WorldWideScience

Sample records for invertebrate species folsomia

  1. Toxicity of Selenium, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    TOXICITY OF SELENIUM, WEATHERED AND AGED IN SOIL, TO THE COLLEMBOLAN FOLSOMIA CANDIDA ECBC-TR-1404...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toxicity of Selenium, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia candida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...selenium (Se) to the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida using the Folsomia Reproduction Test (ISO 11267:1999). Studies were designed to generate

  2. Toxicity of the anthelmintic abamectin to four species of soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao Xiaoping [Resource and Environmental College, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Life Science and Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Jensen, John [Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: jje@dmu.dk; Duus Hansen, Anne [Department of Biology, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    Abamectin is a veterinary medicinal product with high efficiency against parasitics. This study evaluates the sublethal toxicity of abamectin to three groups of soil dwelling organisms (springtails, enchytraeids and earthworms). The reproduction of the two springtail species Folsomia fimetaria and Folsomia candida was significantly affected at abamectin concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg DW, respectively. Adults of especially F. candida were less sensitive. Abamectin had no effect on the survival of enchytraeids, whereas the number of juveniles was reduced at concentrations above 10 mg/kg. The EC{sub 10} values for reproduction were in the range of 0.05 mg/kg for springtails and 12.8 mg/kg for enchytraeids. Abamectin also had a significant effect on the reproduction of earthworms with an EC{sub 10} value of 0.06 mg/kg. However, no change in the survival and growth of juvenile earthworms was observed following 70 days of exposure. - Direct toxic effects of abamectin to soil invertebrates are likely to occur at environmental realistic concentrations.

  3. Macro-invertebrate and Avian Species Survey : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a survey effort to determine species diversity and density of macro-invertebrates and avian species inhabiting playa systems located in SW regions of Baca...

  4. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity testing with the collembolans Folsomia fimetaria and Folsomia candida and the results of a ringtest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    A ringtest was performed to introduce collembolans for the OECD test guideline programme. One species, the parthenogenetic Folsomia candida, is already an approved ISO standard while the sexually reproducing Folsomia fimetaria is introduced in the draft test guideline as an alternative to F....... candida. Although F. fimetaria  requires some initial running-in it delivers robust testing results and is recommended for the testing of compounds that may interfere with the reproductive system....

  6. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  7. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids....... There was a weak significant reduction by 30% on the reproduction of F. fimetaria fed Bt corn in Petri dishes for 21 days. Likewise there was a weak significant reduction by 40% of the reproduction of H. aculeifer by Bt corn in amounts corresponding to 20 g plant material kg-1 soil in the two species soil......-litter microcosm systems. There were no effects of Bt corn materials on the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus in the single species soil-litter microcosms. No effects of Bt corn materials on mortality of all the 4 species were observed in all treatments. The tendency of effects of the Bt corn...

  8. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  9. [Invertebrate species variety and quantity for selected units, Fish Springs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this survey was to determine if invertebrate species diversity and abundance were affected by a draw down. It was concluded that there was an inverse...

  10. Seasonal species composition of invertebrates in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela E. Porter; William R. Meehan

    1987-01-01

    The invertebrate communities ofeight Oregon streams were sampled seasonally from 1974 to 1976. Benthic, drift, and two types of aerial-trap samples were collected. Occurrence and percentage composition are summarized by sample type, season, and geographic area (coastal, Cascade, central, and eastern Oregon). Within 276 families, 426 taxa were identified; the 20...

  11. Species Diversity of Macro-benthic Invertebrates in Mangrove and Seagrass Ecosystems of Eastern Bohol, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marichu C. Libres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive survey method through actual resource assessment was conducted to determine the species diversity of macro-benthic invertebrates in the mangrove forest and seagrass beds of Eastern Bohol, Philippines namely: Anda, Candijay, Mabini, and Ubay. The 4 representative sites were chosen through random sampling. In each municipality, the researcher selected a representative area wherein 3 transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. The assessment in each transect covered a strip of 4 m by 50 m. All macro-benthic invertebrates intercepted within 4-meter to the left and right of the transect line were identified, counted and listed in a slate board. The data gathered were subjected to Shannon-Weiner Index and Kruskal Wallis Test. In mangrove forests, results revealed that Anda got the highest species diversity index of 1.66 with 11 species. The lowest value which is 1.15 was recorded in Candijay having only five macro-benthic invertebrate species. In the 4 municipalities, a total of 12 species representing 3 phyla were identified. In seagrass beds, 19 taxa of macro-benthic invertebrates were recorded belonging to three phyla. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that macro-benthic invertebrates in eastern part of Bohol is diverse both in mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Moreover, there is no significant difference in the species diversity among the four representative sites.

  12. Soil invertebrate/micro-invertebrate interactions: disproportionate effects of species on food web structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J C; DeRuiter, P C; Hunt, H W

    1993-06-01

    The preservation of biodiversity requires an appreciation of food web structure and an understanding of how disturbance alters their structure and function. Theoretical and empirical studies of food webs demonstrate that food webs possess a regular structure. Food chain length appears limited to three to four transfers, and, complexity and diversity are constrained. When ecosystem energetics are considered, species within food webs are seen to form interactive assemblages that process matter at different rates and respond to disturbance differently. Disturbance may affect the diversity of a system, or, may influence the relative importance of one species assemblage over another. Moreover, predicting the impact of disturbance on a system is difficult as species that comprise and process a small fraction of the system's biomass may control a disproportionate fraction of the system's biomass and diversity. Seven food webs at four sites were used in a modeling exercise to demonstrate this point. Field studies involving the role of mycorrhizal fungi yielded results consistent with the modeling studies as the types of plant species present, the level of production and the diversity of production were related to the levels of mycorrhizal fungi in the soils following disturbance. The results indicate that all species are important to ecosystem structure and function and that the monitoring of ecosystems and conservation efforts should expand their emphasis to the preservation of ecosystem integrity as well as that of individual species.

  13. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...

  14. Diversity and network structure of invertebrate communities associated to Heliconia species in natural and human disturbed tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Benítez-Malvido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the influence of natural and anthropogenic habitat disturbance on the structure of invertebrate communities living on two species of Heliconia herbs. We compared the invertebrate community structure associated to both species growing in natural forest gaps, on road edges for H. latispatha, and in riparian vegetation for H. collinsiana. We assessed the topological structure of individual-based Heliconia–invertebrate networks. Species richness was greater in H. collinsiana inhabiting riparian vegetation but no differences were found in the diversity of invertebrates for any Heliconia species and habitat. Invertebrate abundance was greater in gaps for H. latispatha and in riparian vegetation for H. collinsiana showing a species turnover in human disturbed habitats. The invertebrate community was not randomly assembled but highly nested, revealing a structured pattern for all habitat conditions. Heliconia–invertebrate network properties appear to be maintained in human disturbed habitats, despite differences in species richness, abundance and composition and host number and quality. Our study contributes to the understanding of the structure of ecological interactions in contrasting habitats. Because they provide food and habitat for the associated fauna and several microhabitats for colonization, heliconias could be used as habitat elements for invertebrate conservation in human impacted landscapes.

  15. Extreme female promiscuity in a non-social invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Panova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While males usually benefit from as many matings as possible, females often evolve various methods of resistance to matings. The prevalent explanation for this is that the cost of additional matings exceeds the benefits of receiving sperm from a large number of males. Here we demonstrate, however, a strongly deviating pattern of polyandry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed paternity in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis by genotyping large clutches (53-79 of offspring from four females sampled in their natural habitats. We found evidence of extreme promiscuity with 15-23 males having sired the offspring of each female within the same mating period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a high level of promiscuity has previously only been observed in a few species of social insects. We argue that genetic bet-hedging (as has been suggested earlier is unlikely to explain such extreme polyandry. Instead we propose that these high levels are examples of convenience polyandry: females accept high numbers of matings if costs of refusing males are higher than costs of accepting superfluous matings.

  16. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  17. Differential endozoochory of aquatic invertebrates by two duck species in shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Barrera, Luis; Gómez, Eulalia; Gil-Delgado, José Antonio; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Animal vectors are essential for the movement of invertebrate resting eggs between water bodies. However, differences in habitat preferences and feeding behaviour between bird species may result in variations in the dispersal of invertebrates via these birds, even if the different bird species live in the same lake. To test such effects, faecal samples from Anas platyrhynchos (collected in autumn and spring) and Tadorna tadorna (collected in spring) were cultured in water at 20° C and 12 L: 12 D conditions in order to quantify the resting eggs which could be internally transported by these birds. One half of each faecal sample was initially cultured at a conductivity of 0.6 mS cm-1 and the other half at 6 mS cm-1. 1054 invertebrates hatched from a total of 60 faecal samples, including cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, rotifers and ciliates, with a wide variability among faeces. Autumn yielded a low proportion of samples with hatchlings (12.5%) compared to spring (90%). Significant differences were observed between birds, but not between conductivity treatments. Thus, our results imply different hatching dynamics affected by disperser and season, but most species transported as resting eggs by birds seem to have a wide tolerance to hatch under variable salinity conditions. These differences may largery influence the metacommunity dynamics of lake networks, and could be a key factor to consider in wetland conservation planning.

  18. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymus, Katy E; Marshall, Nathaniel T; Stepien, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05) and high coefficients of determination (R2) for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  19. Local Ecological Knowledge Indicates Temporal Trends of Benthic Invertebrates Species of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Bastari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Adriatic Sea, shifts in benthic community structure have been attributed to multiple stressors, from the effects of climate change to the impacts of commercial fishing. Some fishing practices, such as bottom trawling, have caused a widespread decline in exploited fish stocks. Bottom trawling is also expected to have negative impacts on benthic habitats, usually structured by and hosting a large array of invertebrate species, which provide important ecological services to fish and commercial invertebrate stocks. However, in contrast to commercial species for which long-term time series of the abundance exist, data on these habitat-forming invertebrates are scarce, as they are usually caught as bycatch and discarded. Therefore, there is great uncertainty about their long-term trends, and if these populations are stable or declining. Here we used interview surveys conducted with bottom-trawling fishers of the central Adriatic Sea to gather local ecological knowledge on megabenthos abundance occurring in their fishing domain, as an alternative source of information to conventional fisheries data. We interviewed 44 fishers, from the most important ports of the Marche region of Italy, to understand how megabenthic species have changed in abundance within the area since the 1980s. Specifically, we asked fishers to provide qualitative abundance scores for 18 invertebrate species in five phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, Mollusca, and Echinodermata based on their recollection of these species' presence in bycatch. We stratified responses in homogeneous temporal periods and geographic sectors of the study area, and analyzed their response with mixed effect ordered logistic regression models in order to evaluate spatiotemporal changes in the perceived abundance of each species. Our analysis suggests that the abundance of the sponge Geodia cydonium, the molluscs Pecten jacobaeus, Atrina fragilis, Neopycnodonte cochlear, and the group of

  20. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  1. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  2. Early detection of potentially invasive invertebrate species in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 dominated communities in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, Cristina; Memedemin, Daniyar; Skolka, Marius; Cogălniceanu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Constanţa harbour is a major port on the western coast of the semi-enclosed Black Sea. Its brackish waters and low species richness make it vulnerable to invasions. The intensive maritime traffic through Constanţa harbour facilitates the arrival of alien species. We investigated the species composition of the mussel beds on vertical artificial concrete substrate inside the harbour. We selected this habitat for study because it is frequently affected by fluctuating levels of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, and by accidental pollution episodes. The shallow communities inhabiting it are thus unstable and often restructured, prone to accept alien species. Monthly samples were collected from three locations from the upper layer of hard artificial substrata (maximum depth 2 m) during two consecutive years. Ten alien macro-invertebrate species were inventoried, representing 13.5% of the total number of species. Two of these alien species were sampled starting the end of summer 2010, following a period of high temperatures that triggered hypoxia, causing mass mortalities of benthic organisms. Based on the species accumulation curve, we estimated that we have detected all benthic alien species on artificial substrate from Constanţa harbour, but additional effort is required to detect all the native species. Our results suggest that monitoring of benthic communities at small depths in harbours is a simple and useful tool in early detection of potentially invasive alien species. The selected habitat is easily accessible, the method is low-cost, and the samples represent reliable indicators of alien species establishment.

  3. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, C.; Fritz, Susanne; Marini, L.

    2010-01-01

    . This is surprising as EPT are bio-indicators of stream pollution and most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic dataset, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human...

  4. Juveniles Are More Resistant to Warming than Adults in 4 Species of Antarctic Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lloyd S; Souster, Terri; Clark, Melody S

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile stages are often thought to be less resistant to thermal challenges than adults, yet few studies make direct comparisons using the same methods between different life history stages. We tested the resilience of juvenile stages compared to adults in 4 species of Antarctic marine invertebrate over 3 different rates of experimental warming. The species used represent 3 phyla and 4 classes, and were the soft-shelled clam Laternula elliptica, the sea cucumber Cucumaria georgiana, the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, and the seastar Odontaster validus. All four species are widely distributed, locally abundant to very abundant and are amongst the most important in the ecosystem for their roles. At the slowest rate of warming used (1°C 3 days(-1)) juveniles survived to higher temperatures than adults in all species studied. At the intermediate rate (1°C day(-1)) juveniles performed better in 3 of the 4 species, with no difference in the 4(th), and at the fastest rate of warming (1°C h(-1)) L. elliptica adults survived to higher temperatures than juveniles, but in C. georgiana juveniles survived to higher temperatures than adults and there were no differences in the other species. Oxygen limitation may explain the better performance of juveniles at the slower rates of warming, whereas the loss of difference between juveniles and adults at the fastest rate of warming suggests another mechanism sets the temperature limit here.

  5. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.

  6. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  7. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  8. Suitability of seven species of soil-inhabiting invertebrates for testing toxicity of pesticides in soil pore water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, R.; Houx, N.W.H.

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the suitability of seven species of soil invertebrates for toxicologically testing pesticides in water. Requirements were that the organisms must survive in water, be easy to handle, be easy to breed, be sensitive to pesticides, and show unambiguous toxicological effects. The org

  9. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  10. Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities from reefs of Bermuda: Species composition and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, A.; Mathers, S. M.; Thomas, M. L. H.

    1984-04-01

    Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities attached to the walls and roof of cavities in coralgal reefs on the annular rim of the Bermuda platform near North Rock (4 sites) and in the algal cup reef tract on the south shore (3 sites) have been studied by belt photo-transects and direct sampling. Irradiance measurements reveal a light gradient which appears to exert a strong influence on the composition, relative coverage and zonation of the attached biotic communities. Two main communities are recognised from cluster analysis and relative areal coverage data. Near the cavity entrances is a community dominated by crustose coralline algae, with subsidiary ascidians, demosponges, bryozoans and Foraminifera. Species richness is high and there is total biotic coverage of walls and roof. This community grades laterally into an exclusively animal community characterised by encrusting sponges and Foraminifera, with subsidiary bryozoans and unidentified branching organisms. Coverage varies from 100% to 30%, the substrate often exhibiting high micro-relief from the branching growth forms of the Foraminifera. Species richness is high at North Rock sites, less so on the south shore. The distribution of coelobite species is compared with that described from previous studies in Bermuda, Grand Cayman and Madagascar.

  11. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two types...

  12. Brevibacillus laterosporus, a Pathogen of Invertebrates and a Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ruiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterium characterized by the production of a unique canoe-shaped lamellar body attached to one side of the spore, is a natural inhabitant of water, soil and insects. Its biopesticidal potential has been reported against insects in different orders including Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and against nematodes and mollusks. In addition to its pathogenicity against invertebrates, different B. laterosporus strains show a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity including activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. A wide variety of molecules, including proteins and antibiotics, have been associated with the observed pathogenicity and mode of action. Before being considered as a biological control agent against plant pathogens, the antifungal and antibacterial properties of certain B. laterosporus strains have found medical interest, associated with the production of antibiotics with therapeutic effects. The recent whole genome sequencing of this species revealed its potential to produce polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and toxins. Another field of growing interest is the use of this bacterium for bioremediation of contaminated sites by exploiting its biodegradation properties. The aim of the present review is to gather and discuss all recent findings on this emerging entomopathogen, giving a wider picture of its complex and broad-spectrum biocontrol activity.

  13. Brevibacillus laterosporus, a Pathogen of Invertebrates and a Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Luca

    2013-09-05

    Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterium characterized by the production of a unique canoe-shaped lamellar body attached to one side of the spore, is a natural inhabitant of water, soil and insects. Its biopesticidal potential has been reported against insects in different orders including Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and against nematodes and mollusks. In addition to its pathogenicity against invertebrates, different B. laterosporus strains show a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity including activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. A wide variety of molecules, including proteins and antibiotics, have been associated with the observed pathogenicity and mode of action. Before being considered as a biological control agent against plant pathogens, the antifungal and antibacterial properties of certain B. laterosporus strains have found medical interest, associated with the production of antibiotics with therapeutic effects. The recent whole genome sequencing of this species revealed its potential to produce polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and toxins. Another field of growing interest is the use of this bacterium for bioremediation of contaminated sites by exploiting its biodegradation properties. The aim of the present review is to gather and discuss all recent findings on this emerging entomopathogen, giving a wider picture of its complex and broad-spectrum biocontrol activity.

