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  1. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features

  2. "Small" things matter: Residents' involvement in practice improvements in long-term facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, F.; Baur, V.E.; Woelders, S.; Abma, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study: The process of involving older clients with regard to their care arrangements has been the subject of previous studies. However, a more general overview of the issues addressed by older people living in long-term care (LTC) facilities, in order to inform practice improvements,

  3. Immune Responses and Viral Replication in Long-Term Inapparent Carrier Ponies Inoculated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott A.; Li, Feng; McKeon, Brian M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627–9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840–3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 103-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  4. Immune responses and viral replication in long-term inapparent carrier ponies inoculated with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S A; Li, F; McKeon, B M; Cook, S J; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    2000-07-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627-9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840-3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 10(3)-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  5. No Evidence of Viral Transmission following Long-Term Implantation of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets in Diabetic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Gazda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described the use of a double coated agarose-agarose porcine islet macrobead for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the long-term viral safety of macrobead implantation into pancreatectomized diabetic dogs treated with pravastatin (n=3 was assessed while 2 dogs served as nonimplanted controls. A more gradual return to preimplant insulin requirements occurred after a 2nd implant procedure (days 148, 189, and >652 when compared to a first macrobead implantation (days 9, 21, and 21 in all macrobead implanted animals. In all three implanted dogs, porcine C-peptide was detected in the blood for at least 10 days following the first implant and for at least 26 days following the second implant. C-peptide was also present in the peritoneal fluid of all three implanted dogs at 6 months after 2nd implant and in 2 of 3 dogs at necropsy. Prescreening results of islet macrobeads and culture media prior to transplantation were negative for 13 viruses. No evidence of PERV or other viral transmission was found throughout the study. This study demonstrates that the long-term (2.4 years implantation of agarose-agarose encapsulated porcine islets is a safe procedure in a large animal model of type I diabetes mellitus.

  6. Long-term effects of inhaled corticosteroids on sputum bacterial and viral loads in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoli, Marco; Pauletti, Alessia; Rossi, Maria Rita; Spanevello, Antonio; Casolari, Paolo; Marcellini, Andrea; Forini, Giacomo; Gnesini, Giulia; Marku, Brunilda; Barnes, Neil; Rizzi, Andrea; Curradi, Giacomo; Caramori, Gaetano; Morelli, Paolo; Papi, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid-containing medications reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations (mainly infectious in origin) while paradoxically increasing the risk of other respiratory infections . The aim was to determine the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway microbial load in COPD patients and evaluate the influence of the underlying inflammatory profile on airway colonisation and microbiome.This is a proof-of-concept prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint study. Sixty patients with stable moderate COPD were randomised to receive one inhalation twice daily of either a combination of salmeterol 50 μg plus fluticasone propionate 500 μg or salmeterol 50 μg for 12 months. The primary outcome was the change of sputum bacterial loads over the course of treatment.Compared with salmeterol, 1-year treatment with salmeterol plus fluticasone was associated with a significant increase in sputum bacterial load (p=0.005), modification of sputum microbial composition and increased airway load of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The increased bacterial load was observed only in inhaled corticosteroid-treated patients with lower baseline sputum or blood eosinophil (≤2%) levels but not in patients with higher baseline eosinophils.Long-term inhaled corticosteroid treatment affects bacterial load in stable COPD. Lower eosinophil counts are associated with increased airway bacterial load. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  7. Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue VandeWoude

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a feline model of lentiviral cross-species transmission using a puma lentivirus (PLV or FIVPco which infects domestic cats but does not cause disease. Infection with PLV protects cats from CD4+ T-cell decline caused by subsequent infection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. Previous studies implicate innate immune and/or cellular restriction mechanisms for FIV disease attenuation in PLV-infected cats. In this study, we evaluated viral infection and cytokine mRNA transcription in 12 different tissue reservoirs approximately five months post infection. We quantitated tissue proviral load, viral mRNA load and relative transcription of IL-10, IL-12p40 and IFNγ from tissues of cats exposed to FIV, PLV or both viruses and analyzed these parameters using a multivariate statistical approach. The distribution and intensity of FIV infection and IFNγ transcription differed between single and co-infected cats, characterized by higher FIV proviral loads and IFNγ expression in co-infected cat tissues. Variability in FIV mRNA load and IFNγ was significantly more constrained in co-infected versus singly infected cat tissues. Single-infected:co-infected ratios of FIV mRNA load compared to FIV proviral load indicated that active viral transcription was apparently inhibited during co-infection. These results indicate that previous PLV infection increases activation of tissue innate immunity and constrains the ability of FIV to productively infect tissue reservoirs of infection for months, independent of FIV proviral load, supporting a model in which innate immunity and/or modulation of target cell susceptibility play a key role in PLV-induced protection from FIV disease.

  8. Estrogen involvement in social behavior in rodents: Rapid and long-term actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Kelsy S J; Lymer, Jennifer M; Matta, Richard; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue ("Estradiol and cognition"). Estrogens have repeatedly been shown to influence a wide array of social behaviors, which in rodents are predominantly olfactory-mediated. Estrogens are involved in social behavior at multiple levels of processing, from the detection and integration of socially relevant olfactory information to more complex social behaviors, including social preferences, aggression and dominance, and learning and memory for social stimuli (e.g. social recognition and social learning). Three estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1), differently affect these behaviors. Social recognition, territorial aggression, and sexual preferences and mate choice, all requiring the integration of socially related olfactory information, seem to primarily involve ERα, with ERβ playing a lesser, modulatory role. In contrast, social learning consistently responds differently to estrogen manipulations than other social behaviors. This suggests differential ER involvement in brain regions important for specific social behaviors, such as the ventromedial and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in social preferences and aggression, the medial amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in social learning. While the long-term effects of ERα and ERβ on social behavior have been extensively investigated, our knowledge of the rapid, non-genomic, effects of estrogens is more limited and suggests that they may mediate some social behaviors (e.g. social learning) differently from long-term effects. Further research is required to compare ER involvement in regulating social behavior in male and female animals, and to further elucidate the roles of the more recently described G protein-coupled ERs, both the GPER1 and the Gq-mER. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Astrocytes sustain long-term productive HIV-1 infection without establishment of reactivable viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Corinne; Proust, Alizé; Deshiere, Alexandre; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Drouin, Jean; Tremblay, Michel J

    2018-02-21

    The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy proposes eradication of stable cellular reservoirs by clinical treatment with latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Although resting CD4 + T cells latently infected with HIV-1 constitute the main reservoir that is targeted by these approaches, their consequences on other reservoirs such as the central nervous system are still unknown and should be taken into consideration. We performed experiments aimed at defining the possible role of astrocytes in HIV-1 persistence in the brain and the effect of LRA treatments on this viral sanctuary. We first demonstrate that the diminished HIV-1 production in a proliferating astrocyte culture is due to a reduced proliferative capacity of virus-infected cells compared with uninfected astrocytes. In contrast, infection of non-proliferating astrocytes led to a robust HIV-1 infection that was sustained for over 60 days. To identify astrocytes latently infected with HIV-1, we designed a new dual-color reporter virus called NL4.3 eGFP-IRES-Crimson that is fully infectious and encodes for all viral proteins. Although we detected a small fraction of astrocytes carrying silent HIV-1 proviruses, we did not observe any reactivation using various LRAs and even strong inducers such as tumor necrosis factor, thus suggesting that these proviruses were either not transcriptionally competent or in a state of deep latency. Our findings imply that astrocytes might not constitute a latent reservoir per se but that relentless virus production by this brain cell population could contribute to the neurological disorders seen in HIV-1-infected persons subjected to combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Long-term outcome of telbivudine versus entecavir in treating higher viral load chronic hepatitis B patients without cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H-Y; Pan, H-Y; Song, W-Y; Zheng, W; Tong, Y-X; Yang, D-H; Dai, Y-N; Chen, M-J; Wang, M-S; Huang, Y-C; Zhang, J-J; Huang, H-J

    2017-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with higher hepatitis B virus (HBV) load (higher viral load [HVL], HBV DNA ≥1 × 10 7 copies/mL) require antiviral therapy, but data for evaluating the long-term outcome of this therapy with antiviral agents remain limited. We comparatively evaluated the efficacy and the safety of nucleoside analogues in 179 noncirrhotic CHB patients with HVL over 5 years. The HBeAg-positive (n = 104) or HBeAg-negative (n = 75) patients were treated consecutively with telbivudine (LdT, n = 88) or entecavir (ETV, n = 91) and evaluated for viral response, drug resistance and safety. HBV DNA, viral serology, biochemistries, HBV mutation and off-therapy relapse were determined. The cumulative rates of HBV DNA negativity were 86.4% and 94.5% for LdT and ETV at year 5, respectively. The rates of early viral response (EVR, HBV DNA loss-seroconversions were 47.7% and 18.2% on LdT and 16.5% and 2.2% on ETV (P loss-seroconversion, followed by 33 ± 4.6 month off-therapy without a relapse. Viral mutations and serum creatine kinase elevation were 9.1% and 8.0% on LdT, but only 1.1% and 0% on ETV. Both LdT and ETV suppressed HBV replication in HVL CHB patients within 5 years. LdT therapy achieved a higher EVR, HBeAg and HBsAg seroconversion, especially in the younger patients, whereas ETV caused lower drug resistance and fewer adverse events. This finding might help to identify the optimal treatment for CHB patients with HVL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Drosophila Neprilysins Are Involved in Middle-Term and Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrel, Oriane; Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Aurélie; Préat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2016-09-14

    Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue. Several memory phases have been characterized in this organism and the neuronal circuits involved are well described. The fly genome contains five neprilysin-encoding genes, four of which are expressed in the adult. Using conditional RNA interference, we show here that all four neprilysins are involved in middle-term and long-term memory. Strikingly, all four are required in a single pair of neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MBs), the center of olfactory memory. Neprilysins are also required in the MB, reflecting the functional relationship between the DPM neurons and the MB, a circuit believed to stabilize memories. Together, our data establish a role for neprilysins in two specific memory phases and further show that DPM neurons play a critical role in the proper targeting of neuropeptides involved in these processes. Neprilysins are endopeptidases known to degrade a number of small peptides. Neprilysin research has essentially focused on their role in Alzheimer's disease and heart failure. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to study whether neprilysins are involved in memory. Drosophila can form several types of olfactory memory and the neuronal structures involved are well described. Four neprilysin genes are expressed in adult Drosophila Using conditional RNA interference, we show that all four are specifically involved in middle-term memory (MTM) and long-term

  12. The Role of Online Communication in Long-Term Cyberbullying Involvement Among Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Digital media, especially mobile communication technologies, enable adolescents to explore and experiment with each other with only limited adult control. Conflicts between peers can be easily staged since nearly everybody can be reached at any time under the radar of authorities. Therefore, involvement in conflicts and bullying might depend on how adolescents use and behave online. In the present study, we provide a comprehensive picture of the role aspects of online communication play in long-term involvement in cyberbullying. We focused on a gender-specific perspective, as girls and boys were found to differ not only according to their online communication but also in their cyberbullying involvement. Using a two-wave panel survey of 1817 adolescents between 13 and 17 years (56 % female), we found that girls' cyberbullying involvement (perpetration and victimization) could be traced back to more intensive online social activities and a higher amount of online contact with strangers. In contrast, for boys, only higher exposure to antisocial media content predicted higher levels of victimization over time. The findings indicate that certain patterns of online communication increase the cyberbullying risk over time. However, it needs to be noted that these risk factors vary between girls and boys.

  13. Immunoregulatory T Cells May Be Involved in Preserving CD4 T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Long-Term Nonprogressors and Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Ronit, Andreas; Hartling, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4 T cell counts. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) also maintain normal CD4 T cell counts but have ongoing viral replication. We hypothesized that immunoregulatory mechanisms are involved in preserved CD4 T cell c...... of patients and controls. However, both ECs and LTNPs displayed a large proportion of activated Tregs suggesting immunoregulatory mechanisms to be involved in preserving CD4 T cell counts in HIV-infected nonprogressors.......BACKGROUND: HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4 T cell counts. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) also maintain normal CD4 T cell counts but have ongoing viral replication. We hypothesized that immunoregulatory mechanisms are involved in preserved CD4 T cell...... counts in controllers and in LTNPs. METHODS: Twenty HIV-infected viremic controllers, 5 elite controllers (ECs), and 14 LTNPs were included in this cross-sectional study. For comparison, 25 progressors and 34 healthy controls were included. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), Treg subpopulations, CD161+Th17...

  14. Nurse and resident satisfaction in magnet long-term care organizations: do high involvement approaches matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Wagar, Terry H

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the association of high involvement nursing work practices with employer-of-choice (magnet) status in a sample of Canadian nursing homes. In response to a severe shortage of registered nursing personnel, it is imperative for health care organizations to more effectively recruit and retain nursing personnel. Some long-term care organizations are developing employee-centred cultures that allow them to effectively enhance nurse and resident satisfaction. At the same time, many nursing homes have adopted progressive nursing workplace practices (high involvement work practices) that emphasize greater employee empowerment, participation and commitment. A mail survey was sent to the director of nursing in 300 nursing homes in western Canada. In total, 125 useable questionnaires were returned and constituted the data set for this study. Separate ordinary least squares regressions are performed with magnet strength, nurse satisfaction and resident satisfaction used as dependent variables. Nursing homes that demonstrate strong magnet (employer-of-choice) characteristics are more likely to have higher levels of nurse and patient satisfaction, even after controlling for a number of significant factors at the establishment level. Magnet nursing homes are more likely to have progressive participatory decision-making cultures and much more likely to spend considerable resources on job-related training for their nursing staff. The presence of high involvement work practices is not found to be a significant predictor in magnet strength, nurse or resident satisfaction. Merely adopting more high involvement nursing work practices may be insufficient for nursing homes, which desire to become 'employers-of-choice' in their marketplaces, especially if these practices are adopted without a concomitant investment in nurse training or an enhanced commitment to establishing a more democratic and participatory decision-making style involving all nursing staff.

  15. Long-term follow-up of patients with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C: does viral clearance mean cure?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2017-06-01

    Up to 40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies are negative for HCV RNA at initial evaluation. If there is a risk of viral re-activation, long term follow-up is required with attendant financial, psychological and medical implications. We investigated the risk of re-activation in the Irish anti-D cohort. Information was obtained from the national hepatitis C database which includes data on patients infected by anti-D immunoglobulin in two large outbreaks, 1977-9 and 1991-94. As part of a screening programme, starting in 1994, 64,907 females exposed to anti-D immunoglobulin were evaluated. Three hundred and forty-seven were found to be antibody positive but HCV RNA negative at initial assessment. 93% had subsequent RNA tests. There was no evidence of HCV recurrence in patients whose infection resolved spontaneously. It appears that two initial sequential negative results for HCV RNA are sufficient to confirm spontaneous viral clearance and probable cure of hepatitis C virus infection.

  16. Vestibular neuritis: Involvement and long-term recovery of individual semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büki, Bela; Hanschek, Manuela; Jünger, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    In this retrospective study, the aim of the authors was to examine the frequency of involvement of the individual semicircular canals (SCCs) in vestibular neuritis (VN) and to assess the degree of long-term recovery. A secondary aim was to retrospectively determine the usefulness of a three-step bedside oculomotor test (the HINTS-test) for the differential diagnosis of peripheral VN. 44 cases were evaluated during the acute phase and approximately two months later. The gain of the vestibuloocular reflex was determined using video-head-impulse test, carried out using Otometrics ICS Impulse Otosuite Vestibular V 1.2. In 19 cases (43%), a typical, so called "superior" VN could be diagnosed; in 17 cases (38%), all three SCCs were involved; in 4 cases, an isolated inferior canal involvement was seen; and in another 4 cases, a slight, isolated horizontal canal involvement was registered. Slight, isolated horizontal canal vestibular neuritis causing acute vestibular syndrome has not yet been reported in the literature. A three-step bedside oculomotor examination, the HINTS-test (head-impulse test, examination of gaze evoked nystagmus, and test of skew-deviation), suggested peripheral involvement in all cases with superior pattern VN and in cases when all three SCC were involved. It indicated 'stroke' in cases with inferior pattern and in the cases with isolated involvement of the horizontal canal. At follow-up, the horizontal canal function normalized in 55%, the anterior canal in 38%, and the inferior in 38%. When all cases were pooled, 14 patients recovered completely. In cases with severe initial decrease of gain in the horizontal canal (initial value less than 0.5), the canals had a 50 per cent chance to recover significantly. In vestibular neuritis, in cases with severe decrease of gain in the horizontal canal (initial value less than 0.5), the canal has a 50 per cent chance to recover significantly. The vertical canals have worse prognosis, and especially the

  17. Silica Vesicle Nanovaccine Formulations Stimulate Long-Term Immune Responses to the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma T Mody

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2 antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3 g(-1 have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg/SV-140 (500 μg and FD oE2 (100 μg/SV-140 (500 μg to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications.

  18. Profile and costs involved in long-term compulsory hospitalization of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Fernando; de Moura, Eduardo C; Bastos, Paula A; Martins, Lourdes C; Fragoso, Yara D

    2017-12-18

    Involuntary hospitalization for acute psychiatry cases can be acceptable when there is potential harm. However, there are few reasons for a patient committed on these grounds to stay in an institution for a long period. The objective of the present study was to identify the profile and costs of compulsory hospitalizations over 20 days in a public psychiatric hospital in the coastal region of the state of São Paulo. Retrospective data were collected from the medical records of 1,064 patients admitted between July 2013 and June 2016 from an intensive mental healthcare unit in Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Records were found of 527 patients who had been hospitalized for at least 21 days during the study period. Long-term hospitalization related to judicial mandates represented 5.9% of the total sample. These patients stayed in the hospital for an average period of 142 days, while patients hospitalized for any other reason stayed an average period of 35 days (p long-term court-ordered hospitalization averaged US$ 21,311 per patient. Judicial mandate has been an important reason for the long-term hospitalization of chronic psychiatric patients in Santos, Brazil.

  19. Activity involvement and quality of life of people at different stages of dementia in long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in activities is assumed to positively influence the quality of life of people with dementia, yet activity provision in long-term care remains limited. This study aims to provide more insight into the value of activity involvement for domains of the quality of life of long-term dementia care residents, taking resident characteristics and cognitive status into account. Data were derived from 144 long-term care facilities participating in the second measurement (2010/2011) of the living arrangements for dementia study. Amongst 1144 residents, the relationship between time involved in activities (activity pursuit patterns; RAI-MDS) and quality of life (Qualidem) was studied using multilevel linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for residents' age, gender, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ADL dependency and cognition. To check for effect modification of cognition, interactions terms of the variables activity involvement and cognitive status were added to the analyses. Despite resident's cognitive status, their activity involvement was significantly related to better scores on care relationship, positive affect, restless tense behaviour, social relations, and having something to do. A negative relationship existed between the activity involvement and positive self-image. The explained variance in the quality of life between residents caused by the activity involvement was small. Activity involvement seems to be a small yet important contributor to higher well-being in long-term care resident at all stages of dementia. Adjusting activities to individual preferences and capabilities might enlarge this relationship. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis, using measurement instruments less sensitive to recall bias and differentiating between the active and passive activity involvement.

  20. Survival of glass-ceramic materials and involved clinical risk: variables affecting long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, Kenneth A; Socransky, Sigmund S; Thompson, Van; Rekow, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental objective of dental treatment is the continued health and longevity of the dentition. While advances in material formulations and clinical techniques promise to benefit patient care, various confounding variables (i.e., acid etching, preparation design, patient gender) affect the outcome of a dental restoration. These factors can be difficult to simulate in a laboratory setting that accurately depicts the clinical environment. As an alternative, this article presents a synopsis of the authors' prospective clinical study of all-ceramic restorations and explains the relationship of several variables to their long-term survival.

  1. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promotion or lifestyle interventions. The included studies have at least one objectively measured anthropometric outcome in the weight status of the child. Parental involvement was described and categorized based on the intensity of parental involvement and coded using a validated behaviour change taxonomy specific to childhood obesity. Twenty-four studies were analysed. In effective long-term treatment studies, medium and high intensity parental involvement were identified most frequently; whereas in prevention studies low intensity parental involvement was identified most frequently. Parenting skills, generic and specific to lifestyle behaviour, scored frequently in effective weight control interventions. To list parental skills in generic and specific to lifestyle, descriptions of the included studies were summarized. We conclude that intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change techniques are important issues in the effectiveness of long-term childhood weight control interventions. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of long-term football training on the expression profile of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, A; Martone, D; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term recreational football training affects the expression of health-related biochemical and molecular markers in healthy untrained subjects. Five untrained healthy men trained for 1 h 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks and 1.3 times/week for another 52 weeks. Blood samples...... are directly or indirectly involved in the glucose and lipid oxidative metabolism. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fat percentage was independently associated with NAMPT, PPARγ and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, long-term recreational football training could be a useful tool...... and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis were collected at T0 (pre intervention) and at T1 (post intervention). Gene expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA extracted from muscle biopsies. The expression levels of the genes principally involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ, adiponectin, AMPKα1/α2, TFAM...

  4. Viral Reservoirs in Lymph Nodes of FIV-Infected Progressor and Long-Term Non-Progressor Cats during the Asymptomatic Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C D Eckstrand

    Full Text Available Examination of a cohort of cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV for 5.75 years revealed detectable proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs harvested during the asymptomatic phase, undetectable plasma viral RNA (FIV gag, and rarely detectable cell-associated viral RNA. Despite apparent viral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells, circulating CD4+ T cell numbers progressively declined in progressor animals. The aim of this study was to explore this dichotomy of peripheral blood viral latency in the face of progressive immunopathology. The viral replication status, cellular immunophenotypes, and histopathologic features were compared between popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs and peripheral blood. Also, we identified and further characterized one of the FIV-infected cats identified as a long-term non-progressor (LTNP.PLN-derived leukocytes from FIV-infected cats during the chronic asymptomatic phase demonstrated active viral gag transcription and FIV protein translation as determined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry, whereas viral RNA in blood leukocytes was either undetectable or intermittently detectable and viral protein was not detected. Active transcription of viral RNA was detectable in PLN-derived CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes. Replication competent provirus was reactivated ex vivo from PLN-derived leukocytes from three of four FIV-infected cats. Progressor cats showed a persistent and dramatically decreased proportion and absolute count of CD4+ T cells in blood, and a decreased proportion of CD4+ T cells in PLNs. A single long-term non-progressor (LTNP cat persistently demonstrated an absolute peripheral blood CD4+ T cell count indistinguishable from uninfected animals, a lower proviral load in unfractionated blood and PLN leukocytes, and very low amounts of viral RNA in the PLN.Collectively our data indicates that PLNs harbor important reservoirs of ongoing viral

  5. Viral Reservoirs in Lymph Nodes of FIV-Infected Progressor and Long-Term Non-Progressor Cats during the Asymptomatic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, C. D.; Hillman, C.; Smith, A. L.; Sparger, E. E.; Murphy, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of a cohort of cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) for 5.75 years revealed detectable proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested during the asymptomatic phase, undetectable plasma viral RNA (FIV gag), and rarely detectable cell-associated viral RNA. Despite apparent viral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells, circulating CD4+ T cell numbers progressively declined in progressor animals. The aim of this study was to explore this dichotomy of peripheral blood viral latency in the face of progressive immunopathology. The viral replication status, cellular immunophenotypes, and histopathologic features were compared between popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) and peripheral blood. Also, we identified and further characterized one of the FIV-infected cats identified as a long-term non-progressor (LTNP). Results PLN-derived leukocytes from FIV-infected cats during the chronic asymptomatic phase demonstrated active viral gag transcription and FIV protein translation as determined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry, whereas viral RNA in blood leukocytes was either undetectable or intermittently detectable and viral protein was not detected. Active transcription of viral RNA was detectable in PLN-derived CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes. Replication competent provirus was reactivated ex vivo from PLN-derived leukocytes from three of four FIV-infected cats. Progressor cats showed a persistent and dramatically decreased proportion and absolute count of CD4+ T cells in blood, and a decreased proportion of CD4+ T cells in PLNs. A single long-term non-progressor (LTNP) cat persistently demonstrated an absolute peripheral blood CD4+ T cell count indistinguishable from uninfected animals, a lower proviral load in unfractionated blood and PLN leukocytes, and very low amounts of viral RNA in the PLN. Conclusion Collectively our data indicates that PLNs harbor important reservoirs of

  6. Long-Term Survival in a Cat with Pancreatic Carcinoma and Splenic Involvement after Surgical Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rosatelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thirteen-year-old female spayed with a history of hydronephrosis was presented for a routine abdominal ultrasonographic exam. The imaging exam showed a mass involving the pancreas and a large mass affecting the spleen. Exploratory laparotomy evidenced a mass in the pancreas and another involving one-third of the spleen. The patient had partial pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The histopathology report came back with a diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was declined. The cat is still free of gross tumor recurrence and metastatic disease after twenty-six months. Early diagnosed and aggressively treated feline pancreatic carcinoma might yield a favorable prognosis.

