding value for the povidone-iodine preparation betadine. The biocidal efficacy of these compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine. Iodine compositions with relatively low total iodine concentrations but high levels of free molecular iodine (20-175 ppm) killed Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Bacillus subtilis more rapidly than betadine. The effects of normal saline and these enzyme-based iodine compositions on the rate of epidermal regeneration in superficial swine wounds were comparable. These results suggest that an effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

  12. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  13. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol; Fatigue plastique oligocyclique du Zircaloy-4 sous vide et dans le methanol iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloucif, A.

    1995-01-01

    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  15. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  16. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P  0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P  0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were

  17. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  18. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  19. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  20. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  1. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    density of iodine (solid at room temperature) is 4.933 g/cc. Iodine also has a relatively high vapor pressure at low temperatures. Vapor pressures of...unknowns with iodine – Vapor pressure requires temperature control – New flow control system design/complexity – Performance and lifetime? – Safety... Iodine is a demonstrated HET propellant – Cheaper than xenon, similar critical properties – 3x higher storage density – Low pressure storage • Issues

  3. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  4. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Iodine, Polymer-supported periodic acid, Oxidant, Iodination. INTRODUCTION. Iodobenzene derivatives are valuable compounds in organic synthesis, medicine, and biochemistry [1]. Iodine is an elemental halogen that has less reactive than the other halides in electrophilic substitution reactions, therefore ...

  6. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  7. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  8. 33 CFR 117.424 - Belle River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m...

  9. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  10. Status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in selected districts of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uttarakhand state is a known endemic area for iodine deficiency. Objective: The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the iodine nutritional status amongst pregnant mothers (PMs in districts: Pauri (P, Nainital (N and Udham Singh Nagar (USN of Uttarakhand state. Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters from each district were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1727 PMs from P (481, N (614 and USN (632 were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each PM was conducted. Urine and salt samples were collected from a sub samples of PMs enlisted for thyroid clinical examination. Results: The total Goiter rate was found to be 24.9 (P, 20.2 (N and 16.1 (USN%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC levels were found to be 110 μg/L (P, 117.5 μg/L (N and 124 μg/L (USN. The percentage of PMs consuming salt with iodine content of 15 ppm and more was found to be 57.9 (P, 67.0 (N and 50.3 (USN. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that the PMs in all three districts had low iodine nutritional status as revealed by UIC levels of less than 150 μg/L.

  11. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  12. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  13. Method of fixing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Nakamichi; Kubota, Yu; Hoshino, Yoshihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive iodine by adsorbing radioactive iodine to silicate type adsorbents carrying silver thereon, mixing the adsorbents with hydroxides of alkali or alkaline earth metals and subjecting them to hydrothermic reaction. Method: The adsorbents used in this invention are, for example, those silicate type adsorbents carrying silver such as silver-supporting zeolite and silver-supporting moldenite, and the silver supporting amount is suitably from about 30 to 40 % by weight. When radioactive iodine is brought into contact with the adsorbents, it is adsorbed and a portion thereof is present in the instable coupling. Then, at least one of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and barium hydroxide is mixed in an amount of 1 to 30 % by weight to the adsorbents and maintained under the state of a pressure of higher than 70 kg/cm 2 and a temperature above 150 deg C under the presence of water to conduct hydrothermic reduction, whereby iodine is converted into stable AgI or AgIO 3 and the adsorabents are formed into solidification products. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  15. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  16. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  18. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  19. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  20. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed. ...

  1. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous substance...

  2. 33 CFR 117.175 - Mokelumne River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mokelumne River. 117.175 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.175 Mokelumne River. (a) The draw of the California Department of Transportation highway bridge, the Mokelumne River Bridge, mile 3.0, at...

  3. 33 CFR 117.570 - Sassafras River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sassafras River. 117.570 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.570 Sassafras River. The draw of the Sassafras River (Route 213) bridge, mile 10.0 at Georgetown, Maryland, shall open on signal; except that...

  4. 33 CFR 117.291 - Hillsborough River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hillsborough River. 117.291... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.291 Hillsborough River. (a) The... the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Hillsborough River, mile 0.7, at Tampa, operates as follows: (1...

  5. 33 CFR 117.411 - Missouri River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missouri River. 117.411 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kansas § 117.411 Missouri River. The draws of the bridges across the Missouri River shall open on signal; except during the winter season between the date...

  6. 33 CFR 117.217 - Norwalk River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Norwalk River. 117.217 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.217 Norwalk River. (a) The draw of.... to 12 p.m., on the first Saturday in December, to facilitate the running of the annual Norwalk River...

  7. 33 CFR 117.189 - Sacramento River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sacramento River. 117.189 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.189 Sacramento River. (a) The draws of each bridge from Isleton to American River junction shall open on signal from May 1 through...

  8. 33 CFR 117.531 - Piscataqua River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piscataqua River. 117.531 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.531 Piscataqua River. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Piscataqua River: (1) Public vessels of the United States...

  9. 33 CFR 117.258 - Apalachicola River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apalachicola River. 117.258... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.258 Apalachicola River. The draw of the CSX Railroad bridge, mile 105.9, at River Junction shall open on signal Monday through Friday from 8 a...

  10. 33 CFR 117.299 - Loxahatchee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loxahatchee River. 117.299... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.299 Loxahatchee River. The draw of the Florida East Coast Railway bridge across the Loxahatchee River, mile 1.2 at Jupiter, operates as follows...

  11. 33 CFR 117.300 - Manatee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manatee River. 117.300 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.300 Manatee River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Manatee River, mile 4.5 Bradenton, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is not...

  12. 33 CFR 117.527 - Kennebunk River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebunk River. 117.527 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.527 Kennebunk River. The Dock Square drawbridge at mile 1.0, across the Kennebunk River, between Kennebunk and Kennebunkport, Maine, need not open...

  13. 33 CFR 117.333 - Suwannee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suwannee River. 117.333 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.333 Suwannee River. The draw of Suwannee River bridge, mile 35 at Old Town need not be opened for the passage of vessels, however, the draw shall...

  14. 33 CFR 117.391 - Chicago River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chicago River. 117.391 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Illinois § 117.391 Chicago River. The draws of the bridges operated by the City of Chicago over the Main Branch of Chicago River, the bridges on the North...

  15. 33 CFR 117.697 - Hampton River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton River. 117.697 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Hampshire § 117.697 Hampton River. The SR1A bridge, mile 0.0 at Hampton, operates as follows: (a) The draw shall open on signal from April 1 through...

  16. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair. ...

  17. 13 CFR 117.12 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 117.12 Section 117.12... Mediation. (a) SBA shall, after ensuring that the complaint falls within the coverage of this Act and all... clearly within an exception, promptly refer the complaint to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation...

  18. Iodine excretion during stimulation with rhTSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, C.; Kies, P.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Elevated iodine intake is a serious problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic application of {sup 131}iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Therefore, iodine avoidance is necessary 3 months in advance. Additionally, endogenous stimulation requires withdrawal of thyroid hormone substitution for 4 weeks. Exogenous stimulation using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) enables the continuous substitution of levothyroxine, which contains 65.4% of its molecular weight in iodine. Thus, a substantial source of iodine intake is maintained during exogenous stimulation. Although this amount of stable iodine is comparable to the iodine intake in regions of normal iodine supply, it may reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine excretion depending on different ways of stimulation. Methods: Iodine excretion was measured in 146 patients in the long term follow up after differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients were separated into 2 groups, those on hormone withdrawal (G I) and rhTSH-stimulated patients on hormone substitution (G II). Results: Iodine excretion was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients (G I, median 50 {mu}g/l, range: 25-600 {mu}g/l) than in those under levothyroxine medication (G II, median 75 {mu}g/l, 25-600 {mu}g/l, p<0.027). TSH in G I (median 57.0 {mu}U/ml, range: 14.4-183 {mu}U/ml) was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in G II (117 {mu}U/ml, 32.2-281 {mu}U/ml). Conclusion: Iodine excretion was higher in patients under rhTSH-stimulation than after hormone withdrawal. This may indicate an increased iodine pool in rhTSH-stimulated patients (deiodination of levothyroxine), thus limiting the sensitivity of radioiodine scanning to the level of endogenous stimulation despite significantly higher TSH levels during rhTSH-stimulation. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Eine erhoehte Iodzufuhr ist ein erhebliches Problem in der diagnostischen und therapeutischen Anwendung von {sup 131}Iod

  19. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  20. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  1. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from ... the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P

  2. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages......, are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  3. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  4. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  5. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  6. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  7. Iodine frequency references for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm3) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ˜ 1 · 10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017.