  14. Rocky shores of a major southern African Marine Protected Area are almost free from intertidal invertebrate alien species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie Malherbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A major threat to marine ecosystems is the establishment and proliferation of invasive alien species. This study addresses gaps in our knowledge regarding marine alien invertebrate species in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve (KBR and adjacent Betty’s Bay Marine Protected Area (MPA in the Western Cape of South Africa, together a potentially important area for south-coast marine conservation. Understanding the distribution and geographical expansion of these species is critical for conservation planning. A quantitative systematic survey of the intertidal rocky shore region was undertaken. The mytilid Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata were the only alien species recorded along the coastline, which included the MPA. The abundance of M. galloprovincialis was significantly higher outside the MPA, and the abundance of W. subtorquata was significantly higher inside the MPA. With only two alien species recorded, the Betty’s Bay MPA and its surroundings support relatively few marine alien species with regards to rocky shore invertebrate biodiversity. Conservation implications: It is important that the Betty’s Bay MPA and its adjacent coastline maintain its current status as an area with relatively few marine alien species. The conservation implications on management require routine surveys of this region to detect early introductions of any additional species.

  15. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region: Invertebrate species composition, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Wrubleski, D.A.; Mushet, D.M.; Batzer, D.P.; Rader, R.B.; Wissinger, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States and Canada is a unique area where shallow depressions created by the scouring action of Pleistocene glaciation interact with mid-continental climate variations to create and maintain a variety of wetland classes. These wetlands possess unique environmental and biotic characteristics that add to the overall regional diversity and production of aquatic invertebrates and the vertebrate wildlife that depend upon them as food. Climatic extremes in the PPR have a profound and dynamic influence on wetland hydrology, hydroperiod, chemistry, and ultimately the biota. Available knowledge of aquatic invertebrates in the PPR suggests that diversity of invertebrates within each wetland class is low. Harsh environmental conditions range from frigid winter temperatures that freeze wetlands and their sediments to hot summer temperatures and drought conditions that create steep salinity gradients and seasonally dry habitats. Consequently, the invertebrate community is composed mostly of ecological generalists that possess the necessary adaptations to tolerate environmental extremes. In this review, we describe the highly dynamic nature of prairie pothole wetlands and suggest that invertebrate studies be evaluated within a conceptual framework that considers important hydrologic, chemical, and climatic events.

  16. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). SHEEPSHEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GULF , MOLLUSCA , NORTH(DIRECTION), OFFSHORE, PROFILES, RANGE(EXTREMES), RATES, RECREATION, REQUIREMENTS, STRUCTURES, TAXONOMY, TEMPERATURE, TROPICAL REGIONS, WATER, YOUTH, LIFE CYCLES, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)...IMPACT STATEMENTS, ENVIRONMENTS, ESTUARIES, GRASSES, GROWTH(GENERAL), HABITATS, HISTORY, INSHORE AREAS, INVERTEBRATES, LANDING, LIFE(BIOLOGY), MEXICO

  17. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Bihari Nityananda Chainy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  18. Brevibacillus laterosporus, a Pathogen of Invertebrates and a Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Species

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Ruiu

    2013-01-01

    Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterium characterized by the production of a unique canoe-shaped lamellar body attached to one side of the spore, is a natural inhabitant of water, soil and insects. Its biopesticidal potential has been reported against insects in different orders including Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and against nematodes and mollusks. In addition to its pathogenicity against invertebrates, different B. laterosporus strains show a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity inc...

  19. Thyroid hormone receptor orthologues from invertebrate species with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niles Edward G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs function as molecular switches in response to thyroid hormone to regulate gene transcription. TRs were previously believed to be present only in chordates. Results: We isolated two TR genes from the Schistosoma mansoni and identified TR orthologues from other invertebrates: the platyhelminths, S. japonium and Schmidtea mediterranea, the mollusc, Lottia gigantean and the arthropod Daphnia pulex. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA binding domain and/or ligand binding domain shows that invertebrate and vertebrate TRs cluster together, TRs from the vertebrates and from the jawless vertebrate (lamprey clustered within separate subgroups, Platyhelminth TRs cluster outside of the vertebrate TR subgroups and that the schistosome TRs and S. mediterranea TRs clustered within separate subgroups. Alignment of the C-terminus of the A/B domain revealed a conserved TR-specific motif, termed TR 'N-terminus signature sequence', with a consensus sequence of (G/PYIPSY(M/LXXXGPE(D/EX. Heterodimer formation between S. mansoni TRs and SmRXR1 suggests that the invertebrate TR protein gained the ability to form a heterodimer with RXR. ESMA analysis showed that SmTRα could bind to a conserved DNA core motif as a monomer or homodimer. Conclusion: Vertebrate TR genes originated from a common ancestor of the Bilateria. TR genes underwent duplication independently in the Protostomia and Deuterostomia. The duplication of TRs in deuterostomes occurred after the split of jawless and jawed vertebrates. In protostomes, TR genes underwent duplication in Platyhelminths, occurring independently in trematode and turbellarian lineages. Using S. mansoni TRs as an example, invertebrate TRs exhibited the ability to form a dimer with RXR prior to the emergence of the vertebrate TRs and were able to bind to vertebrate TR core DNA elements as a monomer or homodimer.

  20. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao, S.; Cerejeira, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

  1. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao, S.; Cerejeira, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

  2. Tumors in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tascedda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathology, which can create misunderstandings in some occasions.

  3. Responses of selected Chesapeake Bay fish and invertebrate species to natural and artificial thermal increases - a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, L.H.; Burton, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    A review of the biological literature concerning the acute effects of thermal increases upon several fish and invertebrate species indigenous to the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. The acute effects data were combined with other natural life-temperature interaction data for developmental stages of Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Morone saxatalis, Leiostomus xanthurus, Micropogon undulatus, Menidia menidia, Anchoa mitchilli, Brevoortia tyrannus and Crassostrea virginica and Callinectes sapidus. The data were evaluated to ascertain what effects, if any, the thermal discharge (5.6C maximum delta T) from Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant would have upon populations of these species in the Chesapeake Bay. It was concluded from the data that a thermal discharge such as that from Calvert Cliffs would have little or no impact upon the egg, larval, juvenile or adult populations of the studied species.

  4. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  5. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  6. Drifting algal mats as an alternative habitat for benthic invertebrates: Species specific responses to a transient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkko; Bonsdorff; Norkko

    2000-05-18

    Patchy occurrences of benthic drift algae (i.e. loose lying macroalgal mats) may increase habitat complexity on normally bare soft bottoms, but at the same time, extensive amounts of drifting algal mats are known to stress the benthic fauna. This paper presents results of the first detailed study of the fauna associated with drift algal mats in the northern Baltic Sea. In order to assess the importance of drifting algae as an alternative habitat for benthic fauna, benthic drift algal mats were sampled on shallow (2-9 m) sandy soft bottoms in the outer archipelago of the Åland Islands (Finland). Species composition, abundance and biomass of the macrofauna associated with algal mats were recorded. The results show that drifting algae at times can harbour very high abundances of invertebrates (up to 1116 individuals/g algal dryweight), surpassing invertebrate densities recorded in seagrass communities. The algal fauna varied between sites and over time, and factors such as ambient benthic fauna, exposure to wind-wave disturbance, depth, and algal coverage and condition influenced the invertebrate community composition of the algal mats. Abundance increased while individual biomass of the animals decreased over time (summer season; July-October). A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in order to test the ability of a few important benthic species to move up into, and survive in a drifting algal mat. Macoma balthica, Hydrobia spp., Nereis diversicolor and Bathyporeia pilosa were used in the experiments, and significant differences in their survival and mobility within drifting algae were recorded. This study shows that benthic species differ significantly in their ability to utilise the algal mats, with mainly opportunistic and mobile taxa such as Hydrobia spp., Chironomidae and Ostracoda benefiting from the algae, whereas infaunal species such as M. balthica and B. pilosa are negatively affected. The occurrence of eutrophication induced drifting macroalgal

  7. Global change ecotoxicology: Identification of early life history bottlenecks in marine invertebrates, variable species responses and variable experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine biota because increased atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean warming, acidification, hypercapnia and decreased carbonate saturation. These stressors have toxic effects on invertebrate development. The persistence and success of populations requires all ontogenetic stages be completed successfully and, due to their sensitivity to environmental stressors, developmental stages may be a population bottleneck in a changing ocean. Global change ecotoxicology is being used to identify the marine invertebrate developmental stages vulnerable to climate change. This overview of research, and the methodologies used, shows that most studies focus on acidification, with few studies on ocean warming, despite a long history of research on developmental thermotolerance. The interactive effects of stressors are poorly studied. Experimental approaches differ among studies. Fertilization in many species exhibits a broad tolerance to warming and/or acidification, although different methodologies confound inter-study comparisons. Early development is susceptible to warming and most calcifying larvae are sensitive to acidification/increased pCO₂. In multistressor studies moderate warming diminishes the negative impact of acidification on calcification in some species. Development of non-calcifying larvae appears resilient to near-future ocean change. Although differences in species sensitivities to ocean change stressors undoubtedly reflect different tolerance levels, inconsistent handling of gametes, embryos and larvae probably influences different research outcomes. Due to the integrative 'developmental domino effect', life history responses will be influenced by the ontogenetic stage at which experimental incubations are initiated. Exposure to climate change stressors from early development (fertilization where possible) in multistressor experiments is needed to identify ontogenetic sensitivities and this will be facilitated by more consistent

  8. Patterns in Species Composition of Fish and Selected Invertebrate Assemblages in Estuarine Subregions near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperno, R.; Mille, K. J.; Kadison, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Fisheries-Independent Monitoring program monitored the species composition and relative abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the estuarine waters near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, from January 1993 through to December 1996. Sampling sites were located in three distinct physiographic and biotic estuarine subregions: Mosquito Lagoon (ML; 11 stations), Ponce de Leon Inlet (PI; 8 stations), and Tomoka Basin/River (TR; 8 stations). This series of subregions associated with Ponce de Leon Inlet is a species-rich estuarine system that is numerically dominated by a few taxa. A total of 1 080 477 animals representing 160 species and 56 families were recorded. Anchoa spp. (29·9%) and Menidia spp. (12·6%) were the numerically dominant taxa. Sciaenidae and Gobiidae were the most speciose families, with 12 species each (14·0% and 1·7% of the total animals collected, respectively), followed by the bothids 10 species (0·6% of total animals). Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the subregions could be discriminated by their respective species composition and relative abundance. Spatial differences in species composition were principally attributed to differences in the magnitude of seasonal recruitment events and to habitat characteristics associated with the presence of seagrass, inlet dynamics, or the influence of freshwater discharge. The presence of freshwater taxa (centrarchids) and the seasonal recruitment of juvenile Penaeidae, Micropogonias undulatus , Stellifer lanceolatus and Leiostomus xanthurus, characterize the TR area, whereas the presence of species associated with higher salinities ( Opisthonema oglinum and Harengula jaguana) characterize PI and with seagrass ( Lucania parva and Lagodon rhomboides) characterize ML.

  9. Pheromones and signature mixtures: defining species-wide signals and variable cues for identity in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tristram D

    2010-10-01

    Pheromones have been found in species in almost every part of the animal kingdom, including mammals. Pheromones (a molecule or defined combination of molecules) are species-wide signals which elicit innate responses (though responses can be conditional on development as well as context, experience, and internal state). In contrast, signature mixtures, in invertebrates and vertebrates, are variable subsets of molecules of an animal's chemical profile which are learnt by other animals, allowing them to distinguish individuals or colonies. All signature mixtures, and almost all pheromones, whatever the size of molecules, are detected by olfaction (as defined by receptor families and glomerular processing), in mammals by the main olfactory system or vomeronasal system or both. There is convergence on a glomerular organization of olfaction. The processing of all signature mixtures, and most pheromones, is combinatorial across a number of glomeruli, even for some sex pheromones which appear to have 'labeled lines'. Narrowly specific pheromone receptors are found, but are not a prerequisite for a molecule to be a pheromone. A small minority of pheromones act directly on target tissues (allohormone pheromones) or are detected by non-glomerular chemoreceptors, such as taste. The proposed definitions for pheromone and signature mixture are based on the heuristic value of separating these kinds of chemical information. In contrast to a species-wide pheromone, there is no single signature mixture to find, as signature mixtures are a 'receiver-side' phenomenon and it is the differences in signature mixtures which allow animals to distinguish each other.

  10. Effects of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin on soil invertebrates in laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römbke, J; Krogh, K A; Moser, T; Scheffczyk, A; Liebig, M

    2010-02-01

    As part of the risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals, the potential impact of these chemicals on soil ecosystems has to be determined according to European law. However, almost no data from standardized laboratory tests are available. Therefore, in the EU FP6 ERAPharm, the effects of the widely used veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin, an anthelminthic, were studied in chronic laboratory tests performed according to OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) guidelines. In detail, three soil invertebrate species--the earthworm Eisenia fetida, the springtail Folsomia candida, and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer--were tested. The nominal concentrations of ivermectin mixed into the test substrate artificial soil was verified using residue analysis, which indicated that the test substance is persistent for at least up to 28 days. As expected when considering the mode of action of this substance, survival and reproduction of collembolans were clearly affected [LC(50) = 8.4 mg/kg soil dry weight (dw); NOEC(repro) = 0.3 mg/kg soil (dw)]. Predatory mites reacted less sensitively [LC(50) > or = 31.6 mg/kg soil (dw); NOEC(repro) = 3.2 mg/kg soil (dw)]. Earthworm survival and reproduction were affected in the same order of magnitude as the predatory mites [LC(50) > or = 10 mg/kg soil (dw); NOEC(repro) = 2.5 mg/kg soil (dw)]. These results are in good agreement with the few data known from nonstandardized tests for the same or related soil invertebrate species. The results of these tests indicate that the effects of ivermectin on soil invertebrates--in particular, collembolans--cannot be excluded at field-relevant concentrations, as determined in a risk assessment according to VICH guidelines. More sophisticated higher-tier tests (e.g., in multispecies or semifield test systems) are recommended in order to assess the potential risk more accurately.

  11. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  12. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24h LD(50) values of 7 and 20 microM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 microM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24h LD(50) of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 microM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24h LD(50) of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 microM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 microM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riedel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups. Most atypical (stress behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (2 L−1, the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (2 L−1, the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (2 L−1 and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Body slender and resembling that of a 1973). praying mantis (except for whale lice). Marine. Includes skeleton shrimp Suborder Caprellidea. MORPHOLOGY...Abdomen not vestigial. Body neither slender nor resembling that of a praying mantis . ...... 2 REASON FOR INCLUSION IN SERIES lb. Pereon with six...according to Smith and Mudd (1976) and patchy, small localized perturbations for other fish species, as well as are likely to create more patchiness, shrimp

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Striped Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    the sides (Werner 1980). Osteological vomer and paiatines (Hardy 1978). differences are also evident in the three species (Woolcott 1957; Harrell 1984...Percichthyidae) by means of osteological patterns, meristics and Holland, B.F., Jr., and G.F. Yelverton. 1973. morphometrics. Ph.D. Dissertation. Uni...1957. Comparative osteology Striped Bass Subcommittee of the House of of serranid fishes of the genus Roccus Representatives. 9 pp. (Mitchill). Copeia

  17. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American Eel,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    economic importance, if applicable. A three-ring binder is used for this series so that new profiles can be added as they are prepared . This project is...bands of small, pectinate or setiform teeth. A long The American eel is an important tooth patch also occurs on the vomer. prey species of larger marine...Fahay 1978). et al. (1978) collected glass eels Prior to completion of the differenti- from the Cooper River, South Carolina, ation process , some

  18. Exposure to 17β-Oestradiol Induces Oxidative Stress in the Non-Oestrogen Receptor Invertebrate Species Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Heger

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida.Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50.70% inhibition in 100 μg/kg of E2. We further demonstrated that the exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a contaminant of emerging concern, 17β-oestradiol (E2, significantly affected the molecules involved in antioxidant defence. Exposure to E2 results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stimulation of antioxidant systems (metallothionein and reduced oxidized glutathione ratio but not phytochelatins at both the mRNA and translated protein levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-imaging revealed the subcuticular bioaccumulation of oestradiol-3,4-quinone, altering the levels of local antioxidants in a time-dependent manner.The present study illustrates that although most invertebrates do not possess oestrogen receptors, these organisms can be affected by oestrogen hormones, likely reflecting free diffusion into the cellular microenvironment with subsequent degradation to molecules that undergo redox cycling, producing ROS, thereby increasing environmental contamination that also perilously affects keystone animals, forming lower trophic levels.