  7. Epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in two long-term refugee camps in Kenya, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jamal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Dadaab and Kakuma refugee camps in Kenya to characterize their role in the epidemiology of ARI among refugees. Methods From 1 September 2007 through 31 August 2010, we obtained nasopharyngeal (NP and oropharyngeal (OP specimens from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infections (SARI and tested them by RT-PCR for adenovirus (AdV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, parainfluenza viruses (PIV, and influenza A and B viruses. Definitions for ILI and SARI were adapted from those of the World Health Organization. Proportions of cases associated with viral aetiology were calculated by camp and by clinical case definition. In addition, for children Results We tested specimens from 1815 ILI and 4449 SARI patients (median age = 1 year. Proportion positive for virus were AdV, 21.7%; RSV, 12.5%; hMPV, 5.7%; PIV, 9.4%; influenza A, 9.7%; and influenza B, 2.6%; 49.8% were positive for at least one virus. The annual rate of SARI hospitalisation for 2007-2010 was 57 per 1000 children per year. Virus-positive hospitalisation rates were 14 for AdV; 9 for RSV; 6 for PIV; 4 for hMPV; 5 for influenza A; and 1 for influenza B. The rate of SARI hospitalisation was highest in children Conclusions Respiratory viral infections, particularly RSV and AdV, were associated with high rates of illness and make up a substantial portion of respiratory infection in these two refugee settings.

  8. A highly intensified ART regimen induces long-term viral suppression and restriction of the viral reservoir in a simian AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iart Luca Shytaj

    Full Text Available Stably suppressed viremia during ART is essential for establishing reliable simian models for HIV/AIDS. We tested the efficacy of a multidrug ART (highly intensified ART in a wide range of viremic conditions (10³-10⁷ viral RNA copies/mL in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques, and its impact on the viral reservoir. Eleven macaques in the pre-AIDS stage of the disease were treated with a multidrug combination (highly intensified ART consisting of two nucleosidic/nucleotidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (emtricitabine and tenofovir, an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir, a protease inhibitor (ritonavir-boosted darunavir and the CCR5 blocker maraviroc. All animals stably displayed viral loads below the limit of detection of the assay (i.e. <40 RNA copies/mL after starting highly intensified ART. By increasing the sensitivity of the assay to 3 RNA copies/mL, viral load was still below the limit of detection in all subjects tested. Importantly, viral DNA resulted below the assay detection limit (<2 copies of DNA/5*10⁵ cells in PBMCs and rectal biopsies of all animals at the end of the follow-up, and in lymph node biopsies from the majority of the study subjects. Moreover, highly intensified ART decreased central/transitional memory, effector memory and activated (HLA-DR⁺ effector memory CD4⁺ T-cells in vivo, in line with the role of these subsets as the main cell subpopulations harbouring the virus. Finally, treatment with highly intensified ART at viral load rebound following suspension of a previous anti-reservoir therapy eventually improved the spontaneous containment of viral load following suspension of the second therapeutic cycle, thus leading to a persistent suppression of viremia in the absence of ART. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, complete suppression of viral load by highly intensified ART and a likely associated restriction of the viral reservoir in the macaque AIDS model, making it a useful platform for testing

  9. Long-term efficacy and safety of rilpivirine plus abacavir and lamivudine in HIV-1 infected patients with undetectable viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Nadia; Galli, Laura; Poli, Andrea; Gianotti, Nicola; Carini, Elisabetta; Bigoloni, Alba; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Nozza, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella; Mancusi, Daniela; Termini, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    A regimen with rilpivirine (RPV), abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine (3TC) is simple and may allow the sparing of tenofovir and protease inhibitors. However, data on use of this combination as a strategy of switch are limited. Aims of the study were to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this regimen. Retrospective study on HIV-1 infected patients followed at the Infectious Disease Department of the San Raffaele Scientific Institute, HBsAg-negative, HLA B5701-negative, with no documented resistance to RPV, ABC and 3TC, with HIV-RNAplus ABC/3TC from March 2013 to September 2015. The primary outcome was durability [no treatment failure (TF)]. Secondary objectives were to evaluate changes in immunological, metabolic and other safety parameters. TF was defined as the occurrence of virological failure (VF, 2 consecutive values >50 copies/mL) or discontinuation of any drug in the regimen for any reason. Patients' follow-up accrued from the date of RPV plus ABC/3TC initiation to the date of TF (VF or discontinuation of any drug in the regimen) or to the date of last available visit. Time to TF was evaluated by use of the Kaplan-Meier curves. Mixed linear models were applied to evaluate changes in immunological, metabolic and other safety parameters. In this analysis, 100 patients starting RPV plus ABC/3TC were included. By 12, 24 and 36 months after switching to RPV plus ABC/3TC, the proportions of individuals without TF were 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 79%-93%], 82% (95% CI:73%-89%) and 78% (95% CI:68%-86%), respectively. Time to TF was not significantly influenced by CD4+ nadir (≤200 vs >200 cells/μl; log-rank test: p = 0.311) or pre-ART viral load (100000 vs ≥100000 copies/mL; log-rank test: p = 0.574) or the type of previous antiretroviral regimen (PI+2NRTIs vs NNRTI+2NRTIs vs Other; log-rank test: p = 0.942). Over a median follow-up of 2.9 years (IQR: 1.9-3.5), 26 subjects discontinued the treatment [10 due to toxicity, 7 for interactions with other

  10. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  11. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Okugawa, Hidehiro, E-mail: hideun@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: kobakobakopa@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Hiroaki, E-mail: yossih04@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R {>=} 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R {>=} 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R {>=} 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  12. Bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease at MRI: what long-term evolution can we expect under enzyme replacement therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedida, Benjamin; Touraine, Sebastien; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Stirnemann, Jerome [Universite Paris-Diderot Hopital Bichat, AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Data Processing, INSERM UMR 738, Paris (France); Geneva University Hospital, Division of General Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Belmatoug, Nadia [Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine, Clichy (France); Petrover, David [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France)

    2015-10-15

    To study the long-term evolution of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score at MRI in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Forty patients treated for GD were retrospectively studied in a referral centre. BMB scores were assessed on spine and femur MR examinations performed between January 2003 and June 2014. The long-term evolution of the BMB scores was analyzed using a linear mixed model. A total of 121 MRI examinations were performed during the study period with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years ± 5.6, an average rate of 3.1 MR examinations ± 1.7 per patient and an interval of 2.3 years ± 1.1 between examinations. Patients had received ERT during 12 years on average ± 6.7. The trend of BMB scores with time decreased significantly by 15 % (P = 0.008) during the total study period and 39 % (P = 0.01) during the first 5 years of treatment. No changes in BMB scores were observed after five years of treatment. In Gaucher patients, the trend of MRI BMB scores with time decreased significantly under ERT the first 5 years of treatment before a long-term stabilization. (orig.)

  13. The number of CCR5 expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes is lower in HIV-infected long-term non-progressors with viral control compared to normal progressors: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, H.; Indrati, A.R.; Crevel, R. van; Joosten, I.; Koenen, H.; Ven, A. van der

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe HIV co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 play an important role in HIV infection and replication. Therefore we hypothesize that long-term non-progressors (LTNP) with viral control have lower expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 on CD4+ cells, specifically on memory T-lymphocytes since they are the

  14. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of TLR4 in the long-term epigenetic changes, rewarding and anxiety effects induced by intermittent ethanol treatment in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Jorge; Pascual, María; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, Jose; Guerri, Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    Studies in humans and experimental animals have demonstrated the vulnerability of the adolescent brain to actions of ethanol and the long-term consequences of binge drinking, including the behavioral and cognitive deficits that result from alcohol neurotoxicity, and increased risk to alcohol abuse and dependence. Although the mechanisms that participate in these effects are largely unknown, we have shown that ethanol by activating innate immune receptors, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induces neuroinflammation, impairs myelin proteins and causes cognitive dysfunctions in adolescent mice. Since neuroimmune signaling is also involved in alcohol abuse, the aim of this study was to assess whether ethanol treatment in adolescence promotes the long-term synaptic and molecular events associated with alcohol abuse and addiction. Using wild-type (WT) and TLR4-deficient (TLR4-KO) adolescent mice treated intermittently with ethanol (3g/kg) for 2 weeks, we showed that binge-like ethanol treatment in adolescent mice promotes short- and long-term alterations in synaptic plasticity and epigenetic changes in the promoter region of bdnf and fosb, which increased their expression in the mPFC of young adult animals. These molecular events were associated with long-term rewarding and anxiogenic-related behavioral effects, along with increased alcohol preference. Our results further showed the participation of neuroimmune system activation and the TLR4 signaling response since deficient mice in TLR4 (TLR4-KO) are protected against molecular and behavioral alterations of ethanol in the adolescent brain. Our results highlight a new role of the neuroimmune function and open up new avenues to develop pharmacological treatments that can normalize the immune signaling responsible for long-term effects in adolescence, including alcohol abuse and related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us! Living with HD Long-Term Care Long Term Care Click here to download Long-Term Care for HD, (part of HDSA’s Family Guide ... on patient and family issues related to long-term HD care. For many caregivers of people with ...

  17. Involving parents in managing their child's long-term condition-a concept synthesis of family-centered care and partnership-in-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Swallow, Veronica; Coyne, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNG: Fostering effective engagement, collaboration and empowerment are central to supporting parents caring for children with long-term conditions. A concept synthesis was undertaken to identify the shared antecedents and attributes underpinning models of family-centered care and partnership-in-care. Thirty studies were reviewed; antecedents of models related to unclear roles, entrenched professional practices, and lack of guidelines supporting their implementation; with central attributes being building trust, listening to parent concerns and valuing parents' knowledge of their child. The key attributes are outlined in a practical framework of involvement which may promote parent-professional collaboration for families of children with long-term conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long Term Effect on Professionals' Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes towards User Involvement Four Years after Implementing an Organisational Development Plan: A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit By Rise

    Full Text Available Health service organisations are increasingly implementing user involvement initiatives according to requirements from governments, such as user representation in administrational boards, better information to users, and more involvement of the users during treatment. Professionals are vital in all initiatives to enhance user involvement, and initiatives to increase involvement should influence the professionals' practice and attitudes. The implementation of a development plan intending to enhance user involvement in a mental health hospital in Central Norway had no effect on the professionals after 16 months. The objective was therefore to investigate the long term effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice and attitudes towards user involvement after four years.This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in one of the hospitals, including establishing a patient education centre and a user office, purchasing of user expertise, appointing contact professionals for next of kin, and improving of the centre's information and the professional culture. The professionals at two other hospitals constituted the control group. All professionals were invited to answer the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ and additional questions, at a four year interval.A total of 399 professionals participated (43% response rate. Comparing the changes in the intervention group with the changes in the control group, the results showed that the plan had improved some aspects of the professionals' knowledge about the user involvement taking place in the hospital. In addition, some parts of the professionals' practice of providing information to the service users was improved, and the development plan might have raised their awareness about insufficient involvement of next of kin.This is the first controlled

  19. Cholangiocarcinomas associated with long-term inflammation express the activation-induced cytidine deaminase and germinal center-associated nuclear protein involved in immunoglobulin V-region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-On, Waraporn; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Naoya; Ohta, Kazutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Sripa, Banchob; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2009-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents a model of tumor development after long-term inflammation which causes DNA damage or impairs DNA repair mechanism. AID and GANP, both appearing in antigen-driven B cells, are involved in affinity maturation of the immunoglobulin V-region with increased somatic mutation. A normal cholangiocyte line showed the induction of AID transcripts after stimulation with TNF-alpha, whereas ganp transcripts appeared constitutively in this cell line. Next, we examined the expression of AID and GANP in clinical CCA specimens to obtain information whether their expression levels are associated with the malignant grade of CCA. AID expression was similarly detected in the clinical cases of both well-differentiated and poorly-differentiated CCAs. On the contrary, GANP expression was detected in CCA cells at a higher level in the nucleus of poorly-differentiated CCAs with shorter survivals than in that of well-differentiated CCAs. The high and low cases of nuclear GANP expression showed no change in the frequency of the TP53 mutations, however, further investigation by in vitro experiment demonstrated that the high GANP expression caused the increased number of gammaH2AX foci after DNA damage by ionizing-irradiation. These results suggest that GANP is involved in regulation of DNA repair mechanism and the abnormal over-expression of GANP together with AID might be associated with rigorous DNA damage, potentially causing the malignant development of CCAs during long-term inflammation.

  20. Molecular and functional analysis of a conserved CTL epitope in HIV-1 p24 recognized from a long-term nonprogressor: constraints on immune escape associated with targeting a sequence essential for viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R; Leschonsky, B; Harrer, E; Paulus, C; Weber, C; Walker, B D; Buchbinder, S; Wolf, H; Kalden, J R; Harrer, T

    1999-03-15

    It has been hypothesized that sequence variation within CTL epitopes leading to immune escape plays a role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Only very limited data exist that address the influence of biologic characteristics of CTL epitopes on the emergence of immune escape variants and the efficiency of suppression HIV-1 by CTL. In this report, we studied the effects of HIV-1 CTL epitope sequence variation on HIV-1 replication. The highly conserved HLA-B14-restricted CTL epitope DRFYKTLRAE in HIV-1 p24 was examined, which had been defined as the immunodominant CTL epitope in a long-term nonprogressing individual. We generated a set of viral mutants on an HX10 background differing by a single conservative or nonconservative amino acid substitution at each of the P1 to P9 amino acid residues of the epitope. All of the nonconservative amino acid substitutions abolished viral infectivity and only 5 of 10 conservative changes yielded replication-competent virus. Recognition of these epitope sequence variants by CTL was tested using synthetic peptides. All mutations that abrogated CTL recognition strongly impaired viral replication, and all replication-competent viral variants were recognized by CTL, although some variants with a lower efficiency. Our data indicate that this CTL epitope is located within a viral sequence essential for viral replication. Targeting CTL epitopes within functionally important regions of the HIV-1 genome could limit the chance of immune evasion.

  1. Short term and long term radiation protection aspects of a nuclear accident: a Cd-Rom for a better stake holders' involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Badie, M.; Brenot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the Prefet, the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the gendarmerie and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described: professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the counter-measures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho-sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities?

  2. Physical state and viral load as predictive biomarkersfor persistence and progression of HPV16-positive cervical lesions: results from a population based long-term prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manawapat, Anna; Stubenrauch, Frank; Russ, Rainer; Munk, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Iftner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection with a high risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) has been established as the main cause of cervical cancer and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3). Because most infections are transient, testing for hrHPV lacks specificity and has a low positive predictive value. It has been suggested that additional parameters like viral load and physical status of the viral genome could improve the effectiveness of HPV-based screening. We investigated the association between HPV16 viral load and physical state with viral persistence or risk of incident CIN3 or worse in a population-based prospective cohort study comprising 8656 women (20-29 years). All participants had two gynecological examinations two years apart and were followed through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank (median follow-up: 12.9 yrs). Seventynine cervical swabs from women with a persistent HPV16 infection were available for analysis. For comparison we selected a random age-matched sample of transiently HPV16 infected women (N=91). Persistently infected women with incident CIN3 or cancer (CIN3+; N=31) were compared to women with normal cytology during follow up (non-progressors; N=39). Quantitative real-time PCR for HPV16E6, E2 and IFNb1 was done to determine the HPV16 viral load and the E2/E6 ratio was used as a surrogate marker for integration. Women with normal cytology who became persistently HPV16 infected had a significantly lower HPV16 load at baseline than women who cleared the infection (median 4.72 copies/cell versus median 20.0 copies/cell, respectively; p=0.0003). There was no difference in viral load at enrollment between women who progressed to CIN3+ and women who stayed cytologically normal (p=0.85). At the second examination viral load tended to be higher in women who progressed, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.39). The E2/E6 ratio was shown to be lower in the persistently infected group (pload and integration of the viral

  3. Long-term mortality in HIV patients virally suppressed for more than three years with incomplete CD4 recovery: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Frederik Neess; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    The mortality in patients with persistent low CD4 count despite several years of HAART with sustained viral suppression is poorly documented. We aimed to identify predictors for inadequate CD4 cell recovery and estimate mortality in patients with low CD4 count but otherwise successful HAART....

  4. Early long-term exposure with caffeine induces cross-sensitization to methylphenidate with involvement of DARPP-32 in adulthood of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Carina R; Marques, Virgínia B; Valvassori, Samira S; Constantino, Leandra C; Rosa, Daniela V F; Lima, Fabrício F; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Quevedo, João

    2009-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of caffeine causes dependence and sleep disturbance in children and adolescents. In rodents, the administration of caffeine may produce behavioral cross-sensitization to some psychostimulants, such as dopaminergic psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is a psychostimulant used in pediatric- and adult human populations to manage the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have suggested that dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) participate in the manifestation of behavioral activity following ingestion of caffeine or MPH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term administration of low doses of caffeine in rodents during their adolescence induces cross-sensitization to MPH challenge in their adulthood and investigate the involvement of DARPP-32 in this model. Young rats (P25) consumed water or caffeine (0.3 g/L; mean consumption was 7.5 mg/day/kg) for 28 days. The caffeine consumption was then suspended for 14 days (washout period) when the animals received saline solution or MPH (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg) (P67) intraperitoneally. The locomotor activity of these rats was assessed using the open-field test, following which the immunocontent of DARPP-32 was evaluated in samples of their prefrontal cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Rats chronically exposed to caffeine in their adolescent period and to inactive doses of MPH (1mg/kg) in adulthood showed augmented locomotor activity. The behavioral effect observed was accompanied by increased levels of DARPP-32 in the striatum and prefrontal cortex compared to control groups (saline or caffeine). However, no alteration caused by these treatments was noted in the hippocampus. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure induces likely long-term cross-sensitization to MPH in a DARPP-32-dependent pathway.

  5. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  6. Bioengineered coagulation factor VIII enables long-term correction of murine hemophilia A following liver-directed adeno-associated viral vector delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison C Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical data support the feasibility and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors in gene therapy applications. Despite several clinical trials of AAV-based gene transfer for hemophilia B, a unique set of obstacles impede the development of a similar approach for hemophilia A. These include (i the size of the factor VIII (fVIII transgene, (ii humoral immune responses to fVIII, (iii inefficient biosynthesis of human fVIII, and (iv AAV vector immunity. Through bioengineering approaches, a novel fVIII molecule, designated ET3, was developed and shown to improve biosynthetic efficiency 10- to 100-fold. In this study, the utility of ET3 was assessed in the context of liver-directed, AAV-mediated gene transfer into hemophilia A mice. Due to the large size of the expression cassette, AAV-ET3 genomes packaged into viral particles as partial genome fragments. Despite this potential limitation, a single peripheral vein administration of AAV-ET3 into immune-competent hemophilia A mice resulted in correction of the fVIII deficiency at lower vector doses than previously reported for similarly oversized AAV-fVIII vectors. Therefore, ET3 appears to improve vector potency and mitigate at least one of the critical barriers to AAV-based clinical gene therapy for hemophilia A.

  7. Red blood cell distribution width: can it be a predictive marker for long-term valvular involvement in children with acute rheumatic carditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, M; Ozdemir, R; Karadeniz, C; Celegen, K; Demirol, M; Yilmazer, M M; Mese, T; Unal, N

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in patients with acute rheumatic carditis during the acute phase and after anti-inflammatory therapy. Pediatric patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic carditis (ARC) between 2006 and 2014 and age- and sex-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. At the time of diagnosis and after 2 months of medical therapy, we reviewed the obtained demographic features; echocardiographic data; complete blood count reports, including RDW; acute phase reactants, including C-reactive protein; and erythrocyte sedimentation rate values. The number of the cases with ARC and age- and sex-matched controls were 100 and 110, respectively. The mean age of patients was 11.6 ± 2.5 years. WBC and platelet counts, RDW were found to be significantly higher in patient group compared with controls at the time of diagnosis, prior to the onset of treatment. RDW, platelet count, CRP, and ESR levels significantly decreased after an 8 weeks of medical treatment. RDW values after the medical treatment were still significantly higher compared with controls. RDW values were significantly higher in patients with multiple valvular involvement both prior to and after the treatment. Moreover, we found a significant and positive correlation between the RDW and the severity of mitral regurgitation in our patients (r: 0.46, P valvular lesions. However, long-term follow-up studies are needed involving adulthood period to support this hypothesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serotonin involvement in aversive conditioning: reversal of the fear retention deficit by long-term p-chloroamphetamine but not p-chlorophenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Ogren, S O; Ross, S B

    1982-12-23

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a serotonin (5-HT) agonist, fenfluramine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), which are 5-HT releasers, produce deficits in fear retention as indicated by a notable lack of the immobility resulting from inescapable shocks. Depletion of central 5-HT neurones after long-term PCA treatment (2 X 10 mg/kg) completely blocked the retention impairment resulting from acute PCA (2.5 mg/kg) and fenfluramine (5 mg/kg), and partially blocked the deficit produced by 5-MeO-DMT (4 mg/kg). 5-HT depletion after p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treatment (200, 100, 100 mg/kg, 72, 48 and 24 h before) did not do so; this is in agreement with other findings which suggest the involvement of different 5-HT stores in the action of PCA and PCPA. These data further underline the importance of the ascending 5-HT pathway in aversive conditioning in the rat.