  8. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  9. Investigation of the daily variation in iodine and creatinine excretion in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabech, H.S.

    1975-08-01

    Continuing earlier investigations of the level of iodine intake in Norway, the excretion of iodine in 24-hour samples of urine over 7 days has been measured for 23 persons. Three of them collected 24-hour samples of urine during continuous periods of 21, 22 and 54 days. The main aim of the investigation was to study the diurnal variation of iodine excretion , and to correlate it with diet components when connection was suspected. To this end the persons had to keep record of the diet, especially with respect to fish and fish products. The variation from day to day of the iodine excretion was much greater than expected, and the highest values were always preceded by meals of sea-fish. Mean 24-hour iodine excretion from 13 males was 266 μg/24h (range 54-2272), from 8 females 154 μg/24h (range 58-627), and from 2 children 74 μg/24h (range 33-129). Large fluctuations were present, as indicated by standard deviations that varied from 12 to 119% of the mean. None of the persons had a mean 24-hour excretion lower than the advised minimum of 1 μg iodine/kg b w. The excretion of creatinine has also been measured, and the excretion from day to day showed large fluctuations for some of the persons. In 13 males the mean 24-hour excretion of creatinine was 1.88 gram (range 0.81-2.93), and in 8 females 1.17 gram (range 0.47-1.74). In one person, who collected urine during a period of 54 days, the mean excretion of creatinine was 1.80 gram (range 1.19-2.75). (auth.)

  10. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  11. Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.; Uenak, T.

    1987-01-01

    High radiotoxicity of iodine-125 has been mainly attributed to the local radiolytic effects of Auger electrons on biological systems. In the present study, experimental and theoretical results are compared. The agreement between the experimental and theoretical results explains that the energy absorption of iodine aggregates has an important role in the radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons and iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHB117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB117 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16528-1 VHB117P (Link to Original site) VHB...117F 592 VHB117Z 283 VHB117P 855 - - Show VHB117 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHB... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHB1-A/VHB117Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHB...117P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHB117 (VHB117Q) /CSM/VH/VHB1-A/VHB1...LHLVLRLRGGGGKX Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHB117 (VHB117Q) /CSM/VH/VHB

  13. Molecular environment of iodine in naturally iodinated humic substances: Insight from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Mercier-Bion, Florence; Barre, Nicole; Reiller, Pascal; Moulin, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The molecular environment of iodine in reference inorganic and organic compounds, and in dry humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs) extracted from subsurface and deep aquifers was probed by iodine L-3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of iodine spectra from HAs and FAs resembled those of organic references and displayed structural features consistent with iodine forming covalent bonds with organic molecules. Simulation of XANES spectra by linear combination of reference spectra suggested the predominance of iodine forming covalent bonds to aromatic rings (aromatic-bound iodine). Comparison of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of reference and samples further showed that iodine was surrounded by carbon shells at distances comparable to those for references containing aromatic-bound iodine. Quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra indicated that iodine was bound to about one carbon at a distance d(I-C) of 2.01(4)-2.04(9) angstrom, which was comparable to the distances observed for aromatic-bound iodine in references (1.99(1)-2.07(6) angstrom), and significantly shorter than that observed for aliphatic-bound iodine (2.15(2)-2.16(2) angstrom). These results are in agreement with previous conclusions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and from electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. These results collectively suggest that the aromatic-bound iodine is stable in the various aquifers of this study. (authors)

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  15. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  16. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  17. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  18. Hygienic assessment of radioactive iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Sources of radioactive iodine isotopes and their biological significance depending on the way of intake are discussed. The degree of food contamination by radioactive iodine as well as products, which serve as the source of its intake into the human body, and results of their processing are considered. The danger of radioactive iodine intake by different groups of population as well as thyroid irradiation effects are discussed. Description of activities, directed to the human body protection against radioactive iodine and assessment of these protection measures efficiency is presented

  19. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  20. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies....

  1. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  2. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  3. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  4. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  5. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  6. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  7. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  9. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    While radioactive iodine is clearly the therapy of choice for Graves' disease (even in younger patients) the use of radioactive iodine for therapy of the toxic multinodular or uninodular goiter presents an entirely different problem. Although these two entities can be treated with radioactive iodine provided there is some suppression of the tissue that is not autonomous, transient release of thyroid hormone may induce symptoms of thyroid storm in the very large multinodular toxic goiter treated with radioiodine therapy. These toxic nodules generally require much larger doses of radioiodine than is commonly used for classical Graves' disease and may either require fractional administration of radioisotopes or concomitant use of antithyroid drugs and iodides. In general, surgery remains the treatment of choice for large toxic multinodular goiters, after proper preparation by medical means including radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism is contraindicated in pregnancy and generally is not used in children below five years of age. (U.S.)

  10. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  11. Radioiodination of methoxsalen using different iodinating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoub, S.M.; Farah, K.

    2007-01-01

    Different iodinating agents such as chloramine-T (Ch-T), iodogen, H 2 O 2 and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) were used for the labelling of methoxsalen via electrophilic substitution reaction. These iodinating agents oxidize NaI to produce the iodonium ions which attacked the active position in methoxsalen. These iodinating agents successfully iodinate the methoxsalen with a reasonable radiochemical yield and purity. The factors affecting both chemical yield and purity, such as the concentration of the iodinating agent, the methoxsalen concentration and the reaction time, were studied. Different developing solvents were used for the identification of the products using TLC technique. It was found that the most suitable solvent for the identification of methoxsalen using TLC was n-butanol : acetic acid : water (4:1:1). Radiochemical yields of 80% and 84% , with purity 99%, were achieved in case of NBS and H 2 O 2 , respectively

  12. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  14. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 46 CFR 117.200 - Survival craft-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-general. 117.200 Section 117.200 Shipping... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.200 Survival craft—general. (a) Each survival craft required on a... craft they replace. (c) A summary of survival craft requirements is provided in Table 117.200(c). Table...

  16. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  17. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-09-26

    To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6-216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1-380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was -1.9 g/day (95% CI -2.6 to -1.3) in children and -2.9 g/day (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was -19.3% (95% CI -29.4% to -7.7%) in children and -11.4% (95% CI -20.3% to -1.5%) in adults. With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target-30% reduction by 2025-will not compromise iodine status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821144. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  18. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  19. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter. CONCLUSION: Endemic goiter is quite ...

  20. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  1. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  2. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  3. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  4. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  5. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author)

  6. 33 CFR 117.971 - Neches River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-6295; (ii) Marine radio on VHF-FM Channel 16; or (iii) Proper sound signal as prescribed in § 117.15. (2) When signaling by sound, if return sound signal is not sent from the remote bridge operator, in..., providing 13 feet of vertical clearance above mean high tide. This bridge will open on signal. (1) Mariners...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1049 - Lake Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Evergreen Point Floating Bridge between Seattle and Bellevue shall operate as follows: (a) The draw shall open on signal if at least two hours notice is given. (b) Telephone requests for bridge opening may be... 117.1049 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  8. 7 CFR 1709.117 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental, historic preservation and other resource issues. This information must be presented in sufficient... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES RUS High Energy Cost Grant Program § 1709.117... energy cost data and estimates used. (4) Project eligibility. The narrative must describe the proposed...

  9. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  10. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HPHall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  11. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour 123 I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women

  12. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  13. Iodine-123 program at the TRIUMF laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program for the production and utilization of iodine-123 is described. From 1979 to 1982 the spallation of elemental cesium by 500-MeV protons was used to provide 100 mCi/hr at the end of bombardment (EOB). Contaminants were 3% iodine-125 and 0.15% tellurium-121 at EOB + 36 hr. The material from weekly runs was used by remote clinics in Canada for evaluation as a radiochemical and for labeling studies. A new facility at TRIUMF will be operational in 1983 to produce iodine-123 by the (p,5n) reaction

  14. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  15. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975-- March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids

  16. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  17. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  18. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  1. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  2. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  4. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Franke, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Schöne, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors. As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.