  19. Comparing population recovery after insecticide exposure for four aquatic invertebrate species using models of different complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveco, J M Hans; Norman, Steve; Roessink, Ivo; Galic, Nika; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Population models, in particular individual-based models (IBMs), are becoming increasingly important in chemical risk assessment. They can be used to assess recovery of spatially structured populations after chemical exposure that varies in time and space. The authors used an IBM coupled to a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model, the threshold damage model (TDM), to assess recovery times for 4 aquatic organisms, after insecticide application, in a nonseasonal environment and in 3 spatial settings (pond, stream, and ditch). The species had different life histories (e.g., voltinism, reproductive capacity, mobility). Exposure was derived from a pesticide fate model, following standard European Union scenarios. The results of the IBM-TDM were compared with results from simpler models: one in which exposure was linked to effects by means of concentration-effect relationships (IBM-CE) and one in which the IBM was replaced by a nonspatial, logistic growth model (logistic). For the first, exposure was based on peak concentrations only; for the second, exposure was spatially averaged as well. By using comparisons between models of different complexity and species with different life histories, the authors obtained an understanding of the role spatial processes play in recovery and the conditions under which the full time-varying exposure needs to be considered. The logistic model, which is amenable to an analytic approach, provided additional insights into the sensitivity of recovery times to density dependence and spatial dimensions. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Ecotoxicity of titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO4) nanomaterial for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, Sirine; Gavina, Ana; Ksibi, Mohamed; Rasteiro, Maria da Graça; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The huge evolution of nanotechnology and the commercialization of nanomaterials (NMs) positively contributed for innovation in several industrial sectors. Facing this rapid development and the emergence of NMs in the market, the release of this nanometric sized materials in the environment and the possible impact on different ecosystem components attracted the attention of researchers in the last few years. In our study we aimed to assess the impact of titanium silicon oxide nanomaterial (nano-TiSiO4) on soil biota to estimate a risk limit for this material. In the present research a battery of standardized ecotoxicological assays aimed at evaluating a wide range of endpoints (avoidance and reproduction of earthworms and collembolans, emergence/growth of four selected terrestrial plants) were carried out, using OECD artificial soil as test substrate spiked with aqueous suspension of different concentrations of nano-TiSiO4. The results showed a maximum avoidance percentage of 40% for earthworms (Esenia andrei) at the highest concentration tested (1000mgkg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4). No significant effect on the reproductive function of both invertebrate species was recorded. Nevertheless, significant phytotoxic data was registered at least for the growth of dicotyledonous plant species (Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon lycopersicum) with EC20 values ranging between 236 and 414 mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4 for L. sativa dry mass and fresh mass, respectively. Further, the characterization of nano-TiSiO4 in suspensions used to spike the soil, performed by Dynamic Light Scattering, showed the formation of aggregates with important average size diameter, thus demonstrating that the toxic effects observed were likely not size dependent. A deterministic PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for this NM of 10.02mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4, is suggested, while no more ecotoxicological information exists.

  1. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Blue crab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.; Fowler, D.L.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Species profiles are summaries of the literature on taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are prepared to assist with impact assessment. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, occurs in lower reaches of freshwater rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico, and the species supports the largest crab fishery in the United States. Chesapeake Bay provides the greatest production of blue crabs on the east coast. The blue crab's high abundance in estuaries, diverse feeding habits, and importance as prey for other marine animals indicate its important role in the structure and function of estuarine communities. Female blue crabs spawn in high-salinity lower estuaries of coastal areas; the resulting larvae are planktonic and develop into juveniles at 5 to 10 weeks of age. Juveniles gradually migrate into shallower, less-saline upper estuaries and rivers where they grow and mature at 1-2 yr of age. Mating occurs in the upper estuaries after which females migrate to areas having higher salinities. Growth and survival of blue crabs are strongly affected by water temperature and salinity, but tolerances vary with life stage. Larvae require temperatures of 20-30/degree/C and salinities of 10-30 ppt for proper development, but salinity and temperature tolerances are broad for advanced juveniles and adults. Blue crabs use nearly all areas within estuaries as nursery habitat, and crab populations are sensitive to changes in physical features of contamination of these areas. 94 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  3. Confirmation and Distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the First Time in Terrestrial Invertebrates: Two Terrestrial Flatworm Species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense)

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Amber N; Ducey, Peter K.; Lorin Neuman-Lee; Charles T Hanifin; French, Susannah S.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) is known from a diverse array of taxa, but is unknown in terrestrial invertebrates. Tetrodotoxin is a low molecular weight compound that acts by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels, inducing paralysis. However, the origins and ecological functions of TTX in most taxa remain mysterious. Here, we show that TTX is present in two species of terrestrial flatworm (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense) using a competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoas...

  4. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FOLSOMIA CANDIDA IN A NATURAL SANDY LOAM SOIL ECBC-TR-1272 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini Jan E...SUBTITLE Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) Folsomia candida octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) 2,6-dinitrotoluene

  5. Leachability of protein and metals incorporated into aquatic invertebrates: are species and metals-exposure history important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.S.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Morris, J.M.; Farag, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To partially simulate conditions in fish intestinal tracts, we leached six groups of metals-contaminated invertebrates at pH 2 and pH 7, and analyzed the concentrations of four metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and total protein in the leachates. Four of the groups of invertebrates were benthic macroinvertebrates collected from metals-contaminated rivers (the Clark Fork River in Montana and the Coeur d’Alene River in Idaho, USA); the other two groups of invertebrates (one of which was exposed to metals in the laboratory) were laboratory-reared brine shrimp (Artemia sp.). Additionally, we fractionated the pH 2 leachates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein content was 1.3 to 1.4× higher in Artemia than in the benthic macroinvertebrates, and leachability of metals and protein differed considerably among several of the groups of invertebrates. In SEC fractions of the pH 2 leachates from both groups of Artemia, Cu and protein co-eluted; however, Cu and protein did not co-elute in SEC fractions of the leachates from any of the benthic macroinvertebrate groups. Although none of the other three metals co-eluted with protein in any of the pH 2 leachates, one or more of the metals co-eluted with lower-molecular-weight molecules in the leachates from all of the groups of invertebrates. These results suggest fundamental differences in metal-binding properties and protein leachability among some invertebrates. Thus, different invertebrates and different histories of metals exposure might lead to different availability of metals and protein to predators.

  6. Exposure to 17β-Oestradiol Induces Oxidative Stress in the Non-Oestrogen Receptor Invertebrate Species Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Michalek, Petr; Guran, Roman; Havelkova, Barbora; Kominkova, Marketa; Cernei, Natalia; Richtera, Lukas; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida. Methodology/Principal Findings Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50.70% inhibition in 100 μg/kg of E2). We further demonstrated that the exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a contaminant of emerging concern, 17β-oestradiol (E2), significantly affected the molecules involved in antioxidant defence. Exposure to E2 results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the stimulation of antioxidant systems (metallothionein and reduced oxidized glutathione ratio) but not phytochelatins at both the mRNA and translated protein levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging revealed the subcuticular bioaccumulation of oestradiol-3,4-quinone, altering the levels of local antioxidants in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance The present study illustrates that although most invertebrates do not possess oestrogen receptors, these organisms can be affected by oestrogen hormones, likely reflecting free diffusion into the cellular microenvironment with subsequent degradation to molecules that undergo redox cycling, producing ROS, thereby increasing environmental contamination that also perilously affects keystone animals, forming lower trophic levels. PMID:26695684

  7. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July, all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August, suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests

  8. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy; Karg, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease) of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July), all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August), suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests, especially the

  9. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  10. Louisiana ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species, and major concentration areas for harvested or potentially...

  11. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, ...

  14. Can cyanobacterial biomass applied to soil affect survival and reproduction of springtail Folsomia candida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lána, Jan; Hofman, Jakub; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Biomass of cyanobacterial water blooms including cyanobacterial toxins may enter soils, for example, when harvested water bloom is directly applied as an organic fertilizer or when water with massive cyanobacterial biomass is used for irrigation. In spite of this, no information is available about the potential effects on soil arthropods. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of water bloom biomass sampled in five different fresh water lakes on the soil dwelling arthropod, springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). These samples contained different dominant species of cyanobacteria and varied significantly in microcystin content (21-3662 μg/g dw biomass). No adverse effects on survival or reproduction were observed for any tested sample at concentration up to 4 g dw biomass/kg dw soil. Despite the known hazardous properties of water blooms in aquatic ecosystems, our pilot results suggest that cyanobacterial biomass might have no significant impact on arthropods in soil. It remains a question, if this is due to low bioavailability of cyanobacterial toxins in soil.

  15. Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of metal bioavailability in soil by linking the biotic ligand approach with toxicokinetics modelling. We determined cadmium bioaccumulation kinetics in Folsomia candida (Collembola) as a function of soil pH. Animals were exposed for 21 days to LUFA 2.2 soil at 5 or 20 μg Cd g(-1) dry soil followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Internal cadmium concentrations were modelled using a first-order one-compartment model, relating uptake rate constants (k1) to total soil, water or 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater concentrations. Based on total soil concentrations, k1 was independent of soil pH while it strongly increased with increasing pH based on porewater concentrations explaining the reduced competition of H(+) ions making cadmium more bioavailable in pore water at high pH. This shows that the principles of biotic ligand modelling are applicable to predict cadmium accumulation kinetics in soil-living invertebrates.

  16. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance......Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  17. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico), Red Snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    I-F and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico) OT0418 0 RED SNAPPER DsTRIBTION 5TATF~ vENTA Df ’iubuo- I Coastal Ecology Group Fish and Wildlife Service W...binder is used for this series so that new profiles can be added as they are prepared. This project is jointly planned and financed by the U.S. Army...management logy of the red snapper, Lutjanus plan for the reef fish fishery of campechanus (Poey), from three areas the Gulf of mexico. Pages 1-1 to aong the

  19. Ecological complexity of coral recruitment processes: effects of invertebrate herbivores on coral recruitment and growth depends upon substratum properties and coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Davies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition from planktonic planula to sessile adult corals occurs at low frequencies and post settlement mortality is extremely high. Herbivores promote settlement by reducing algal competition. This study investigates whether invertebrate herbivory might be modulated by other ecological factors such as substrata variations and coral species identity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiment was conducted at the Flower Garden Banks, one of the few Atlantic reefs not experiencing considerable degradation. Tiles of differing texture and orientation were kept in bins surrounded by reef (24 m. Controls contained no herbivores while treatment bins contained urchins (Diadema antillarum or herbivorous gastropods (Cerithium litteratum. Juvenile corals settling naturally were monitored by photography for 14 months to evaluate the effects of invertebrate herbivory and substratum properties. Herbivory reduced algae cover in urchin treatments. Two genera of brooding coral juveniles were observed, Agaricia and Porites, both of which are common but not dominant on adjacent reef. No broadcast spawning corals were observed on tiles. Overall, juveniles were more abundant in urchin treatments and on vertical, rough textured surfaces. Although more abundant, Agaricia juveniles were smaller in urchin treatments, presumably due to destructive overgrazing. Still, Agaricia growth increased with herbivory and substrata texture-orientation interactions were observed with reduced growth on rough tiles in control treatments and increased growth on vertical tiles in herbivore treatments. In contrast to Agaricia, Porites juveniles were larger on horizontal tiles, irrespective of herbivore treatment. Mortality was affected by substrata orientation with vertical surfaces increasing coral survival. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We further substantiate that invertebrate herbivores play major roles in early settlement processes of corals and highlight the need

  20. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries: The use of Taylor's power law as a species-specific indicator of dispersion and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a common statistical approach describing the distribution and dispersion pattern of marine benthic animals has often hampered the comparability among studies. The purpose of this study is therefore to apply an alternative approach, Taylor's power law, to data on spatial and temporal...... distribution of 9 dominating benthic invertebrate species from two study areas, the estuaries Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. The slope (b) obtained fromthe power relationship of sample variance (s2) versusmean (μ) appears to be species-specific and independent of location and time. It ranges from...... strong to override environmental influences (e.g. water depth and sediment type). The strong linear relationship between the slope b and intercept log(a) from the power relationship is remarkably similar for all surveys providing a common slope of−1.63 with the present sampling approach.We suggest...

  1. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate.

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLECTED SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.

  3. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  4. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  5. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  6. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  7. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...

  8. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  9. Confirmation and Distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the First Time in Terrestrial Invertebrates: Two Terrestrial Flatworm Species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Amber N.; Ducey, Peter K.; Neuman-Lee, Lorin; Hanifin, Charles T.; French, Susannah S.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Brodie Jr, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) is known from a diverse array of taxa, but is unknown in terrestrial invertebrates. Tetrodotoxin is a low molecular weight compound that acts by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels, inducing paralysis. However, the origins and ecological functions of TTX in most taxa remain mysterious. Here, we show that TTX is present in two species of terrestrial flatworm (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense) using a competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay to quantify the toxin and high phase liquid chromatography to confirm the presence. We also investigated the distribution of TTX throughout the bodies of the flatworms and provide evidence suggesting that TTX is used during predation to subdue large prey items. We also show that the egg capsules of B. adventitium have TTX, indicating a further role in defense. These data suggest a potential route for TTX bioaccumulation in terrestrial systems. PMID:24963791

  10. Confirmation and distribution of tetrodotoxin for the first time in terrestrial invertebrates: two terrestrial flatworm species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Stokes

    Full Text Available The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX is known from a diverse array of taxa, but is unknown in terrestrial invertebrates. Tetrodotoxin is a low molecular weight compound that acts by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels, inducing paralysis. However, the origins and ecological functions of TTX in most taxa remain mysterious. Here, we show that TTX is present in two species of terrestrial flatworm (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense using a competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay to quantify the toxin and high phase liquid chromatography to confirm the presence. We also investigated the distribution of TTX throughout the bodies of the flatworms and provide evidence suggesting that TTX is used during predation to subdue large prey items. We also show that the egg capsules of B. adventitium have TTX, indicating a further role in defense. These data suggest a potential route for TTX bioaccumulation in terrestrial systems.

  11. Interspecific Relationships Among Soil Invertebrates Influence Pollutant Effects of Phenanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Joffre, R.; Elmholt, S.

    2006-01-01

    exerted an effect on mesofauna and that the effects on some species, like Folsomia fimetaria, were influenced by the species composition in the mesocosms, the soil layer, and the sampling date. However, the effects of phenanthrene on ergosterol content and organic matter decomposition were......Five mesofauna communities varying in both structure and composition were exposed to phenanthrene in mesocosms for up to four months. Effects of phenanthrene were assessed on mesofauna population dynamics, fungal biomass (ergosterol concentrations), and litter decomposition (litter mass loss...

  12. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka [Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si; Hogerwerf, Lenny [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hogerwerf@students.uu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl

    2008-01-15

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. - Avermectins may pose a risk to soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep.

  13. Soil contamination with olive mill wastes negatively affects microbial communities, invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Oliveira, Vanessa; Sena, Clara; Bouji, Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud; Wali, Ahmed; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of olive mill waste (OMW) on soil habitat function. To this end, soil samples from OMW evaporating ponds (S1-S5) located at Agareb (Sfax, Tunisia) and a reference soil (R) were collected. The effects of OMW on the springtails Folsomia candida (F.c.), the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (E.f.), Enchytraeus crypticus (E.c.) reproduction and on the soil living microbial communities were investigated. E.f. reproduction and tomato growth assays were performed in the reference soil amended with 0.43 to 7.60 % (wOMW/wref-soil) mass ratios of dried OMW. Changes in microbial function diversity were explored using sole-carbon-source utilization profiles (BiologEcoPlates(®)). E.f. absolutely avoided (100 %) the most polluted soil (S4) while the F.c. moderately avoided (37.5 ± 7.5 %) the same soil. E.c. reproduction in S4 was significantly lower than in S1, S2, S3 and S5, and was the highest in R soil. Estimated effect concentration EC50 for juveniles' production by E.f., and for tomato fresh weight and chlorophyll content were 0.138, 0.6 and 1.13 %, respectively. Community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were remarkably different in R and S4 and a higher similarity was observed between soils S1, S2, S3 and S5. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that differences between soil microbial functional diversity were mainly due to high polyphenol concentrations, while the salinity negatively affected E.c. reproduction in OMW contaminated soils. These results clearly reflect the high toxicity of dried OMW when added to agricultural soils, causing severe threats to terrestrial ecosystem functions and services provided by invertebrates and microbial communities.

  14. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D Simons

    Full Text Available Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor.

  15. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rachel D; Page, Henry M; Zaleski, Susan; Miller, Robert; Dugan, Jenifer E; Schroeder, Donna M; Doheny, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD) of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor.