  9. Restoring Functional Status: A Long-Term Case Report of Severe Lung and Ventilatory Muscle Pump Dysfunction Involving Recurrent Bacterial Pneumonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobush, Dennis C.; Laatsch, Linda; Lipchik, Randolph J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prolonged mechanical ventilation contributes to immobility and deconditioning making efforts to safely discontinue ventilator support desirable. This case report documents how implementing physical therapy treatment interventions, based on the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, can help to restore a person's functional status even after multiple years of mechanical ventilation dependency. Case Description A patient (female; aged 63 years) with severe restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment has survived 34 recurrent pneumonias involving 6 bacterial pathogens while being mechanically ventilated at home. A 3-year study was approved and informed consent obtained for a home exercise program of resistive extremity and inspiratory muscle training along with exercise reconditioning. Tolerable distances walked, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, hours spent on versus off mechanical ventilation, activities performed within and around her home, and community excursions taken were charted. Outcomes Daily time tolerated off the ventilator improved from less than one to 12 hours, distance walked in 6 minutes increased 33%, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures improved 62% and 9.6% respectively. These improvements made out-of-home social excursions possible. Discussion and Conclusions This patient's functional status improved following multiple physical therapy interventions dictated by the evaluation of initial physical therapy examination findings according to the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Long term mechanical ventilator dependency in the home environment did not exclude this patient from achieving clinically significant gains in functional status even when having severe restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairment. PMID:22833704

  10. Parental Involvement in CBT for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Revisited: Family CBT Outperforms Child CBT in the Long Term for Children With Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CCBT) versus family CBT (FCBT) in anxiety-disordered youth with high and low comorbid ADHD symptoms. Youth with anxiety disorders ( n = 123, aged 8-18) were classified in four groups according to (a) the type of CBT received (child vs. family) and (b) their comorbid ADHD symptoms, measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Attention Problems syndrome scale level (normal vs. [sub]clinical). Severity of anxiety disorders was assessed with Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent (ADIS-C/P) version and anxiety symptoms via a 71-item anxiety symptom questionnaire, the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), before and after CBT, and at 3 months and 1-year follow-ups. Based on the severity of anxiety disorders, children with high ADHD symptoms profit more from FCBT than CCBT in the long term. For children low on ADHD symptoms, and for anxiety symptoms and attention problems, no differences between CCBT and FCBT occurred. Family involvement seems a valuable addition to CBT for children with comorbid anxiety and ADHD symptoms.

  11. Restoring functional status: a long-term case report of severe lung and ventilatory muscle pump dysfunction involving recurrent bacterial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobush, Dennis C; Laatsch, Linda; Lipchik, Randolph J

    2012-06-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation contributes to immobility and deconditioning making efforts to safely discontinue ventilator support desirable. This case report documents how implementing physical therapy treatment interventions, based on the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, can help to restore a person's functional status even after multiple years of mechanical ventilation dependency. A patient (female; aged 63 years) with severe restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment has survived 34 recurrent pneumonias involving 6 bacterial pathogens while being mechanically ventilated at home. A 3-year study was approved and informed consent obtained for a home exercise program of resistive extremity and inspiratory muscle training along with exercise reconditioning. Tolerable distances walked, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, hours spent on versus off mechanical ventilation, activities performed within and around her home, and community excursions taken were charted. Daily time tolerated off the ventilator improved from less than one to 12 hours, distance walked in 6 minutes increased 33%, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures improved 62% and 9.6% respectively. These improvements made out-of-home social excursions possible. This patient's functional status improved following multiple physical therapy interventions dictated by the evaluation of initial physical therapy examination findings according to the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Long term mechanical ventilator dependency in the home environment did not exclude this patient from achieving clinically significant gains in functional status even when having severe restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairment.

  12. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  13. Prime-booster vaccination of cattle with an influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces a long-term protective immune response against Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2016-01-20

    This study analyzed the duration of the antigen-specific humoral and T-cell immune responses and protectiveness of a recently-developed influenza viral vector Brucella abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing Brucella proteins Omp16 and L7/L12 and containing the adjuvant Montadine Gel01 in cattle. At 1 month post-booster vaccination (BV), both humoral (up to 3 months post-BV; GMT IgG ELISA titer 214±55 to 857±136, with a prevalence of IgG2a over IgG1 isotype antibodies) and T-cell immune responses were observed in vaccinated heifers (n=35) compared to control animals (n=35, injected with adjuvant/PBS only). A pronounced T-cell immune response was induced and maintained for 12 months post-BV, as indicated by the lymphocyte stimulation index (2.7±0.4 to 10.1±0.9 cpm) and production of IFN-γ (13.7±1.7 to 40.0±3.0 ng/ml) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-BV. Prime-boost vaccination provided significant protection against B. abortus infection at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (study duration) post-BV (7 heifers per time point; alpha=0.03-0.01 vs. control group). Between 57.1 and 71.4% of vaccinated animals showed no signs of B. abortus infection (or Brucella isolation) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-BV; the severity of infection, as indicated by the index of infection (P=0.0003 to Brucella colonization (P=0.03 to abortus infection was also observed among pregnant vaccinated heifers (alpha=0.03), as well as their fetuses and calves (alpha=0.01), for 12 months post-BV. Additionally, 71.4% of vaccinated heifers calved successfully whereas all pregnant control animals aborted (alpha=0.01). Prime-boost vaccination of cattle with Flu-BA induces an antigen-specific humoral and pronounced T cell immune response and most importantly provides good protectiveness, even in pregnant heifers, for at least 12 months post-BV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Long Term Starvation on Galanin, Leptin, Thyroid Hormones, Insulin, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Ghrelin and Factors Involved in Energy Metabolism in Adult Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda ESKANDARZADE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some hormonal disturbances have been demonstrated in starvation, but in ruminants such as goats, the role of galanin in adaptation to starvation or endocrine functions is not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of long term starvation on galanin, leptin, thyroid hormones, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, ghrelin and factors involved in energy metabolism including HDL, Cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, NEFA, TG and VLDL concentrations in adult goats. Eight non-lactating non-pregnant goats aged 4-5 years and BCS 3 were randomly divided to control and test groups. The animals were trained to eat their daily forage ration during a 10 day period. The experimental procedure was applied for 20 days, during which control group received 120% of maintenance energy, while the test group was supplied with 80% of maintenance energy for the first 10 days and with 40% of maintenance energy for another 10 days. Blood samples were collected at day 10 of training and 2, 4, 10, 12, 14 and 20 days after beginning of starvation. Blood parameters were measured according to standard procedures. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of cholesterol, fT3, T4, T3, growth hormone, NEFA, insulin and ghrelin between control and test groups (P=0.05. There was significant difference in galanin, leptin, fT4, HDL, glucose, TG, VLDL and prolactin concentrations between control and test groups (P=0.05. Control of energy balance and the role of galanin in adaptation to long starvation or endocrine functions in goat are different from other species.

  15. Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During...... 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women...... with single hrHPV infections. The cohort was followed in a nationwide pathology register for up to 11.5 years. In women aged ≥30 years at baseline, the 8-year absolute risk for CIN3+ following baseline detection of HPV16 was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.0-25.6%). The corresponding risks for HPV18...

  16. Genetic mapping in mice reveals the involvement of Pcdh9 in long-term social and object recognition and sensorimotor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, Hilgo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811440; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Van'T Spijker, Heleen M.; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; Van Engeland, Herman|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06840459X; Koopmans, Bastijn; Van Lith, Hein A.; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J.; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J. Peter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068420404; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967019

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the

  17. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  18. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  19. Disturbed mitotic progression and genome segregation are involved in cell transformation mediated by nano-TiO2 long-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shing; Chueh, Pin Ju; Lin, Yun-Wei; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2009-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals because of their low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that TiO2 nano-particles (nano-TiO2) induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various lines of cultured cells as well as tumorigenesis in animal models. The biological roles of nano-TiO2 are shown to be controversial and no comprehensive study paradigm has been developed to investigate their molecular mechanisms. In this study, we showed that short-term exposure to nano-TiO2 enhanced cell proliferation, survival, ERK signaling activation and ROS production in cultured fibroblast cells. Moreover, long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 not only increased cell survival and growth on soft agar but also the numbers of multinucleated cells and micronucleus (MN) as suggested in confocal microscopy analysis. Cell cycle phase analysis showed G2/M delay and slower cell division in long-term exposed cells. Most importantly, long-term TiO2 exposure remarkably affected mitotic progression at anaphase and telophase leading to aberrant multipolar spindles and chromatin alignment/segregation. Moreover, PLK1 was demonstrated as the target for nano-TiO2 in the regulation of mitotic progression and exit. Notably, a higher fraction of sub-G1 phase population appeared in TiO2-exposed cells after releasing from G2/M synchronization. Our results demonstrate that long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 disturbs cell cycle progression and duplicated genome segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cell transformation.

  20. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  1. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  2. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  3. Long-term blue light exposure induces RGC-5 cell death in vitro: involvement of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, oxidative stress, and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yongsheng; Wang, Minshu; Chen, Xiaoyong; Dong, Xuran

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of blue light-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury is poorly understood. In this study, we established a patented light-emitting diode-based system to study the effects of long-term blue light exposure under culture conditions on RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis and necrosis in RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure marked an increase in the expression of Bax and active Caspase-3 (p17), which was accompanied by Bcl-2 down-regulation, and displayed features of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Blue light exposure also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and was a strong inducer of ROS-sensitive protein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, blue light exposure constitutively activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the early phase, in blue light-exposed RGC-5 cells. The protein expression of c-jun and c-fos was further enhanced after RGC-5 cells were exposed to blue light. Taken together, these findings indicated that blue light induced RGC-5 cell line death in dependence upon exposure duration. The potential mechanisms for this phenomenon might be via activated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, increased ROS production and protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, and activated JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  4. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  5. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  6. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  7. Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-09-28

    Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10(-8) substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale.

  8. Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10(-8 substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep

  9. Prior DNA immunization enhances immune response to dominant and subdominant viral epitopes induced by a fowlpox-based SIVmac vaccine in long-term slow-progressor macaques infected with SIVmac251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaelli, Antonia; Nacsa, Janos; Tsai, W.-P.; Edghill-Smith, Yvette; Zanotto, Carlo; Elli, Veronica; Venzon, David; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Markham, Phil; Mazzara, Gail P.; Panicali, Dennis; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2003-01-01

    A therapeutic vaccine for individuals infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be able to replenish virus-specific CD4+ T-cells and broaden the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response in order to maintain CD8+ T-cell function and minimize viral immune escape after ART cessation. Because a combination of DNA and recombinant poxvirus vaccine modalities induces high levels of virus-specific CD4+ T-cell response and broadens the cytolytic activity in naive macaques, we investigated whether the same results could be obtained in SIVmac251-infected macaques. The macaques studied here were long-term nonprogressors that naturally contained viremia but were nevertheless treated with a combination of antiviral drugs to assess more carefully the effect of vaccination in the context of ART. The combination of a DNA expressing the gag and pol genes (DNA-SIV-gp) of SIVmac239 followed by a recombinant fowlpox expressing the same SIVmac genes (FP-SIV-gp) was significantly more immunogenic than two immunizations of FP-SIV-gp in SIVmac251-infected macaques treated with ART. The DNA/FP combination significantly expanded and broadened Gag-specific T-cell responses measured by tetramer staining, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining and measurement of ex vivo cytolytic function. Importantly, the combination of these vaccine modalities also induced a sizeable expansion in most macaques of Gag-specific CD8-(CD4+) T-cells able to produce TNF-α. Hopefully, this modality of vaccine combination may be useful in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals

  10. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  11. Neural progenitor cell proliferation in the hypothalamus is involved in acquired heat tolerance in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was intraperitoneally injected daily for five consecutive days (50 mg/kg/day) after commencing heat exposure. The number of hypothalamic BrdU-immunopositive (BrdU+) cells in STHA and LTHA rats was determined immunohistochemically in brain samples and found to be significantly greater than those in respective CN groups. In LTHA rats, approximately 32.6% of BrdU+ cells in the preoptic area (POA) of the anterior hypothalamus were stained by GAD67, a GABAergic neuron marker, and 15.2% of BrdU+ cells were stained by the glutamate transporter, a glutamatergic neuron marker. In addition, 63.2% of BrdU+ cells in the POA were immunolabeled with c-Fos. Intracerebral administration of the mitosis inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside (AraC), interfered with the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and acquired heat tolerance in LTHA rats, whereas the selected ambient temperature was not changed. These results demonstrate that heat exposure generates heat responsive neurons in the POA, suggesting a pivotal role in autonomic thermoregulation in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

  12. Long-term Outcomes of Augmentation Enterocystoplasty in Patients With End-Stage Bladder Diseases: A Single-Institute Experience Involving 102 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yu; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-06-01

    Augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) has been shown to improve clinical symptoms in patients with end-stage bladder disease (ESBD). Herein, we report the long-term outcomes of a series of patients with different etiologies of ESBD who received AE. We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients with ESBD who received AE at the Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital from 1992 to 2014. ESBD in this study was defined as including neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) due to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele, inflammatory bladder disease (IBD), ESBD occurring after pelvic cancer surgery, and other etiologies. Complications including active lower urinary tract problems and urinary tract infection (UTI), as well as patients' self-reported satisfaction with the procedure, were evaluated. A total of 102 patients were included in the study. A majority of patients received AE for NLUTD (n=43), followed by IBD (n=38), ESBD after pelvic cancer surgery (n=15), and the other etiologies (n=6). Patients had a mean age of 39.4±18.7 years and were followed for a mean of 78 months. All patients had significantly increased cystometric bladder capacity and compliance at the time of follow-up. Fifty-four patients (52.9%) reported moderate to excellent satisfaction with the outcome, and there were no significant differences among the groups (P=0.430). The most common reason for dissatisfaction was the need for clean intermittent catheterization (CIC; 41.7%), followed by urinary incontinence (25.0%) and recurrent UTI (16.7%). AE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with ESBD. Postoperative urinary incontinence and UTI as well as the need for CIC may affect quality of life and decrease patient satisfaction.

  13. In mpkCCD cells, long-term regulation of aquaporin-2 by vasopressin occurs independent of protein kinase A and CREB but may involve Epac.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Trimpert, C.; Brand, M. van den; Li, Y.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Urine concentration involves the hormone vasopressin (AVP), which stimulates cAMP production in renal principal cells, resulting in translocation and transcription of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, greatly increasing the water permeability, leading to a concentrated urine. As cAMP levels

  14. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  15. a long-term study

    OpenAIRE

    Petereit, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The hospital mortality rate of renal transplant patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) is considered to be significantly higher compared to general ICU patients. Data concerning the long term outcomes of these patients is lacking. Furthermore, little data exists to guide the management of immunosuppression (IS) in critically ill patients on ICU. The author hypothesizes that a reduced IS on ICU will not lead to significantly increased long-term mortality, rejections and transplant fai...

  16. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  17. Selection affects genes involved in replication during long-term evolution in experimental populations of the bacteriophage φX174.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste J Brown

    Full Text Available Observing organisms that evolve in response to strong selection over very short time scales allows the determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation. Although dissecting these molecular mechanisms is expensive and time-consuming, general patterns can be detected from repeated experiments, illuminating the biological processes involved in evolutionary adaptation. The bacteriophage φX174 was grown for 50 days in replicate chemostats under two culture conditions: Escherichia coli C as host growing at 37°C and Salmonella typhimurium as host growing at 43.5°C. After 50 days, greater than 20 substitutions per chemostat had risen to detectable levels. Of the 97 substitutions, four occurred in all four chemostats, five arose in both culture conditions, eight arose in only the high temperature S. typhimurium chemostats, and seven arose only in the E. coli chemostats. The remaining substitutions were detected only in a single chemostat, however, almost half of these have been seen in other similar experiments. Our findings support previous studies that host recognition and capsid stability are two biological processes that are modified during adaptation to novel hosts and high temperature. Based upon the substitutions shared across both environments, it is apparent that genome replication and packaging are also affected during adaptation to the chemostat environment, rather than to temperature or host per se. This environment is characterized by a large number of phage and very few hosts, leading to competition among phage within the host. We conclude from these results that adaptation to a high density environment selects for changes in genome replication at both protein and DNA sequence levels.

  18. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; Phospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; Plong-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had significantly less risk of long-term hospitalization than those of large cities. We found no influence of material and social deprivation in the long-term hospitalizations. Long-term hospitalization in psychiatry only concerns a minority of patients but represents the fifth of the total number of days of

  19. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  20. Expression of genes responsible for cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells during long-term primary culture and real-time proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Bryja, A; Jopek, K; Budna, J; Khozmi, R; Jeseta, M; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2017-01-01

    Recently, using experimental animal model, we demonstrated that porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells reflect increased proliferation capability during primary cultivation in vitro. Although the histological structure and morphogenesis in oral cavity is well recognized, the molecular mechanisms which regulate this process still need further investigation. This study was aimed to analyze the molecular marker expression profile involved in morphogenesis and differentiation capacity of porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells during their long-term primary cultivation in vitro. The experiment was performed on buccal pouch mucosal cells isolated from 80 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts. After collection, the cells were treated enzymatically and transferred into a primary in vitro culture (IVC) system and cultured for 30 days. The cells were collected for RNA isolation after 7, 15 and 30 days of IVC and were checked for their real-time proliferative status using the RTCA system. We found an increased expression of FN1 and SOX9 genes when calculated against ACTB after 7, and 30 days of IVC, (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.001, respectively). The CXCL12 mRNA was down-regulated after 7, 15 and 30 days of IVC, but not statistically significant. Similar expression profile was observed when calculated against HPRT, however, DAB2 was found to be higher expressed at day 15 of IVC, (P less than 0.05). The cell index measured during real-time cell proliferation was substantially increased between 96 h and 147h of IVC and reached the log phase. Since FN1 and SOX9 revealed significant increase of expression after long-term culture in vitro, it is suggested that expression of these differentiation and stemness genes is accompanied by cell proliferation. Moreover, FN1 and SOX9 might be recognized as new markers of buccal pouch mucosal cell proliferation and differentiation in pigs in in vitro primary culture model.

  1. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  2. "HIV-peplotion vaccine"--a novel approach to protection against AIDS by transepithelial transport of viral peptides to Langerhans cells for long-term antiviral CTL response. (A review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Y

    1996-01-01

    Viral vaccines which stimulate the humoral immune response in humans have been successful in preventing most of the known virus diseases except dengue fever, respiratory syncytial virus infections and HIV-1-related AIDS. Burke [1] raised a concern that anti-HIV-1 antibodies may add a risk factor to immunized individuals infected with HIV-1. An approach to develop HIV-1 vaccines capable of stimulating anti-HIV-1 cytotoxic T cells requires an understanding of the importance of epidermal and epithelial Langerhans cells (LC). These cells are professional antigen-presenting cells which express HLA class I and class II molecules. Epithelial LC are present in a specific layer in the skin, genitalia and gut and may be accessible to viral antigens by local application in a vehicle for transepithelial transport of viral proteins/peptides (designated "HIV-1 Peplotion vaccine"). This approach is supported by the reports that HIV-1 gp160 in ISCOM induced MHC class I CTL response [2], mixing of cationic lipids with viral proteins formed complexes which were delivered to cell cytoplasm and the degraded peptides stimulated CTLs by HLA class I mechanism [3] and viral proteins encapsulated in pH-sensitive liposomes administered to LC induced primary antiviral CTLs [4]. Current studies in our laboratory deal with (a) selection of the vehicle for transepidermal transport of peptides and the conditions for selective uptake by epidermal LC [5]; (b) computer analysis of HIV-1 proteins to detect the putative proteolytic cleavage peptides with amino acid motifs which allow association with different known HLA class I haplotype molecules on LCs and synthetic peptide uptake from "without" by LC. The "HIV-1 Peplotion vaccine", when developed, will be useful for continual stimulation of antiviral CTLs in uninfected individuals and HIV-1 carriers by repetitive application to skin, genitalia and gut. The "Peplotion vaccine" will be applied by vaccinees, will be affordable for all human

  3. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Late toxicity of proton beam therapy for patients with the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base malignancy: importance of long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have shown that proton beam therapy (PBT) offers promise for patients with skull base cancer, little is known about the frequency of late toxicity in clinical practice when PBT is used for these patients. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis to clarify the late toxicity profile of PBT in patients with malignancies of the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base. Entry to this retrospective study was restricted to patients with (1) malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or involving the skull base; (2) definitive or postoperative PBT (>50 GyE) from January 1999 through December 2008; and (3) more than 1 year of follow-up. Late toxicities were graded according to the common terminology criteria for adverse events v4.0 (CTCAE v4.0). From January 1999 through December 2008, 90 patients satisfied all criteria. Median observation period was 57.5 months (range, 12.4-162.7 months), median time to onset of grade 2 or greater late toxicity except cataract was 39.2 months (range, 2.7-99.8 months), and 3 patients had toxicities that occurred more than 5 years after PBT. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 17 patients (19%), with 19 events, and grade 4 late toxicities in 6 patients (7%), with 6 events (encephalomyelitis infection 2, optic nerve disorder 4). In conclusion, the late toxicity profile of PBT in patients with malignancy involving the nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, or skull base malignancy was partly clarified. Because late toxicity can still occur at 5 years after treatment, long-term follow-up is necessary. (author)

  5. Controlled Education of patients after Stroke (CEOPS)- nurse-led multimodal and long-term interventional program involving a patient's caregiver to optimize secondary prevention of stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Anne-Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Bejot, Yannick; Leys, Didier; Derex, Laurent; Dereeper, Olivier; Detante, Olivier; Garcia, Pierre-Yves; Godefroy, Olivier; Montoro, Francisco Macian; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Richard, Sébastien; Rosolacci, Thierry; Sibon, Igor; Sablot, Denis; Timsit, Serge; Zuber, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Bordet, Régis

    2018-02-22

    Setting up a follow-up secondary prevention program after stroke is difficult due to motor and cognitive impairment, but necessary to prevent recurrence and improve patients' quality of life. To involve a referent nurse and a caregiver from the patient's social circle in nurse-led multimodal and long-term management of risk factors after stroke could be an advantage due to their easier access to the patient and family. The aim of this study is to compare the benefit of optimized follow up by nursing personnel from the vascular neurology department including therapeutic follow up, and an interventional program directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle, as compared with typical follow up in order to develop a specific follow-up program of secondary prevention of stroke. The design is a randomized, controlled, clinical trial conducted in the French Stroke Unit of the Strokavenir network. In total, 410 patients will be recruited and randomized in optimized follow up or usual follow up for 2 years. In both group, patients will be seen by a neurologist at 6, 12 and 24 months. The optimized follow up will include follow up by a nurse from the vascular neurology department, including therapeutic follow up, and a training program on secondary prevention directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle. After discharge, a monthly telephone interview, in the first year and every 3 months in the second year, will be performed by the nurse. At 6, 12 and 24 month, the nurse will give the patient and caregiver another training session. Usual follow up is only done by the patient's general practitioner, after classical information on secondary prevention of risk factors during hospitalization. The primary outcome measure is blood pressure measured after the first year of follow up. Blood pressure will be measured by nursing personnel who do not know the group into which the patient has been randomized. Secondary endpoints are

  6. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  7. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  8. Transcriptional regulation of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliim, Nicola; Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir; Janitz, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), the persistent strengthening of synapses following high levels of stimulation, is a form of synaptic plasticity that has been studied extensively as a possible mechanism for learning and memory formation. The strengthening of the synapse that occurs during LTP requires cascades of complex molecular processes and the coordinated remodeling of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons. Despite over four decades of research, our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms and molecular processes underlying LTP remains incomplete. Identification of all the proteins and non-coding RNA transcripts expressed during LTP may provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory formation.