  5. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  6. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  7. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shows a schematic of the experimental system. Bioaerosols were generated by a six-jet Collison nebulizer at 7 Lpm. Virus concentrations in the...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0004 EFFECT OF BIOAEROSOL ON THE RELEASE OF IODINE FROM IODINE TREATED FILTERS Chang-Yu Wu, Hsing-Wang Li, Myung-Heui...Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102008 Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Wang; Woo

  8. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  9. Emissivity of the pulsed capacitive discharge in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Laslov, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    The emission parameters of a pulsed capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures are reported. The discharge plasma emits at wavelengths of 183.0 and 206.2 nm, which correspond to iodine atom spectral lines. The capacitive discharge is initiated in a cylindrical quartz tube with an electrode distance of 10 cm. The discharge radiation is optimized in exciting pulse repetition rate and helium and neon pressures in He(Ne)-I2 mixtures. The optimal pressures of helium, neon, and iodine vapor fall into the ranges 0.8-2.0 kPa, 0.5-1.0 Pa, and ≤60 Pa, respectively.

  10. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  11. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  12. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  13. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  16. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  17. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  18. Ultraviolet gas-discharge lamp on iodine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Kalyuzhnaya, A. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    The emission characteristics of a pulsed-periodic UV radiation source are reported. The source excited by a pulsed-periodic capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine vapor, neon-iodine vapor, or krypton-iodine vapor mixtures radiates in the spectral range 200-450 nm. It is shown that most of the plasma radiation power concentrates in the integral line of the iodine atom (206.2 nm) and in the D'- A' band of the iodine molecule with a maximum at 342 nm. The radiation intensity of the lamp is optimized in accordance with the partial pressure of the inert gases. The discharge plasma parameters that are of interest for simulating the process kinetics and the output characteristics of an UV source based on molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and xenon iodide are calculated in helium-iodine vapor and xenon-iodine vapor mixtures.

  19. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  20. Literature study and experimental investigations into the production of organic iodine compounds from alkane-vapour/air mixtures with radioiodine in the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskopf, W.; Holl, S.; Bleier, K.

    1992-01-01

    It was assumed in these investigations that these compounds originated in the gas phase by irradiation induced reactions with radioiodine. Alkane(methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) vapour/air mixtures were radiolysed with iodine in a Co-60 gamma source. The parameter varied were the concentrations of iodine (6.85 E-09 mol/ml - 3.43 E-06 mol/ml) and of the alkanes (1.81 E-05 mol/ml - 3.72 E-10 mol/ml) as well as the irradiation doses (4.45 E + 02 Gy - 1.17 E + 05 Gy). The gaseous reaction mixtures were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by an ECD- and a MSD-detector for iodine compounds difficult to separate. (orig.) [de

  1. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  2. Development of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with chemical generation of atomic iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodymová, Jarmila; Špalek, Otomar; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Hager, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2003), s. 331-336 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic chlorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser(COIL) Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2003

  3. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  4. Sensitivity analysis on the deposition of inhaled radioactive iodine and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2001-01-01

    The prophylactic use of stable iodine is one of the protective measures during a nuclear emergency. In order to know the resultant radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in the case of Japanese, a sensitivity analysis was performed for related physiological parameters for Japanese. As a result, the variances in the deposition efficiency of radioactive iodine aerosol in the respiratory tract due to changes in the respiratory parameters were found rather small between the standard Caucasian and Japanese. The changes due to the radioactive iodine aerosol size were more significant, suggesting the importance of understanding the physico-chemical status of aerobic radioiodine released in a nuclear emergency. Concerning the metabolic parameters of iodine, the result of the sensitivity analysis based on an iodine metabolic model showed that the most critical parameters are those which describe the transport of stable and radioactive iodine from the blood compartment to the thyroid gland. Accordingly, a confirmation of the transport model and the related parameters for Japanese are essential to clarify the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis to reduce thyroid gland exposure of Japanese. (author)

  5. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  6. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  7. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  8. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  9. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  10. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  11. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine. ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLA117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLA117 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15540-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) - - SLA117Z 649 - - - - Show SLA117 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLA117 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15540-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...--EPMHRNYYQPIQFKLPSFPDTSLPITQIDDKTGIFDSQRFLAFNNPQAMSKYESYRI YIHPSLGYSGNAKRFKQQPDVNEKALILDGNVYDGHLNPIYNCKICTE...SYRI YIHPSLGYSGNAKRFKQQPDVNEKALILDGNVYDGHLNPIYNCKICTEYYQTKSYFSANP HAKGKVLLVKNNILTRVKDGGFTLSLKPMCCSGHNSHIPLYF

  13. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  14. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  15. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  16. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  17. 46 CFR 201.117 - Inclusion in record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclusion in record. 201.117 Section 201.117 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Discovery and Depositions (Rule 11) § 201.117 Inclusion in record. No deposition or part thereof...

  18. 25 CFR 117.15 - Collections from insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collections from insurance companies. 117.15 Section 117... COMPETENCY § 117.15 Collections from insurance companies. Moneys collected from insurance companies for loss... property. Moneys collected from insurance companies for loss or damage to unrestricted real or personal...

  19. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The draw...

  1. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes postage...

  2. 33 CFR 117.11 - Unnecessary opening of the draw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unnecessary opening of the draw. 117.11 Section 117.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.11 Unnecessary opening of the draw. No...

  3. 33 CFR 117.9 - Delaying opening of a draw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaying opening of a draw. 117.9... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.9 Delaying opening of a draw. No person shall unreasonably delay the opening of a draw after the signals required by § 117.15 have been given. Note: Trains...

  4. 16 CFR 1028.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 1028.117 Section 1028.117 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  5. 41 CFR 102-117.200 - What is HAZMAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Shipping Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) § 102-117.200 What is HAZMAT? HAZMAT is a substance or material the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is HAZMAT? 102-117.200 Section 102-117.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  6. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River (South...

  7. 13 CFR 117.2 - Application of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of this part. 117.2 Section 117.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  8. 13 CFR 117.17 - Decisions and notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decisions and notices. 117.17 Section 117.17 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117...

  9. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  11. 46 CFR 117.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 117.130 Section 117.130... AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.130 Stowage of survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be: (1) Secured to the vessel by a painter with a float-free link permanently...

  12. 46 CFR 117.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft equipment. 117.175 Section 117.175... AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.175 Survival craft equipment. (a) General. Each item of survival craft equipment must be of good quality, and efficient for the purpose it...

  13. 40 CFR 152.117 - Notification to applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification to applicant. 152.117 Section 152.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.117 Notification to...

  14. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  15. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection... to obtain debt collection services provided by private collection agencies. ...

  16. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidit...

  17. 49 CFR 41.117 - Buildings built with Federal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buildings built with Federal assistance. 41.117 Section 41.117 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.117 Buildings built with Federal assistance. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration assisting in the financing, through...

  18. 25 CFR 117.22 - Disbursements to legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disbursements to legal guardians. 117.22 Section 117.22... COMPETENCY § 117.22 Disbursements to legal guardians. Any disbursement authorized to be made to an Indian by... to the guardian. All expenditures by a guardian of the funds of his ward must be approved in writing...

  19. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  20. [Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Zavisić, Branka Kovacev

    2012-01-01

    Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  1. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  2. Evaluation of radiation exposure from patients with thyroid disease by iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianfeng; Lu Keyi; Duan Lian

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation exposure to the individuals other than patients with thyroid disease, who had received radioiodine (iodine-131) therapy and had turned into a specific 'radiant point'. Methods: 107 outpatients or inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed up by telephone and outpatients. There were 117 times treatment (68 females, 49 males, mean age 41 years old), including the patients with hyperthyroidism (39 females, 40 males), thyroid cancer (27 females, 8 males), toxic thyroid adenoma (1 female and 1 male) and nontoxic nodular goiter(1 female). According to the personal condition of the patients, we attained the percentage of thyroid iodine-131 uptake (U), the iodine-131 dose (Q), the duration of constrained social activity, and the occupancy factor (OF) for the 3 periods (the preequilibrium, OFp; the constrained, OFc; and the unconstrained, OFuc), and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals. The formula is E (mSv) = Q[OFP(0.0173)+ OFC(0.537)U(1-e-0.095C)+0.023(1-U)(1-e-2.08C ) +OFUC (0.537) Ue-0.095C +0.0236(1-U)e-2.08C]. In accordance with the new recommendations of the national criteria from GB18871-2002, we evaluated the radiation safety to the individuals other than patients Results: Based on the national criteria the total effective dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For all patients, including 79 hyperthyroidism, 2 toxic thyroid adenoma and 16 times treatment of thyroid cancer, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 times treatment of thyroid cancer and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There were no difference between the part of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer of inpatients were compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). we found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period

  3. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, M.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  4. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......, iodine intake of a population should be kept within a relatively narrow interval where iodine deficiency disorders are prevented, but not higher. Monitoring and adjusting of iodine intake in a population is an important part of preventive medicine....