  16. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentati, Olfa, E-mail: olfa_hentati@yahoo.fr [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Abrantes, Nelson [Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana Luísa [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bouguerra, Sirine [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim am Main (Germany); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Assessment of the impact of Tunisian phosphogypsum on soil biota was performed. • A battery of terrestrial and aquatic species was tested. • E. andrei and D. magna were the most sensitive species in amended soil and elutriate. • The high levels of Ca in PG, suggest that it was responsible for the ecotoxicity. • Serious efforts should be made to set clear limits for PG application in soils. - Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG – amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects

  17. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  18. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nota, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.nota@gmail.com [VU University Amsterdam, Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vooijs, Riet, E-mail: riet.vooijs@falw.vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Straalen, Nico M. van, E-mail: nico.van.straalen@falw.vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roelofs, Dick, E-mail: dick.roelofs@falw.vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing protein (MTC) was assessed, using quantitative PCR, in response to six different metals, each at two concentrations in soil. The expression of mtc was induced after exposure to all metals, except for one chromium concentration. Exposure to soil originating from metal-contaminated field sites also induced mtc, while the expression did not change in response to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Since this transcript is induced by most of the tested metals, it may potentially be a good indicator of metal contamination. The presented gene expression assay might become a useful tool to screen potentially polluted sites, in order to identify the ones that need further ecotoxicological investigation. - Highlights: > mtc expression in the springtail Folsomia candida is measured in response to different metals. > Expression of this gene changed in response to all tested metals, except for one. > Metal-contaminated field soils also changed the expression of mtc significantly. > The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene did not change mtc's expression. > mtc expression may be a specific indicator of metal soil contamination. - Exposure to metal containing soil induces the expression of mtc in the springtail Folsomia candida.

  19. Species-specific responses of two benthic invertebrates explain their distribution along environmental gradients in freshwater habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.M.de; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The absence of species in polluted sediments does not necessarily imply exclusion due to toxicity. Other factors, like for instance food availability and oxygen content, could also partly cause their absence. Hence, knowledge of the (combinations of) factors acting on individual organisms is essenti

  20. Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in laboratory studies: A review and analysis using species sensitivity distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frampton, G.K.; Jänsch, S.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Römbke, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) and 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) are distribution-based approaches for assessing environmental risks of pollutants. These methods have potential for application in pesticide risk assessments, but their applicability for assessing pesticide risks to soil i

  1. Assessment of Nonindigenous Species on Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Islands, with Emphasis on Introduced Invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reefs on the islands of Kaua'i, Moloka'i, Maui, Hawai'i and O'ahu were surveyed for the presence and impact of marine nonindigenous and cryptogenic species...

  2. Toxicity of the pesticide alpha-cypermethrin to four soil nontarget invertebrates and implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnik, Thomas; Sverdrup, Line E; Jensen, John

    2008-06-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used as an insecticide in agricultural settings and is increasingly replacing organophosphates and carbamates because of lower application rates and lower toxicity to mammals. Because very little is known about the acute and chronic toxicity of this compound for soil-living organisms, the present study investigated acute and sublethal toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin for four terrestrial invertebrate species in an agricultural soil from Norway. Bioassays with the earthworm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus, the springtail Folsomia candida, and the land snail Helix aspersa were performed according to slightly modified versions of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, France) or International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland) guidelines and resulted in median lethal concentrations of greater than >1,000 to 31.4 mg/kg and sublethal no-observed-effect concentrations of 2.51 to 82 mg/kg. A high acute to chronic ratio was found, especially in the earthworms. Interspecies differences in sensitivity may be explained by differences in exposure and differences in metabolization rate. When based on measured pore-water concentrations, terrestrial species overall appear to be approximately one order of magnitude less sensitive than aquatic species. Effect assessments conducted according to European guideline for risk assessment of pesticides reveal that assessments based on acute toxicity tests are not always conservative enough to determine environmentally safe concentrations in soil. Mandatory incorporation of sublethal toxicity data will ensure that in regions with temperate climate, the effects of pesticides on populations of soil-living organisms are unlikely.

  3. Trophic relations of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera, Carabidae with dominant species of invertebrates in forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Korolev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of interrelations of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 with the soil and litter mesofauna species are considered. In the conditions of forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region P. melanarius demonstrates trophic preference for І order zoofagoes (body mass 8.0–31.9 mg and also sapro- and phytofagoes (more than 128 mg of body mass. P. melanarius is able to change the trophic load between invertebrates’ populations depending on their number in the ecosystem. In comparison with the other ground beetle species, the P. melanarius has an extraordinarily wide trophic niche. That is one of principal reasons of the high quantity of P. melanarius in many anthropogenic and transformed ecosystems.

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North and Mid-Atlantic): Blue mussel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, R.I.E.

    1989-06-01

    The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. is a widely distributed and locally abundant bivalve mollusc in the North and Mid-Atlantic Regions. It is a valuable commercial species; regional landings in 1986 were worth nearly $4 million. It is a semi-sessile species, anchored by byssus threads to firm surfaces in littoral and sub-littoral environments at salinities ranging from 5 to 35 ppt. It is a suspension feeder, ingesting phytoplankton and detrital particles in the size range of 3--30 /mu/m. The geographical range of the species is limited by lethal water temperatures above 27/degree/C in the south and by temperatures too low for growth and reproduction in the north. Animals from the northern end of the range are stressed by temperatures above 20/degree/C, whereas those near the southern distributional limit are not severely stressed by temperatures as high as 25/degree/C. The blue mussel is diecious and oviparous. The planktotrophic larvae take about 3 weeks to develop and metamorphose. The environmental tolerances of larvae are more restricted than those of adults. The juveniles grow to approximately 1.5 mm while attached to filamentous algae before being carried by water currents to reattach to a firm substrate, often close to adult mussels. Larval and adult blue mussels are important prey items for many animals, including crabs, fishes, and birds. 95 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Toxicity of four veterinary pharmaceuticals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortéa, Talyta; Segat, Julia C; Maccari, Ana Paula; Sousa, José Paulo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baretta, Dilmar

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) used to control endo- and ectoparasites in ruminants, on the survival and reproduction of the collembolan species Folsomia candida. Standard ecotoxicological tests were conducted in Tropical Artificial Soil and the treatments consisted of increasing dosages of four commercial products with different active ingredients: ivermectin, fipronil, fluazuron and closantel. Ecotoxicological effects were related to the class and mode of action of the different compounds. Fipronil and ivermectin were the most toxic compounds causing a significant reduction in the number of juveniles at the lowest doses tested (LOECreprod values of 0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of dry soil, respectively) and similar low EC50 values (fipronil: 0.19 mg kg(-1) dry soil, CL95% 0.16-0.22; ivermectin: 0.43 mg kg(-1) dry soil, CL95% 0.09-0.77), although the effects observed in the former compound were possibly related to a low adult survival (LC50 of 0.62 mg kg(-1) dry soil; CL95%: 0.25-1.06). For the latter compound no significant lethal effects were observed. Fluazuron caused an intermediate toxicity (EC50 of 3.07 mg kg(-1) dry soil, CL95%: 2.26-3.87), and also here a decrease in adult survival could explain the effects observed at reproduction. Closantel, despite showing a significant reduction on the number of juveniles produced, no dose-response relationship nor effects higher than 50% were observed. Overall, all tested compounds, especially ivermectin, when present in soil even at sub-lethal concentrations, can impair the reproduction of collembolans and possibly other arthropods. However, the actual risk to arthropod communities should be further investigated performing tests under a more realistic exposure (e.g., by testing the dung itself as the contaminated matrix) and by deriving ecotoxicologically relevant exposure concentration in soil derived from the presence of cattle dung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  7. Invertebrate inventory of the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The composition and distribution of invertebrate species on the Alaska Peninsula is not well known. This pilot project was intended to test methods and to document...

  8. American Samoa ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine, reef-associated, and terrestrial invertebrate species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in...

  9. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Western Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  12. Influence of cadmium on life-history characteristics of Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Brils, J.; Van Straalen, N.M. (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    To understand the consequences of soil pollution on higher levels of biological organization, the chain of effects of cadmium on several interrelated responses was studied in a chronic toxicity experiment using the collembolan species Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil. The individual parameters survival, growth, and number of offspring were determined after different time intervals up to 9 weeks. The accumulation of cadmium in springtails and the population increase during the experimental period were also determined. By combining all the mentioned parameters and their development in time, a detailed picture of the action of cadmium on F. candida was obtained. In order of decreasing sensitivity the EC50 values for Von Bertalanffy growth, number of offspring, population increase, and survival were 256, > 326, 475, and 850 micrograms Cd/g dry soil, respectively. The ultimate LC50 value and also the equilibrium body burden were reached after about 20 days. Reproduction started later because of retarded growth, but was not affected directly and eventually reached the control level. The results are discussed in light of the seemingly contradictory ideas of Halbach (1984, Hydrobiologia 109, 79-96) and Meyer et al. (1987, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 115-126) about the sensitivity of individual and population parameters. It appears to be very important to know how individual parameters develop in time so that the most sensitive parameter and the consequences for higher levels of biological organization can be determined.

  13. Antibiotic treatment leads to the elimination of Wolbachia endosymbionts and sterility in the diplodiploid collembolan Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingcombe Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised that this phenomenon may be functionally restricted to organisms that employ haplodiploid sex determination. Using two antibiotics, tetracycline and rifampicin, we attempted to eliminate Wolbachia from the diplodiploid host Folsomia candida, a species of springtail which is a widely used study organism. Results Molecular assays confirmed that elimination of Wolbachia was successfully achieved through continuous exposure of populations (over two generations and several weeks to rifampicin administered as 2.7% dry weight of their yeast food source. The consequence of this elimination was total sterility of all individuals, despite the continuation of normal egg production. Conclusion Microbial endosymbionts play an obligatory role in the reproduction of their diplodiploid host, most likely one in which the parthenogenetic process is facilitated by Wolbachia. A hitherto unknown level of host-parasite interdependence is thus recorded.

  14. Effects of transgenic Bt rice on growth, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaoyu; Yan, Ruihong; Ke, Xin; Ye, Gongyin; Huang, Fangneng; Luo, Yongming; Cheng, Jiaan

    2011-12-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb protein is expected to be commercialized in China in the near future. The use of Bt rice for controlling insect pests sparks intensive debates regarding its biosafety. Folsomia candida is an euedaphic species and is often used as a "standard" test organism in assessing effects of environmental pollutants on soil organisms. In this study, growth, development, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of F. candida were investigated in the laboratory for populations reared on leaf tissue or leaf-soil mixtures of two CrylAb rice lines and a non-Bt rice isoline. Two independent tests were performed: 1) a 35-d test using petri dishes containing yeast diet (positive control) or fresh rice leaf tissue, and 2) a 28-d test in soil-litter microcosms containing yeast or a mixture of soil and rice leaf tissue. Biological parameters measured in both tests were number of progeny production, population growth rate, and SOD activity. For the petri dish test, data measured also included insect body length and number of exuviation. There were no significant differences between the populations reared on Bt and non-Bt rice leaf tissue in all measured parameters in both tests and for both Bt rice lines, suggesting no significant effects of the CrylAb protein in Bt rice on F. candida in the laboratory studies. Results of this study should add additional biosafety proofs for use of Bt rice to manage rice pests in China.

  15. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Bay Scallop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is a commercially and ecologically important scallop of estuarine and inshore environments, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Laguna Madre, Texas. They occur at depths from 0.3 to 18 m but are most common in waters less than 2 m deep. They spawn at 1 year of age from April through December, later in southern populations. Water temperature and food supply are important factors for proper gonad developent and spawning. Larvae are planktonic, and juveniles settle and attach by byssal threads to suitable substrates; seagrass beds are preferred for settlement. Bay scallops are filter feeders, consuming primarily benthic diatoms. Temperature, salinity, water currents, and availability of suitable attachment/settlement substrates are the most important environmental requirements of bay scallops. They require a minimum water temperature of 20/sup 0/C for spawning, and a minimum of 14 ppt salinity, grow best in currents less than 1 cm/s, and prefer eelgrass to other seagrasses for settlement and attachment during early life stages. 52 references, 2 figures.

  16. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  17. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  18. Photographic Images of Benthic Coral, Algae, and Invertebrate Species in Marine Habitats and Subhabitats around Offshore Islets in the Main Hawaiian Islands 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  19. Functional neuropeptidomics in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haes, Wouter; Van Sinay, Elien; Detienne, Giel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Schoofs, Liliane; Boonen, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are key messengers in almost all physiological processes. They originate from larger precursors and are extensively processed to become bioactive. Neuropeptidomics aims to comprehensively identify the collection of neuropeptides in an organism, organ, tissue or cell. The neuropeptidome of several invertebrates is thoroughly explored since they are important model organisms (and models for human diseases), disease vectors and pest species. The charting of the neuropeptidome is the first step towards understanding peptidergic signaling. This review will first discuss the latest developments in exploring the neuropeptidome. The physiological roles and modes of action of neuropeptides can be explored in two ways, which are largely orthogonal and therefore complementary. The first way consists of inferring the functions of neuropeptides by a forward approach where neuropeptide profiles are compared under different physiological conditions. Second is the reverse approach were neuropeptide collections are used to screen for receptor-binding. This is followed by localization studies and functional tests. This review will focus on how these different functional screening methods contributed to the field of invertebrate neuropeptidomics and expanded our knowledge of peptidergic signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology.

  20. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). 2014. Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major cha

  1. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). 2014. Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico): Blue crab. [Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, H.M.; McIlwain, T.D.

    1986-06-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is common in tidal marsh estuaries and coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico, occupying a variety of habitats depending upon the physiological requirements of each particular stage in its life history. Spawning occurs from spring through fall in high salinity estuarine and/or coastal waters. Development through the 7 zoeal stages requires approximately 31 days and occurs offshore. The megalopal stage is usually completed within a week. Recruitment to the estuary occurs during the megalopal stage. Molt to the first crab takes place within the estuary. Juveniles exhibit wide seasonal and areal distribution. Growth is rapid and blue crabs in the Gulf of Mexico may reach maturity within a year. Factors affecting growth and survival include food availability, predation, substratum, available habitat, temperature, salinity and pollutants. Blue crabs do not conform to specific trophic levels and are characterized as opportunistic benthic omnivores. Their diverse feeding habits and their importance as prey species for a variety of organisms make them an integral part of coastal ecosystems.

  3. Application of bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida to evaluate the toxicity of a metal-contaminated soil, before and after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Simon, Mariano [Univ. de Almeria (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola; Dietz-Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2011-10-15

    A contaminated soil was amended to reduce bioavailability of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and to modify its potential environmental impacts. Reproduction toxicity tests using two different soil invertebrates, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, were used to evaluate efficiency of soil amendments to reduce metal availability. This study has been carried out on a very contaminated soil from El Arteal mining district (SE Spain). The amendments used were marble sludge from the cutting and polishing of marble, compost from greenhouse wastes, and synthetic iron oxides. Soils were analyzed for cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and calcium carbonate content, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity, and total metal content. Porewater and 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations were measured in unamended and amended soils. Soil organisms were exposed to all treatments and to untreated soil. The parameters evaluated in both bioassays were survival and reproduction. All treatments decreased the porewater and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. The amendments increased survival and reproduction of E. crypticus, reducing toxicity. Survival of F. candida was also increased by the treatments; its reproduction did, however, not improve. These differences may be due to other factors that may affect collembolan reproduction. The different sensitivity of each test organism to some soil properties such as pH and electrical conductivity, which can affect reproduction, should be considered before interpreting results from bioassays focussed on toxicity due to pollutants. Reproduction toxicity bioassays with soil invertebrates are a good complement of chemical analysis to properly assess the ecological risk of remediation processes. Organisms with different exposure routes and different sensitivities to soil properties should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal-contaminated sites and to evaluate

  4. Testing the generalist-specialist dilemma: the role of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in resistance to invertebrate herbivores in Jacobaea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianqin; Vrieling, Klaas; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (SMs) to protect them from generalist herbivores. On the other hand, specialist herbivores use SMs for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition cues, and even sequester SMs for their own defense. Therefore, plants are assumed to face an evolutionary dilemma stemming from the contrasting effects of generalist and specialist herbivores on SMs. To test this hypothesis, bioassays were performed with F2 hybrids from Jacobaea species segregating for their pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), using a specialist flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) and a generalist slug (Deroceras invadens). Our study demonstrated that while slug feeding damage was negatively correlated with the concentration of total PAs and that of senecionine-like PAs, flea beetle feeding damage was not affected by PAs. It was positively correlated though, with leaf fresh weight. The generalist slug was deterred by senecionine-like PAs but the specialist flea beetle was adapted to PAs in its host plant. Testing other herbivores in the same plant system, it was observed that the egg number of the specialist cinnabar moth was positively correlated with jacobine-like PAs, while the silver damage of generalist thrips was negatively correlated with senecionine- and jacobine-like PAs, and the pupae number of generalist leaf miner was negatively correlated with otosenine-like PAs. Therefore, while the specialist herbivores showed no correlation whatsoever with PA concentration, the generalist herbivores all showed a negative correlation with at least one type of PA. We concluded that the generalist herbivores were deterred by different structural groups of PAs while the specialist herbivores were attracted or adapted to PAs in its host plants.