  9. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  10. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  11. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  12. Long-term nonprogression and broad HIV-1-specific proliferative T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrina eImami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term nonprogressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilising cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a functional cure may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilised in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term nonprogressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viraemia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

  13. Amyloid osteoarthropathy in long term hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Cardona, P.; Vita, G.; Bedani, P.L.; Farinelli, A.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid in the bone and joint system has recently been recognized as a peculiar disease in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (5 years at least), especially in those who use cuprophan membranes. The pathology of amyloidosis is characterized by deposits of amyloid (β microglobulin mainly) in the bone, in the synovia, and in pericapsular soft tissues. The skeleton of 46 long-term hemodialysis patients (19 males and 27 females) was studied by X-ray; bone and joint abnormalities due to amyloid deposition were observed in 45% of cases. The shoulder, hip, and wrist were the most frequently involved joints. Destructive spondyloarthorapathy was present in 15% of cases. The radiographic patterns of AOD are generally divided into axial and peripheral lesions. In the appendicular skeleton abnormalities include: well-defined lytic areas (geodes), pathologic fractures, marginal erosions, and particular soft tissue swelling. Destructive spondyloarthropathy is frequently present in the cervical spine (85% of our cases) and is characterized by narrowing of the invertebral space, marginal erosion, and subchondral bone sclerosis of the vertebral body

  14. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  15. Long-term mortality after poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    .18-3.37). Apart from polio patients with respiratory failure, long-term mortality did not appear to increase until 20 years after discharge. Contracting severe paralytic poliomyelitis at a young age seemed to increase long-term mortality. The most common causes of death were polio sequelae (standardized mortality...... patients. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of poliomyelitis, especially severely paralyzed polio patients, have an increased long-term mortality....

  16. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  17. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  18. Involvement of high plasma corticosterone status and activation of brain regional serotonin metabolism in long-term erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyper activity in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2010-07-01

    Long-term consumption of artificial food color(s) can induce behavioral hyperactivity in human and experimental animals, but no neurobiochemical mechanism is defined. This study investigates the role of brain regional serotonin metabolism including its turnover, MAO-A activity, and plasma corticosterone status in relation to behavioral disturbances due to an artificial food color, erythrosine. Long-term (15 or 30 consecutive days) erythrosine administration with higher dosage (10 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) produced optimal hyperactive state in exploratory behavior (rearing motor activity) after 2 h of last erythrosine administration, in young adult male albino rats. Erythrosine-induced stimulation in brain regional (medulla-pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and corpus striatum) serotonin metabolism (measuring steady state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-A activity), including its turnover (pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate), as well as plasma corticosterone were also observed depending on dosage(s) and duration(s) of erythrosine administration under similar experimental conditions. The lower dosage of erythrosine (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under similar conditions did not affect either of the above. These findings suggests (a) the induction as well as optimal effect of long-term erythrosine (artificial food color) on behavioral hyperactivity in parallel with increase in 5-HT level in brain regions, (b) the activation of brain regional serotonin biosynthesis in accordance with plasma corticosterone status under such behavioral hyperactivity, and (c) a possible inhibitory influence of the enhanced glucocorticoids-serotonin interaction on erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyperactivity in young adult mammals.

  19. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  20. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  1. The Implementation of Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Rafaelič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term care is a new area of social protection that is based on the users needs and their understanding of the quality of life. In other countries direct payments are an important part of the long-term care systems. Discussed in the article are the development of direct payments in Slovenia and other countries. Different systems of long term care and direct payment schemes are presented. The slovene long term care system is provided through different laws and social secruity pillars and has yet to be established. Experiences of the pilot project in direct funding with the resettlements to the community are presented in the last part of the article. Direct payments are very effective in terms of resettlement of people from institutions into the community. New solutions for the new long term care law that will promote deinstitutionalisation and the development of community services are suggested.

  2. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... and particularly that industrial foundations possess characteristics that promote long-termism. Policymakers, business owners and managers interested in promoting long-term governance models should therefore reconsider the role of ownership structure....

  3. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  4. Involvement of autophagy in viral infections: antiviral function and subversion by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, Lucile; Codogno, Patrice; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine

    2007-08-01

    Autophagy is a cellular process involved in the degradation and turn-over of long-lived proteins and organelles, which can be subjected to suppression or further induction in response to different stimuli. According to its essential role in cellular homeostasis, autophagy has been implicated in several pathologies including cancer, neurodegeneration and myopathies. More recently, autophagy has been described as a mechanism of both innate and adaptive immunity against intracellular bacteria and viruses. In this context, autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against viral infection by degrading the pathogens into autolysosomes. This is strengthened by the fact that several proteins involved in interferon (IFN) signalling pathways are linked to autophagy regulation. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to divert IFN-mediated pathways and autophagy to their own benefit. This review provides an overview of the autophagic process and its involvement in the infection by different viral pathogens and of the connections existing between autophagy and proteins involved in IFN signalling pathways.

  5. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  6. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2011-01-01

    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  7. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  9. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  10. Manganese in long term paediatric parenteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, A P; Kiely, E; Meadows, N

    1994-01-01

    The current practice of providing manganese supplementation to neonates on long term parenteral nutrition is leading to a high incidence of hypermanganesaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in adults on long term manganese parenteral nutrition have shown changes in TI weighted MRI images and similar findings in a neonate receiving trace element supplementation are reported here. Whole blood manganese concentration in the infant was 1740 nmol/l (or 8.3 times upper reference limit). ...

  11. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  12. Viral evasion mechanisms of early antiviral responses involving regulation of ubiquitin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-08-01

    Early innate and cell-intrinsic responses are essential to protect host cells against pathogens. In turn, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to establish productive infections by counteracting host innate immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that these antiviral factors may have a dual role by directly inhibiting viral replication as well as by sensing and transmitting signals to induce antiviral cytokines. Recent studies have pointed at new, unappreciated mechanisms of viral evasion of host innate protective responses including manipulating the host ubiquitin (Ub) system. Virus-mediated inhibition of antiviral factors by Ub-dependent degradation is emerging as a crucial mechanism for evading the antiviral response. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new mechanisms by which virus-encoded proteins inhibit Ub and Ub-like (Ubl) modification of host proteins involved in innate immune signaling pathways. Here we discuss recent findings and novel strategies that viruses have developed to counteract these early innate antiviral defenses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term monitoring of breath methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polag, Daniela; Keppler, Frank

    2018-05-15

    In recent years, methane as a component of exhaled human breath has been considered as a potential bioindicator providing information on microbial activity in the intestinal tract. Several studies indicated a relationship between breath methane status and specific gastrointestinal disease. So far, almost no attention has been given to the temporal variability of breath methane production by individual persons. Thus here, for the first time, long-term monitoring was carried out measuring breath methane of three volunteers over periods between 196 and 1002days. Results were evaluated taking into consideration the health status and specific medical intervention events for each individual during the monitoring period, and included a gastroscopy procedure, a vaccination, a dietary change, and chelate therapy. As a major outcome, breath methane mixing ratios show considerable variability within a person-specific range of values. Interestingly, decreased breath methane production often coincided with gastrointestinal complaints whereas influenza infections were mostly accompanied by increased breath methane production. A gastroscopic examination as well as a change to a low-fructose diet led to a dramatic shift of methane mixing ratios from high to low methane production. In contrast, a typhus vaccination as well as single chelate injections resulted in significant short-term methane peaks. Thus, this study clearly shows that humans can change from high to low methane emitters and vice versa within relatively short time periods. In the case of low to medium methane emitters the increase observed in methane mixing ratios, likely resulting from immune reactions and inflammatory processes, might indicate non-microbial methane formation under aerobic conditions. Although detailed reaction pathways are not yet known, aerobic methane formation might be related to cellular oxidative-reductive stress reactions. However, a detailed understanding of the pathways involved in human

  14. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H.; Ekholm, O.; Sjøgren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  15. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  16. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  17. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  18. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...... Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD and Professor Joseph Fan, Chinese University of Hong Kong. It consists of 40 questions regarding assets in the family and roadblocks facing the family firm. The Family Business Map determines that the level of family assets in KALK is high, while the level of roadblocks is severe...

  19. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  20. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  1. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  2. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  3. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  4. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  5. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...

  6. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  7. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  8. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  9. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or injected, are sometimes of value to get asthma quickly under control when a child is beginning long-term asthma therapy. Inhaled corticosteroids ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Guide to Your Childs Allergies and Asthma (Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information ...

  10. Long-term effects of directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2018-03-01

    The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay. The forget cue reduced the number of items that were recalled from L1. Experiment 2 implemented a 12-h delay between encoding and test that was either filled with day-time wakefulness or night-time sleep. Replicating the findings of Exp. 1, recall of L1 was reduced in the forget in comparison to the remember condition. Sleep in comparison to wakefulness significantly strengthened L1 memory in the remember group only. Taken together, the present study shows that the intention to forget can have long-lasting consequences. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie the short- and long-term effects of DF, with long-term effects potentially reflecting the preferential consolidation of information that has been identified as important during encoding.

  11. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Benito, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte­-specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27562101

  12. Group dynamics within long-term continuing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilorio, C; Lehr, S; Keen, P D

    1989-01-01

    Nursing educators have responded to the need for continuing education by developing a variety of programs ranging in length from half-day seminars to several months of intensive study. Although books and articles have been written about nurses returning to school for baccalaureate degrees and the ensuing expectations, changes, and needs involved in this process, the literature revealed little information on how students, families, and faculty "live" a long-term continuing education (CE) experience. This article will examine the evolution of students into well-defined groups. The stages of group process, development of norms, assumption of roles within the groups, and factors related to conflicts are discussed. Methods used to reduce conflict and facilitate the movement of the groups to the resolution stage are presented in order to assist instructors involved in long-term CE programs.

  13. Host defense against viral infection involves interferon mediated down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Blanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the protective role of inflammatory processes in modulating lipid metabolism in infection. Here we report an intimate link between the innate immune response to infection and regulation of the sterol metabolic network characterized by down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis by an interferon regulatory loop mechanism. In time-series experiments profiling genome-wide lipid-associated gene expression of macrophages, we show a selective and coordinated negative regulation of the complete sterol pathway upon viral infection or cytokine treatment with IFNγ or β but not TNF, IL1β, or IL6. Quantitative analysis at the protein level of selected sterol metabolic enzymes upon infection shows a similar level of suppression. Experimental testing of sterol metabolite levels using lipidomic-based measurements shows a reduction in metabolic output. On the basis of pharmacologic and RNAi inhibition of the sterol pathway we show augmented protection against viral infection, and in combination with metabolite rescue experiments, we identify the requirement of the mevalonate-isoprenoid branch of the sterol metabolic network in the protective response upon statin or IFNβ treatment. Conditioned media experiments from infected cells support an involvement of secreted type 1 interferon(s to be sufficient for reducing the sterol pathway upon infection. Moreover, we show that infection of primary macrophages containing a genetic knockout of the major type I interferon, IFNβ, leads to only a partial suppression of the sterol pathway, while genetic knockout of the receptor for all type I interferon family members, ifnar1, or associated signaling component, tyk2, completely abolishes the reduction of the sterol biosynthetic activity upon infection. Levels of the proteolytically cleaved nuclear forms of SREBP2, a key transcriptional regulator of sterol biosynthesis, are reduced upon infection and IFNβ treatment at both the protein and de novo

  14. Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Asthma Medications Long-Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and ...

  15. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P Fascia thickness decreased significantly in both the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups (P Fascia thickness (P =.49) and presence of a heel...... spur (P =.88) at baseline had no impact on prognosis. At follow-up, fascia thickness and echogenicity had normalized in only 24% of the asymptomatic group. The mean fat pad thickness was 9.0 mm in patients who had received a US-guided corticosteroid injection and 9.4 mm in those who had not been given...

  16. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  17. JC virus agnoprotein enhances large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for its involvement in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2012-11-10

    Agnoprotein is required for the successful completion of the JC virus (JCV) life cycle and was previously shown to interact with JCV large T-antigen (LT-Ag). Here, we further characterized agnoprotein's involvement in viral DNA replication. Agnoprotein enhances the DNA binding activity of LT-Ag to the viral origin (Ori) without directly interacting with DNA. The predicted amphipathic α-helix of agnoprotein plays a major role in this enhancement. All three phenylalanine (Phe) residues of agnoprotein localize to this α-helix and Phe residues in general are known to play critical roles in protein-protein interaction, protein folding and stability. The functional relevance of all Phe residues was investigated by mutagenesis. When all were mutated to alanine (Ala), the mutant virus (F31AF35AF39A) replicated significantly less efficiently than each individual Phe mutant virus alone, indicating the importance of Phe residues for agnoprotein function. Collectively, these studies indicate a close involvement of agnoprotein in viral DNA replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  19. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse narrative descriptions and experiences of long-term tranquillizer use. The analysis is based on a Danish in-depth study of 50 informants with a self-diagnosed dependency on tranquillizers. The theoretical analysis is dependent on psychodynamic reasoning. Furth...... use. Important themes frequently mentioned in the clients' descriptions are traumatic childhood experiences, identity problems, life crises in adulthood and difficulties in stopping taking psychotropic drugs....

  20. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  1. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  2. Long-Term Contracting with Markovian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Battaglini

    2005-01-01

    To study how a firm can capitalize on a long-term customer relationship, we characterize the optimal contract between a monopolist and a consumer whose preferences follow a Markov process. The optimal contract is nonstationary and has infinite memory, but is described by a simple state variable. Under general conditions, supply converges to the efficient level for any degree of persistence of the types and along any history, though convergence is history-dependent. In contrast, as with consta...

  3. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    and Social Security. Population projections depend on projections of fertility , immigration, and mortality. For fertility rates, CBO adopted the...projections, which differ from those of the Social Security trustees. Together, CBO’s long-term assump- tions about fertility , mortality, and...such as obesity and future medical technology, CBO has based its mortality projec- tions on a simple extrapolation of past trends. Conse- quently

  4. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  5. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  6. Long-Term Outcomes for the Promoting CARE Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Herting, Jerald R.; Snedker, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a long-term look at suicide risk from adolescence to young adulthood for former participants in Promoting CARE, an indicated suicide prevention program. Methods: Five hundred ninety-three suicide-vulnerable high school youth were involved in a long-term follow-up study. Latent class growth models identify patterns of change…

  7. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms linking early nutrition to long term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally it has been widely accepted that our genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine our risk of developing non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and obesity in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that the pre and early postnatal environment plays a key role in determining our susceptible to such diseases in later life. Moreover the mechanism by which the environment can alter long term disease risk may involve epigenetic processes. Epigenetic processes play a central role in regulating tissue specific gene expression and hence alterations in these processes can induce long-term changes in gene expression and metabolism which persist throughout the lifecourse. This review will focus on how nutritional cues in early life can alter the epigenome, producing different phenotypes and altered disease susceptibilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  10. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Long-term outcomes of infantile spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seak Hee Oh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term outcomes in children with infantile spasms (IS and to identify the prognostic factors influencing their neurodevelopment. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated seventy two children over five years old who were treated for IS at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between 1994 and 2007. Forty-three children were contacted by telephone or medical follow-up to assess their current neurodevelopmental status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. Results : The mean follow-up duration for these 43 children was 7.2¡?#?.5 ;years (range, 4.5 to 13.0 years. Of these, 13 (30.2% had cryptogenic and 30 (69.8% had symptomatic IS. Eleven (25.6% children were initially treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH therapy, with a mean treatment lag of 1.3¡?#?.9 ;months (range; 0.1 to 7.0 months. Eighteen (41.8% children clinically responded to initial treatment, as shown by EEG response. Overall, 22 (51.2% children had at least moderate neurodevelopmental disorders and 2 (4.8% died. In univariate analysis, etiology (symptomatic and poor electroclinical response to initial treatment were related to long-term unfavorable outcomes. In multivariate analysis, response to primary treatment was the sole significant independent risk factor with a high OR. Conclusion : Overall prognosis of children with IS was poor. Electroclinical non-responsiveness to initial treatment was related to unfavorable long-term outcomes, indicating that initial control of seizures may be important in reducing the likelihood of poor neurodevelopment.

  12. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  13. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  14. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates...... spending, debt service costs and shrinking fiscal space. There are also countervailing positive effects, which render the net negative effects on spending and the real costs of borrowing relatively small. The illustrative projections, based on techniques derived from an analysis of how financial markets...

  15. Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: Challenges and opportunities for health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hung Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life.

  16. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  17. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  18. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  19. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  20. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  1. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  2. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  3. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  4. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42-61 and aa 72-101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication.

  5. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  6. Technology for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  8. Long term radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Dina, D.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a key issue of the environmental policy of any company. According to the Romanian Nuclear Act (Law 111/1996) and the Environmental Protection Act (Law 137/1996) the owner is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste effluents at the nuclear installations, including the technical and cost components. The developed policy incorporates the practice in the EU Member States and in the country of the plant supplier (Canada). On short term, the priorities of our radioactive waste management policy are to extend the spent fuel storage capacity using the dry storage technology. On long term the policy includes a facilities for L/ILW packaging for disposal in a new surface repository to be built on the Cernavoda NPP site. For HLW the interim storage for about 50 years will provide the necessary time to select and implement the geological disposal, in accordance with the best international practice. (authors)

  9. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...... (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than...

  10. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  11. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the University of Guam Marine Lab, involves the collection of data for a suite of...

  12. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  13. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannink Jean-Luc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

  14. NUMO's approach for long-term safety assessment - 59404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Kaku, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of NUMO's policies for ensuring safety is staged and flexible project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents NUMO's basic strategies for long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. NUMO's approach considering Japanese boundary conditions is demonstrated as a starting-point for evaluating the long-term safety of an actual site. In Japan, the Act on Final Disposal of Specified Radioactive Waste states that the siting process shall consist of three stages. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) is responsible for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste and some types of TRU waste. NUMO has chosen to implement a volunteer approach to siting. NUMO decided to prepare the so-called 2010 technical report, which sets out three safety policies, one of which is staged project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. Based on this policy, NUMO will gradually integrate relevant interdisciplinary knowledge to build a safety case when a formal volunteer application is received that would allow site investigations to be initiated. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; one of a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents the basic strategies for NUMO's long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. In concrete terms, the common procedures involved in safety assessment are applied in a stepwise manner, based on integration of knowledge obtained from site investigations/evaluations and engineered measures. The results of the safety assessment are then reflected in the planning of site investigations and engineered

  15. Training for sustained performance: moving toward long-term musician development

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, T.; Lisboa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Success in the performing arts, like sports, is dependent upon the acquisition and consistent use of a diverse range of skills. In sports, an understanding of safe and effective use of the body is required to facilitate long-term involvement in that activity. In order to assist athletes to attain their performance goals, and ensure healthy and sustained involvement, long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been devised and adapted by professional sporting bodies throughout the world. ...

  16. Possible involvement of maize Rop1 in the defence responses of plants to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyong; Shi, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Cheng, Yuqin; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng

    2012-09-01

    The expression of host genes can be altered during the process of viral infection. To investigate the viral infection-induced up-regulated gene expression changes of maize at different time intervals post-inoculation with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library was constructed. A total of 454 cDNA clones were identified to be viral infection-induced up-regulated genes. The influence of Rop1 on the infection of maize by SCMV was investigated. The results showed that transient silencing of the ZmRop1 gene through virus-induced gene silencing enhanced the accumulation and systemic infection of SCMV and another potyvirus (Pennisetum mosaic virus) in maize plants, whereas transient over-expression of ZmRop1 in maize protoplasts reduced SCMV accumulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the heterologous expression of ZmRop1 impaired Potato virus X infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These data suggest that ZmRop1 may play a role in plant defence responses to viral infection. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  17. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  18. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  19. Viral outbreaks involve destabilized evolutionary networks: evidence from Ebola, Influenza and Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Jessica; Ibeh, Neke; Aris-Brosou, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Recent history has provided us with one pandemic (Influenza A/H1N1) and two severe viral outbreaks (Ebola and Zika). In all three cases, post-hoc analyses have given us deep insights into what triggered these outbreaks, their timing, evolutionary dynamics, and phylogeography, but the genomic characteristics of outbreak viruses are still unclear. To address this outstanding question, we searched for a common denominator between these recent outbreaks, positing that the genome of outbreak virus...

  20. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  1. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  2. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  3. Long-term world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the extent to which new nuclear power plants are to be added, or the possibility of a complete ban on nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany, is now very much under discussion again. On the basis of the study published by the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference, 'World Energy - Looking Ahead to 2020,' whose findings are probably still on the conservative side, it is demonstrated that disastrous conditions will arise in most areas of the world unless the energy requirement can be met. There is still time to develop solutions by means of today's technologies and resources in order to ensure the long term continuity of energy supply. However, this will not be possible without the immediate and undisturbed expansion of nuclear energy, including the use of breeder reactors at the earliest possible date. In view of these perspectives there is no reason why the expansion of energy supply worldwide should not be assigned the same priority as the development of all-destructive weapons systems. (orig.) [de

  4. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  5. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  7. [Percutaneous transhepatic bilioplasty: long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, D; Martina, M C; Tola, E; Fonio, P; Fronda, G R; Gandini, G

    1990-10-01

    We report the results of a long-term follow-up of 40/101 patients with benign biliary strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation (PBD) at the Radiology Department of the University of Turin, from March 1983 to March 1990. We excluded all the patients who were not followed or treated after June 1988, being their follow-up shorter than 18 months. All patients underwent accurate clinical, biological (AST, ALT, gammaGT, alcaline phosphatase) and US controls. Mean follow-up was 33.5 months. Mean success rate was 75% in strictures of bilioenteric anastomosis, 86% in iatrogenic strictures of the common bile duct, 65% in sclerosing cholangitis, 80% in papillary strictures in which endoscopic treatment had not been possible for anatomical reasons. Our results, compared to the most important radiological and surgical series, show PBD to have lower morbidity than surgery and no mortality during the so-called peroperative period (30 days). Moreover, in case of recurrences, PBD can be repeated without further complications and does not affect eventual surgery.

  8. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  9. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  10. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  11. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  12. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  13. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  14. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term contracts. (a..., building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract under section 460 and what...

  15. Long-term survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Nana G; Mantoni, Teit; Nielsen, Søren L

    2007-01-01

    an initial rhythm of VF, 13% had asystole, 10% had PEA and 2% were unknown. Survival was 87% after one year and survival after 10 years was 46% with a significantly lower survival for patients over 60 years. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a physician-staffed emergency......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term survival after OHCA. METHODS: All OHCA-calls where the Copenhagen Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) was involved from 1994 to1998 are included in this study. Data were collected prospectively. Data on long-term survival was obtained...

  16. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  17. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  18. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE's responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation's nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE's legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM-50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities

  19. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  20. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  1. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  2. A new long-term care manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  4. Long term stability of atomic time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2012-08-01

    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  5. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  6. Adenovirus structural protein IIIa is involved in the serotype specificity of viral DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Hearing, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    The packaging of the adenovirus (Ad) genome into a capsid displays serotype specificity. This specificity has been attributed to viral packaging proteins, the IVa2 protein and the L1-52/55K protein. We previously found that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus, whereas two other Ad17 packaging proteins, IVa2 and L4-22K, could complement the growth of Ad5 viruses with mutations in the respective genes. In this report, we investigated why the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus. We demonstrate that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein binds to the Ad5 IVa2 protein in vitro and the Ad5 packaging domain in vivo, activities previously associated with packaging function. The Ad17 L1-52/55K protein also associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Interestingly, we find that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein is able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus in conjunction with the Ad17 structural protein IIIa. The same result was found with the L1-52/55K and IIIa proteins of several other Ad serotypes, including Ad3 and Ad4. The Ad17 IIIa protein associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Consistent with the complementation results, we find that the IIIa protein interacts with the L1-52/55K protein in vitro and associates with the viral packaging domain in vivo. These results underscore the complex nature of virus assembly and genome encapsidation and provide a new model for how the viral genome may tether to the empty capsid during the encapsidation process.