  5. Comprehensive handbook of iodine: nutritional, biochemical, pathological and therapeutic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Burrow, Gerard N; Watson, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    ... for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg 3 15 29 39 47 55 65 Section 2: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Mai...

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  7. Chemical template directed iodine patterns on the octadecyltrichlorosilane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuguang

    2008-01-01

    A carboxylic-terminated nanometer-scale chemical pattern on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface can guide the deposition and crystallization of iodine, forming an iodine pattern on the chemical pattern. The iodine in the pattern is gel-like when fabricated by the solution-deposit method. In contrast, a dendritic, snowflake-shaped polycrystalline iodine sheet is formed by the vapor-phase condensation method. The data demonstrate that iodine is a good tracing and visualizing agent for studying liquid behavior at the nano scale. The topography of the iodine stain reveals that the "coffee ring" effect can be suppressed by reducing the pattern size and increasing the evaporation rate. The chemical template-bound iodine pattern has an unusually low vapor pressure and it can withstand prolonged baking at elevated temperature, which differs significantly from bulk iodine crystals.

  8. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  9. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  10. Reaction rate of hydrolysis of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yoshikazu; Eguchi, Wataru; Adachi, Motonari

    1979-01-01

    Absorption rates of dilute iodine vapor contained in air by aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid were measured using a laminar liquid jet column absorber at 298 K. Absorption rates in this system are controlled by a series of complex reactions taking place in the liquid phase. The reaction rate constant of iodine hydrolysis in the aqueous phase was determined from the absorption rates observed under the conditions that the base-catalytic hydrolysis reaction of iodine can be considered to be irreversible and that other reactions can be neglected. The absorption rates calculated theoretically with the rate constant value obtained above were in good accordance with the whole experimental data observed for a wide range of experimental conditions. (author)

  11. Prospects of the high power iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohla, K.; Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Volk, R.; Witte, K.J.

    1976-09-01

    The characteristic properties of the iodine laser (gaseous laser substance, photolytic pump mechanism, variable stimulated emission cross-section) made it possible in a relatively short time to generate ns pulses in the kJ range. The Asterix II and III iodine laser systems at IPP are working successfully, and the question arises what prospects are afforded for further iodine laser development. What are the problems that have to be clarified in order to build 10 or 100 kJ systems for laser fusion experiments. According to our experience these can be classified as follows: 1) Short pulse generation and contrast ratio, 2) pulse shaping in a high-gain laser and amplification in the coherent time range, 3) non-linear properties at high intensities, 4) scalable pumping schemes and chemical processes. (orig./WL) [de

  12. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  13. Development of Databases with Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development, thus an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important in pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leadi...

  14. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    ) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during...

  15. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  16. 129I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masanobu; Maeda, Yutaka

    1994-01-01

    A 129 I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  17. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  18. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  19. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  20. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  1. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  2. Enhanced excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarchuk, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that administration of stable iodine (Lugol solution) accelerates excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid. Owing to the fact, all the patients subjected to thyroid scanning with 131 I or those who suffered as a result of NPP accident like the Chernobyl one, should take iodine preparations in conventional treatment-and-prophylactic doses for 3-4 weeks

  3. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  4. Methods to determine iodine plate-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hougaard, H.; Solgaard, P.; Zak, W.

    1986-03-01

    A literature study on iodines behaviour after release from irradiated fuel rods and a detailed dscription of the ventilation system in the hot cell facility form the basis of chosen conditions for some preliminary experiments using non-radioactive iodine. The conclusion states that the system is well suited for the purpose as is the method of sampling from the surface of the ventilation duct, while the releasing technique and the chemical analysis has to be further developed, neutron activation analysis being most promising. (author)

  5. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Considerations regarding iodine prophylaxis in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Rojo, A.M.; Dubner, D.; Bruno, H.

    1995-01-01

    The indication for the blockade of thyroid gland by the administration of stable iodide is the main countermeasure for diminishing the thyroid uptake of radioiodine following radiological accidents with potential release of radioiodine into the environment in order to avoid deterministic effects and to decrease the probability of stochastic effects. Iodine prophylaxis should be considered along with other countermeasures like sheltering indoors, evacuation and control on contaminated foods. In this communication different factors related to accidental situations regarding iodine prophylaxis are evaluated. A therapeutical scheme is proposed in order to be applied in countries of this region. (author). 4 refs

  7. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Reaction of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals - Kinetics, product studies, and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofie, F.; Snider, G.; Ariya, P.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury is present in the Earth's atmosphere mainly in elemental form. The chemical transformation of mercury in the atmosphere may influence its bioaccumulation in the human food chain as well as its global cycling. We carried out the first kinetic and product studies of the reactions of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals at tropospheric pressure (similar to 740 Torr) and 296 ± 2 K in air and in N2 (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa). Atomic iodine was formed using UV photolysis of CH2I2. IO radicals were formed by the UV photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of ozone The reaction kinetics were studied using absolute rate techniques with gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic detection (GC-MS). The measured rate coefficient for the reaction of Hg{0} with I2 was vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS), and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The major reaction products identified were HgI2, HgO, and HgIO or HgOI. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to both the chemistry of atmospheric mercury and its potential implications in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury.

  9. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  10. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  11. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  12. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  13. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  14. Iodine flow rate measurement for COIL with the chemical iodine generator based on absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weili; Zhang, Yuelong; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Mingxiu; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    A dual-components absorption method based on absorption spectroscopy was described in the paper. It can easily eliminate the influence of the serious contamination and aerosol scattering on IFR measurement by utilizing the absorptions of iodine vapor and chlorine on two different wavelengths respectively. According to the character that there is no other gaseous product in the reaction besides iodine vapor, IFR in real time can be obtained by the connections of the pressure and the flow rate among chlorine remainder, iodine vapor, and the buffer gas. We used this method to measure IFR for the first time at the exit of a chemical iodine generator. The average of IFR is coincident with that calculated by chemical weighting mass.

  15. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  16. Iodine and microbial interactions in an organic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-129 in groundwater discharging from a geological disposal vault could accumulate in wetlands by chemical sorption onto low pH, highly organic solid surfaces or by direct or indirect microbial processes. Previous work indicated that saturation of anion sorption sites, microbial toxicity, or swamping of the I reduction/oxidation reaction decreased the retention of a wetland sphagnum for iodine with increased iodine porewater concentrations. Bog water and peat of an iodine-rich bog were studied to elucidate the role of micro-organisms in the retention and accumulation of iodine in a temperate wetland. (author)

  17. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Picková, Irena; Kodymová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 334, - (2007), s. 167-174 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Grant - others:USAF European Office for Research and Development(XE) FA 8655-05-M-4027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  18. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated via fluorine atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 1 (2008), 14-22 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen–iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.961, year: 2008

  19. Dissociation of molecular iodine in RF discharge for oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Schmiedberger, Josef; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2012), 1-6 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0310 Grant - others:European Office for Aerospace R&D(XE) FA8655-09-1-3092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : molecular iodine * RF discharge * dissociation * oxygen-iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2012

  20. Removal processes of iodine in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumondy, J.P.; Miquel, P.; Zellner, E.

    1981-09-01

    The principal parameters governing the behaviour of iodine in nuclear fuel processing plants are studied as are the conclusions to be reached for the design of future installations. This behaviour is essentially tied to the operating conditions of the dissolution and to the processing of the gases. It is preferable to desorb the maximum of iodine in the dissolution gases, low flow rate effluent in which it is known how to trap it efficiently and to limit to the minimum the residual quantity of iodine in the dissolution solution, a quantity which spreading throughout the plant as a whole and distributing in numerous effluents becomes very difficult to trap quantitatively. The existing trapping methods, either by chemical scrubbing processes, which are efficient for elemental iodine (alkaline scrubbing) or the organic iodides (Iodox and Mercurex processes), or by physical methods (adsorption on silver impregnated solid materials) should make it possible to obtain the requisite decontamination factors for the next plants, for normal operating conditions and in accidental situations [fr

  1. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  2. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  3. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Iodine deficiency causes reduced production of thyroid hormones (T3/T4). A decrease in the serum level of T3/T4 triggers the secretion of high amount of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates thyroid glandular activities that results in enlargement of the gland (9). Thyroid hormones play an ...