  5. Endocrine disruption in soil invertebrates: assessing multigeneration effects of insect growth regulators on "Folsomia Candida" and developing a toxicoproteomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Campiche, Sophie; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In the past years, it has been observed that some compounds present in our environment can disturb the reproduction and development of animals like fishes, birds, or reptiles by interfering with their endocrine system. Indeed, these endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) can mimic or antagonize the effects of hormones, alter the pattern of synthesis and metabolism of hormones or modify hormone receptor levels. These substances represent a risk for wildlife, and possibly for humans. Up to now, e...

  6. Toxicity of Derosal (active ingredient carbendazim) to aquatic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, R.P.A.; Crum, S.J.H.; Decraene, K.; Hattink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    1998-01-01

    Short- and long-term laboratory single species toxicity tests were performed with eleven invertebrate species and the fungicide Derosal(R) (a.i. carbendazim). Toxicity values differed widely between the tested invertebrates. The most sensitive species we found was the flatworm Dugesia lugubris (96hr

  7. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive.

  8. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-01-01

    The authors implemented a fractal algorithm in a spatially explicit individual-based model, in order to generate landscapes with different microscale patterns of habitat fragmentation and disturbance events, and studied their effects on population dynamics of the collembolan Folsomia candida. Among......, they are exposed to natural stressors, which might influence the effects of chemicals on populations. We designed simulation experiments that incorporate these 3 factors, and investigated their effects on populations of F. candida, in presence or absence of behavioural avoidance of contaminated habitat. Simulation...

  9. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been known for long time as a suspected endocrine disruptor in animals. We have conducted an experiment to look at the effect of NP on the life-history of the parthenogenetic springtail, Folsomia candida. Six sub-lethal concentrations (0, 8,16, 24, 32, 40 mg/kg dry soil......) were applied to 6 replicates of soil containing an individual of 0-1 day old juvenile. During continuous exposure (63 days), we assessed springtail life-history traits such as: survival, growth rate, molting time, time between molting, time to first reproduction, egg production, and viability...

  10. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroer, A.F.W.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Brock, T.C.M.; Matser, A.M.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with

  11. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteau, G., E-mail: Gilles.Boiteau@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Potato Research Center, 850 Lincoln Road, P.O. Box 20280, Fredericton, NB, E3B 4Z7 (Canada); Lynch, D.H. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O. Box 550, Truro NS, B2N 4L2 (Canada); MacKinley, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Potato Research Center, 850 Lincoln Road, P.O. Box 20280, Fredericton, NB, E3B 4Z7 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg{sup -1} in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC{sub 50s} of 18 mg kg{sup -1}was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. - Research highlights: > Avoidance cup test using Folsomia candida detects Cu independently of concentration. > Improved avoidance Petri dish test detects Cu in soil in function of concentration. > Cu voidance tests had similar EC50 values whether conducted with or without light. > Combining Cu avoidance test trials in OECD soil reduced the variability of results. - Improved avoidance tests having an EC{sub 50} value similar to the background Cu concentration in uncontaminated agricultural soils can distinguish Cu contaminated and Cu free OECD soil.

  12. Competition effects for copper between soil, soil solution and yeast in a bio assay for Folsomia candida willem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Marinussen, M.P.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of copper (Cu) by the springtail Folsomia candida Willem, if exposed to Cu-contaminated sandy soil with yeast as a food source. Commonly, the dissolved and the easily desorbed Cu fractions are assumed to be available for uptake, and as both fractions depend on pH, a

  13. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values determin

  14. Interspecific Relationships Among Soil Invertebrates Influence Pollutant Effects of Phenanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Joffre, R.; Elmholt, S.

    2006-01-01

    Five mesofauna communities varying in both structure and composition were exposed to phenanthrene in mesocosms for up to four months. Effects of phenanthrene were assessed on mesofauna population dynamics, fungal biomass (ergosterol concentrations), and litter decomposition (litter mass loss, nit...... toxic effects of organic pollutants on mesofauna species and soil biological functioning......., nitrogen concentration). The effects of each community on the fate of phenanthrene were also assessed. We hypothesize that phenanthrene affects the population dynamics of mesofauna and soil biological functioning depending on exposure duration, type of community, or both. Results show that phenanthrene...... exerted an effect on mesofauna and that the effects on some species, like Folsomia fimetaria, were influenced by the species composition in the mesocosms, the soil layer, and the sampling date. However, the effects of phenanthrene on ergosterol content and organic matter decomposition were...

  15. Dimethoate affects cholinesterases in Folsomia candida and their locomotion--false negative results of an avoidance behaviour test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cecília M S; Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2013-01-15

    The main mode of action of organophosphate insecticides is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes neuromuscular paralysis leading ultimately to death. The collembolan Folsomia candida is an important and standard test species in ecotoxicology, where effects on avoidance behaviour are assessed. Being related to insects they represent potential targets of insecticides such as the organophosphate dimethoate. In the present study we exposed F. candida to dimethoate having 2 main aims: 1) to assess the ability of F. candida to avoid it, and 2) to assess its effect on the cholinergic synapses to explore the link. For the latter, several sub-steps were needed: a) to characterise the existing ChE types and b) assess ChE activity (via exposure in vitro and in vivo). No avoidance was observed within the tested concentration range (0-0.32-1-3.2-10-32 mg/kg), in fact an apparent "attraction" (more animals on the spiked side) was observed. As expected, there was a significant decrease of AChE activities (AChE being the main ChE type) with an increase of dimethoate dose (IC(50)=1.4 mg/kg). Further, post-exposure video records showed that organisms were still alive in the spiked soil but lacked the locomotion ability (immobilised). The AChE inhibition correlated positively with immobilisation. Hence, this observation also showed that the apparent "attraction" behaviour observed in the avoidance test is rather a direct effect of not being able to escape due to paralysis hence a false-negative avoidance. This can constitute a confounding factor in an avoidance behaviour test and consequent interpretation, which is not accounted for at present.

  16. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom.

  17. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  18. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  19. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been known for long time as a suspected endocrine disruptor in animals. We have conducted an experiment to look at the effect of NP on the life-history of the parthenogenetic springtail, Folsomia candida. Six sub-lethal concentrations (0, 8,16, 24, 32, 40 mg/kg dry soil......) were applied to 6 replicates of soil containing an individual of 0-1 day old juvenile. During continuous exposure (63 days), we assessed springtail life-history traits such as: survival, growth rate, molting time, time between molting, time to first reproduction, egg production, and viability...... population growth rate (l). Decomposition analysis to investigate the contribution of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on l, and elasticity analysis to examine the relative sensitivity of l to changes in each of the life history traits provided valuable insight...

  20. Priority wetland invertebrates as conservation surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S J; Durance, Isabelle; Terrier, Aurelie; Swanson, Alisa M

    2010-04-01

    Invertebrates are important functionally in most ecosystems, but seldom appraised as surrogate indicators of biological diversity. Priority species might be good candidates; thus, here we evaluated whether three freshwater invertebrates listed in the U.K. Biodiversity Action Plan indicated the richness, composition, and conservation importance of associated wetland organisms as defined respectively by their alpha diversity, beta diversity, and threat status. Sites occupied by each of the gastropods Segmentina nitida, Anisus vorticulus, and Valvata macrostoma had greater species richness of gastropods and greater conservation importance than other sites. Each also characterized species assemblages associated with significant variations between locations in alpha or beta diversity among other mollusks and aquatic macrophytes. Because of their distinct resource requirements, conserving the three priority species extended the range of wetland types under management for nature conservation by 18% and the associated gastropod niche-space by around 33%. Although nonpriority species indicated variations in richness, composition, and conservation importance among other organisms as effectively as priority species, none characterized such a wide range of high-quality wetland types. We conclude that priority invertebrates are no more effective than nonpriority species as indicators of alpha and beta diversity or conservation importance among associated organisms. Nevertheless, conserving priority species can extend the array of distinct environments that are protected for their specialized biodiversity and environmental quality. We suggest that this is a key role for priority species and conservation surrogates more generally, and, on our evidence, can best be delivered through multiple species with contrasting habitat requirements.

  1. Hsp70 expression and metabolite composition in response to short-term thermal changes in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagner, Dorthe; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Malmendal, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    In the present study the joint transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in Folsomia candida (Collembola) to temperature changes on a short-term scale were studied. Change in heat tolerance was examined as survival after a 35 °C heat shock (2 h) in the course of either a fluctuating temperature re....... These results, obtained from ecological transcriptomics and metabolomics jointly generated insight on various levels into the combined responses to a changing environment....

  2. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation.

  4. Invertebrate FMRFamide related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Kevin G

    2013-06-01

    In 1977 the neuropeptide FMRFamide was isolated from the clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then several hundred FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been isolated from invertebrate animals. Precursors to the FaRPs likely arose in the cnidarians. With the transition to a bilateral body plan FaRPs became a fixture in the invertebrate phyla. They have come to play a critical role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. FaRPs regulate a variety of body functions including, feeding, digestion, circulation, reproduction, movement. The evolution of the molecular form and function of these omnipresent peptides will be considered.

  5. Deep-sea fauna of European seas : an annotated species check-list of benthic invertebrates living deeper than 2000 m in the seas bordering Europe. Ophiuroidea

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Igor S.; Piepenburg, Dieter; Ahearn, Cynthia; Juterzenka, Karen von

    2014-01-01

    An annotated check-list is given of Ophiuroidea species occurring deeper than 2000 m in the seas bordering Europe. The check-list is based on published data. The check-list includes 75 species. For each species synonymy, data on localities in European seas and general species distribution are provided. Station data are presented separately in the present thematic issue.

  6. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  7. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  8. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  9. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida): Reef-building corals. [Acropora cervicornis; Acropora palmata; Montastraea annularis; Montastraea cavernosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Four species of reef-building corals are considered: elkhorn coral, staghorn coral, common star coral, and large star coral. All four species spawn annually in the fall during hurricane season. Juvenile recruitment is low in all four species. Rapid growth rates of species in the genus Acropora (10 to 20 cm/yr) contrast with slower growth rates of species in the genus Montastraea (1.0 to 2.0 cm/yr), but both species of Montastraea are also important in reef development due to their form and great longevity. Shallow-water colonies of Montastraea survive hurricanes; shallow colonies of Acropora do not. Because of their dependence on photosynthesis for all of their carbon acquisition, the Acropora species reviewed here have a more restricted depth distribution (0 to 30 m) than do the Montastraea species considered (0 to 70 m). All four species are subject to intense predation by the snail predator, Coralliophila. Species of Montastraea are susceptible to infection from blue-green algae, which produce ''black band disease;'' species of Acropora are susceptible to a different, as yet unidentified pathogen, that produces ''white-band'' disease. Increased water turbidity and sedimentation cause reduced growth rates and partial or whole mortality in all four species.

  12. The Fetal Allograft Revisited: Does the Study of an Ancient Invertebrate Species Shed Light on the Role of Natural Killer Cells at the Maternal-Fetal Interface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton F. Barrier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pregnancy poses a fundamental immunological problem because the placenta and fetus are genetically different from the host mother. Classical transplantation theory has not provided a plausible solution to this problem. Study of naturally occurring allogeneic chimeras in the colonial marine invertebrate, Botryllus schlosseri, has yielded fresh insight into the primitive development of allorecognition, especially regarding the role of natural killer (NK cells. Uterine NK cells have a unique phenotype that appears to parallel aspects of the NK-like cells in the allorecognition system of B. schlosseri. Most notably, both cell types recognize and reject “missing self” and both are involved in the generation of a common vascular system between two individuals. Chimeric combination in B. schlosseri results in vascular fusion between two individual colonies; uterine NK cells appear essential to the establishment of adequate maternal-fetal circulation. Since human uterine NK cells appear to de-emphasize primary immunological function, it is proposed that they may share the same evolutionary roots as the B. schlosseri allorecognition system rather than a primary origin in immunity.

  13. Joint toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and pyrene on Folsomia fimetaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Sverdrup, Line E

    2002-05-01

    Surfactants may enhance the biodegradation of hydrophobic substances in soils. This has partly been attributed to an increase in the bioavailability, brought about by the presence of surfactants. The aim of this study was to examine the ecotoxicological effects of the detergent linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, alone and in combination, using the survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria as endpoints. The EC(50) and EC(10) were 803 and 161 mg kg(-1) for LAS, and 23 and 15 mg kg(-1) for pyrene. If LAS was able to increase the bioavailability of pyrene to springtails, it was expected that the combined effect of the two substances would exceed the effect found for each of the compounds tested separately. However, the results showed no effect of LAS on the toxicity of pyrene in the concentration range tested (1-750 mg LAS kg(-1) dry weight). Both the toxic unit concept and the isobologram method indicated that an additive approach would be the most useful when assessing the risk of these two compounds.

  14. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  15. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  16. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  17. Assessment of Nonindigenous Species on Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Islands, with Emphasis on Introduced Invertebrates, November 2, 2002 - November 5, 2003 (NODC Accession 0001419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reefs on the islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii and Oahu were surveyed for the presence and impact of marine nonindigenous and cryptogenic species (NIS)...

  18. The implications of climate change for positive contributions of invertebrates to world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Terrestrial invertebrate species play a dominant role in the trophic dynamics of agricultural ecosystems. Subtle changes in the composition of communities and species interactions at different trophic levels, and role of ecosystem engineers can dramatically modify the effects of invertebrates on plant productivity in agricultural systems. The effect of climate change on relevant invertebrates in agricultural systems, and their potential to adapt or move is discussed. All terrestrial syst...

  19. The implications of climate change for positive contributions of invertebrates to world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cock, M.J.W.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Cannon, R.J.C.; Gerard, Philippa J.; Gillespie, Dave; Jiménez, Juan J.; Lavelle, Patrick; Suresh K. Raina

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Terrestrial invertebrate species play a dominant role in the trophic dynamics of agricultural ecosystems. Subtle changes in the composition of communities and species interactions at different trophic levels, and role of ecosystem engineers can dramatically modify the effects of invertebrates on plant productivity in agricultural systems. The effect of climate change on relevant invertebrates in agricultural systems, and their potential to adapt or move is discussed. All terrestrial syst...

  20. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  1. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Brown Rock Crab, Red Rock Crab, and Yellow Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    distinguished by a slender abdomen and Two other large Cancer species, the Dungeness crab mature females by a broad abdomen that is often hirsute (C. magister...to the scent experimental treatment . One 13th instar female crab of potential food in the water (Case 1964; Zimmer-Faust reared at 22 ’C became

  2. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Vertebrates and Invertebrates Pacific Ocean Region. Report 3. Amphidromous Macrofauna of Hawaiian Island Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    dam- University of Hawaii at Manoa, selflies ( Odonata : Zygoptera) in Honolulu, Hawaii. 94 pp. Hawaii in 1977 with special reference to the endemic...Report #17, Cooperative National No. 2. 25 Maciolek, J. A. 1972. Macro- new species of damselfly brachium lar as a culture prawn in ( Odonata : Zygoptera

  3. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  5. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  6. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  7. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: NPRB_1220:Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of eggs, larvae and dietary components of commercially and ecologically important fish species and selected invertebrates in the northeast Pacif

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate identification of various life history stages and prey items of marine fishes and invertebrates is central for understanding distribution,abundance, trophic...

  8. Photographic images of benthic coral, algae and invertebrate species in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian Islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  9. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  10. Toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to terrestrial organisms and its species sensitivity distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia V; Silva, Ana Rita R; Mendo, Sónia; Loureiro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of the terrestrial environment by disposal of tributyltin (TBT) by contaminated harbour sediments, sewage sludge and/or biocide products has been raising concerns and it may pose a risk to soil invertebrates and plants. This study aimed to improve the amount and quality of data for TBT toxicity in soils in order to assess the ecological risk of TBT to the terrestrial ecosystems. For this, bioassays were performed with the species Porcellionides pruinosus, Folsomia candida, Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum to evaluate the toxic effects of TBT (as chloride) on these species. Additionally, this study contributed to increase the amount of data concerning TBT toxicity on soil dwelling organisms. The results showed a dose-response relationship between TBT concentration and the increase of toxicity in all species tested. These results were collated with results from literature to construct species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and to calculate the hazardous concentration at 5% (HC₅) for all data, for each type of soil and TBT formulation used. The HC₅ value for TBT in soil was 2.06 mg TBT/kg soil dw. Little information is available concerning the concentrations of TBT in soils. In addition the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) value was determined to be 30 μg/kg soil. Only one study was found referring to TBT contaminated soils, and where TBT concentrations were lower than 0.024 μg TBT/kg for the wetland soil. Therefore it can be concluded that the real TBT concentrations determined represent low risk for environmental effects. In conclusion, the construction of SSDs and the calculation of HC5 using all the data available showed to be a more suitable method rather than the construction of several SSDs for each soil and TBT types. Further investigations concerning TBT concentrations and toxicity on soil organisms need to be performed to increase data and improve risk calculations.