  7. Visual long-term memory for spatial frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Martin; Paul, Aileen

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that a visual long-term memory based on a sensory representation of the stimulus accounts for discrimination performance when the reference and the test stimuli are separated in time. Decision processes involved in setting response criteria, however, may also contribute to discrimination performance. In the present study, it is shown that under proper control, spatial frequency discrimination thresholds from a group of observers, each performing on a single trial, are significantly higher for a 2-h than for a 5-sec retention interval, whereas thresholds from individual observers performing in repeated trials with a 2-h retention interval are considerably lower. The results suggest that discrimination performance may depend on the retention of task-relevant information, such as a response criterion, rather than on visual memory of the stimulus. It is concluded that it is risky to postulate a high-fidelity long-term visual memory for spatial frequency on the basis of psychophysical group discrimination thresholds.

  8. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  9. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  10. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M. E.

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

  11. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  12. Long term data preservation for CDF at INFN-CNAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerio, S; Chiarelli, L; Dell'Agnello, L; Girolamo, D De; Gregori, D; Pezzi, M; Prosperini, A; Ricci, P; Rosso, F; Zani, S

    2014-01-01

    Long-term preservation of experimental data (intended as both raw and derived formats) is one of the emerging requirements coming from scientific collaborations. Within the High Energy Physics community the Data Preservation in High Energy Physics (DPHEP) group coordinates this effort. CNAF is not only one of the Tier-1s for the LHC experiments, it is also a computing center providing computing and storage resources to many other HEP and non-HEP scientific collaborations, including the CDF experiment. After the end of data taking in 2011, CDF is now facing the challenge to both preserve the large amount of data produced during several years of data taking and to retain the ability to access and reuse it in the future. CNAF is heavily involved in the CDF Data Preservation activities, in collaboration with the Fermilab National Laboratory (FNAL) computing sector. At the moment about 4 PB of data (raw data and analysis-level ntuples) are starting to be copied from FNAL to the CNAF tape library and the framework to subsequently access the data is being set up. In parallel to the data access system, a data analysis framework is being developed which allows to run the complete CDF analysis chain in the long term future, from raw data reprocessing to analysis-level ntuple production. In this contribution we illustrate the technical solutions we put in place to address the issues encountered as we proceeded in this activity.

  13. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  14. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  15. Long-term increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A expression in ventromedial hypotalamus causes hyperphagia and alters the hypothalamic lipidomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mera

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH has emerged as a crucial pathway in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT 1A is the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and it has been proposed as a crucial mediator of fasting and ghrelin orexigenic signalling. However, the relationship between changes in CPT1A activity and the intracellular downstream effectors in the VMH that contribute to appetite modulation is not fully understood. To this end, we examined the effect of long-term expression of a permanently activated CPT1A isoform by using an adeno-associated viral vector injected into the VMH of rats. Peripherally, this procedure provoked hyperghrelinemia and hyperphagia, which led to overweight, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH, long-term CPT1AM expression in the VMH did not modify acyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA levels. However, it altered the MBH lipidomic profile since ceramides and sphingolipids increased and phospholipids decreased. Furthermore, we detected increased vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (VGAT and reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 expressions, both transporters involved in this orexigenic signal. Taken together, these observations indicate that CPT1A contributes to the regulation of feeding by modulating the expression of neurotransmitter transporters and lipid components that influence the orexigenic pathways in VMH.

  16. Behavioral effects of acute and long-term administration of catnip (Nepeta cataria) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoco, C O; Silva, M R; Gorniak, S L; Spinosa, M S; Bernardi, M M

    1995-12-01

    Catnip or catmint (Nepeta cataria) is a plant used extensively to treat human diseases and in toys for pets. We investigated the effects of acute and long-term administration of the plant on some behaviors of mice. The plant was fed as 10% of the normal diet for 2 h/d for 1 or 7 d. Acute and long-term dosing increased both rearing and locomotion frequencies observed in an open field. Acute exposure to catnip increased stereotyped behavior and susceptibility to seizures, did not interfere with haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and decreased sleeping time after sodium pentobarbital administration. Long-term exposure induced tolerance to stereotypic behavior, catalepsy and sleeping time, and increased the susceptibility to seizures induced by picrotoxin and strychnine. An amphetamine-like effect of catnip was suggested to explain the acute effects, while dispositional and functional adaptative changes were considered involved with the long-term effects.

  17. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine impairs long-term food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, O I; Anokhin, K V

    2012-09-01

    We studied the involvement of DNA synthesis into molecular mechanisms of long-term memory. Nucleoside analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is known to incorporate into synthesizing DNA and prevent subsequent DNA replication from this region. To investigate the effect of BrdU administration on long-term memory, terrestrial gastropods edible snails Helix lucorum were trained in the food aversion paradigm. Single-session training (carrot presentation combined with application of 10% quinine solution, three carrot presentations with 10-min intervals) resulted in the formation of long-term memory that persisted for at least 45° days. BrdU administration (250 mg/kg) 30 min before training impaired long-term memory tested 24 h later. Immunohistochemical study revealed BrdU incorporation in the nuclei of identified neurons of defensive behavior.

  18. Bergmann Glia, Long-Term Depression, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Soltys, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    Bergmann glia (BG), a specific type of radial astrocytes in the cerebellum, play a variety of vital functions in the development of this structure. However, the possible role of BG in the development of abnormalities observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) seems to be underestimated. One of the most consistent findings observed in ASD patients is loss of Purkinje cells (PCs). Such a defect may be caused by dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis, which is maintained mainly by BG. Moreover, these glial cells are involved in long-term depression (LTD), a form of plasticity which can additionally subserve neuroprotective functions. The aim of presented review is to summarize the current knowledge about interactions which occur between PC and BG, with special emphasis on those which are relevant to the survival and proper functioning of cerebellar neurons.

  19. Long-term impact of prematurity on postnatal neurohormonal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ziborova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.

  20. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Abbas, A.; Terlain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. In a first step, models based on simplified oxidation theories have been derived from experimental data on iron and a low-alloy steel oxidation. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. In order to improve the reliability of these predictions advanced models taking into account the elementary processes involved in the whole oxidation mechanism, are under development. (authors)

  1. Vertebral sarcoidosis: long-term follow-up with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, M. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Larbi, A.; Malghem, J.; Vande Berg, B.; Dallaudiere, B. [University Hospitals St Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Vertebral involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and its clinical and imaging features are non-specific. Indeed, because the lesions are hard to differentiate from metastatic disease based on imaging alone, a histological confirmation is advised. Fatty replacement is a well-known finding indicating stabilization and healing in both benign and malignant conditions. It can be used as an indicator of a favorable disease course and response to treatment. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with multifocal vertebral sarcoidosis lesions and long-term follow-up showing progressive and gradual fatty involution on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during 4 years of steroid treatment with a final favorable outcome. (orig.)

  2. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...

  3. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  4. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Ibrahima; Frenod, Emmanuel; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  5. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of...

  6. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Korinko M.D.; Kushnir Y.O.

    2017-01-01

    The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, th...

  7. Clinical characteristics, predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and long-term prognosis in patients with Kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Patricia; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Garciadiego-Fossas, Pamela; Rojas-Marin, Enrique; Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia

    2017-05-30

    To investigate the predictive factors for the development of Kaposi sarcoma-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and long-term prognosis in patients starting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We studied a retrospective-cohort of consecutive antiretroviral-naïve patients with KS initiating cART from January 2005 to December 2011 and followed through June 2013. KS-IRIS was defined as ≥2 of the following: abrupt increase in number of KS lesions, appearance or exacerbation of lung-opacities or lymphedema, concomitantly with an increase in CD4+ cell-count ≥50 cells/mm 3 and a decrease of >1 log in viral-load once started cART. We compared individuals who met KS-IRIS criteria with those that did not and described the long-term follow-up. We included 89 patients, 88 males; 35 (39%) developed KS-IRIS at a median of 10 weeks (IQR 4-16). KS-IRIS patients had more pulmonary-involvement (60% vs. 16.6% of patients; p < 0.0001), eight died attributed to pulmonary-KS. Thrombocytopenia <100,000/mm 3 at follow-up occurred in 36% of KS-IRIS vs. 4% in non-KS-IRIS patients (p = 0.0002), 45% KS-IRIS patients with thrombocytopenia died, non without KS-IRIS. Chemotherapy (bleomicyn-vincristine) was more frequently prescribed in KS-IRIS patients (88.6% vs. 29.6%) with no differences in outcome; 80% of all patients achieve KS complete remission, 52% of them never received chemotherapy. No difference between groups in the long-term follow-up (mean 52.4 ± 27.4 months) was found, only one patient developed a secondary malignancy (1.12%). Lung-involvement was predictive of IRIS development. Thrombocytopenia in KS-IRIS patients at week 12 follow-up after cART initiation was associated with high mortality. Over a third of patients with KS achieve remission without chemotherapy. Individuals that survive the initial period of KS-IRIS adhere to cART had a good long-term prognosis.

  8. Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-infected children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracher, Linda; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    The long-term impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 infected children is not well known. The Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study includes all patients HIV-1 infection in Denmark. We report the complete follow-up from 1996 to 2005 of 49 perinatally infected...... characteristics were median CD4 percentage 14% and HIV-RNA viral load 4.9 log(10). Within the first 12 weeks of therapy approximately 60% achieved HIV-RNA viral load

  9. Long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study analyses questions of a legal, administrative and financial nature connected with the implementation of programmes for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It demonstrates that institutional controls do not involve technically different operations nor do they require the marshalling of large-scale industrial and administrative resources. Finally, the study analyses the different possible approaches in the light of regulations already adopted in certain OECD countries. The annex to the study gives examples of relevant provisions. (NEA) [fr

  10. Long-term trends and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the US loss of leadership in areas of utility practices, equipment and manufacturing. The author identifies this as a result of too much emphasis on major resources addressing federal regulations, licensing, and court and congressional hearing testimony rather than on innovation and decision making. The author calls for engineers to be allowed by government and employers to become more involved in policy making and leadership

  11. Uranium mill tailings piles remediation: remedial cleanup actions versus long term stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Delgado, A.; Lopez Fernandez, T.

    2005-01-01

    An important objective of the decision making process for the cleanup and remediation of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is to achieve an adequate balance between the scope of the post-closure cleanup remedial actions and long term stewardship needs, obligations and associated costs. This requires evaluation of both the actual technical and funding feasibility of the proposed remedial actions, and of the feasibility of long term stewardship from the technical, social and cost effectiveness points of view. While it is recognized that long term stewardship should not be considered as an alternative to cleanup, the fact is that it is not always possible to reach a green field end-state for a contaminated site, due to factors such as technical feasibility, worker health and safety, collateral ecological damage and costs. Therefore, in most situations it is not possible to entirely eliminate the need for long term stewardship. The extent to which a remedial action achieves unrestricted use drives the long term stewardship needs and obligations. The paper presents a discussion of the provisions included in the design and construction of the Andujar uranium mill remedial action plan, focusing on the requirements for long term stewardship, aimed to ensure adequate performance of the tailings enclosure cell by means of long term surveillance and maintenance plans. Several key issues and considerations relevant to this site are also discussed in the paper: They cover aspects such as land control and property, public information management, funding and financial provisions, agency or authority responsible for long term stewardship, local, regional and state authorities involved. (author)

  12. Long-term side effects of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Merih; Abu Samra, Khawla; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Meese, Halea; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids represent the standard therapy for reducing inflammation and immune activation in various diseases. However, as with any potent medication, they are not without side effects. Glucocorticoid-associated side effects may involve most major organ systems. Musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuropsychiatric, dermatologic, ocular, and immunologic side effects are all possible. This article analyzes English-language literature and provides an update on the most recent literature regarding side effects of systemic glucocorticoid treatment. The risk/benefit ratio of glucocorticoid therapy can be improved by proper use. Careful monitoring and using appropriate preventive strategies can potentially minimize side effects.

  13. Long-term effects of bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a ‘normal rite of passage’. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. PMID:25670406

  14. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Van Wonterghem, Frederik; Khouaja, Hatem; Vilpas, Martti; Osouf, Nicolas; Harikumar, S.; Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Yamada, Tomoho; Carlsson, Lennart; Shepherd, David; Galloway, Melanie; Liszka, Ervin; Svab, Miroslav; Pereira, Ken; Huerta, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  15. The long-term effect of treatment with interferon-alpha 2a in chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K

    1998-01-01

    published multicentre, randomized, controlled trials were analysed. Information about survival and response during long-term follow-up was available in 340 (73%) and 308 (66%) of 469 randomized patients respectively. Response to therapy (viral clearance) was defined as: loss of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA...

  16. Immunostimulatory and Other Haematological Effects of Long Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae)is used traditionally to treat malaria, hypertension, sickle cell anemia and diabetes. Its long-term hypoglycaemic and anti-obesity effects in normal rabbits are documented. This study assessed the long term immunostimulatory and other haematological effects of aqueous C. papaya leaf ...

  17. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Background/Purpose:The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods: Between ...

  18. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  19. Long-Term Gowth Opportunities in Ethiopia | Alemu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... The paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions in the long-term growth performance of Ethiopia. In this study, it is hypothesized that the long-term growth of the country, apart from traditional factors of production i.e. capital and labor is largely influenced by institutional factors.

  20. Long-term sealability of spent fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, O.; Kosaki, A.; Ito, C.; Ozaki, S.; Iitsuka, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of long-term sealability test of full-scale model casks which have been in progress since 1990. (O.Kato and C.Ito 1992) The purpose is to confirm the long-term sealability of the casks. (J.P.N.)

  1. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in

  2. Long-Term Mortality of Emergency Medical Services Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Terkelsen, Christian J; Sørensen, Jan N.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) provides out-of-hospital care to patients with life-threatening conditions, but the long-term outcomes of EMS patients are unknown. We seek to determine the long-term mortality of EMS patients in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed linked EMS, hospital...

  3. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly quoted firms in the Nigerian Capital Market. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Abstract. Private placements are gradually becoming means of raising long-term funds in the Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies.

  4. Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-...

  5. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  6. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  7. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  8. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  9. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  10. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  11. Long-Term Follow Up of Superficial Bladder Tumors | Shelbaia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The treatment of superficial TCC may be done by relatively minor endoscopic procedures, but the disease itself is a serious condition that merits close long-term follow-up. Key words: bladder tumors, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), ND: YAG lasers, transurethral resection (TURT) Suivi à long terme des ...

  12. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  13. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  14. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  15. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  16. Long-term follow-up of obstetric studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on long-term child follow-up after obstetric studies. Obstetric randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of perinatal interventions. However, most often only short-term outcomes are reported, while long-term outcomes are just as

  17. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  18. Long-term effects of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-09-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a 'normal rite of passage'. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Long-Term Stability of PEG-Based Antifouling Surfaces in a Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Kiil, Søren; Hvilsted, Søren

    The work presented here concerns the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce marine biofouling on ship hulls. The long-term stability of PEG towards degradation in a marine environment is reviewed, and the results of experiments designed to test the degradation of polyethylene glycol moieties...... structure and the end-group on the degradation of different PEG-containing compounds in accelerated conditions, while showing very little degradation in real exposure tests in seawater after 3 months. Further experiments will be discussed involving long-term stability and degradation pathways involved...

  20. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Mediated Repression of PDZ-LIM Domain-Containing Protein 2 Involves DNA Methylation But Independent of the Viral Oncoprotein Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengrong Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Our recent studies have shown that one important mechanism of HTLV-I-Mediated tumorigenesis is through PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2 repression, although the involved mechanism remains unknown. Here, we further report that HTLV-I-Mediated PDLIM2 repression was a pathophysiological event and the PDLIM2 repression involved DNA methylation. Whereas DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3b but not 3a were upregulated in HTLV-I-transformed T cells, the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC restored PDLIM2 expression and induced death of these malignant cells. Notably, the PDLIM2 repression was independent of the viral regulatory protein Tax because neither short-term induction nor long-term stable expression of Tax could downregulate PDLIM2 expression. These studies provide important insights into PDLIM2 regulation, HTLV-I leukemogenicity, long latency, and cancer health disparities. Given the efficient antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity of 5-aza-dC, these studies also suggest potential therapeutic strategies for ATL.

  1. Cryptorchidism and long-term consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpisz, Maciej; Havryluk, Anna; Nakonechnyj, Andriej; Chopyak, Valentina; Kamieniczna, Marzena

    2010-03-01

    Cryptorchidism has been on the rise for several decades and can be observed with frequency of 1-2% of males within the first year of age. It may appear as an isolated disorder or can be a consequence of genetic and endocrine abnormalities connected with somatic anomalies. Its genetic background still seems to be unclear although a range of genes can be responsible for the development of this syndrome. Cryptorchidism can be associated with serum testosterone level although the often co-existing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may also indicate the involvement of pituitary hormones. Recently, environmental factors have been blamed for cryptorchidism induction. Autoimmune reactions in conjunction with steroid hormones regulating immune response can be also partly responsible for cryptorchidism etiology. The appearance of antisperm antibodies can be considered as a marker or a serious side-effect of uncorrected cryptorchidism. If so, it could be implied that early surgery (orchidopexy) should be beneficial since it may prevent antisperm antibodies induction or at least eliminate them in the post-operative period.

  2. Long-term results of PTFE grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Vascular surgeons are essential in "lifeline" creation for hemodialysis patients and should be the central player in any multidisciplinary access service together with nephrologists, dialysis staff and interventional radiology. In this position, access surgeons are involved in complicated clinical decision making regarding primary and secondary access selection, which throughout the last decade has been largely aided, and influenced, by national and international guidelines as well as other initiatives. These recommendations, unanimously and appropriately, advocate the placement of native fistulas over synthetic grafts (the majority grafts from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, ePTFE, herein referred to as PTFE) based on the superiority of fistulas with respect to complications such as infections and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the use of PTFE grafts for hemodialysis access is an accepted and firmly established alternative to native fistulas where data today reveal unwanted consequences to overinterpretation of established guidelines such as increased catheter use. This information highlights a need for an adjustment of access selection strategies based on patient-centered algorithms. Here, available results on PTFE graft performance in hemodialysis access is recapitulated, with respect to both conventional grafts and technical modifications, and conclude with a modified approach to primary access selection.

  3. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  4. A novel apparatus for long term weathering of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Lun, R.; Skogen, E.; Ooijen, H. Van; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel apparatus is under development for exposing oil in the laboratory to prolonged weathering. The apparatus is mechanically simple and robust and involves contacting oil with water and air, and possibly with solar radiation, under controlled conditions of salinity and turbulence. The principle of operation is that the oil rests on the concave surface of water, which is held in a cylindrical glass vessel and rotated at 33 rpm. The oil is agitated by a fixed stirrer which has a variable pitch. Three oils were studied: Canadian Environmenal Protection Service standard, Kuwait crude, and Prudhoe Bay crude. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed the expected changes in composition due to evaporation, and purge and trap analysis of the water in contact with the oil determined the nature and concentration of the dissolved hydrocarbons. The apparatus also proved successful for testing the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. It is hoped that the system will contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the long term weathering processes which occur when oil is spilled at sea. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  5. Different Immunological Phenotypes Associated with Preserved CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Controllers and Viremic Long Term Non-Progressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell...

  6. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  7. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E

    2008-01-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  8. Specific Therapy Regimes Could Lead to Long-Term Immunological Control of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Nowak, Martin A.

    1999-12-01

    We use mathematical models to study the relationship between HIV and the immune system during the natural course of infection and in the context of different antiviral treatment regimes. The models suggest that an efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) memory response is required to control the virus. We define CTL memory as long-term persistence of CTL precursors in the absence of antigen. Infection and depletion of CD4+ T helper cells interfere with CTL memory generation, resulting in persistent viral replication and disease progression. We find that antiviral drug therapy during primary infection can enable the development of CTL memory. In chronically infected patients, specific treatment schedules, either including deliberate drug holidays or antigenic boosts of the immune system, can lead to a re-establishment of CTL memory. Whether such treatment regimes would lead to long-term immunologic control deserves investigation under carefully controlled conditions.