  4. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  5. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  7. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  8. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary iodine and accumulation of radioiodine in thyroids of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    Groups of hatchling white leghorn cockerels were fed a basic, semisynthetic low-iodine diet to which various amounts of iodide were added: 0 up to 100 μg I/g feed. Growth rates were unaffected by the range of dietary iodine content. A transitory goiter occurred only in the group fed the basic low-I diet. Half-life of 131 I in the thyroid increased directly and fractional turnover rate inversely with increase of dietary iodine. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble iodine in serum did not accurately reflect variation of dietary iodine. However, effective clearance and binding rate constants did decrease proportionally to dietary iodine increase beyond the first 3 to 5 days. Concentration of iodine in thyroid was directly proportional to dietary iodine after 10 days. There was no consistent correlation between thyroxine or triiodothyronine and dietary iodine except in general terms of high and low dietary iodine groups. The avian thyroid exhibits great lability in adjusting functionally to a wide range of dietary iodine contents

  10. WHO's new recommendations about iodine prophylaxis at nuclear catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, Wendla

    1999-01-01

    WHO has prepared new advice about using stable iodine as protection against emission of radioactive iodine from nuclear catastrophes. The experiences from Chernobyl show that the risk for thyroid gland cancer after emission of radio-iodine is significant. The risk of serious side effects of stable iodine as single dose is stated to be minimal. Stable iodine is a safe, effective remedy for protecting the thyroid gland against radioactive iodine. It is recommended to adjust different criteria for iodine prophylaxis for new-born, children, young people and adults older than 40 years. For children of the age up to 18 years iodine prophylaxis should be considered at 10 mGy thyroid gland doses, and for young adults at 100 mGy. For adults of 40 years or more the cancer risk of radioactive iodine is very low and iodine prophylaxis is unnecessary provided that the expected does not exceed 5 Gy. The new information about risk and advantage must be considered in planning for distribution and storage of stable iodine. WHO also commends that everybody has the possibility to buy it in a pharmacy. (EHS)

  11. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  12. An assessment of iodine in cheese in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed some products in Macedonian food containing iodine: milk, bread, eggs, iodized salt. These nutritional items are deficient in iodine compared to western technology of,food preparation. Cheese prepared as white cheese from sheep and cow's milk is a much-used nutritional product. According to the Central Macedonian Statistical Bureau at the. Ministry of Health the laboratory measured iodine dosage in order to have an estimation of what the contribution of cheese is in the daily Macedonian diet. The collection of cheese was independently performed by the food inspectors in all regions of Macedonia. In June 1998 all specimens were in the laboratory. Macedonian white cheese has 57 micro g/dl iodine. In comparison to other nutritional items as milk, eggs and bread with a low contingent of iodine, the Macedonian cheese covers a good part of daily iodine necessity. We present our results with a brief comment on iodine metabolism. (Original)

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... and mortality. Conclusion: Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally......Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  14. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...... coupled mass spectrometry. Results: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 mu g/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. Conclusions: Large...

  15. Synthesis of a new element with atomic number Z = 117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Abdullin, F Sh; Bailey, P D; Benker, D E; Bennett, M E; Dmitriev, S N; Ezold, J G; Hamilton, J H; Henderson, R A; Itkis, M G; Lobanov, Yu V; Mezentsev, A N; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Polyakov, A N; Porter, C E; Ramayya, A V; Riley, F D; Roberto, J B; Ryabinin, M A; Rykaczewski, K P; Sagaidak, R N; Shaughnessy, D A; Shirokovsky, I V; Stoyer, M A; Subbotin, V G; Sudowe, R; Sukhov, A M; Tsyganov, Yu S; Utyonkov, V K; Voinov, A A; Vostokin, G K; Wilk, P A

    2010-04-09

    The discovery of a new chemical element with atomic number Z=117 is reported. The isotopes (293)117 and (294)117 were produced in fusion reactions between (48)Ca and (249)Bk. Decay chains involving 11 new nuclei were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator. The measured decay properties show a strong rise of stability for heavier isotopes with Z > or = 111, validating the concept of the long sought island of enhanced stability for superheavy nuclei.

  16. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  17. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillant, S.; Sheppard, M.I.; Denys, S.; Leclerc Cessac, E.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a radionuclide of major concern in the international safety assessments for deep geological storage and disposal of nuclear waste because it migrates quickly through the geosphere to the biosphere and then from the soil to humans through the food-chain. However, in organic soils the 129 I may be immobilized over a long time period, and so these soils represent a potential accumulation point in the biosphere. Effects of long residence times of iodine in soils are scarce. The present paper gives some insight on the aging of stable iodine, under natural conditions. Stable iodine was introduced as KI in 1987 at the base of a small natural sphagnum bog to simulate arrival of iodine via a groundwater discharge from the geosphere. Previous data revealed the spread of the iodine outwards spatially from the basal spike and also recorded its rise towards the bog surface. Fifteen years later, the groundwater, the soil and the vegetation have been sampled and analyzed for iodine. The results we will present give insight on the mobility of 'aged' iodine with time, the retention properties of the peat, and provide iodine transfer factors for native boreal plant species. The data show iodine: - continues to slowly spread from the spike after 15 years, - is more strongly retained on the solid phase at the surface than at depth, - the chemical structure of the peat may influence the retention of iodine as shown by NMR analysis, - iodine retention has become greater with time, and - herbaceous species are the greatest accumulators. This study demonstrates bogs present good sinks for iodine and limit the transfer of iodine to some of the 'wildlife' food-chains. (author)

  18. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  19. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  20. The adsorption of 117Snm(IV)-EDTMP on collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Pu Manfei; Bing Wenzeng; He Jiaheng; Wang Guanquan

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collage are studied, and compared with that on HA. The results show that the effects of pH and temperature on adsorption of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are similar to those on HA, and that the adsorption equilibrium and adsorption model of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are completely different from those on HA; 117 Sm m -EDTMP absorbed on collagen are extremely stable and almost could not be desorbed with normal saline or EDTMP

  1. Dicty_cDB: VFL117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFL117 (Link to dictyBase) - G22229 DDB0204982 Contig-U10461-1... - (Link to Original site) - - VFL117Z 591 - - - - Show VFL117 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFL117 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G22229 dictyBase ID DDB0204982 Link to Contig Contig-U10461-1 Original site URL http://dict...GMALLRSLQNHKKNTPFQHFQDMIFKTK VLITTVSLVFICTVIEEGIYQFAFEEFSTSTSVQSNFITYLIDTTQMIVVMYILANGKFS NYILFRKVKTTSFNSNEK...k**ytkfkynn**hw Frame B: ---TSMLMDIKFGQAVGFLILLAIYCAMVIGFGMALLRSLQNHKKNTPFQHFQDMIFKTK VLITTVSLVFICT

  2. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  3. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  4. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  5. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J.; Cubison, M.; Alfarra, M. R.; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; Rickard, A. R.; Monks, P. S.

    2004-05-01

    Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2), (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003), provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000) and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from

  6. Iodine Deficiency: Where Are We Now? (Efficiency of Belarusian Strategy in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: 15-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Mokhort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the former Soviet republics, which became independent states, there are big differences in the state of iodine provision and in technology to eliminate iodine deficiency in the diet of the population. The publication presents a strategy for the elimination of iodine deficiency, developed and implemented in the Republic of Belarus in order to achieve an adequate level of iodine nutrition in the state. In the Republic of Belarus, 94 % of salt consumption is iodized salt that ensures adequate iodine intake, confirmed by urinary iodine excretion (median 169 mcg/l. The effectiveness of the model for iodine prophylaxis used in Belarus and based on the widespread use of iodized salt in the food industry gives reason to recommend this model for implementation in other countries.