  11. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Grompha

  12. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L.C.V.; Pottinger, T.G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  13. Retinoid metabolism in invertebrates: when evolution meets endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Ruivo, R; Gesto, M; Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, M M

    2014-11-01

    Recent genomic and biochemical evidence in invertebrate species pushes back the origin of the retinoid metabolic and signaling modules to the last common ancestor of all bilaterians. However, the evolution of retinoid pathways are far from fully understood. In the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages, the ongoing functional characterization of retinoid-related genes (metabolism and signaling pathways), as well as the characterization of the endogenous retinoid content (precursors and active retinoids), is still incomplete. Despite limited, the available data supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. Yet, the mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids as well as their physiological significance share similarities and differences with vertebrates. For instance, retinol storage in the form of retinyl esters, a key feature for the maintenance of retinoid homeostatic balance in vertebrates, was only recently demonstrated in some mollusk species, suggesting that such ability is older than previously anticipated. In contrast, the enzymatic repertoire involved in this process is probably unlike that of vertebrates. The suggested ancestry of active retinoid pathways implies that many more metazoan species might be potential targets for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here, we review the current knowledge about the occurrence and functionality of retinoid metabolic and signaling pathways in invertebrate lineages, paying special attention to the evolutionary origin of retinoid storage mechanisms. Additionally, we summarize existing information on the endocrine disruption of invertebrate retinoid modules by environmental chemicals. Research priorities in the field are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  15. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine......Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2...... gut by incomplete denitrification. Statistical analysis revealed that body weight, habitat, and exoskeletal biofilms were important determinants of animal-associated N2O production. The snail Hinia reticulata emitted about 3.5 times more N2O with an intact exoskeletal biofilm on its shell than...

  16. Feeding live invertebrate prey in zoos and aquaria: Are there welfare concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martha

    2017-09-01

    Invertebrates constitute more than 90% of all species on earth, however, as a rule, humans do not regard invertebrates as creatures that can suffer and they are generally seen as creatures that should be eliminated. As a result, the importance of their welfare may be grossly unappreciated. For instance, the feeding of live food is often viewed as a good method of enrichment and invertebrates are commonly used as live prey in many zoological facilities. As a result, zoos may send mixed messages to their patrons in that welfare is considered only for the invertebrates that are part of their zoological collection and not necessarily for the invertebrates used as feed. Research indicates that many invertebrates possess nociceptors, opioid receptors, and demonstrate behavioral responses indicative of pain sensation. In addition, in some taxa, there may be evidence of higher cognitive functions such as emotions and learning, although studies in this area of research are preliminary and sparse. Therefore, the possibility for suffering exists in many invertebrate species and as such, zoological facilities have an ethical responsibility to take their welfare into consideration. This paper discusses the current research regarding invertebrates' capacity for suffering and discusses methods facilities can use to improve the welfare of their invertebrate live prey. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reproductive performance of the generalist predator Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari: Gamasida) when foraging on different invertebrate prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Ruf, A.; Nienstedt, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of prey quality and prey biomass during a standardized 3- week test on adult survival and reproductive output of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer when fed one of six different diets: springtails (Folsomia candida and F. fimetaria), a storage mite...... (Caloglyphus cf. Michaeli), an oligochaete (Enchytraeus crypticus), a nematode (Turbatrix silusiae), and a 1:1:1 mix of F. candida : F. fimetaria : E. crypticus. Our results revealed that a single prey species may be nutritionally sufficient for a 3-week period, as H. aculeifer performed equally well......, or better, on a diet based on a 1:1:1 mix of F. candida : F. fimetaria : E. crypticus. However, when fed C. cf. michaeli, H. aculeifer had a poor reproductive output (prey prior to testing H. aculeifer...

  18. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  19. [Starvation and chemoreception in Antarctic benthic invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakusa-Suszczewski, S; Janecki, T; Domanov, M M

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity (chemoreception) to different amino acids was studied in six invertebrate species: Serolis polita, Glyptonotus antarcticus, Abyssochromene plebs, Waldeckia obesa, Odontaster validus, and Sterechinus neumayeri. The sensitivity was estimated by the changes in basic metabolism (respiration rate). Starvation increased the sensitivity in all the species. The metabolism rates increased in the presence of L-glutamic acid in G. antarcticus, A. plebs, O. validus, and S. neumayeri. The serine and arginine amino acids had a significant impact on the metabolism of the necrophagous species S. polita and W. obesa. The chemical information may be mediated by means of L-glutamic acid via glutamate receptors, which can be blocked by kynurenic acid, as occurs in the experiments with G. antarcticus and A. plebs.

  20. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  1. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  2. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  3. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  4. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  5. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  6. Lysosomal enzymes and their receptors in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva; Bhamidimarri, Poorna M

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal biogenesis is an important process in eukaryotic cells to maintain cellular homeostasis. The key components that are involved in the biogenesis such as the lysosomal enzymes, their modifications and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors have been well studied and their evolutionary conservation across mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates is clearly established. Invertebrate lysosomal biogenesis pathway on the other hand is not well studied. Although, details on mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enzymes involved in lysosomal enzyme modifications were reported earlier, a clear cut pathway has not been established. Recent research on the invertebrate species involving biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes suggests a possible conserved pathway in invertebrates. This review presents certain observations based on these processes that include biochemical, immunological and functional studies. Major conclusions include conservation of MPR-dependent pathway in higher invertebrates and recent evidence suggests that MPR-independent pathway might have been more prominent among lower invertebrates. The possible components of MPR-independent pathway that may play a role in lysosomal enzyme targeting are also discussed here.

  7. Key factors for the emergence of collective decision in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Dussutour, Audrey; Fourcassié, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In many species of group living invertebrates, in particular arthropods, collective decisions can emerge from the combined actions of individuals and the direct or indirect interactions between individuals. These decisions allow groups of individuals to respond quickly and accurately to changes that occur in their environment. Examples of such decisions are found in a variety of invertebrate taxa and in many different contexts, e.g., exploring a new territory, foraging for food, finding a suitable location where to aggregate or to establish a nest, defending oneself against predators, etc. In this paper we review the collective decisions that have been documented in different invertebrate taxa where individuals are known to live temporarily or permanently in social or gregarious groups. We first present some simple examples of collective decisions involving the choice between two alternatives. We then define the fundamental rules required for these collective decisions to emerge throughout the invertebrate taxon, from simple organisms such as caterpillars, to animals endowed with highly developed perceptive and cognitive capacities such as ants and bees. The presentation of these rules gives us the opportunity to illustrate one of the pitfalls of the study of collective choice in animals by showing through computer simulations how a choice between two alternatives can be misinterpreted as the result of the action of self-organized mechanisms. In the second part, we discuss the peculiarities of collective decisions in invertebrates, their properties, and characteristics. We conclude by discussing the issue of individual complexity in collective decision-making process.

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  9. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and terrestrial invertebrate species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered invertebrate species for the Florida Panhandle. Vector points in this data set...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sensitive bivalves, gastropods, insects, crustaceans, and other invertebrate species in Southern...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and brackish water invertebrate species in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, intertidal/subtidal, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Central California. Vector...

  17. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  18. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Aquatic invertebrate survey July 7-15, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this limited survey was to investigate the premise that invertebrate species diversity and abundance increase following a drawdown, controlled burn or...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  20. Toxicological and biochemical analyses demonstrate no toxic effect of Cry1C and Cry2A to Folsomia candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Cao, Fengqin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    Collembolans are common soil arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in genetically engineered (GE) plants by ingestion of crop residues or root exudates. In the present study, a dietary exposure assay was validated and used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins, Cry1C and Cry2A, on Folsomia candida. Using the insecticidal compounds potassium arsenate (PA), protease inhibitor (E-64), and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) mixed into Baker’s yeast, we show that the assay used can detect adverse effects on F. candida. Survival and development were significantly reduced when F. candida was fed a diet containing PA, E-64, and GNA at 9, 75, and 100 μg/g diet, respectively, but not when fed a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A. The activities of test antioxidant-, detoxification-, and digestion-related enzymes in F. candida were unaltered by a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A, but were significantly increased by a diet containing 75 μg/g E-64. The results confirm that Cry1C and Cry2A are not toxic to F. candida at concentrations that are much higher than those encountered under field conditions. PMID:26494315

  1. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics: a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-07-01

    The authors implemented a fractal algorithm in a spatially explicit individual-based model to generate landscapes with different microscale patterns of habitat fragmentation and disturbance events and studied their effects on population dynamics of the collembolan Folsomia candida. Among human activities that may cause habitat destruction, the present study focused on agricultural practices. Soil organisms living in a cultivated field are subjected to habitat loss and fragmentation as well as disturbance events generated by the application of agrochemicals and related activities. In addition, they are exposed to natural stressors, which might influence the effects of chemicals on populations. The authors designed simulation experiments that incorporate these 3 factors and investigated their effects on populations of F. candida in the presence or absence of behavioral avoidance of contaminated habitat. Simulation results show that spatial autocorrelation of contamination has different effects on population growth and equilibrium size according to the percentage of clean habitat. This pattern changes when avoidance behavior is excluded from the model, as does population recovery after a series of disturbance events. The model suggests that a combination of heterogeneous contamination and multiple stressors can lead to unexpected effects of toxicants at the population level. Individual-based models can help to understand these effects and therefore add ecological realism to environmental risk assessment of chemicals and can help to explore the effects of different risk management options.

  2. Feeding inhibition in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida as an endpoint for the estimation of organic waste ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Xavier; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar; Sousa, José Paulo

    2007-07-01

    Despite the increasing quantities of organic wastes that are being reused in soils, there are few studies that focus on the selection of bioassays for the ecotoxicological risk assessment of organic wastes to soils. In the present study, differences in feeding inhibition in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida were evaluated as an ecotoxicological endpoint for the assessment of risk to soils amended with polluted organic wastes. Seven organic wastes (dewatered sewage sludges, thermally dried sewage sludges, composted sewage sludges, and a thermally dried pig slurry) were tested. These wastes had different origins, treatments, and pollutant burdens, and were selected as a representative sample of the wide variety of wastes currently generated. A clear dose response was observed for this parameter, with an increase in percentage of individual feeding inhibition with increased doses of organic wastes. More significantly, feeding inhibition correlated highly with mortality and reproduction inhibition in the different wastes. Composted sludges displayed the lowest toxicity, followed by thermally dried sludge and dewatered sludge. Thermally dried pig slurry showed the highest toxicity for feeding, with lower median effective concentration (EC50) values than the lowest dose tested. Among waste physicochemical parameters and pollutants, low organic matter stability appeared to be the main predictor of potential adverse effects on soil fauna, because it correlated significantly with feeding inhibition and mortality. Furthermore, feeding inhibition tests were run over a short exposure time (less than 7 d), which, together with the results obtained, makes this bioassay a good screening tool for organic waste toxicity.

  3. CeO2 nanoparticles induce no changes in phenanthrene toxicity to the soil organisms Porcellionides pruinosus and Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Zantkuijl, Irene; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-03-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are used as diesel fuel additives to catalyze oxidation. Phenanthrene is a major component of diesel exhaust particles and one of the most common pollutants in the environment. This study aimed at determining the effect of CeO2 NPs on the toxicity of phenanthrene in Lufa 2.2 standard soil for the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the springtail Folsomia candida. Toxicity tests were performed in the presence of CeO2 concentrations of 10, 100 or 1000mg Ce/kg dry soil and compared with results in the absence of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs had no adverse effects on isopod survival and growth or springtail survival and reproduction. For the isopods, LC50s for the effect of phenanthrene ranged from 110 to 143mg/kg dry soil, and EC50s from 17.6 to 31.6mg/kg dry soil. For the springtails, LC50s ranged between 61.5 and 88.3mg/kg dry soil and EC50s from 52.2 to 76.7mg/kg dry soil. From this study it may be concluded that CeO2 NPs have a low toxicity and do not affect toxicity of phenanthrene to isopods and springtails.

  4. Effects of copper,lead and zinc in soil on egg development and hatching of Folsomia candida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xu; Yin Wang; Yong-Ming Luo; Jing Song; Xin Ke

    2009-01-01

    Effects of CaCl2,CuCl2,ZnCl2 and PbCl2 on development and hatching Success of eggs of Folsomia candida(Collembola)were studied under laboratory conditions.Thousands of healthy eggs from synchronized cultures were incubated in soils treated with different concentrations of the metals.Compared with the water control.egg hatch signifi-cantly decreased when concentrations of Cu,Pb and Zn reached 400,1 600 and 800 mg/kg dry soil,respectively.Values of EC50(hatching),calculated according to the exponential model (with 95%confidence limits in brackets),were 625(407-875),2361 (2064-2687)and 1763(1548-2000)mg/kg dry soils for Cu,Pb and Zn,respectively.When Cu concentration reachedl 600mg/kg dry soil,eggs became green and the percentage of green eggs changed from 5%-20%after incubadon for 2 daysto 15%-30%after incubafion for 4 days.At3200mg Cu/kg dry soil,tissues inside eggs were black and shrunken.

  5. Toxicological and biochemical analyses demonstrate no toxic effect of Cry1C and Cry2A to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Cao, Fengqin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-10-23

    Collembolans are common soil arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in genetically engineered (GE) plants by ingestion of crop residues or root exudates. In the present study, a dietary exposure assay was validated and used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins, Cry1C and Cry2A, on Folsomia candida. Using the insecticidal compounds potassium arsenate (PA), protease inhibitor (E-64), and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) mixed into Baker's yeast, we show that the assay used can detect adverse effects on F. candida. Survival and development were significantly reduced when F. candida was fed a diet containing PA, E-64, and GNA at 9, 75, and 100 μg/g diet, respectively, but not when fed a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A. The activities of test antioxidant-, detoxification-, and digestion-related enzymes in F. candida were unaltered by a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A, but were significantly increased by a diet containing 75 μg/g E-64. The results confirm that Cry1C and Cry2A are not toxic to F. candida at concentrations that are much higher than those encountered under field conditions.

  6. The role of histones in the immune responses of aquatic invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    C Nikapitiya; T Dorrington; Gómez-Chiarri, M.

    2013-01-01

    Histones are primary components of eukaryotic chromatin and highly abundant in all animal cells. In addition to their important role in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, histones contribute to innate immune responses. In several aquatic invertebrate species, as well as in many other invertebrate and vertebrate species, the transcripts for core histones are upregulated in response to immune challenge and exposure to environmental stressors. Histones show antimicrobial activit...

  7. The invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans biosynthesizes ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patananan, Alexander N; Budenholzer, Lauren M; Pedraza, Maria E; Torres, Eric R; Adler, Lital N; Clarke, Steven G

    2015-03-01

    l-Ascorbate, commonly known as vitamin C, serves as an antioxidant and cofactor essential for many biological processes. Distinct ascorbate biosynthetic pathways have been established for animals and plants, but little is known about the presence or synthesis of this molecule in invertebrate species. We have investigated ascorbate metabolism in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this molecule would be expected to play roles in oxidative stress resistance and as cofactor in collagen and neurotransmitter synthesis. Using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, we determined that ascorbate is present at low amounts in the egg stage, L1 larvae, and mixed animal populations, with the egg stage containing the highest concentrations. Incubating C. elegans with precursor molecules necessary for ascorbate synthesis in plants and animals did not significantly alter ascorbate levels. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses did not support the presence in C. elegans of either the plant or the animal biosynthetic pathway. However, we observed the complete (13)C-labeling of ascorbate when C. elegans was grown with (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli as a food source. These results support the hypothesis that ascorbate biosynthesis in invertebrates may proceed by a novel pathway and lay the foundation for a broader understanding of its biological role.