  9. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  10. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  11. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  12. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  14. Viral serological and molecular data on possible involvement of herpes viruses in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Cristiana; Bleotu, Coralia; Grancea, Camelia; Rosu, Andreea Oana; Anton, Gabriela; Ruta, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that latent herpes virus infections can be associated with chronic periodontal sites that exhibit a predisposition to disease progression. The aim of this study was to identify the possible relationship between infections with CMV and EBV and the severity of periodontal disease. Fifty two patients aged between 27 and 70 years, diagnosed with periodontal disease were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. Quantitative immunoenzymatic assays were used to determine the concentration of anti CMV and EBV antibodies. The presence of CMV and EBV DNA was tested in biopsies from periodontal tissues using an in-house PCR adapted after a method described previously. Higher titers of the anti CMV antibodies appear to be correlated with the severity of the periodontal lesions (pperiodontal treatment (pperiodontal disease. Although the molecular biology data from the present study do not support the pathogenic involvement of EBV or CMV in the development of chronic periodontitis lesions, the serological data might be important markers for the evolution and severity of the periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  16. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-15

    AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 CYCLIC AND LONG-TERM VARIATION OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS Alexei A. Pevtsov, et al. 15...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F...from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified

  17. Exploring patient priorities among long-term conditions in multimorbidity: A qualitative secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A lack of agreement between health-care providers and patient priorities can impact the health-care provider–patient relationship, treatment concordance and potentially health outcomes. Evidence suggests that people living with multiple morbidities do prioritise among their long-term conditions. However, the evidence revealing the underlying reasons behind this prioritisation remains limited. Given the potential implications for day-to-day self-management activity and ultimately patient outcomes, this study aims to explore how and why people with multimorbidity prioritise some long-term conditions over others and what the potential implications may be for self-management activity, and in turn, suggest how such information may help clinicians negotiate the management of multimorbidity patients. Methods: A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted utilising four existing data sets collated from the three research centres involved. Purposive sampling provided a sample of 41 participants who had multimorbidity. The research team collectively coded and analysed the data thematically. Results: All participants, except two, identified one ‘main’ priority long-term condition. Current priorities were arrived at by participants making comparisons between their long-term conditions, specifically by trading off the various attributes, impacts and perceived consequences of their individual long-term conditions. Two main themes emerged as to why participants identified a particular main long-term condition: (a proximate issues surrounding barriers to functional health and (b prioritisation of long-term conditions perceived to have a particular future risk. Conclusions: The recent focus on multimorbidity within the medical literature reflects its prevalence. It is therefore important to understand the complexities of the multimorbidity illness experience. We have added to the limited literature on condition prioritisation by

  18. Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yong-Seok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF. The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT, a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced

  19. Long term expression of bicistronic vector driven by the FGF-1 IRES in mouse muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allera-Moreau, Camille; Delluc-Clavières, Aurélie; Castano, Caroline; Van den Berghe, Loïc; Golzio, Muriel; Moreau, Marc; Teissié, Justin; Arnal, Jean-François; Prats, Anne-Catherine

    2007-10-28

    Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic molecules targeting various muscular diseases, cancer and lower-limb ischemia. Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs) allow co-expression of proteins of interest from a single transcriptional unit. IRESs are RNA elements that have been found in viral RNAs as well as a variety of cellular mRNAs with long 5' untranslated regions. While the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES is often used in expression vectors, we have shown that the FGF-1 IRES is equally active to drive short term transgene expression in mouse muscle. To compare the ability of the FGF-1 IRES to drive long term expression against the EMCV and FGF-2 IRESs, we performed analyses of expression kinetics using bicistronic vectors that express the bioluminescent renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes. Long term expression of bicistronic vectors was also compared to that of monocistronic vectors. Bioluminescence was quantified ex vivo using a luminometer and in vivo using a CCD camera that monitors luminescence within live animals. Our data demonstrate that the efficiency of the FGF-1 IRES is comparable to that of the EMCV IRES for long term expression of bicistronic transgenes in mouse muscle, whereas the FGF-2 IRES has a very poor activity. Interestingly, we show that despite the global decrease of vector expression over time, the ratio of firefly to renilla luciferase remains stable with bicistronic vectors containing the FGF-1 or FGF-2 IRES and is slightly affected with the EMCV IRES, whereas it is clearly unstable for mixed monocistronic vectors. In addition, long term expression more drastically decreases with monocistronic vectors, and is different for single or mixed vector injection. These data validate the use of bicistronic vectors rather than mixed monocistronic vectors for long term expression, and support the use of the FGF-1 IRES. The use of a cellular IRES over one of viral

  20. Long term expression of bicistronic vector driven by the FGF-1 IRES in mouse muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berghe Loïc

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic molecules targeting various muscular diseases, cancer and lower-limb ischemia. Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs allow co-expression of proteins of interest from a single transcriptional unit. IRESs are RNA elements that have been found in viral RNAs as well as a variety of cellular mRNAs with long 5' untranslated regions. While the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV IRES is often used in expression vectors, we have shown that the FGF-1 IRES is equally active to drive short term transgene expression in mouse muscle. To compare the ability of the FGF-1 IRES to drive long term expression against the EMCV and FGF-2 IRESs, we performed analyses of expression kinetics using bicistronic vectors that express the bioluminescent renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes. Long term expression of bicistronic vectors was also compared to that of monocistronic vectors. Bioluminescence was quantified ex vivo using a luminometer and in vivo using a CCD camera that monitors luminescence within live animals. Results Our data demonstrate that the efficiency of the FGF-1 IRES is comparable to that of the EMCV IRES for long term expression of bicistronic transgenes in mouse muscle, whereas the FGF-2 IRES has a very poor activity. Interestingly, we show that despite the global decrease of vector expression over time, the ratio of firefly to renilla luciferase remains stable with bicistronic vectors containing the FGF-1 or FGF-2 IRES and is slightly affected with the EMCV IRES, whereas it is clearly unstable for mixed monocistronic vectors. In addition, long term expression more drastically decreases with monocistronic vectors, and is different for single or mixed vector injection. Conclusion These data validate the use of bicistronic vectors rather than mixed monocistronic vectors for long term expression, and support the use of the

  1. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  2. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  3. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  4. Equity of access under Korean national long-term care insurance: implications for long-term care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Moon

    2015-09-15

    The national long-term care insurance was implemented in July 2008. Few studies have been conducted with representative national survey data since the long-term care insurance was introduced. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which equity in the use of long-term care has been achieved in Korea. The Aday-Andersen model was used as a conceptual model, based on the Korean Health Panel Study which was conducted in 2011. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables and the relative importance of factors as predictors of utilization. The results of this study indicated that those who rated his or her health to be fair, good, and very good, had no limited activities, were disabled, and had insurance coverage were more likely to use long-term care services, respectively. Their decision to use long-term care was primarily affected by need (health status, limited activity, disability) and enabling (insurance coverage) factors. The findings also indicated that the introduction of a national long-term care insurance program did not yield a fully equitable distribution of services. Long-term care reforms in Korea should continue to concentrate on expanding insurance coverage and reducing the inequities reflected in disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans. The subsequent impact on managed care and expenditures need to be more fully understood.

  5. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  6. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  7. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  8. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  9. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  10. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  11. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  12. Ethical Dimensions of Autonomy in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Bart J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term care of the elderly raises conflicts between personal autonomy and well-being. Assessments of decision-making capacity and definitions of negative and positive autonomy pose value-laden dilemmas for caregivers. (SK)

  13. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  14. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  15. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  16. Echocardiographic and clinical findings in patients with Fabry disease during long-term enzyme replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christoffer Valdorff; Bundgaard, Henning; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with Fabry disease (FD), left ventricular hypertrophy and arrhythmias are frequently observed and cardiac involvement is the leading cause of death. Long-term efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on cardiac involvement is unclear. We assessed and compared long...... significantly in the ERT group, whereas no differences were observed within the non-ERT group. DISCUSSION: We raise concerns regarding the efficacy and benefit of ERT on cardiac involvement in Fabry disease and stress the need for further research....

  17. Wellbeing-enhancing occupation and organizational and environmental contributors in long-term dementia care facilities: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.; Willemse, B.M.; de Lange, J.; Pot, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Occupation remains an unmet need in long-term dementia care. To increase residents' occupation, knowledge of types of occupation related to wellbeing, and organizational and environmental characteristics encouraging involvement in these types of occupation, is indispensable.

  18. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on different methods of analysis that are currently used by design codes to predict the short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced concrete slab systems and compares the predicted deflections with measured deflections. The experimental work to measure deflections involved the testing of ...

  19. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  20. Long-term socio-ecological forest research in southeast France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teissier du Cros, E.; Bariteau, M.; Kramer, K.

    2004-01-01

    France concentrates its research involving Mediterranean forests and related land-use on a series of long-term study sites meant to assess the effect of historical land-use on the current distribution of forest tree species and on the adaptability of these ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic

  1. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes in children and adolescents after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart); C.M.P. Buysse (Corinne); M.J. Madderom (Marlous); F.K. Aarsen (Femke); J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen); D. Tibboel (Dick); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Research into neuropsychological functioning of survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) in childhood is scarce. We sought to assess long-term neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents surviving CA. Methods: Neuropsychological follow-up study involving all consecutive

  2. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  3. Pulmonary function and autoantibodies in a long-term follow-up of juvenile dermatomyositis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille Raasthøj; Buchvald, Frederik Fouirnaies; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Pulmonary disease is a rare complication in JDM, described in only a few studies. This long-term follow-up study aimed to (i) describe pulmonary involvement in a national cohort of JDM patients estimated by conventional spirometry, (ii) compare pulmonary impairment with overall JDM ou...

  4. Soluble CXCL16 and long-term outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueland, T; Smedbakken, L M; Hallén, J

    2012-01-01

    CXCL16 is a chemokine involved in atherosclerosis by promoting inflammation, lipid accumulation and matrix degradation. The level of circulating CXCL16 has been proposed as a predictor of long-term mortality in acute coronary syndromes. We studied plasma CXCL16 in acute ischemic stroke and examined...

  5. Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad NS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nash S Moawad,1 Andrea Caplin21Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida, 2University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis.Keywords: pelvic pain, dyspareunia, bowel resection, endometriosis, rectovaginal

  6. Long-term scenarios for sustainable energy use in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischedick, M.; Nitsch, J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Hanke, T.; Barthel, C.; Jungbluth, C.; Assmann, D.; Brueggen, T. vor der; Trieb, F.; Nast, M.; Langniss, O.; Brischke, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The study was able to show, and explain vividly through scenarios describing change processes, that a sustainable use of energy (aimed, among other things, at reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 compared with 1990 levels) is technically feasible, economically viable, compatible with farther-reaching objectives of energy policy (e.g. supply security), and does not, in spite of the substantial need for change, present the players involved with any insurmountable problems but, rather, constitutes both a challenge and an opportunity. Such a development is possible only if the efforts launched to give momentum to the increased use of renewable energy sources are continued consistently, the impending need for replacement and renewal within the generation system is consistently utilised for increasing efficiency and a reorientation mainly towards combined heat and power production, and energy saving is made a new focal point of energy policy. Furthermore, with regard to long-term infrastructure requirements (decentralisation, new fuels), the necessary decisions must be prepared at an early stage and sufficiently robust lines of development must be identified and followed. (orig.) [de

  7. Long-Term Care: Safe Drug Handling of Oral Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tali M

    2017-02-01

    Many oral chemotherapy agents have been approved over the last 15 years and are displacing or augmenting parenteral chemotherapy. As 8,000 Baby Boomers turn 65 years of age every day, more elders will migrate to long-term care and assisted living facilities, and consultant pharmacists may need to manage chemotherapy for the first time. Though many therapeutic classes of oral drugs are hazardous, the majority of oral chemotherapy agents are hazardous by virtue of their mechanisms of action. Previous hazardous drug-handling recommendations from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association, and the Oncology Nursing Society have matured into new standards from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), Chapter , "Hazardous Drugs-Handling in Health Care Settings." These standards provide a comprehensive approach for safe drug handling across all health care settings and underscore the need for consultant pharmacist involvement in nursing and assisted living facilities.

  8. Modeling of long-term energy system of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yoshitaka; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro

    1999-07-01

    In order to analyze the future potential of reducing carbon dioxide emissions, the long-term energy system of Japan was modeled following the framework of the MARKAL model, and the database of energy technology characteristics was developed. First, a reference energy system was built by incorporating all important energy sources and technologies that will be available until the year 2050. This system consists of 25 primary energy sources, 33 technologies for electric power generation and/or low temperature heat production, 97 technologies for energy transformation, storage, and distribution, and 170 end-use technologies. Second, the database was developed for the characteristics of individual technologies in the system. The characteristic data consists of input and output of energy carriers, efficiency, availability, lifetime, investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, CO 2 emission coefficient, and others. Since a large number of technologies are included in the system, this report focuses modeling of a supply side, and involves the database of energy technologies other than for end-use purposes. (author)

  9. Cherubism - A case report with long term follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi V Chavali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherubism is a rare non-neoplastic disease of the bone characterized by bilateral painless enlargement of the jaws giving a cherubic appearance to the patient. It is an autosomal dominant disorder but may occur sporadically. In this paper, we have tried to explain about the clinical, radiological and histopathologic features of cherubism by presenting a case study. A case study of a 7 year old male patient, who first presented with mandibular bilateral swellings to our department in 1998, has been presented. In-depth clinical, radiological and histopathologic examination was done. An extensive long-term follow-up till 11 years was maintained. When presented for the first time, radiological investigation showed characteristic multilocular lytic lesions of the mandible bilaterally. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed proliferating fibrous connective tissue interspersed by multinucleated giant cells. It was diagnosed as a case nonfamilial cherubism. Follow-up after 5 years showed involvement of the maxilla as well, which was then corrected by surgical methods. Upon follow up 11 years after the first presentation, it was seen that the lesion was regressing by itself and there was improvement in facial contour. The natural course of Cherubism through its progression, stabilization and involution of the disease after puberty, has been highlighted in this case. More, in-depth studies to understand the nature and the pathogenesis of this condition better are required.

  10. Long-term memory of relative reward values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Francesca; Burman, Oliver H P; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Long-term memory can be adaptive as it allows animals to retain information that is crucial for survival, such as the appearance and location of key resources. This is generally examined by comparing choices of stimuli that have value to the animal with those that do not; however, in nature choices are rarely so clear cut. Animals are able to assess the relative value of a resource via direct comparison, but it remains unclear whether they are able to retain this information for a biologically meaningful amount of time. To test this, captive red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria) were first trained to associate visual cues with specific qualities and quantities of food, and their preferences for the different reward values determined. They were then retested after an interval of 18 months. We found that the tortoises were able to retain the information they had learned about the cues as indicators of relative reward values over this interval, demonstrating a memory for the relative quantity and quality of food over an extended period of time. This is likely to impact directly on an animal's foraging decisions, such as the exploitation of seasonally varying resources, with obvious fitness implications for the individual; however, the implications may also extend to the ecological interactions in which the animal is involved, affecting processes such as herbivory and seed dispersal. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    1997-03-01

    One must consider micro-structures of rock and rock mass in order to predict the long-term behavior for more than ten thousand years. First we observe the micro-crack distribution of granite which is commonly distributed in Japan, and is widely used for several structures. The creep under constant load and the relaxation under constant displacement are typical time dependent phenomena, and we performed a series of relaxation tests under microscope observation in laboratory. The specimen that is preserved in water is granite as mentioned above. The aim of this experiment is to observe the sequential propagation of micro-cracks and its affect to the macroscopic response of the rock material under relaxation state. Next, a viscoelastic homogenization method is applied for analyzing the behavior of granite that is composed of several kinds of minerals (i.e., a polycrystalline material). The homogenization method developed for analyzing mechanics of composite materials is a mathematical theory that can describe the macroscopic behavior accounting for the microscopic characteristics with periodic microstructures. In this study, it is applied to a polycrystalline rock which involves a few minerals and micro-cracks. Furthermore, it is required to apply the homogenization analysis for rock materials which show a nonlinear time dependent behavior, so we develop a new elasto-visco-plastic homogenization theory, and its validity is checked for some ground structures made by clay. (author)

  12. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John

    2006-01-01

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management

  13. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some......Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...

  14. [Osteonecrosis of the jaws by long term therapy with bisphosphonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesold, Jörn-Uwe; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Grötz, Knut A

    2006-09-01

    For several decades bisphosphonates have been used to reduce skeletal related events in patients with both osteoporosis or bone metastases. Under long term application, besides the known therapy side effects, a new clinical picture has been described within the last few years. This is osteonecrosis of the jaws, which is characterized by its difficulty in treatment. Besides exposed jaw bone, the start of the disease usually lacks any symptoms. The typical clinical symptoms then are foetor ex ore, swelling, exsudation, loosening of teeth, pain or paresthesia. Later oro-antral/nasal or oro-cutaneous fistula can develop. The X-ray shows persisting tooth sockets after extractions and later cloudy radio-lucency, sequestra or fractures. The patient exposed to bisphosphonate can be grouped according to the risk for osteonecrosis: high risk patients with intravenous bisphosphonate therapy and additional chemo-, radiation or corticoid therapy--predominantly patients with a malignant underlying disease and bone metastases low risk patients with an oral bisphosphonate therapy without additional chemo-, radiation or corticoid therapy--preferably patients with non-corticoid-induced osteoporosis. Before starting a bisphosphonate therapy possible causes of infection should be treated and risk of injuries to the mucosa should be reduced according to the individual risk profile. This is supplemented by information of the patient about the risk of necrosis and the possibilities for prevention. Regular dental recall under bisphophonate therapy is emphasised for early recognition of possible problems. Prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of periodontal infection combined with a follow up of removable denture for possible ulcera. Generally, conservative treatment measures are preferred to surgical ones. Inevitable operations are carried out non-traumatically using broad spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis until the day of suture removal (not before day 10). Long term follow up

  15. Long-Term Care Insurance and Life Insurance Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between life insurance and long-term care insurance markets on the demand side. In the model utility depends on both consumption and bequest, and utility from consumption is contingent on the state of health. While the demand for life insurance increases both with decreasing income and with a rising degree of altruism, the influences of these two parameters on the demand for long-term care insurance are ambiguous. If the utility shock arising from dis...

  16. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  17. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  18. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  19. Long-Term Engagement in Formal Volunteering and Well-Being: An Exploratory Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jereesh K; Sudhir, Paulomi; Mehrotra, Seema

    2016-09-27

    Sustained engagement in volunteering and its correlates have been examined in many studies across the globe. However, there is a dearth of research that explores the perspectives of long-term formal volunteers on the nature of changes perceived in oneself as a result of volunteering. Moreover, the linkages between psychological well-being and volunteering have been insufficiently explored. The present study was aimed at addressing these gaps. A heterogeneous sample of 20 long-term formal volunteer engaged in volunteering across different voluntary organisations in a southern metropolitan Indian city formed the primary sample for the study. In addition, a group of 21 short-term volunteers, matched on age, income and gender, was utilised for comparison with long-term volunteers on well-being indices. A semi structured interview schedule was used to explore self-perceived changes attributable to volunteering experience. In addition, a few standardised measures were used to comprehensively assess subjective well-being and psychological well-being. The interview data provided rich descriptions of perceived positive changes in self across cognitive, behavioral and emotional domains. Mirroring these patterns, the quantitative analyses indicated that long-term volunteers experienced higher levels of psychological well-being (sense of mastery and competence, self-acceptance and sense of engagement and growth) than short-term volunteers. The potential mechanisms involved in beneficial outcomes of long-term volunteering and implications for further research are highlighted.

  20. Taking into account the long term dimension associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lavelle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  1. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  2. Japan's universal long-term care system reform of 2005: containing costs and realizing a vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Takako; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2007-09-01

    Japan implemented a mandatory social long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in 2000, making long-term care services a universal entitlement for every senior. Although this system has grown rapidly, reflecting its popularity among seniors and their families, it faces several challenges, including skyrocketing costs. This article describes the recent reform initiated by the Japanese government to simultaneously contain costs and realize a long-term vision of creating a community-based, prevention-oriented long-term care system. The reform involves introduction of two major elements: "hotel" and meal charges for nursing home residents and new preventive benefits. They were intended to reduce economic incentives for institutionalization, dampen provider-induced demand, and prevent seniors from being dependent by intervening while their need levels are still low. The ongoing LTCI reform should be critically evaluated against the government's policy intentions as well as its effect on seniors, their families, and society. The story of this reform is instructive for other countries striving to develop coherent, politically acceptable long-term care policies.

  3. The influence of organizational characteristics on employee solidarity in the long-term care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-03-01

    This article is a report of a study that identifies organizational characteristics explaining employee solidarity in the long-term care sector. Employee solidarity reportedly improves organizations' effectiveness and efficiency. Although general research on solidarity in organizations is available, the impact of the organizational context on solidarity in long-term care settings is lacking. Cross-sectional survey. The study was carried out in Dutch long-term care. A total of 313 nurses, managers and other care professionals in 23 organizations were involved. Organizational characteristics studied were centralization, hierarchical culture, formal and informal exchange of information and leadership style. The study was carried out in 2009. Findings.  All organizational characteristics significantly correlated with employee solidarity in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analyses hierarchical culture, centralization, exchange of formal and informal information and transformational leadership appears to be important for solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in long-term care organizations, but not transactional and passive leadership styles. The study increased our knowledge of solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in the long-term care settings. Organizational characteristics that enhance solidarity are high levels of formal and informal information exchange, less hierarchical authority, decentralization and transformational leadership styles. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Long-term care: the family, post-modernity, and conflicting moral life-worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2007-01-01

    Long-term care is controversial because it involves foundational disputes. Some are moral-economic, bearing on whether the individual, the family, or the state is primarily responsible for long-term care, as well as on how one can establish a morally and financially sustainable long-term-care policy, given the moral hazard of people over-using entitlements once established, the political hazard of media democracies promising unfundable entitlements, the demographic hazard of relatively fewer workers to support those in need of long-term care, the moral hazard to responsibility of shifting accountability to third parties, and the bureaucratic hazard of moving from individual and family choice to bureaucratic oversight. These disputes are compounded by controversies regarding the nature of the family (Is it to be regarded primarily as a socio-biological category, a fundamental ontological category of social reality, or a construct resulting from the consent of the participants?), as well as its legal and moral autonomy and authority over its members. As the disputes show, there is no common understanding of respect and human dignity that will easily lead out of these disputes. The reflections on long-term care in this issue underscore the plurality of moralities defining bioethics.

  5. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  6. Long-term outcomes after hospitalization with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok Haw Jonathan; Potts, Jonathan R; Chetwood, John; Goubet, Stephanie; Verma, Sumita

    2015-04-01

    To assess the determinants of long-term outcome in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). This study was conducted retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox proportional hazards survival analyses were performed. Altogether, 93 patients with SBP were identified, with their mean age of 57.9 ± 12.9 years, Child-Pugh score 10.4 ± 1.9 and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score 20.2 ± 6.8. The etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) was alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) (n = 58) and viral hepatitis/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (n = 28). SBP was the index presentation of cirrhosis in 26 (28.0%) patients. Overall mortality was 80.6%; among them 81.3% were liver-related, and 33 (35.5%) died during index hospitalization. In total, 70.0% of patients who survived index hospitalization died during follow-up, with a median survival of 12.5 months. Estimated survival at 3 months, 1 year and 5 years was 54.8%, 34.4% and 15.2%, respectively. Non-ARLD etiology for CLD was an independent predictor of overall mortality (HR 3.484, 95% CI 1.802-6.757, P hospitalization (HR 2.319, 95% CI 1.210-4.444, P = 0.011). Hepatorenal syndrome did not predict outcomes. Two (3.3%) patients surviving hospitalization underwent liver transplantation (LT). One-year survival after hospitalization with SBP remains poor (34.4%) with unacceptably low LT rates. Non-ARLD etiology for CLD is an independent predictor of both overall mortality and mortality after discharge. In view of the projected increase in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related CLD, screening strategies for timely CLD diagnosis are warranted. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  8. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Castro, Yessenia; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-02-25

    The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044). The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  9. Long-term neuropsychiatric consequences of aseptic meningitis in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Andersen, Henning; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2015-06-01

    Aseptic meningitis is considered a benign and self-limiting clinical condition. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. The existing literature is scarce on the potential long-term neuropsychiatric consequences of aseptic meningitis. Previous studies have primarily been retrospective and differences in methodologies make it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the prevalence and nature of neuropsychiatric manifestations. However, studies have reported decreased psychomotor speed and impaired executive and visuo-constructive functions following aseptic meningitis. Larger controlled prospective studies are urgently needed to elucidate the neuropsychiatric complications of aseptic meningitis.

  10. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  11. Assessing long-term test-retest reliability of the CPT-IP in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs version (CPT-IP is a well-established measure of sustained attention, and its more challenging versions are particularly suited to detect subtle processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia. However, while there are few longitudinal samples for the CPT-IP, no study has addressed stability for more than two month in patients with schizophrenia. Assessing long-term test-retest reliability of the CPT-IP would facilitate the ability of clinicians to draw conclusions from studies involving interventions as long term cognitive or pharmacological treatments. The present study assessed 12 month test-retest reliability for the two most challenging versions of CPT-IP (4-digit and shapes in a matched sample of clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 50 healthy controls were assessed with the CPT-IP for the 4-digit and shape conditions. From these, 40 patients and 47 controls were reassessed with an average interval of 12.3 months between test sessions. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with Pearson correlations and results were compared with previous data involving healthy controls and short-term studies in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Especially d' and hit rate discriminated well between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls for both CPT-IP conditions and at both test sessions. Healthy controls demonstrated sufficient long term test-retest correlations of d', hit rate and reaction time for both the 4-digit and shape conditions. However, in schizophrenia patients, long-term reliability correlations were at best moderate for d' and hit rate only. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides further evidence that d' and hit rate yield consistent cross-sectional discrimination sensitivity. At best moderate long-term test-retest reliability of d' in schizophrenia outpatients may be not

  12. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM, fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  14. Hydrogen in a global long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quakernaat, J.