  7. CD117 expression on blast cells in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryainova N.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to analyze the frequency of CD117 (c-KIT antigen expression on the blast cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, evaluation of the presence of the relationship between the expression of the c-KIT and leukemia according to the FAB classification and definition of co-expression of the antigen CD117, antigens CD33 and CD34. The data of 47 patients with AML were diagnosed. M0 AML variant was established in 3 (6% patients, M1 – in 2 (4%, M2 – in 9 (20%, M4 – in 22 (47% and M5 – in 11 (23%. For immunophenotypic stu¬dies monoclonal antibodies (mAb that detect antigens of anti-CD34, anti-CD33 and anti-CD117 (Becton Dickinson, USA were used. The presence of the antigen CD117 was detected in 39 people, accounting for 83% of all surveyed. Antigen c-KIT was present in 48.117.0% cells on average: in all 3 cases – AML M0, in2 cases of AML M1, in 6 cases – AML M2, 20 of 22 cases – AML M4 and in 8 of 11 AML M5 cases. Average levels of CD117 in investigated leukemia cases statistically differed significantly (p=0.0067. Among 39 CD117- positive patients in 25 (53% co-expression of CD117+/CD34+ was revealed. Expression of CD117+/CD34- was observed in 14 cases (30%, CD117-/CD34+ – in 4 cases (8,5%, CD117-/CD34- – in 4 cases (8.5%. CD34 had of 64% of cells of myeloid origin. A high positive cor¬relation between expression of CD117 and CD34 (r=+0,5169 was determined, being statistically significant (p0,0067.

  8. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  9. Stability of added iodine in processed cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, B M

    2009-01-01

    The stability of iodine from iodized salt was measured in white bread, grain bread, sweet biscuits and the breakfast cereals, Weetbix (a flaked, pressed, wheat product), Ricies (a puffed rice product) and toasted muesli, as part of the New Zealand Government's initiatives to address the public health issue of low iodine intake by most New Zealanders. Triplicate runs of each product were manufactured by commercial food manufacturers between September 2006 and May 2007 with iodized and non-iodized salt. Triplicate samples were taken at various steps during processing of each food and analysed for moisture and iodine content. Iodine concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following an alkaline digestion. Iodine, at the equivalent of 25-65 mg of iodine per kg salt, was 100% retained in each of the selected foods from the time of mixing to the final product. These results imply that all iodine added via salt at the time of manufacture is available for consumption but not necessarily bioavailable. These data can be used for modelling the impact of strategies to increase iodine exposure. Salt as an ingredient is not a good predictor of iodine intake due to the inhomogeneity of iodine in iodized salt.

  10. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  11. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  12. Milk as an Essential Source of Iodine in Latvian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimane Lolita Vija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6 μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6 μg/L and 469.2 (162.0 μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8 μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.11 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.

  13. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  15. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  16. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  17. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway drawbridges at Park Street, mile 5.2; Fruitvale...

  18. 40 CFR 89.117 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 89.117 Section... Certification Provisions § 89.117 Test fleet selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each... of maximum torque and secondarily at rated speed. (b) Each engine in the test fleet must be...

  19. 13 CFR 117.20 - Supervision and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., section 8(b)(1). Small Business Development Centers Small Business Act, section 21. International Trade... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision and coordination. 117.20 Section 117.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN...

  20. 28 CFR 0.117 - Office of Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Chief Immigration Judge. 0.117... Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.117 Office of Chief Immigration Judge. The Chief Immigration Judge shall provide general supervision to the Immigration Judges in performance of their duties in...

  1. 33 CFR 117.193 - San Leandro Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Leandro Bay. 117.193 Section 117.193 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES... the California Department of Transportation Highway and Bicycle drawbridges, mile 0.0 and mile 0.1...

  2. 47 CFR 15.117 - TV broadcast receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast receivers. 15.117 Section 15.117... TV broadcast receivers. (a) All TV broadcast receivers shipped in interstate commerce or imported... that provide for reception of digital television signals. The reference in this section to TV broadcast...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.117 - Plans and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plans and projects. 1220.117 Section 1220.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... and Projects means promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information plans, studies...

  4. 13 CFR 117.19 - Effect on other regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other regulations. 117.19 Section 117.19 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS...

  5. 13 CFR 117.15 - Procedure for effecting compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for effecting compliance. 117.15 Section 117.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF...

  6. 13 CFR 117.8 - Responsibilities of SBA recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of SBA recipients. 117.8 Section 117.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS...

  7. 13 CFR 117.14 - Intimidating or retaliatory acts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intimidating or retaliatory acts prohibited. 117.14 Section 117.14 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF...

  8. 13 CFR 117.13 - Investigation and resolution of matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigation and resolution of matters. 117.13 Section 117.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF...

  9. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  10. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  11. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...

  12. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  13. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft embarkation... apparatus when either— (1) The embarkation station for the survival craft is on a deck more than 4.5 meters...

  14. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Customs. 479.117... OTHER FIREARMS Importation and Exportation Exportation § 479.117 Action by Customs. Upon receipt of a... of Customs may order such inspection as deemed necessary prior to lading of the merchandise. If...

  15. 34 CFR 97.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 97.117 Section 97...) § 97.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... required by § 97.116. This form may be read to the subject or the subject's legally authorized...

  16. 40 CFR 60.117b - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority. 60.117b Section 60.117b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Liquid Storage Vessels (Including Petroleum...

  17. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  18. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective roller bearing adapter. 215.117 Section... Suspension System § 215.117 Defective roller bearing adapter. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  19. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and...

  20. 25 CFR 117.23 - Transactions between guardian and ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions between guardian and ward. 117.23 Section... COMPETENCY § 117.23 Transactions between guardian and ward. Business dealings between the guardian and his ward involving the sale or purchase of any property, real or personal, by the guardian to or from the...

  1. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the

  2. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  3. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, Vit; Spalek, Otomar; Censky, Miroslav; Pickova, Irena; Kodymova, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    A method of the chemical generation of atomic iodine for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) using atomic fluorine as a reaction intermediate was studied experimentally. This method is based on the reaction between F 2 and NO providing F atoms, and the reaction of F with HI resulting in iodine atoms generation. Atomic iodine was produced with efficiency exceeding 40% relative to initial F 2 flow rate. This efficiency was nearly independent on pressure and total gas flow rate. The F atoms were stable in the reactor up to 2 ms. An optimum ratio of the reactants flow rates was F 2 :NO:HI = 1:1:1. A rate constant of the reaction of F 2 with HI was determined. The numerical modelling showed that remaining HI and IF were probably consumed in their mutual reaction. The reaction system was found suitable for employing in a generator of atomic iodine with its subsequent injection into a supersonic nozzle of a COIL

  4. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  5. Development of portable methyl iodine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qun; Wang Ruiyun; Gao Xiaomei; Jia Ming; Guo Chuangcheng; Wu Tao; Liu Zhaofeng; Qiu Dangui

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive methyl iodide method is one of the important ways to test iodine adsorber. The methyl iodide generator is the key equipment in this method. The structure, technical specifications and results of performance tests of a self-made generator are introduced. The generator is comprised of methyl iodide generator body, pneumatic control system and negative pressure box with accessories. The results of 'hot best' showed that all operating parameters could be controlled within normal range, the generating flow-rate was stable, and the generating rate and purity of the methyl iodide could meet the requirements of iodine adsorber test. In addition, safety protection system and off-gas clean system were designed in the generator to effectively avoid radioactive gas escaping outside. The generator is portable with small size and light weight, which is convenient for on site use

  6. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  7. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  8. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  9. The 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmestre, A.; Le Guen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The last iodine pills were distributed in february 2009, they are now outdated and a new campaign has been launched. Each family will receive a voucher to recover iodine pills from the nearby pharmacy. The aim of this new campaign is of course to protect people in case of severe nuclear accident but also to develop a radiation protection culture among the population. During the previous campaign only 51% of the concerned people went to the pharmacy to get the pills. The 2016 campaign will involve the public and all the establishments open to the public in a range of 10 km around each of the 19 nuclear power plants. It concerns 500 municipalities, 375.000 households, 55.000 enterprises and public utilities and 275 pharmacies are involved in the campaign. (A.C.)

  10. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  11. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E. della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  12. The reaction of polyaniline with iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Blinova, Natalia V.; Konyushenko, Elena; Reynaud, S.; Prokeš, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 180-185 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847; GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Grant - others:Eco-net project(FR) 16256SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * iodine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  13. European commission research activities on iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loggia, E. della

    1996-01-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs

  14. Iodine containment by dousing in NPD-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.C.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hoelke, C.W.