  8. Can color vision variation explain sex differences in invertebrate foraging by capuchin monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. MELIN, Linda M. FEDIGAN, Hilary C. YOUNG, Shoji KAWAMURA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates are the main source of protein for many small-bodied monkeys. Prey vary in size, mobility, degree of protective covering, and use of the forest, i.e. canopy height, and whether they are exposed or embed themselves in substrates. Sex-differentiation in foraging patterns is well documented for some monkey species and recent studies find that color vision phenotype can also affect invertebrate foraging. Since vision phenotype is polymorphic and sex-linked in most New World monkeys - males have dichromatic vision and females have either dichromatic or trichromatic vision - this raises the possibility that sex differences are linked to visual ecology. We tested predicted sex differences for invertebrate foraging in white-faced capuchins Cebus capucinus and conducted 12 months of study on four free-ranging groups between January 2007 and September 2008. We found both sex and color vision effects. Sex: Males spent more time foraging for invertebrates on the ground. Females spent more time consuming embedded, colonial invertebrates, ate relatively more “soft” sedentary invertebrates, and devoted more of their activity budget to invertebrate foraging. Color Vision: Dichromatic monkeys had a higher capture efficiency of exposed invertebrates and spent less time visually foraging. Trichromats ate relatively more “hard” sedentary invertebrates. We conclude that some variation in invertebrate foraging reflects differences between the sexes that may be due to disparities in size, strength, reproductive demands or niche preferences. However, other intraspecific variation in invertebrate foraging that might be mistakenly attributed to sex differences actually reflects differences in color vision [Current Zoology 56 (3: 300–312, 2010].

  9. Dynamics of Invertebrate Diversity in a Tropical Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Pearson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional studies of biotic communities are important for characterising their normal spatial and temporal variation, but there are few such studies of tropical streams. This paper describes changes in invertebrate communities in Yuccabine Creek, a seasonal upland rainforest stream in tropical Australia, over three-year and decadal periods. Invertebrate abundance, richness and evenness were temporally stable, except after major drying or wet-season flows, from which they recovered quickly; however, three wet seasons contrasted in abundance patterns. Species’ responses to flood or drought varied depending on life-histories and habitat dynamics. Communities showed contrasts between wet, early-dry and late-dry seasons, with different characteristic species. Current velocity, leaf litter and substratum particle size were the main environmental correlates with species abundances and multivariate scores. Between-decade contrasts were due to antecedent rainfall and loss of canopy cover. Trophic composition varied seasonally, driven by abundances of predators and detritivores. Yuccabine Creek differs from comparable temperate streams in its high diversity of invertebrates, continual recruitment and spring-dominated continual leaf fall; and from some other tropical streams in its seasonal flow regime. Interpretation of invertebrate metrics in these streams needs to account for historical, antecedent and current conditions, but biannual samples would adequately characterise the fauna.

  10. Cryptic speciation in a model invertebrate chordate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Luigi; Andreakis, Nikos; Mastrototaro, Francesco; Cirino, Paola; Vassillo, Mauro; Sordino, Paolo

    2007-05-29

    We applied independent species concepts to clarify the phylogeographic structure of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a powerful model system in chordate biology and for comparative genomic studies. Intensive research with this marine invertebrate is based on the assumption that natural populations globally belong to a single species. Therefore, understanding the true taxonomic classification may have implications for experimental design and data management. Phylogenies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers accredit the existence of two cryptic species: C. intestinalis sp. A, genetically homogeneous, distributed in the Mediterranean, northeast Atlantic, and Pacific, and C. intestinalis sp. B, geographically structured and encountered in the North Atlantic. Species-level divergence is further entailed by cross-breeding estimates. C. intestinalis A and B from allopatric populations cross-fertilize, but hybrids remain infertile because of defective gametogenesis. Although anatomy illustrates an overall interspecific similarity lacking in diagnostic features, we provide consistent tools for in-field and in-laboratory species discrimination. Finding of two cryptic taxa in C. intestinalis raises interest in a new tunicate genome as a gateway to studies in speciation and ecological adaptation of chordates.

  11. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  12. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...... and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies....

  13. Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October; whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

  14. Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented.

  15. Benthic invertebrate metals exposure, accumulation, and community-level effects downstream from a hard-rock mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, D.J.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D. [Hagler Bailly, Boulder, CO (United States); Clements, W.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1999-02-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the relationships among As, Co, and Cu concentrations in exposure media (surface water, sediment, and aufwuchs), As, Co, and Cu concentrations in aquatic macroinvertebrates, and invertebrate community structure in a mine-affected stream. Concentrations of As, Co, and Cu were significantly elevated in both exposure media and invertebrate tissue downstream from the mine. Copper in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with Cu in aufwuchs, and Co in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with dissolved Co in water, suggesting different mechanisms of invertebrate accumulation for these two metals. The invertebrate community was severely affected downstream from the mine, with a loss of metals-sensitive species and reductions in both total biomass and number of species. Total abundance was not affected. Principal components analysis was performed on the invertebrate community data to develop a simplified description of community response to mine inputs. Based on this index, metal concentrations in invertebrates were poor predictors of community structure. Copper concentrations in water, combined with an estimate of invertebrate drift from clean tributaries, were statistically significant predictors of community structure.

  16. Molecular architecture and biomedical leads of terpenes from red sea marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Alhammady, Montaser A; Shaheen, Alaa M; Reda, Eman H; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W

    2015-05-20

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  17. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate-Vertebrate Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V

    2016-04-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  18. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  20. Multiplex reactions for the molecular detection of predation on pest and nonpest invertebrates in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R Andrew; Moreno-Ripoll, Rafael; Agustí, Nuria; Shayler, Simon P; Bell, James R; Bohan, David A; Symondson, William O C

    2011-03-01

    Species- and group-specific PCR primers were developed to study predation on pest and nonpest invertebrate species by generalist carabid predators in agroecosystems. To ensure the amplification of degraded DNA in predator gut samples, amplicons were designed to be less than 300 bp. Specificity of primers was assessed by cross-amplification against a panel of target and nontarget invertebrate species. The new primers were combined with previously published primers for slugs and collembolla in multiplex reactions to simultaneously screen each predator for the presence of multiple prey. All prey species were detected in a screen of the gut contents of field-caught predators. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Taizo, E-mail: taizo@ynu.ac.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Keiji [Nagoya University Avian Bioscience Research Centre, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by gamma-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  2. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: Robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Lopez, C. V.; Cassani, G.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain robust data on the toxicity of LAS, tests with the collembolan Folsomia candida L., the oligochaetes Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny (earthworm) and Enchytraeus crypticus Westheide and Graefe (enchytraeid) were performed in a sandy loam soil. Additionally limited tests with LAS spiked...

  3. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tool to predict the bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene to the springtail, Folsomia candida, under various soil conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Mortensen, Mads; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    ) for the euedaphic springtail, Folsomia candida, under various test conditions. The soil used was a sandy loam soil with natural OM content of 2.6% (Askov soil). It was enriched with increasing organic matter concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 20% and was aged for 0, 56, and 112 days. The EC50 values of the springtails...

  4. Invertebrate pathogenicity and toxin-producing potential of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis endemic to Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A; Bishop, A H

    2011-06-01

    Several strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were previously isolated from soil in Antarctica and appeared to have physiological adaptations to this cold, nutrient-poor environment. In spite of this they could produce abnormally large, parasporal crystals under laboratory conditions. Here, they have been further characterised for toxin genes and invertebrate pathogenicity. All of the strains were positive in PCR assays for the cry1Aa and cry2 genes. This was confirmed by sequence analysis and the parasporal crystals of all strains contained polypeptides of about 130kDa. This potential for lepidopteran toxicity was borne out in bioassays of purified δ-endotoxins against larvae of Pieris brassicae: the LD(50) values of B2408 (288μg) were comparable to that of the reference strain, HD-12 (201μg). There was no activity against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in spite of the fact that all strains appeared to possess the cry6 gene. PCR screening for genes encoding other nematode-toxic classes of toxins (Cry5, 4 and 21) was negative. B. thuringiensis has never previously been shown to be toxic to Collembola (springtails) but the purified δ-endotoxins of one of the Antarctic strains showed some activity against Folsomia candida and Seira domestica (224μg and 238μg, respectively). It seems unlikely that the level of toxicity demonstrated against springtails would support a pathogenic life-style in nature. All of the strains were positive for genes encoding Bacillus cereus-type enterotoxins. In the absence of higher insects and mammals the ecological value of retaining the toxic capability demonstrated here is uncertain.

  5. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  6. Biodiversity loss in seagrass meadows due to local invertebrate fisheries and harbour activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Gullström, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, but their distribution and health are adversely affected by man. In the present study, we examined the influence of coastal exploitation in terms of invertebrate harvesting and harbour activity on invertebrate community composition in subtropical seagrass meadows at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, in the Western Indian Ocean. There was a fivefold higher invertebrate density and biomass, and clearly higher invertebrate species richness, in the protected (control) site compared to the two exploited sites. The causes for the clear differences between protected and exploited sites were probably a result of (1) the directional outtake of large edible or saleable invertebrates (mostly molluscs) and the absence of boat traffic in the harvested site, and (2) harbour activities. Invertebrate community composition in the two exploited sites also differed (although less clear), which was likely due to inherent distinction in type of disturbance. Our findings revealed that protection of seagrass habitat is necessary and that disturbances of different origin might require different forms of management and conservation. Designing protected areas is however a complex process due to competition for use and space with activities such as invertebrate harvesting and harbours.

  7. Headwater riparian forest-floor invertebrate communities associated with alternative forest management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykken, Jessica J; Moldenke, Andrew R; Olson, Deanna H

    2007-06-01

    Headwater streams and their riparian zones are a common, yet poorly understood, component of Pacific Northwest, USA, landscapes. We describe the ecological importance of headwater stream riparian zones as habitat for forest-floor invertebrate communities and assess how alternative management strategies for riparian zones may impact these communities. We compared community composition of forest-floor invertebrates at increasing distances along trans-riparian (stream edge to upslope) transects in mature forests, clearcuts, and riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width with upslope clearcuts. Invertebrates were collected using pitfall traps in five replicate blocks of three treatments each in the Willamette National Forest, Oregon, USA. We measured microclimate and microhabitat variables at pitfall locations. Despite strong elevation and block effects on community composition, community analyses revealed a distinct "riparian" invertebrate community within 1 m of the stream edge in mature forest treatments, which was strongly related to cool, humid microclimate conditions. Invertebrate community composition in buffer treatments was far more similar to that of mature forests than to clearcuts; a pattern mirrored by microclimate. These results suggest that, within our study sites, forest-floor invertebrate distributions are strongly associated with microclimate and that riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width do provide habitat for many riparian and forest species. Riparian reserves may serve as effective forest refugia and/or dispersal corridors for invertebrates and other taxa, and their incorporation into watershed management plans likely will contribute to meeting persistence and connectivity objectives.

  8. The effect of pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Folsomia candida in amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lofts, Stephen; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-10-01

    The effect of soil pH on the toxicity of 30 nm ZnO to Folsomia candida was assessed in Dorset field soils with pHCaCl2 adjusted to 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39. To unravel the contribution of particle size and dissolved Zn, 200 nm ZnO and ZnCl2 were tested. Zinc sorption increased with increasing pH, and Freundlich kf values ranged from 98.9 (L/kg)(1/n) to 333 (L/kg)(1/n) for 30 nm ZnO and from 64.3 (L/kg)(1/n) to 187 (L/kg)(1/n) for ZnCl2. No effect of particle size was found on sorption, and little difference was found in toxicity between 30 nm and 200 nm ZnO. The effect on reproduction decreased with increasing pH for all Zn forms, with 28-d median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 553 mg Zn/kg, 1481 mg Zn/kg, and 3233 mg Zn/kg for 30 nm ZnO and 331 mg Zn/kg, 732 mg Zn/kg, and 1174 mg Zn/kg for ZnCl2 at pH 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39, respectively. The EC50s based on porewater Zn concentrations increased with increasing pH for 30 nm ZnO from 4.77 mg Zn/L to 18.5 mg Zn/L, while for ZnCl2 no consistent pH-related trend in EC50s was found (21.0-63.3 mg Zn/L). Porewater calcium levels were 10 times higher in ZnCl2 -spiked soils than in ZnO-spiked soils. The authors' results suggest that the decreased toxicity of ZnCl2 compared with 30 nm ZnO based on porewater concentrations was because of a protective effect of calcium and not a particle effect.

  9. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  11. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Carracher, Lucy K.; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Gilby, Ben L.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories. PMID:27564550

  14. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  15. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    , excluding the aquacultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, which showed the highest rate of N2O emission measured so far for any marine species (3.569 nmol ind.–1 h–1), probably due to very high nitrate concentrations in the rearing tanks. The N2O emitted by L. vannamei was almost exclusively produced in its...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine...

  16. D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stillman Jonathon H

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(--lactate and D(+-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by

  17. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  18. Lessons in modularity: the evolutionary ecology of colonial invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger N. Hughes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic colonial invertebrates share with higher plants a modular construction and a sessile adult life. Both types of organism show parallel evolutionary responses to common selective forces, but in contrast to the long-established focus on plants, comparable study of colonial invertebrates has developed relatively recently, largely owing to the application of new techniques in image processing and molecular biology. Species whose life cycles are readily completed under laboratory conditions and whose colonies are easily propagated from cuttings provide powerful models for experimentally investigating fundamental evolutionary problems, including metabolic allometry, the manifestation of ageing and the origin of allorecognition systems. Free of the confounding influences of behavioural manipulation and costs of copulation, colonial invertebrates whose water-borne sperm fertilize retained eggs lend themselves well to the experimental study of cryptic female choice, sperm competition and sexual conflict. In these respects, it will be productive to adopt and extend theoretical frameworks developed for flowering plants to guide experimental investigation of modular animals. Since mate choice occurs at the cellular level in modular animals, reproductive isolation is uncorrelated with morphology and cryptic speciation is likely to be widespread.

  19. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  20. Small is useful in endocrine disrupter assessment--four key recommendations for aquatic invertebrate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2007-02-01

    As we enter the 21st "biocentury", with issues such as biodiversity and biotechnology growing in public profile, it is important to reflect on the immense ecological, medical and economic importance of invertebrates. Efforts to understand the diverse biology of invertebrates come from many directions, including Nobel Prize winning developmental biology, research to control insects that threaten human health and food supplies, aquaculture opportunities and also within ecotoxicology. In the latter context, this special journal volume highlights the importance of addressing endocrine disruption in aquatic invertebrates, from molecular and cellular biomarkers to population-relevant adverse effects. The contributors to this special volume have provided an excellent assessment of both the fundamental endocrinology and applied ecotoxicology of many aquatic invertebrate groups. On the premise that reproductive success is ultimately the vital population parameter, this chapter gives a personal view of key gaps in knowledge in invertebrate reproductive and developmental endocrinology and ecotoxicology. Based on current knowledge, there are four key issues that need to be prioritised within aquatic ecotoxicology: (1) a wider assessment of the reproductive status of invertebrates in both freshwater and coastal ecosystems; (2) prioritisation of laboratory studies in OECD and other regulatory test organisms, including basic endocrinology and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) research; (3) development and validation of mechanistic biomarkers that can be used as "signposts" to help prioritise species and chronic test endpoint selection, and help link data from laboratory and field studies; and (4) develop a comparative invertebrate toxicology database utilising the prioritised reference chemicals from the EDIETA workshop, encompassing the diverse modes-of-action pertinent to endocrine disrupter testing in both aquatic arthropod and non

  1. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  3. Invertebrate Iridovirus Modulation of Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Williams; Nllesh S. Chitnis; Sh(a)n L. Bilimoria

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key host response to virus infection. Viruses that can modulate host apoptotic responses are likely to gain important opportunities for transmission. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate that particles of Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae, genus Iridovirus), or an IIV-6 virion protein extract, are capable of inducing apoptosis in lepidopteran and coleopteran cells, at concentrations 1000-fold lower than that required to shut-off host macromolecular synthesis. Induction of apoptosis depends on endocytosis of one or more heat-sensitive virion component(s). Studies with a JNK inh ibitor(SP600125) indicated that the JNK signaling pathway is significantly involved in apoptosis in IIV-6 infections of Choristoneurafumiferana ceils. The genome of IIV-6 codes for an inhibitor of apoptosis iap gene (193R) that encodes a protein of 208 aa with 15% identity and 28% similarity in its amino acid sequence to IAP-3 from Cydia pomonella ganulovirus (CpGV). Transcription of IIV-6 iap did not require prior DNA or protein synthesis, indicating that it is an immediate-early class gene. Transient expression and gene knockdown studies have confirmed the functional nature of the IIV-6 iap gene. We present a tentative model for IIV-6 induction and inhibition of apoptosis in insect cells and discuss the potential applications of these findings in insect pest control.

  4. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  5. INVHOGEN: a database of homologous invertebrate genes

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Ingo; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2005-01-01

    Classification of proteins into families of homologous sequences constitutes the basis of functional analysis or of evolutionary studies. Here we present INVertebrate HOmologous GENes (INVHOGEN), a database combining the available invertebrate protein genes from UniProt (consisting of Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL) into gene families. For each family INVHOGEN provides a multiple protein alignment, a maximum likelihood based phylogenetic tree and taxonomic information about the sequences. It is possib...