    1994-01-01

    For many countries, the hydrogen economy offers an operational objective for their long-term energy structure. At the end of the next century, the world will depend on the predominate use of carbon-free and carbon-neutral sources of energy, such as flow energy, energy from modern biomass, and safe nuclear energy. The direct and indirect costs involved in the use of traditional energy supplies will increase sharply in the process of time, so that the economic feasibility of a less intensive use of energy and the introduction of alternative energy supply systems will no longer be insurmountable problems. The supply and demand structures of energy will be optimally blended by the use of hydrogen and electricity, an almost ideal combination of secondary energy carriers. With these carriers, practically every centralized or decentralized, environmentally sound energy supply can be permanently maintained, both within and outside of industrialized, metropolitan areas. The economic development of developing countries will depend on the predominate use of relatively 'cheap' fossil energy carriers (coal, petroleum and natural gas), as well as on the accompanying energy supplies structures. Yet those countries as well, similar to the wealthy industrial countries, will have to start using the highly capital intensive and very energy efficient energy supply systems and energy consumption technologies. This requires innovative strategies that are aimed at compensating developing countries (temporarily) for their lack of purchasing power and knowledge infrastructure. The costs involved in the hydrogen chain are still too high, and the world energy prices are still too low for such a transfer to take place. The attention, however, will focus on drastic energy saving, decarbonization of fossil fuels, substitution to natural gas, the opening up of flow energy, biomass production, and the development of inherent, safe nuclear energy. 49 refs

  15. Long-term outcomes of refractory neurosarcoidosis treated with infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Aubart, Fleur; Bouvry, Diane; Galanaud, Damien; Dehais, Caroline; Mathey, Guillaume; Psimaras, Dimitri; Haroche, Julien; Pottier, Corinne; Hie, Miguel; Mathian, Alexis; Devilliers, Hervé; Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique; Amoura, Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Central nervous system localizations of sarcoidosis may be refractory to conventional treatment such as steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Infliximab, a TNF-α antagonist chimeric antibody, has been shown to be effective for treatment of these localizations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety, in particular the long-term outcomes, of the use of infliximab for the treatment of neurosarcoidosis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with neurosarcoidosis who had been treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2015. All patients had histologically proven non-caseating granulomas. Eighteen patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis were included in this study. All had neurological involvement consisting of meningeal (n = 16), cerebral (n = 10), spinal cord (n = 6), and/or optic nerve (n = 5) involvement. Sixteen patients had previously received at least one immunosuppressive drug in addition to corticosteroids, including cyclophosphamide in 11 patients. All patients received treatment with infliximab (3-7.5 mg/kg) associated with corticosteroids (n = 18), low-dose methotrexate (n = 15), azathioprine (n = 2), or mycophenolate (n = 1). Sixteen out of 18 patients improved clinically (initial median modified Rankin scale score of 3, final median score of 1; p infliximab, six patients obtained complete remission (33%), ten attained partial remission (56%), and two had stable disease (11%). The median follow-up time was 20 months (range 6-93). Nine patients relapsed during follow-up (50%). Eight patients developed toxic side effects and seven of these side effects were infectious events. Infliximab is an efficacious treatment of refractory neurosarcoidosis. However, relapses frequently occurred during follow-up.

  16. Long-term operation in Korea - Continued operation of Wolsong 1 Long-term operation of existing reactors in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Su Hwan; Straub, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Session 6 identified some key stakeholder concerns or interests that shape their considerations on renewing a nuclear power plant licence or extending facility lifetime. These included the safety of long-term operations, the potential need for upgrades or additional investment, and the timing and implementation of such investments. Mr Bae of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company presented the current nuclear power programme in Korea and the company's experience with stakeholder involvement, specifically related to the licence renewal of Wolsong unit 1 that included a formal agreement between Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company and the local communities around the plant. Mr Straub, of the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications, provided insight on the current restructuring of the Swiss energy strategy, and the Swiss form of 'direct democracy' that involves frequent public referenda. The proposed energy strategy to be assessed by voters in May 2017 would include a gradual phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' perception of safe operations, the competence and openness of nuclear actors and the benefits that nuclear plants bring to the local population play a role in their judgement of whether facilities should continue with long-term operations. While for a new facility there is not as much time to establish the relationship and build a rapport and reputation with the community, in the case of existing plants there is history and experience either to build on or to overcome. Each set of decisions has a number of stakeholders, but the general public living around the plant was highlighted as a primary stakeholder. In the case of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power's licence renewal efforts at Wolsong 1, gaining and maintaining the support of the surrounding communities is critical. The company applied lessons learnt from past experiences and in a year-long process pursued an agreement with

  17. Long-term costs of colorectal cancer treatment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Julieta; Castells, Xavier; Molins, Eduard; Chiarello, Pietro; Borras, Josep Maria; Cots, Francesc

    2016-02-16

    Assessing the long-term cost of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases our understanding of the disease burden. The aim of this paper is to estimate the long-term costs of CRC care by stage at diagnosis and phase of care in the Spanish National Health Service. Retrospective study on resource use and direct medical cost of a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed and treated for CRC in 2000-2006, with follow-up until 30 June 2011, at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona). The Kaplan-Meier sample average estimator was used to calculate observed 11-year costs, which were then extrapolated to 16 years. Bootstrap percentile confidence intervals were calculated for the mean long-term cost per patient by stage. Phase-specific, long-term costs for the entire CRC cohort were also estimated. With regard to stage at diagnosis, the mean long-term cost per patient ranged from €20,708 (in situ) to €47,681 (stage III). The estimated costs increased at more advanced stages up to stage III and then substantially decreased in stage IV. In terms of treatment phase, the mean cost of the initial period represented 24.8 % of the total mean long-term cost, whereas the cost of continuing and advanced care phases represented 16.9 and 58.3 %, respectively. This study is the first to provide long-term cost estimates for CRC treatment, by stage at diagnosis and phase of care, based on data from clinical practice in Spain, and it will contribute useful information for future studies on cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different therapeutic innovations in Spain.

  18. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.ca

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  19. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  20. Defective DNAs of beet curly top virus from long-term survivor sugar beet plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Judith; Jeske, Holger

    2014-04-01

    Long-term surviving sugar beet plants were investigated after beet curly top virus infection to characterize defective (D) viral DNAs as potential symptom attenuators. Twenty or 14 months after inoculation, 20 D-DNAs were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to known D-DNAs, they exhibited a large range of sizes. Deletions were present in most open reading frames except ORF C4, which encodes a pathogenicity factor. Direct repeats and inverted sequences were observed. Interestingly, the bidirectional terminator of transcription was retained in all D-DNAs. A model is presented to explain the deletion sites and sizes with reference to the viral minichromosome structure, and symptom attenuation by D-DNAs is discussed in relation to RNA interference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  2. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  3. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provisionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard” hierarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  4. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  5. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  6. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Volunteer provision of long-term care for older people in Thailand and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Pot, Anne Margriet; Sasat, Siriphan; Morales-Martinez, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Demand for long-term care services for older people is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Countries need to establish national long-term care systems that are sustainable and equitable. The Governments of Costa Rica and Thailand have implemented broadly comparable interventions to deploy volunteers in long-term home care. Both countries trained older volunteers from local communities to make home visits to impoverished and vulnerable older people and to facilitate access to health services and other social services. Costa Rica and Thailand are upper-middle-income countries with strong traditions of community-based health services that they are now extending into long-term care for older people. Between 2003 and 2013 Thailand's programme trained over 51 000 volunteers, reaching almost 800 000 older people. Between 2010 and 2016 Costa Rica established 50 community care networks, serving around 10 000 people and involving over 5000 volunteers. Despite some evidence of benefits to the physical and mental health of older people and greater uptake of other services, a large burden of unmet care needs and signs of a growth of unregulated private services still exist. There is scope for low- and middle-income countries to develop large-scale networks of community-based long-term care volunteers. The capacity of volunteers to enhance the quality of life of clients is affected by the local availability of care services. Volunteer care networks should be complemented by other initiatives, including training about health in later life for volunteers, and investment in community long-term care services.

  8. Bentall operation in 375 patients: long-term results and predictors of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Biondi, Andrea; Trimarchi, Santi; Ranucci, Marco; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Bentall operation is a 40-year-old standardized procedure for treating aortic valve diseases and aneurysms involving the aortic root. The study aim was to analyze the results and predictors of long-term outcome after the Bentall procedure for aortic root diseases. Between January 1990 and December 2007, a total of 375 patients (296 males, 79 females) underwent the Bentall operation at the authors' institution. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was present in 91 patients, and Marfan syndrome in 13. Thirty-six patients were treated as emergencies, and 30 for acute dissection. A concomitant surgical procedure was performed in 78 patients. The operative procedure included both classic Bentall and button techniques. Follow up data were obtained from hospital and office records and from telephone contacts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to investigate the predictors of long-term outcome. The overall in-hospital mortality was 4.5%, and after elective operations was 2.3%. A 20-year long-term follow up included 32 late deaths, of which 14 were cardiac-related. Freedom from late all-cause mortality at 5, 10, and 15 years was 97.1%, 81.9%, and 53.9%, respectively. At univariate analysis, long-term mortality was associated with age, diabetes, BAV, NYHA class III/IV, emergency treatment, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Independent predictors of long-term mortality were age (OR 1.16; CI: 1.08-1.23), emergency surgery (OR 28; CI: 4-192) and BAV (OR 3; CI: 1.3-6.9). The Bentall procedure is a safe and durable operation, with a very good early and long-term results and a low rate of reoperation. In the present series, age, BAV and emergency surgery were important independent predictors of mortality.

  9. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesli Avgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265 and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003 in a small cohort (n = 181 comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II. VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006 that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance.

  10. Innovating dementia care; implementing characteristics of green care farms in other long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Yvette; Verbeek, Hilde; de Boer, Bram; de Bruin, Simone R

    2018-01-16

    People with dementia at green care farms (GCFs) are physically more active, have more social interactions, are involved in a larger variety of activities, and come outdoors more often than those in other long-term dementia care settings. These aspects may positively affect health and well-being. This study explored which and how characteristics of GCFs could be implemented in other long-term dementia care settings, taking into account possible facilitators and barriers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 professionals from GCFs, independent small-scale long-term care facilities, and larger scale long-term care facilities in the Netherlands. The framework method was used to analyze the data. Several characteristics of GCFs (e.g. homelike aspects, domestic activities, and access to outdoor environments) have already been applied in other types of long-term dementia care settings. However, how and the extent to which these characteristics are being applied differ between GCFs and other types of long-term dementia care settings. Facilitators and barriers for the implementation of characteristics of GCFs were related to the physical environment in which the care facility is situated (e.g. the degree of urbanization), characteristics and competences of staff members (e.g. flexibility, creativity), characteristics and competences of managers (e.g. leadership, vision), and the political context (e.g. application of risk and safety protocols). Several characteristics can be implemented in other dementia care settings. However, to realize innovation in dementia care it is important that not only the physical environment but also the social and organizational environments are supporting the process of change.

  11. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G; Spriggens, Lauren K; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M; Shum, David H K; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-03-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory ( p -value = 0.003) in a small cohort ( n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism ( p -value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF , and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS , in long-term visual memory performance.

  12. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, A M; Storm-Versloot, M N; Mank, A P M; Ubbink, D T; Vermeulen, H; Bossuyt, P M M; Goossens, A

    2010-10-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature guideline (BTG) were developed and implemented in our hospital in 2000. Long-term adherence was determined retrospectively based on data from patient files. Focus groups were launched to explore nurses' perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding long-term adherence. The predominant themes from the nurses' focus groups were posed to clinicians in questionnaires. Nurses involved in the FBG (overall adherence 100%) stated that adherence has immediate advantages in terms of safety and a gain in time. Nurses and oncologists acted unanimously which was thought to enhance adherence. On the other hand, opinions differed on the BTG within the nursing teams and medical staff (overall adherence 50%). Although the guideline discourages routine postoperative body temperature measurements, temperature should be measured according to the guideline in a considerable number of cases due to changes in patient characteristics since the year 2000. Therefore, adherence was judged to be rather complex. To secure adherence to hospital guidelines after their successful implementation, guidelines should preferably be comprehensive in terms of being applicable to the majority of the patients in that particular setting and to the most common clinical situations. All healthcare professionals involved should be aware of its immediate benefits for themselves or to their patients.

  13. Maize Stem Response to Long-Term Attack by Sesamia nonagrioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants defend themselves against herbivores by activating a plethora of genetic and biochemical mechanisms aimed at reducing plant damage and insect survival. The short-term plant response to insect attack is well understood, but less is known about the maintenance of this response over time. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses in order to identify genes and metabolites involved in the long-term response of maize to attack by the corn borer Sesamina nonagrioides. To determine the role of elicitors present in caterpillar secretions, we also evaluated the response of maize stem challenged with insect regurgitates. The integrative analysis of the omics results revealed that the long-term response in maize is characterized by repression of the primary metabolism and a strong redox response, mainly mediated by germin-like proteins to produce anti-nutritive and toxic compounds that reduce insect viability, and with the glutathione–ascorbate cycle being crucial to minimize the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the plant. Our results suggest that different defense mechanisms are involved in the long-term response compared to those reported during the early response. We also observed a marginal effect of the caterpillar regurgitates on the long-term defensive response.

  14. Micro-citizenship, dementia and long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Clive; Greason, Michelle

    2016-05-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the concept of citizenship as a lens through which to understand dementia practice. This move from an individualist, personhood-based approach towards an understanding of people with dementia as a group facing social and structural discrimination parallels, in some ways, that previously seen in the realms of disability and mental health which have sought to politicize those experiences. In so doing, the debate has sought to reconfigure power relations, insisting that members of such discriminated groups are people with power entitled to the same from life as everyone else. Much of the discussion to date has, understandably, focused on the larger issues of social inclusion, rights and responsibilities - reflecting the traditional concern of citizenship of individuals' relationship to the state or the society in which they live. More recently, there has been a move to conceptualising citizenship as a practice - something that is realised through action and in relationship - rather than a status bestowed. In this paper, we seek to contribute to the discussion by introducing the concepts of midi- and micro-citizenship, taken from organisation studies, as a further means by which to link the personal and the political, and as grounds to build citizenship-alliances between people with dementia living in long-term care (LTC) facilities and front-line dementia care staff. We will then seek to illustrate the usefulness of these concepts in understanding citizenship in practice in LTC facilities through analysis of data drawn from focus groups involving LTC staff, and interviews with family carers whose relatives live in LTC facilities. In conclusion, we will explore some of the possibilities that such an approach holds for dementia care practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Cytokine profiles in long-term smokers of opium (Taryak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Rafiei, Mohammad; Mosayebi, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies with conflicting results on the effects of in vivo administration of opioids on immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in opium smokers. The study was conducted between 44 male opium addicts and 44 controls aged 20 to 40 years. The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of substance abuse. All the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of use of opium, as a regular habit, at least for 1 year, with a daily opium dosage of not less than 2 g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum samples were collected from all participants and tested for the cytokine and hs-CRP levels by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. The mean serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 in the opium addicts were significantly higher than those observed in the control group. The mean concentration of serum IL-4 in opium addicts did not differ from that in the control group. Systemic IL-10 levels correlated positively and significantly with CRP in opium addicts. Long-term, daily use of opium is associated with higher Th1 (IFN-γ), Tr1 (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines concentration in serum. Interferon-γ and IL-17 are involved in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. Our data suggest that an immunoregulatory response is occurring with the upregulation of IL-10.

  16. US long-term energy intensity: backcast and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Oravetz, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Energy intensity of the economy is often modeled as being determined by the combined effect of a fixed price elasticity of demand, and an exogenously specified, fixed technical change parameter denoted as the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI). Typically, the AEEI rate is set to 0.5-1.5% improvement per annum. Here, we study historic aggregate energy intensity trends for the US from 1954 to 1994. We show that the historic trends are inconsistent with an autonomous model of improved energy efficiency - especially when the model is used to inform policies that impact energy prices. As an alternative we propose a model of price-induced efficiency, π, in which aggregate energy intensity trends respond to changes in energy prices beyond price elasticity of demandε. Our exercise reveals that the aggregate price elasticity of energy demand of the US economy has declined by roughly 15% over the past four decades. But beyond this decline, bringing our simulations and historical data into close correspondence requires π to change sign before and after 1974. Before 1974, after accounting for price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing less energy efficient. After 1974, after accounting for the price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing more energy efficient. Furthermore, since 1984, the rate of energy efficiency gain has been declining. When projections of long-term energy use are compared, those with a price-induced energy efficiency formulation generate significantly more price sensitive energy use and emissions trajectories. When in the business as usual scenario energy prices are expected to be rising, climate policies involve lower shadow carbon prices with π than with AEEI formulations. In scenarios where energy prices are relatively flat, energy intensity rises leading to CO 2 emissions far higher than standard business as usual projections utilizing AEEI assumptions. (Author)

  17. Influence of Whipping on Long term Vertical Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarholm, G. S.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    approach. Effect of whipping is included by assuming that the whipping and wave induced response are independent, but the effect of correlation of the long term extreme value is also studied. Numerical calculations are performed using a nonlinear, hydroelastic strip theory as suggested by (Xia et al 1998...... to introduce ways to improve the efficiency in the calculation. A method to determine the long term extremes by considering only a few short term sea state is applied. Long term extreme values are estimated using a set of sea states which have a certain probability of occurrence, known as the contour line......This paper is concerned with estimating the response value corresponding to a long return period, say a twenty years. Time domain simulation is required to obtain the nonlinear response, and long time series are required to limit the statistical uncertainty in the simulations. It is crucial...

  18. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  19. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  20. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield

  1. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  4. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  5. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2015-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long-term......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... symptoms were found in 15% and were time-limited. Illusions/hallucinations were more frequently observed among women. Cases of hypomania/mania in the acute phase were 5.5%. Significant long-term mental health effects were demonstrated for the SF-36 subscales mental health (MH), role emotional (RE...

  6. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  7. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  8. How to improve long-term outcome after liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, François

    2018-02-01

    The outcome of liver transplantation has markedly improved in the last 3 decades. Although early post-transplantation outcomes have improved over time, this is not true of the long-term outcome. The majority of late deaths are not related to graft dysfunction, and with the advent of new antiviral agents, recurrence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C after transplantation may no longer represent a source of graft loss and patient's death in the long term. The complications of metabolic syndrome may represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. This study discusses these modifiable factors associated with late mortality to improve the long-term results of transplantation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    (including Canada) EO data for an unlimited time-span ensuring and facilitating their accessibility and usability through the implementation of a cooperative and harmonized collective approach among the EO data owners. Such European Long Term Data Preservation Framework should be implemented through the application of European LTDP Common Guidelines and sustained through cooperative (multi-source) long term funding schemes. The Long Term Data Preservation Working Group with representatives from ASI, CNES, CSA, DLR and ESA was formed at the end of 2007 within the Ground Segment Coordination Body (GSCB, http://earth.esa.int/gscb/) with the goal to define and promote, with the involvement of all the European EO data and archive owners, the LTDP Common Guidelines. During the 1st Earth Observation Long Term Data Preservation workshop in May 2008, the guidelines and the framework were presented and debated by all European and Canadian EO data owners, data providers and archive holders. The participants discussed and developed a joint strategy to move ahead technically and programmatically concerning the Long Term Data Preservation of EO Data and recognized the need and benefits of a common approach. Furthermore all the participants identified and agreed the LTDP Guidelines presented at the workshop as a first concrete and fundamental step to move ahead in creating the Long Term Data Preservation Framework. ESA is already planning to apply the Long Term Data Preservation Common Guidelines to its own missions and the consolidated LTDP guidelines will be promoted within CEOS and GEO.

  11. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cofta-Woerpel Ludmila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between subjective social status (SSS, a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. Methods The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Results Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044. The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. Conclusions SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  12. Improving long-term care provision: towards demand-based care by means of modularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijboom Bert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in most fields of health care, societal and political changes encourage suppliers of long-term care to put their clients at the center of care and service provision and become more responsive towards client needs and requirements. However, the diverse, multiple and dynamic nature of demand for long-term care complicates the movement towards demand-based care provision. This paper aims to advance long-term care practice and, to that end, examines the application of modularity. This concept is recognized in a wide range of product and service settings for its ability to design demand-based products and processes. Methods Starting from the basic dimensions of modularity, we use qualitative research to explore the use and application of modularity principles in the current working practices and processes of four organizations in the field of long-term care for the elderly. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key informants and triangulated with document research and observation. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Our data suggest that a modular setup of supply is employed in the arrangement of care and service supply and assists providers of long-term care in providing their clients with choice options and variation. In addition, modularization of the needs assessment and package specification process allows the case organizations to manage client involvement but still provide customized packages of care and services. Conclusion The adequate setup of an organization's supply and its specification phase activities are indispensible for long-term care providers who aim to do better in terms of quality and efficiency. Moreover, long-term care providers could benefit from joint provision of care and services by means of modular working teams. Based upon our findings, we are able to

  13. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinyov, B V; Khlapova, N P; Lebedev, V N; Melnychuk, S V; Senchyshyn, V G

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials-UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron)- were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters- more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ~7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively.

  14. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinyov, B.V.; Khlapova, N.P.; Senchyshyn, V.G.; Lebedev, V.N.; Adadurov, A.F.; Melnychuk, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials - UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron) - were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters--more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ∼7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively

  15. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  16. [Analysis of long-term survivors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Matuzu, Kenichi

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathologic and therapeutic factors associated with long-term survival in 449 patients with anaplastic carcinoma registered with the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Consortium of Japan. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between long-term survival of more than 1 year and the following factors: the appearance of acute symptom; WBC thyroid gland after surgery; no distant metastasis at initial diagnosi; complete resection of gross tumor; and administration of external irradiation (40 Gy) and chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only tumor diameter (disease.

  17. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  18. Long-term creep test with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de

  19. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation....

  20. General practitioners and long-term neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) can have a significant role to play in the management of individuals with long-term neurological conditions (LTNC). This paper looks at various roles and responsibilities of GPs in the management of these patients. This paper is based on a Medline literature search using the key words 'general practitioner;''rehabilitation;''long-term;' and 'neurological'. The findings are broadly divided into diagnostic, supportive and palliative roles. GPs have a lot to offer individuals with LTNC, but recent changes in the way they work, especially in the UK, may hamper their role.

  1. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  2. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  3. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR LONG TERM SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Khanna

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available With present stress, being laid on green energy worldwide, harnessing solar energy for commercial use has importance in sizing and long-term prediction of solar radiation. However, with continuous changing environment parameters, it is quite difficult for long-term prediction of solar radiation. In the past research scholars, have carried out solar prediction only for a few days, which is insufficient to exploit the radiation for sizing and harnessing the solar energy for commercial use. To overcome this gap, present work utilizes application of lifting wavelet transform along with ANFIS to predict the radiation for long duration.

  4. Long-term outcome in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, P; Hegaard, H; Herlin, Troels

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome.......To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome....

  5. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......, no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...

  6. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged...

  7. Training for sustained performance: moving toward long-term musician development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Terry; Lisboa, Tánia

    2013-09-01

    Success in the performing arts, like sports, is dependent upon the acquisition and consistent use of a diverse range of skills. In sports, an understanding of safe and effective use of the body is required to facilitate long-term involvement in that activity. In order to assist athletes to attain their performance goals, and ensure healthy and sustained involvement, long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been devised and adapted by professional sporting bodies throughout the world. LTAD models emphasize the intellectual, emotional, and social development of the athlete, encourage long-term participation in physical activities, and enable participants to improve their overall health and well-being and increase their life-long participation in physical activity. At present there is no such long-term development model for musicians. Yet musicians must cope with a multitude of career-related physical and mental demands, and performance-related injuries and career burnout are rife within the profession. Despite this, musicians' training rarely addresses such issues and musicians are left largely to learn about them through either chance or accrued experience. This paper discusses key concepts and recommendations in LTAD models, together with music-specific research highlighting the need for the development of a comprehensive long-term approach to musicians' training. The results of a survey of existing music training programs are compared to recommendations and the different development stages in LTAD models. Finally, implementation science is introduced as a methodological option for identifying how best to communicate the body of evidence-based knowledge concerning healthy and effective music-making to young student musicians.