    1960-10-01

    A laboratory investigation has shown that water dousing ensures that most of the iodine in a steam iodine mixture introduced into a volume of air in which dousing is occurring is transferred to the liquid phase. The distribution ratio pf iodine between air and water is approximately 10 -4 immediately after dousing. Equilibrium with a volatile form of iodine sorbable on charcoal is achieved within five minutes. The distribution is show to be independent of water quality at low ( -6 M) iodine concentration. The results are of interest in assessing the safety of the NPD-II reactor in which dousing is done to limit pressure rise in the Boiler Room in the event of rupture of a major high-pressure line carrying hot heavy-water coolant. Such rupture may result in fuel failure with consequent release of volatile fission products, including iodine. (author)

  15. Advances in Synthetic Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Akira; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-03-09

    The preparation, structure, and chemistry of hypervalent iodine compounds are reviewed with emphasis on their synthetic application. Compounds of iodine possess reactivity similar to that of transition metals, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. These compounds are widely used in organic synthesis as selective oxidants and environmentally friendly reagents. Synthetic uses of hypervalent iodine reagents in halogenation reactions, various oxidations, rearrangements, aminations, C-C bond-forming reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions are summarized and discussed. Recent discovery of hypervalent catalytic systems and recyclable reagents, and the development of new enantioselective reactions using chiral hypervalent iodine compounds represent a particularly important achievement in the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry. One of the goals of this Review is to attract the attention of the scientific community as to the benefits of using hypervalent iodine compounds as an environmentally sustainable alternative to heavy metals.

  16. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  17. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  18. Outcome of hyperthyroidism treated by radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaikh, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    To study the outcome of Radioactive Iodine (RAI) in treatment of hyperthyroidism. It is a retrospective study of all patients of hyperthyroidism treated by Radioactive Iodine (RAI) seen in endocrinology clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and Dr. Soliman Fageeh Hospital in Jeddah, Saudia Arabia. Two hundred and sixteen (216) patients were treated by RAI. They proved to have hyperthyroidism by thyroid function test (TSH, FT4 and T3) and isotopes scanning of the thyroid gland. All received 10 mci of RAI and were then followed up after one month and every two months thereafter for at least one year. The efficacy of the therapy was assessed by the improvement of the clinical features and by the thyroid function tests. A total of 216 patients were seen, the mean age was 36.5+- 10.64 years. One hundred fifty three were female and sixty three were male. Graves disease was the underlying cause in 163 patients [65.55%], toxic multi nodular goiter in 37 patients [25.1%] and toxic adenoma in 16 patients [9.3%]. The symptoms improved after one month only in 11 patients but others required antithyroid treatment for two months. Only 17 patients remained hyperthyroid after six months of treatment. Radioactive iodine is very effective in treatment of hyperthyroidism with minor side effects such as weight gain, fatigability and hypothyroidism. (author)

  19. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  1. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E.

    1960-01-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [fr

  2. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  3. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  4. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  5. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  6. Transient thyroid dysfunction caused by excessive iodine intake

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 清; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects almost one billion of people worldwide, and is by far the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Japan is unique in that there are no single patients with hypothyroidism due to nutritional iodine deficiency. Thyroid abnormalities induced by excessive iodine intake, however, is not infrequent in Japan. We report here a case of young woman with severe hypothyroidism. Symptoms such as weight gain, edema, amenorrhea, and constipation were accompanied. She had habitual excessiv...

  7. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    from a 200 W Hall Effect Thruster fueled by iodine vapor was analyzed. The plasma source included a laboratory propellant feed system and a laboratory...distribution is unlimited Abstract • The plasma plume from a 200 W Hall Effect Thruster fueled by iodine vapor was analyzed. • The plasma source... pressure with I2 – Plume divergence lower with I2 – Dimers (I2+) measured at beam centroid (a few %) Iodine Xenon 7 Distribution A: Approved for public

  8. Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    The increase in iodine concentration in water leaf ranged from 61.59 ± 0.24 to 73.41 ± 0.83. µg/100 g in week 4 and 62.06 ± 0.09 to 96.25 ± 0.025 µg/100 g in week 6. From the results, the vegetables treated with 40 µg/l potassium iodate showed the highest iodine level in week 4. These results from this iodine biofortification ...

  9. Role of iodine in pathogenesis of thyroid disease - is induction of apoptosis consequence of iodine cytotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is one of the best-characterized environmental factors associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Epidemiological studies have shown that ATD incidence has increased following the introduction of salt iodination in the 1920s; in addition, ATD patients can improve upon iodine restriction. In animal models such as BioBreeding/Worcester and Buffalo rats, obese chicken strain, and non-obese diabetic H-2h4 mice, excess iodine is associated with autoimmunity. Analyses of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT have shown enlarged number of apoptotic follicular cells, and the destruction is an effect of death receptormediated apoptosis. Excess of iodine induces rapid apoptosis of goitrogen Wistar pretreated rats, possibly connected with inhibition of polyamine synthesis, inhibitors of DNA fragmentation. Percentage of apoptotic cells was statistically higher in patients with HT than in those with euthyroid goiter, with significant increase of caspase 32. Genes for Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are under the transcriptional control of p53. In TAD-2 cell cultures, apoptosis is p53-independed, suggesting that DNA damage is not primarily evoked by potassium iodide (KI. High concentrations of NaI increase the proportion of apoptotic cells in FTRL5 thyroid cell line. Iodide cytotoxicity is inhibited by a TPO inhibitor and is relieved with an anti-oxidant agent. Chronic iodine excess induces apoptosis and necrosis of thyroid follicular and endothelial cells, leading to thyroglobulin accumulation in connective tissue. Iodide excess requires peroxidase enzymatic activity to induce apoptosis. Ionic iodide is not directly toxic, whereas its molecular form I2 mediates the apoptotic effect of KI. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI-175059

  10. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  11. Electric Discharge and Afterglow Kinetics for Laser Mixtures with Carbon Monoxide, Oxygen and Iodine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ionin, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    ... lasers, for producing electrically excited oxygen and for obtaining iodine atoms via iodine dissociation, which can be extremely useful for the development of the electrically assisted oxygen-iodine laser...

  12. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  13. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  14. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  15. Gravimetric determination of the iodine number of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a gravimetric method for the determination of the iodine adsorption number of carbon black. It comprises determining the concentration of an accurately weighed iodine blank solution by adding a standardized titrant to the iodine solution until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the iodine solution by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, accurately weighing an amount of carbon black and adding an appropriate amount of an accurately weighed portion of the iodine solution, equilibrating the carbon black-iodine solution mixture, adding the standardized titrant to an accurately weighed portion of the supernatant from the carbon black-iodine mixture until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the supernatant by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, wherein the titration endpoint of the supernatant is obtained using an indicating and a reference electrode, and calculating the iodine adsorption number of the carbon black based on the gravimetrically determined concentration of the titrant, the iodine solution, and the supernatant

  16. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  17. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  18. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Preparation of 117Snm(113Sn) (IV)-TPPS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Manfei; Luo Shunzhong; Yang Yuqing; Liu Guoping; Li Yougen; Wang Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Development of 117 Sn m radiopharmaceuticals with radiosensitization ability to the treatment of tumors is valuable since such agents may increase therapeutic effects. In this paper, 117 Sn m ( 113 Sn) was prepared by irradiation of spectrally pure natural metallic tin grain with reactor thermal neutrons (neutron fluence rate 4 x 10 13 cm -2 ·s -1 ) for a period up to 90 h, yielding 117 Sn m and 113 Sn with specific activity of 0.13 GBq/B and 6.16 MBq/g respectively, and meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS 4 ) was labeled with 117 Sn m ( 113 Sn) in aqueous solution. The optimized preparation conditions are as follows: pH=2-4, reaction temperature about 100 degree C, reaction time 30 min. Under the recommended experimental conditions, the yield of 117 Sn m -TPPS 4 is higher than 95%. No significant decomposition of the 117 Sn m -TPPS 4 complex solution is observed either during the standing period of 48 h after its preparation, or after the dilution of it with physiological saline to 5-15 times at room temperature. A 1:1 stoichiometry of the 117 Sn m -TPPS 4 complex is obtained by the job's method. (authors)

  20. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  1. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire (a literature review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-03-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  2. Iodine nutrition status in pregnant women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Reyes-Mendoza, Vanessa Amaranta; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Iodine nutrition during pregnancy has become an important public health concern because of the deleterious impact of iodine deficiency on brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Iodine nutrition status can be assessed in a population by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for Iodine Deficiency Disorders have established that a median of UIC between 150 and 249 μg/L in pregnant women indicates an adequate iodine intake. The aim of this study was to assess iodine nutrition status in Mexican pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care in the Public Medical Units of the State Ministry of Health for each pregnancy trimester (first, n=60; second, n=103; and third, n=131) in Queretaro, Mexico, were enrolled to assess UIC by the Sandell-Kholtoff method. The median of UIC was 273, 285, and 231 μg/L in the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. Globally, the median (range) of UIC was 260 (5-1320) μg/L, and the percentage of samples with UIC below 150 μg/L was 28%. There was no significant difference between the UIC of women using iodine-containing multivitamins compared with those who reported the consumption of noniodized multivitamins (p>0.05). In addition, we found no difference between the UIC of women using iodized table salt compared with those who employed noniodized table salt, with those who did not know whether their table salt was iodized (p>0.05). Based on the median UIC, iodine intake in Queretaro, Mexico, is slightly above requirements during the first two trimesters, and adequate in the third trimester. The wide Mexican universal iodized salt program seems to supply adequate dietary iodine to pregnant women without health insurance in this region. However, regular monitoring of iodine status is recommended during pregnancy throughout Mexico.

  3. Non-ionic iodinated contrast media related immediate reactions: A mechanism study of 27 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Liqin; Guo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Haoyue; Jin, Qianqian; Zeng, Qiang; Tang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Cairong

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of non-ionic iodinated contrast media-related immediate reactions was evaluated in this study. Patients presenting at least grade II immediate reactions after non-ionic iodinated contrast media injection were enrolled. Basophil activation was evaluated by flow cytometry. The plasma concentration of human terminal complement complex SC5b-9, as well as concentrations of serum chymase, tryptase, human mast cell carboxypeptidase A3, human prostaglandin D2, and total IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The basophil activation percentage was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (17.94±21.06% vs 3.45±1.49%). The plasma concentration of human terminal complement complex SC5b-9 and concentrations of serum chymase, human mast cell carboxypeptidase A3, prostaglandin D2, tryptase, and total IgE were also significantly increased (236.99±318.21 vs 49.70±30.41ng/mL, 0.41±0.49 vs 0.09±0.06ng/mL, 1.17±0.67 vs 0.30±0.17ng/mL, 203.52±137.27 vs 102.28±48.72pg/mL, 3.81±0.22 vs 2.70±0.16ng/mL, 102.00±51.84 vs 19.97±2.75ng/mL, respectively). Both mast cells and basophils were activated in non-ionic iodinated contrast media to mediate immediate hypersensitivity, and mast cells may be involved. Different mechanisms, including IgE-dependent, complement-dependent, and direct membrane effects, contributed to mast cell and basophil activation. Individual patients may use a single or combined mechanism involving single or combined mast cells and basophils. Immediate reactions following non-ionic iodinated contrast media injection may be a mechanically heterogenous disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.117 - Plans and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Definitions § 1150.117 Plans and projects. Plans and projects means promotion, research and nutrition education plans, studies or projects pursuant to §§ 1150.139, 1150.140 and 1150.161. ...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.117 - Qualifications of operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.117 Qualifications of operators. Paragraphs (a) and (d... hoist materials aboard, a competent person shall determine that the gear is properly rigged, that it is...

  7. 32 CFR 842.117 - Delegations of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Hospital Recovery Claims (42 U.S.C. 2651-2653) § 842.117 Delegations of... USAFE, and the SJAs of each Air Force base, station, or fixed installation have delegated authority to...

  8. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....117 Content of design studies. (a) The detail of studies shall be commensurate with the risk associated with the encroachment and with other economic, engineering, social or environmental concerns. (b...

  9. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  10. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation.

  11. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  12. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  13. Modeling the behavior of iodine in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincal, Julien

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident occurring to a nuclear facility, the radiological consequences are related to the transport and deposition of radionuclides released into the environment. Following the Fukushima accident, significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed for iodine. These could notably be explained by the absence of any iodine chemistry during the transport in the dispersion codes used. To investigate this hypothesis, a reactional mechanism of iodine in the atmosphere has been developed from a critical review of the literature data and 0D and 3D simulations has been performed using the ASTEC and Polair3D simulation tools. The results obtained showed a partial and fast transformation of the released gaseous iodine (I 2 and CH 3 I). The influence of parameters on the iodine speciation such as the pollutant conditions (O 3 , NO x , COV), photolysis and the amount of iodine is discussed. Iodine turns quickly into oxide forms (I x O y , INO x ) and iodo-carbons. Significant improvements regarding the reactional mechanism (determination of fundamental data, coupling chemistry-aerosol) remain to be done before coming up with a firm conclusion on the radioactive iodine species present in the atmosphere. (author)

  14. Assessment of Dietary Supplement from Iodine by Milk Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.A.; Labib, A.A.; Challan, B.M.; Challan, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low level concentration of iodine was determined in various milk products for adult and baby milk powders by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. It is a reliable method for the determination of iodine in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with potassium hydroxide KOH solution in an oven. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume , then filtered and analysed by ICP-MS either directly or after dilution. Samples for investigation were collected from domestic market of Egypt. The detection limits of current Iodine are not affected by interfering from milk gradient. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of about 10 ppb Iodine was achieved. This method showed excellent results for aqueous iodide solutions, although the complex milk digest matrix made the method unsuitable for such samples. So, investigation of the iodine species is achieved through the oxidation and extraction of iodine milk sample s, the digest ion was carried out to control the iodine chemistry. Iodine concentrations ranged from 0.1 7 to 5 .1 mg / kg for various samples , The accuracy of the method ranged from 95 to 100%

  15. The iodine reactivity; La reactivite de l'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies dealing with: the {sup 129}I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  16. Iodine deficiency persists in the Zanzibar Islands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, V D; Greiner, T; Mzee, R K; Abuu, H; Mgoba, C; Kimboka, S; Peterson, S

    2006-12-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient for normal human growth and development. It is estimated that more than 1.6 billion people live in iodine-deficient environments, yet there are still some countries and areas where the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders is unknown. To establish the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders in the Zanzibar Islands, a community assumed to have ready access to iodine-rich seafoods. In a cross-sectional study, 11,967 schoolchildren were palpated for goiter prevalence, a subsample was evaluated for urinary iodine concentration, and the availability of iodated salt was assessed at the household and retail levels. The mean total goiter prevalence was 21.3% for Unguja and 32.0% for Pemba. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 127.5 microg/L. For Unguja the median was 185.7 microg/L, a higher value than the median of 53.4 microg/L for Pemba (p Zanzibar Islands belies the common assumption that an island population with access to seafood is not at risk for iodine-deficiency disorders. We urge health planners to implement mandatory salt iodation and education efforts to alleviate the situation.

  17. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a Sample of Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders are common throughout the developing world, yet they are considered one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency has tremendous consequences on women and girls and can not only impair a woman's reproductive health, but it also has serious consequences for ...

  18. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples

  19. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  20. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, A; Pérez-Fdez, R; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Tomé, M; Fdez-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Botana, M; Solache, I

    2007-02-01

    To identify the current state of iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain), which is considered iodine sufficient based on results from studies carried out on schoolchildren. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and its relationship with different socio-demographic variables were assessed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population aged above 18 years in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain) during 2004. The UICs were determined in an isolated urine sample using Dunn's colorimetric method. Iodine status was based on World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) UIC. A total of 2877 urine samples were taken. Median UIC for the total Galician population was 75.6 microg/L. About 30% of the population showed a UIC below 50 microg/L. Educational level, place of residence (coast vs. inland), and consumption of iodized salt were independent variables associated with the iodine nutrition of the adult population of Galicia. There is "mild" iodine deficiency (WHO) in the adult population of Galicia, which affects all the groups analyzed and which is particularly significant in the group of women of a fertile age. The data obtained on the state of iodine nutrition in school-age populations cannot be extended to the adult population.