  8. Risk assessment in long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.; Guttmann, J.; Mohseni, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents probabilistic risk-informed approaches that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is planning to consider in preparing regulatory bases for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for up to 300 years. Due to uncertainties associated with long-term SNF storage, the NRC is considering a probabilistic risk-informed approach as well as a deterministic design-based approach. The uncertainties considered here are primarily associated with materials aging of the canister and SNF in the cask system during long-term storage of SNF. This paper discusses some potential risk contributors involved in long-term SNF storage. Methods of performance evaluation are presented that assess the various types of risks involved. They include deterministic evaluation, probabilistic evaluation, and consequence assessment under normal conditions and the conditions of accidents and natural hazards. Some potentially important technical issues resulting from the consideration of a probabilistic risk-informed evaluation of the cask system performance are discussed for the canister and SNF integrity. These issues are also discussed in comparison with the deterministic approach for comparison purposes, as appropriate. Probabilistic risk-informed methods can provide insights that deterministic methods may not capture. Two specific examples include stress corrosion cracking of the canister and hydrogen-induced cladding failure. These examples are discussed in more detail, in terms of their effects on radionuclide release and nuclear subcriticality associated with the failure. The plan to consider the probabilistic risk-informed approaches is anticipated to provide helpful regulatory insights for long-term storage of SNF that provide reasonable assurance for public health and safety. (authors)

  9. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  10. Nicotine uses neuron-glia communication to enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica López-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions.

  11. A long-term risk management tool for electricity markets using swarm intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, F.; Vale, Z.A.; Khodr, H.M.; Oliveira, P.B. Moura

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal involvement in derivatives electricity markets of a power producer to hedge against the pool price volatility. To achieve this aim, a swarm intelligence meta-heuristic optimization technique for long-term risk management tool is proposed. This tool investigates the long-term opportunities for risk hedging available for electric power producers through the use of contracts with physical (spot and forward contracts) and financial (options contracts) settlement. The producer risk preference is formulated as a utility function (U) expressing the trade-off between the expectation and the variance of the return. Variance of return and the expectation are based on a forecasted scenario interval determined by a long-term price range forecasting model. This model also makes use of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to find the best parameters allow to achieve better forecasting results. On the other hand, the price estimation depends on load forecasting. This work also presents a regressive long-term load forecast model that make use of PSO to find the best parameters as well as in price estimation. The PSO technique performance has been evaluated by comparison with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach. A case study is presented and the results are discussed taking into account the real price and load historical data from mainland Spanish electricity market demonstrating the effectiveness of the methodology handling this type of problems. Finally, conclusions are dully drawn. (author)

  12. Long-term observations of operated and irradiated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker-Mroz, G.; Schroeder, R.

    1983-01-01

    498 patients with histologically established and surgically removed breast carcinomas received post-operative irradiation treatment at Moabit hospital, Berlin, between 1965 and 1975. The long-term results of this largely standardized therapy have been compiled and evaluated. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Long-term followup of hypospadias: functional and cosmetic results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rynja, Sybren P.; Wouters, Gerlof A.; van Schaijk, Maaike; Kok, Esther T.; de Jong, Tom P.; de Kort, Laetitia M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed long-term results after hypospadias surgery with respect to urinary and sexual function, cosmetic appearance and intimate relationships. We contacted 116 patients who are now adults and who underwent surgery between 1987 and 1992. Participation included mailed questionnaires containing

  14. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  15. Long-Term Outcome in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sequelae and early predictors of sequelae were determined in a chart review of 47 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS of whom 30 had been treated with intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

  16. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  17. Long-Term Effects of a Psycholinguistic Treatment for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen; Hoeks, Jan J. W. M.; Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C.; Smolenaars, Anton J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates short- and long-term effects of a treatment for dyslexia. Notes that the treatment focuses on learning to recognize and to make use of the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. Finds that the results of the treatment were clear improvements in reading words, reading text and spelling. (SG)

  18. Long-term hepatotoxicity and hypoglycaemic study of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Carica papaya extracts as an anti-diabetic remedy in Nigeria is well documented. Since these extracts are usually taken for long periods of time, it is important to assess their long term biochemical effects so as to ascertain their safety. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaves, orally ...

  19. Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld. | Donaldson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertiliser application trial on hay yield, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay ...

  20. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is reasonable to ask to what extent anaesthetic management might influence long-term outcomes. The distinction being made here is between the classical definition of anaesthetic complications, which is restricted to the immediate perioperative period, perhaps extending to a few days after surgery, and the ...

  1. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  2. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  3. Some shortcomings of long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F

    2000-11-01

    Within the framework of their long term working memory theory, Ericsson and Kintsch (1995) propose that experts rapidly store information in long-term memory through two mechanisms: elaboration of long-term memory patterns and schemas and use of retrieval structures. They use chess players' memory as one of their most compelling sources of empirical evidence. In this paper, I show that evidence from chess memory, far from supporting their theory, limits its generality. Evidence from other domains reviewed by Ericsson and Kintsch, such as medical expertise, is not as strong as claimed, and sometimes contradicts the theory outright. I argue that Ericsson and Kintsch's concept of retrieval structure conflates three different types of memory structures that possess quite different properties. One of these types of structures--generic, general purpose retrieval structures--has a narrower use than proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch: it applies only in domains where there is a conscious, deliberate intent by individuals to improve their memory. Other mechanisms, including specific retrieval structures, exist that permit a rapid encoding into long-term memory under other circumstances.

  4. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with

  5. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  6. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF MACROPLASTIQUE INJECTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic injection of Macroplastique (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS)in male and female urinary incontinence (UI). Patients and Methods A total of 87 patients with different causes of urinary incontinence have been treated by endoscopic injection of PDMS at our department ...

  7. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  9. Long-term implant performance and patients' satisfaction in oligodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, Marieke A. P.; Vissink, Arjan; Cune, Marco S.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Visser, Anita

    Objectives: To assess long-term (>= 10 years) implant survival, peri-implant health, patients' satisfaction and oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) in oligodontia patients rehabilitated with implant-based fixed prosthodontics. Methods: All oligodontia patients treated >= 10 years previously

  10. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  11. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which...

  12. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative,

  13. Long-term changes and trends in the lower ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 497-507 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : lower ionosphere * long-term trends Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  15. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin...

  16. Long-term monitoring of the HPC Charenton Canal Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The report contains long-term monitoring data collection and analysis of the first fully high : performance concrete (HPC) bridge in Louisiana, the Charenton Canal Bridge. The design of this : bridge started in 1997, and it was built and opened to tr...

  17. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although we used Crab Nebula data partially, in some of the reported results, primarily for testing the validity of the full data analysis chain, the main aim of this work is to study the long term performance of the TACTIC telescope by using consolidated data collected between 2003 and 2010. The total on-source data, ...

  18. Long-term outcomes of an urban farming internship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Falxa Sonti; Lindsay Campbell; Michelle Johnson; S. Daftary-Steel

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the internship, including farming...

  19. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The

  20. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation

  1. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2003-01-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  2. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Bouma, H.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Benoist, K.W.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to

  3. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  4. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims...... to describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps...... more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a discrepancy...

  5. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  6. Histological effects of long term administration of piliostigma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological effects of long term administration of piliostigma thonningii stem bark on the liver of adult Wistar rats. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... by cervical dislocation on the twenty nine day of the experiment and the liver was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for further routine histological study.

  7. Long-term persistence of de Brazza's Monkey ( Cercopithecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term persistence of de Brazza's Monkey (Cercopithecus Neglectus) in a Kenyan Forest Fragment. Faith M Walker, Nixon K Sajita. Abstract. Tropical forests are at the forefront of species-extinction crises as a consequence of widespread habitat loss and alteration. Knowledge of how populations respond to a particular ...

  8. Long-term protection of hepatitis B vaccination among Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Objective: to detect the long-term immunogenicity of the vaccine in Egyptian children after five and ten years of vaccination. Methods: Two hundreds healthy children were recruited. They were divided into two ...

  9. The role of universities in managing Long Term Athlete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long Term Athlete Development as a conceptual framework for the research represents a sport development pathway that articulates with progressive human growth and development. The differential layering of the development phases relates to the socialisation process (into and through sport) which underpins the elite ...

  10. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  11. Target for LOFAR Long Term Archive : Architecture and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Dijkstra, Fokke; Holties, H. A.; Vriend, W. -J; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N.P.F.

    The LOFAR Long-Term Archive (LTA) is a multi-Petabyte scale data storage for the processed data of LOFAR telescope. We describe the adaptation of the WISE concept implemented by Target consortium for the LOFAR LTA and changes we introduced to it to accommodate LOFAR data. This paper describes an

  12. Long-term psychological sequelae of augmentation mammoplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A request for elective surgery for augmentation mammoplasty (AM) is often associated with underlying psychopathology and high expectations of a positive psychological outcome. This study was designed to ascertain the long-term psychological sequelae of AM in a group of patients who were reassessed 3 years or more ...

  13. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  14. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy: long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of six children with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) after pancreatectomy who have been followed since 1990 at the Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Data from six patients were ...

  15. Risk assessment for long-term post-accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducamp, F.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis, currently conducted by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) for the French replicate series of 900 MWe power plants, has identified accident sequences requiring long-term operation of some systems after the initiating event. They have been named long-term sequences. Quantification of probabilities of such sequences cannot rely exclusively on equipment failure-on-demand data: it must also take into account operating failures, the probability of which increase with time. Specific studies have therefore been conducted for a number of plant systems actuated during these long-term sequences. This has required: Definition of the most realistic equipment utilization strategies based on existing emergency procedures for 900 MWe French plants. Evaluation of the potential to repair failed equipment, given accessibility, repair time, and specific radiation conditions for the given sequence. Definition of the event bringing the long-term sequence to an end. Establishment of an appropriate quantification method, capable of taking into account the evolution of assumptions concerning equipment utilization strategies or repair conditions over time. (orig.)

  16. Long term neurological complications of bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-11

    Mar 11, 2013 ... long-term neuropsychological complication further in- crease the population ... seizures, cognitive delay, speech/language disorders, behavioral ... Total. 58. 36. 94. Table 2: Types of Neurological sequelae amongst the study group. Type. Number. Percentage. Male. Female. Seizure disorder. 19. 9. 29.79.

  17. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  18. Wildfire Mitigation and Private Lands: Managing Long-Term Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Muller; Stacey Schulte

    2006-01-01

    Long-term management of wildfire vulnerability requires strategies that address complex interactions between fire ecology and human settlement. In this paper, we examine the integration of wildfire mitigation and land use planning in county governments in the western U.S. This research relies on data from two sources. First, we conducted a survey of land use...

  19. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  20. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Malmqvist; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow...

  1. Towards Long-Term Preservation Policy in Electronic Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Karim Bjaja

    2005-01-01

    A Study about long-term preservation policy in electronic archives, it deals the important of the electronic government, then the challenges of preservation in electronic archives, and the media which use in preservation, and puts a policy for managing the electronic archives.

  2. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities.

  3. Long-term results of lower energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzers, G. B.; Francisca, E. A.; D'Ancona, F. C.; Kiemeney, L. A.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate long-term results of lower energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy (Prostasoft 2.0*) and identify pretreatment characteristics that predict a favorable outcome. Between December 1990 and December 1992, 231 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were treated with lower energy

  4. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  5. Long-term smoking results in haemostatic dysfunction in chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking has been known to cause endothelial dysfunction and bronchial carcinoma and duration of smoking has been implicated in the effects of smoking on regular smokers. This study evaluated the effects of long-term smoking on some coagulation markers in chronic smokers. Materials and Methods: A ...

  6. Temporary and long-term consequences of bereavement on happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.

    In this article, we examine the temporary and long-term consequences of the death of a parent or child on happiness. According to set-point theory external conditions are expected to only have a short-term or limited influence on happiness. This directly contradicts the basic assumption of affective

  7. Long-term outcomes after upper limb arterial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kucey, DS; Brenneman, FD; Hunter, GA; Maggisano, R; tenDuis, HJ

    OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes in multisystem trauma victims who have arterial injuries to upper limbs. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care regional trauma centre in a university hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score

  8. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...

  9. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is rare. Its diagnosis requires experienced specialists and expensive infrastructure. Its prognosis is variable. Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron microscope. Methods: Covering a period of ...

  10. Seasonal And Long Term Rainfall Trends In Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both seasonal and long term trends of rain fall in Calabar between 1985 and 2003 have been examined. Monthly and annual rainfall totals, number of rain days and extreme rain fall indices were determined as secondary data and used for the analyses. SPSS statistical package was used to deseasolnalise the data and ...

  11. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  12. Non-proliferation aspects of long term assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The meetings in this section deal with the non-proliferation aspects of long-term assurance of supply of the nuclear fuel cycle. A list of 12 fundamental questions concerning the observation and application of the non-proliferation regulations is followed by the comments made by representatives of 10 countries

  13. Long term assurance of supply of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The working group discussed the long-term assurance of uranium supply. A number of key questions is presented along with the answers given by representatives of 10 countries and by EC commission. Emphasis is laid on market stability and on the difficulties in adopting to sudden changes in the supply and demand situation

  14. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  15. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions | Westwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of multiple mechanisms. Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting energy expenditure, excess losses through malabsorption, ...

  16. Long-term outcome of equestrian injuries in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; van der Sluis, CK; Kootstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, Willem; ten Duis, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate the possible development of long-term disabilities arising from paediatric equestrian injuries. Method : All patients, aged 17 years or younger, treated in a hospital setting because of an equestrian injury during a five-year period received a questionnaire. A reference

  17. Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use the database of University of Michigan Radio As- tronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio bands (4.8, 8 and 14.5. GHz) to analyse the long-term polarization variation in search of the pos- sible periodicity. Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the. Jurkevich method and the discrete ...

  18. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  19. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was an attempt to compare the impact of teaching through memory strategies, where students were taught the meaning of new vocabulary items by giving them synonyms, antonyms, definitions and mini-contexts. The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  20. Polycarbonates: a long-term highly sensitive radon monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Poffijn, A; Meesen, G; Deynse, A V

    2000-01-01

    An approach for long-term (either retrospective or prospective) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn measurements is proposed that is based on the combination of the high radon absorption ability of some polycarbonates with their alpha track-etch properties. The detection limit is projected to be <10 Bq m sup - sup 3 for an exposure time of 20 yr.

  1. Peritoneal changes in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.; Struijk, Dirk G.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis can lead to morphological and functional changes in the peritoneum. Although the range of morphological alterations is known for the peritoneal dialysis population as a whole, these changes will not occur in every patient in the same sequence and to the same extent.

  2. Long-term cerebral imaging after pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, A. M.; De Groot, J. C.; Wiegman, M. J.; Aarnoudse, J. G.; Sanwikarja, G. S.; Zeeman, G. G.

    Please cite this paper as: Aukes A, De Groot J, Wiegman M, Aarnoudse J, Sanwikarja G, Zeeman G. Long-term cerebral imaging after pre-eclampsia. BJOG 2012;119:11171122. Objective Formerly eclamptic women demonstrate cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) several years following the index pregnancy. The

  3. Vulnerable long-term psychiatric in- patients need screening for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as part of a multi-phased programme evaluation project to improve service delivery to and quality of care of long-term patients ... patients with cognitive disorders or who have fallen (for treatable risk factors for falling and preventative measures). ... to obesity through increased energy intake and reduced energy.

  4. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...... after a first stroke and to compare them with those of the background population....

  5. Mixing induces long-term hyperthermia in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IC; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether body temperature is a sensitive parameter to measure long-term effects of stress in pigs. Mixing of unacquainted pigs is a severe stressor that has detrimental effects on health, production and welfare. We measured deep body temperature after

  6. Long-term resightings of humpback whales off Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, C.; Acevedo, J.; Aguayo-Lobo, A.; Allen, J.; Capella, J.; Rosa, Dalla L.; Flores-González, L.; Kaufman, G.; Forestell, P.; Scheidat, M.; Secchi, E.R.; Stevick, P.; Santos, M.C.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the long-term re-sight histories of fifteen photo-identified humpback whales encountered to date transiting Ecuadorian waters. It also provides information about connections to feeding area destinations. Whale EC1261 has been resighted over a 26 year span and provides insight

  7. Drug taper during long-term video-EEG monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guld, A. T.; Sabers, A.; Kjaer, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are often tapered to reduce the time needed to record a sufficient number of seizure during long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). Fast AED reduction is considered less safe, but few studies have examined this. Our goal is to examine whether the rate of AED r...

  8. Simulation of long-term dynamic behavior of runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yulei; Liu Jian; Zhang Ruili; He Yang

    2015-01-01

    The secular dynamics of runaway electrons in Tokamak electromagnetic field is studied. The radiation effect is added into a relativistic volume-preserving algorithm to gain long-term stability of calculation. The results shows that the method we used is able to reveal the behavior of a runaway electron in configuration space. (author)

  9. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005–2013). Water Quality Index (WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter.

  10. Long-term outcome in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, I. M.; van der Meulen, M. F. G.; de Visser, M.; Kalmijn, S.; van Venrooij, W. J.; Voskuyl, A. E.; Dinant, H. J.; Linssen, W. H. J. P.; Wokke, J. H. J.; Hoogendijk, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although polymyositis and dermatomyositis are regarded as treatable disorders, prognosis is not well known, as in the literature long-term outcome and prognostic factors vary widely. Aim: To analyse the prognostic outcome factors in polymyositis and adult dermatomyositis. METHODS: We

  11. Long-Term Memory Biases Auditory Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F.; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants…

  12. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  13. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a

  14. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: the impact factor of the journal in which a

  15. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron microscope. Methods: .... The middle lobe was as much affected as the right up- per lobe (n= 2 for each lobe). .... distress syndrome (ARDS) after one and four years of follow up (respectively at the ...

  16. Long term evolution of coastal morphology and global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianco, M.; De Vriend, H.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term prediction of sediment transport and of morphological behaviour in the coastal zone, in response to human interference or to change in environmental conditions (collectively global change) is an increasingly important issue in coastal zone management, especially in relation to the needs

  17. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  18. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  20. The long-term concerns post cochlear implantation as experienced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cochlear implantation aims to provide an effective means of spoken communication for prelingually deaf children. However, studies in this field are mostly clinically orientated, with little focus on the experiences and long-term concerns of families post cochlear implantation (CI). Objective. To describe the ...

  1. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  2. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  3. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how

  4. Long-term Cyclic Variations of Prominences, Green and Red ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Long-term cyclic variations in the distribution of promi- nences and intensities of green (530.3 nm) and red (637.4 nm) coronal emission lines over solar cycles 18-23 are presented. Polar prominence branches will reach the poles at different epochs in cycle 23: the north branch at the beginning in 2002 and the ...

  5. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Godon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  6. Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

  7. Acute mastoiditis in children: presentation and long term consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, F

    2008-03-01

    Acute mastoiditis, a destructive bacterial infection of the mastoid bone and air cell system, is relatively uncommon today but remains a potentially serious condition. There is a lack of information in the literature regarding the long term otological problems that children may face following an episode of this condition.

  8. Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kaufman, D.S.; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe

    2009-01-01

    continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused...

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – the long-term implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-28

    Aug 28, 2009 ... It is well recognised that polycystic ovary syndrome. (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in ... To diagnose PCOS, and bearing in mind that it is a syndrome and does not exist as a single symptom, two ..... in 1956 to 1965: A long-term follow-up focusing on natural history and circulating hormones.

  10. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico; Aziz, Muhammed I.; Nagel, Helene T.; Blom, Nico A.; Rozendaal, Lieke; Kanhai, Humphrey H. H.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in fetuses with severe tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a follow-up study to assess the neurologic, mental, and psychomotor development in cases with fetal cardiac arrhythmia. RESULTS: A

  11. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  12. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  13. Domestic resource mobilization and long term economic growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the long term effects of domestic resource mobilization (DRM) on economic growth. This study used macroeconomic data for a period of 20 years spanning 1996 to 2015. By estimating the Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, Error Correction Model (ECM) and Impulse ...

  14. Structural composite panel performance under long-term load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1988-01-01

    Information on the performance of wood-based structural composite panels under long-term load is currently needed to permit their use in engineered assemblies and systems. A broad assessment of the time-dependent properties of panels is critical for creating databases and models of the creep-rupture phenomenon that lead to reliability-based design procedures. This...

  15. Long-term results of peripheral arterial disease rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menard, J.R.; Smith, H.E.; Riebe, D.; Braun, C.M.; Blissmer, B.; Patterson, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose Although the Peripheral Arterial Disease Rehabilitation Program (PADRx) improves walking ability and quality of life over brief periods of follow-up, the long-term durability of results has not been established. This study examined functional status, walking ability, and quality of life in

  16. Short-horizon regulation for long-term investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of imposing repeated short-horizon regulatory constraints on long-term investors. We show that Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall constraints, when imposed dynamically, lead to similar optimal portfolios and wealth distributions. We also show that, in utility terms, the costs

  17. Long term structural dynamics of mechanical systems with local nonlinearities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the long term behavior of periodically excited mechanical systems consisting of linear components and local nonlinearities. The number of degrees of freedom of the linear components is reduced by applying a component mode synthesis technique. Lyapunov exponents are used to

  18. Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral administration of C. papaya aqueous leaf extract (at 200 mg/kg body weight) on the serum lipid profile and other atherogenic indices of normal rabbits. Total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, atherogenic and ...

  19. Factors associated with collagen deposition in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alba; Alós, Llúcia; León, Agathe; Mozos, Anna; Caballero, Miguel; Martinez, Antonio; Plana, Montserrat; Gallart, Teresa; Gil, Cristina; Leal, Manuel; Gatell, Jose M; García, Felipe

    2010-08-24

    The factors associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients and their correlation with immune reconstitution were assessed. Tonsillar biopsies were performed in seven antiretroviral-naive patients and 29 successfully treated patients (median time on treatment, 61 months). Twenty patients received protease inhibitors-sparing regimens and nine protease inhibitor-containing regimens. Five tonsillar resections of HIV-negative individuals were used as controls. Lymphoid tissue architecture, collagen deposition (fibrosis) and the mean interfollicular CD4(+) cell count per mum were assessed. Naive and long-term treated HIV-infected patients had a higher proportion of fibrosis than did HIV-uninfected persons (P lymphoid tissue (P = 0.03) and smaller increase in peripheral CD4(+) T cells (r = -0.40, P = 0.05). The factors independently associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue were age (P lymphoid tissue viral load when compared with patients with undetectable lymphoid tissue viral load (median 5 vs. 12%, respectively, P = 0.017) and patients receiving a protease inhibitor-sparing vs. a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (median 8 vs. 2.5%, respectively, P = 0.04). Fibrosis in lymphoid tissue was associated with a poor reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells and long-term antiretroviral therapy did not reverse this abnormality. HIV infection, older age, a detectable level of lymphoid tissue viral load in treated patients and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens seem to favour fibrosis in lymphoid tissue.

  20. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)