  6. Invertebrate Cells as Targets for Hazardous Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-Rüdiger; Zahn, Thomas; Vogt, Günter; Ludwig, Mario; Rumpf, Silke; Kratzmann, Markus; Alberti, Gerd; Storch, Volker

    1991-01-01

    Electron microscopy is an established diagnostic method in pathology of man as well as of vertebrate animals. During the last decade, ultrastructural studies have also been performed in invertebrates to elucidate cellular injuries caused by hazardous substances (BAYNE et al. 1985, MOORE 1985, STORCH 1988, HOPKIN 1989). The interest in invertebrates has increased due to their suitability to monitor environmental pollution. For example field and laboratory studies have been performed using the ...

  7. Fish odour triggers conspecific attraction behaviour in an aquatic invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Harald; Thünken, Timo; Baldauf, Sebastian A; Bakker, Theo C M; Frommen, Joachim G

    2008-10-23

    Group living has evolved as an adaptation to predation in many animal species. In a multitude of vertebrates, the tendency to aggregate varies with the risk of predation, but experimental evidence for this is less well known in invertebrates. Here, we examine the tendency to aggregate in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex in the absence and presence of predator fish odour. Without fish odour, the gammarids showed no significant tendency to aggregate. In contrast to this, in fish-conditioned water, they significantly preferred to stay close to conspecifics. Predation risk can, thus, influence gammarids social behaviour.

  8. [Venomous and poisonous animals. V. Envenomations by venomous marine invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; de Haro, L

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological information about marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical countries where this type of injury is more severe and the need for medical attention is more frequent. For this reason use of the regional poison control centers in the areas where envenomation occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by poisonous marine invertebrates (cephalopods, sea urchins, cone shells, jellyfish, anemones, star-fish, corals, and worms). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  9. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    factors such as behavior and intraspecific interactions. Thus, at the examined spatial scale, the more intense intraspecific interactions (e.g. territoriality) cause less aggregated distribution patterns among large- than small-bodied invertebrates. The species-specific interactions seem sufficiently...... strong to override environmental influences (e.g. water depth and sediment type). The strong linear relationship between the slope b and intercept log(a) from the power relationship is remarkably similar for all surveys providing a common slope of−1.63 with the present sampling approach.We suggest...

  10. Genetic structuring across marine biogeographic boundaries in rocky shore invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Adriana; Costantini, Federica; Abbiati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography investigates spatial patterns of species distribution. Discontinuities in species distribution are identified as boundaries between biogeographic areas. Do these boundaries affect genetic connectivity? To address this question, a multifactorial hierarchical sampling design, across three of the major marine biogeographic boundaries in the central Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian-Tyrrhenian, Tyrrhenian-Ionian and Ionian-Adriatic) was carried out. Mitochondrial COI sequence polymorphism of seven species of Mediterranean benthic invertebrates was analysed. Two species showed significant genetic structure across the Tyrrhenian-Ionian boundary, as well as two other species across the Ionian Sea, a previously unknown phylogeographic barrier. The hypothesized barrier in the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian cannot be detected in the genetic structure of the investigated species. Connectivity patterns across species at distances up to 800 km apart confirmed that estimates of pelagic larval dispersal were poor predictors of the genetic structure. The detected genetic discontinuities seem more related to the effect of past historical events, though maintained by present day oceanographic processes. Multivariate statistical tools were used to test the consistency of the patterns across species, providing a conceptual framework for across-species barrier locations and strengths. Additional sequences retrieved from public databases supported our findings. Heterogeneity of phylogeographic patterns shown by the 7 investigated species is relevant to the understanding of the genetic diversity, and carry implications for conservation biology.

  11. Genetic structuring across marine biogeographic boundaries in rocky shore invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Villamor

    Full Text Available Biogeography investigates spatial patterns of species distribution. Discontinuities in species distribution are identified as boundaries between biogeographic areas. Do these boundaries affect genetic connectivity? To address this question, a multifactorial hierarchical sampling design, across three of the major marine biogeographic boundaries in the central Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian-Tyrrhenian, Tyrrhenian-Ionian and Ionian-Adriatic was carried out. Mitochondrial COI sequence polymorphism of seven species of Mediterranean benthic invertebrates was analysed. Two species showed significant genetic structure across the Tyrrhenian-Ionian boundary, as well as two other species across the Ionian Sea, a previously unknown phylogeographic barrier. The hypothesized barrier in the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian cannot be detected in the genetic structure of the investigated species. Connectivity patterns across species at distances up to 800 km apart confirmed that estimates of pelagic larval dispersal were poor predictors of the genetic structure. The detected genetic discontinuities seem more related to the effect of past historical events, though maintained by present day oceanographic processes. Multivariate statistical tools were used to test the consistency of the patterns across species, providing a conceptual framework for across-species barrier locations and strengths. Additional sequences retrieved from public databases supported our findings. Heterogeneity of phylogeographic patterns shown by the 7 investigated species is relevant to the understanding of the genetic diversity, and carry implications for conservation biology.

  12. Fertilization success in marine invertebrates: the influence of gamete age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark Elliott; Bentley, Matthew Graeme

    2002-02-01

    Gamete age has been postulated to be unimportant to the fertilization ecology of marine invertebrates. However, recent research suggests that, for some species at least, it may have a direct impact upon fertilization success. We present comparative data on the influence of gamete age on fertilization and development success in several marine invertebrates: the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the asteroid echinoderm Asterias rubens. Oocytes are much longer lived in the polychaetes than in the echinoderm, with A. marina oocytes still capable of fertilizing and developing normally 96 h post-spawning. Developmental abnormalities and failure to reach blastula tend to occur well before the fertilizable life of the oocytes has expired. Sperm are similarly longer lived in the polychaetes; however, fertilizing capacity is markedly reduced following incubation in conspecific egg-conditioned seawater. These results are discussed in terms of the fertilization strategies of the three species. We further suggest that, for A. marina at least, longer-lived sperm and eggs are central to the fertilization strategy of this species.

  13. Surface-dwelling and subterranean invertebrate fauna associated with giant reed (Arundo donax Poaceae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Robert E.; Ervin, Edward L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    In the southwestern United States giant reed, Arundo donax, is a non-native invasive plant that has become widely established in moist places and forms its largest stands along riparian corridors. The most widely reported negative effects include competition with native species, increased rate of transpiration, increased potential for wildfires, and stream channel and bank alteration. However, little is known about the faunal communities associated with this plant and the potential effects on native fauna. In this study, we focused our efforts on determining the faunal composition specifically from rhizome clumps of A. donax from a site located along the Santa Margarita River in San Diego County, California. A total of 2590 individual macro-invertebrates were collected and identified, and represented 64 species from 7 classes. No sensitive species and few vertebrates were found to be in association with A. donax rhizome clumps. Four non-native invertebrate species made up 43% of the total number of captured invertebrates, and 31% of the sampled invertebrates were confirmed as native species. This study demonstrates that A. donax rhizome clumps, and the soils associated with them, provide habitat for several native macro-invertebrate species, but can be dominated by a greater abundance of non-native species.

  14. Benthic invertebrates of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin, Western Lake Michigan Drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.; Lenz, B.N.; Scudder, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    This study describes the benthic invertebrate communities of 20 benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin. Streams with minimal adverse effects from human activity were selected from four agricultural areas with differing surficial deposits and bedrock types (relatively homogeneous units, or RHU's). Most aquatic invertebrate orders were well represented in the 20 benchmark stream samples; 217 species and 151 genera within 56 families were identified. Diptera was the best represented order (96 species), followed by Trichoptera (42 species) and Ephemeroptera (26 species). Diptera were the most abundant organisms in terms of numbers of individuals in the sample (28 percent of the total) followed by Trichoptera (25 percent) and Ephemeroptera (13 percent). Nine species of freshwater mussels were found, but only in 5 of the 20 benchmark streams.

  15. Chemoreception of the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica by Benthic Invertebrates is Altered by Seawater Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupo, Valerio; Maibam, Chingoileima; Buia, Maria Cristina; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Scipione, Maria Beatrice; Lorenti, Maurizio; Fink, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Several plants and invertebrates interact and communicate by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds may play the role of infochemicals, being able to carry complex information to selected species, thus mediating inter- or intra-specific communications. Volatile organic compounds derived from the wounding of marine diatoms, for example, carry information for several benthic and planktonic invertebrates. Although the ecological importance of VOCs has been demonstrated, both in terrestrial plants and in marine microalgae, their role as infochemicals has not been demonstrated in seagrasses. In addition, benthic communities, even the most complex and resilient, as those associated to seagrass meadows, are affected by ocean acidification at various levels. Therefore, the acidification of oceans could produce interference in the way seagrass-associated invertebrates recognize and choose their specific environments. We simulated the wounding of Posidonia oceanica leaves collected at two sites (a control site at normal pH, and a naturally acidified site) off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). We extracted the VOCs and tested a set of 13 species of associated invertebrates for their specific chemotactic responses in order to determine if: a) seagrasses produce VOCs playing the role of infochemicals, and b) their effects can be altered by seawater pH. Our results indicate that several invertebrates recognize the odor of wounded P. oceanica leaves, especially those strictly associated to the leaf stratum of the seagrass. Their chemotactic reactions may be modulated by the seawater pH, thus impairing the chemical communications in seagrass-associated communities in acidified conditions. In fact, 54% of the tested species exhibited a changed behavioral response in acidified waters (pH 7.7). Furthermore, the differences observed in the abundance of invertebrates, in natural vs. acidified field conditions, are in agreement with these behavioral

  16. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  17. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  18. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  19. Patterns of genetic connectivity in invertebrates of temperate MPA networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marti-Puig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperate reefs are among the most threatened marine habitats due to impacts caused by high density of human settlements, coastal development, pollution, fisheries and tourism. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs are an important tool for ensuring long-term health and conservation of ecological processes in the marine environment. Design of the MPA network has to be based on deep understanding of spatial patterns of species distribution, and on the make-up of connectivity among populations. Most benthic invertebrates are sessile and/or sedentary in the adult phase, and their dispersal relies mainly on the gametes and/or larval behaviours. Genetic markers allow us to quantify gene flow and structuring among populations, and to infer patterns of genetic connectivity. Based on the information available in the peer reviewed literature on genetic connectivity in benthic invertebrates of temperate MPAs, we provide a comment about the gaps and the needs. Moreover, we propose a rationale to plan and optimise future studies on this topic. A conceptual framework for planning effective studies on genetic connectivity in an MPAs network is provided, including general recommendations on sampling design, key species and molecular markers to use.

  20. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning...... the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  1. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs......), and considers the acute and chronic ecotoxicity. The chapter examines in more detail the processes that influence this toxicity, for example, agglomeration and aggregation, and photocatalytic activity upon exposure to UV light. It covers the longer-term effects of various nanomaterials by reviewing literature...

  2. Phagocytosis mediates specificity in the immune defence of an invertebrate, the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in invertebrates. We here developed in vitro phagocytosis measurements for different bacteria in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). After immune priming with heat-killed bacteria, hemocytes showed increased phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared to other bacteria. These data support the role of phagocytosis in invertebrate immunological specificity and suggest a high degree of specificity that even enables to differentiate between strains of the same bacterial species.

  3. Antifouling activity in some benthic Antarctic invertebrates by "in situ" experiments at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Cid, Cristina; Oliva, Francesc; Avila, Conxita

    2015-04-01

    Competition for space is a remarkable ecological force, comparable to predation, producing a strong selective pressure on benthic invertebrates. Some invertebrates, thus, possess antimicrobial compounds to reduce surface bacterial growth. Antimicrobial inhibition is the first step in avoiding being overgrown by other organisms, which may have a negative impact in feeding, respiration, reproduction … The in situ inhibition of bacterial biofilm was used here as an indicator of antifouling activity by testing hydrophilic extracts of twelve Antarctic invertebrates. Using two different approaches (genetics and confocal techniques) different levels of activity were found in the tested organisms. In fact, differences within body parts of the studied organisms were determined, in agreement with the Optimal Defense Theory. Eight out of 15 extracts tested had negative effects on fouling after 28 days submerged in Antarctic waters. Thus, although chemical defenses may be quite species-specific in their ecological roles, these results suggest that different chemical strategies exist to deal with space competition.

  4. Rapid global expansion of invertebrate fisheries: trends, drivers, and ecosystem effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, finfish fisheries are receiving increasing assessment and regulation, slowly leading to more sustainable exploitation and rebuilding. In their wake, invertebrate fisheries are rapidly expanding with little scientific scrutiny despite increasing socio-economic importance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide the first global evaluation of the trends, drivers, and population and ecosystem consequences of invertebrate fisheries based on a global catch database in combination with taxa-specific reviews. We also develop new methodologies to quantify temporal and spatial trends in resource status and fishery development. Since 1950, global invertebrate catches have increased 6-fold with 1.5 times more countries fishing and double the taxa reported. By 2004, 34% of invertebrate fisheries were over-exploited, collapsed, or closed. New fisheries have developed increasingly rapidly, with a decrease of 6 years (3 years in time to peak from the 1950s to 1990s. Moreover, some fisheries have expanded further and further away from their driving market, encompassing a global fishery by the 1990s. 71% of taxa (53% of catches are harvested with habitat-destructive gear, and many provide important ecosystem functions including habitat, filtration, and grazing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that invertebrate species, which form an important component of the basis of marine food webs, are increasingly exploited with limited stock and ecosystem-impact assessments, and enhanced management attention is needed to avoid negative consequences for ocean ecosystems and human well-being.

  5. Rapid global expansion of invertebrate fisheries: trends, drivers, and ecosystem effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Watson, Reg; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-03-08

    Worldwide, finfish fisheries are receiving increasing assessment and regulation, slowly leading to more sustainable exploitation and rebuilding. In their wake, invertebrate fisheries are rapidly expanding with little scientific scrutiny despite increasing socio-economic importance. We provide the first global evaluation of the trends, drivers, and population and ecosystem consequences of invertebrate fisheries based on a global catch database in combination with taxa-specific reviews. We also develop new methodologies to quantify temporal and spatial trends in resource status and fishery development. Since 1950, global invertebrate catches have increased 6-fold with 1.5 times more countries fishing and double the taxa reported. By 2004, 34% of invertebrate fisheries were over-exploited, collapsed, or closed. New fisheries have developed increasingly rapidly, with a decrease of 6 years (3 years) in time to peak from the 1950s to 1990s. Moreover, some fisheries have expanded further and further away from their driving market, encompassing a global fishery by the 1990s. 71% of taxa (53% of catches) are harvested with habitat-destructive gear, and many provide important ecosystem functions including habitat, filtration, and grazing. Our findings suggest that invertebrate species, which form an important component of the basis of marine food webs, are increasingly exploited with limited stock and ecosystem-impact assessments, and enhanced management attention is needed to avoid negative consequences for ocean ecosystems and human well-being.

  6. Frequency of injury and the ecology of regeneration in marine benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sara M

    2010-10-01

    Many marine invertebrates are able to regenerate lost tissue following injury, but regeneration can come at a cost to individuals in terms of reproduction, behavior and physiological condition, and can have effects that reach beyond the individual to impact populations, communities, and ecosystems. For example, removal and subsequent regeneration of clams' siphons, polychaetes' segments, and brittlestars' arms can represent significant energetic input to higher trophic levels. In marine soft-sediment habitats, injury changes infaunal bioturbation rates and thus secondarily influences sediment-mediated competition, adult-larval interactions, and recruitment success. The importance of injury and regeneration as factors affecting the ecology of marine invertebrate communities depends on the frequency of injury, as well as on individual capacity for, and speed of, regeneration. A key question to answer is: "How frequently are marine benthic invertebrates injured?" Here, I review the sources and the frequencies of injury in a variety of marine invertebrates from different benthic habitats, discuss challenges, and approaches for accurately determining injury rates in the field, consider evidence for species-specific, temporal and geographic variation in injury rates, and present examples of indirect effects of injury on marine invertebrates to illustrate how injury and regeneration can modify larger-scale ecological patterns and processes.

  7. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  8. Scientometric trends of freshwater benthic invertebrates studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Brandimarte

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper is to analyze trends in the literature concerning benthic invertebrates in Brazil, mainly the number of published papers and approaches used. Methods The Ph.D. database of the Lattes Platform (CNPq was used as the source of information for the period 1970-2014. We searched for the terms “benthos”, “macroinvertebrates”, and “zoobenthos” in the titles and keywords of the papers listed on the platform. Papers were classified into the following categories: Systematics, Life History, Ecology, and Divulgation. These categories were further divided into subcategories. The percentage of papers in every major category and subcategory was calculated. Results The search introduced 1,573 papers, which were mainly related to Ecology and Systematics. From 1970 to 2009, the number of papers published per decade increased exponentially, and the upward trend continues. The number of papers concerning Systematics, especially in Taxonomy, is increasing. Of the papers in Ecology category, those about Structure, Dynamics, and Distribution of the fauna have been increasing since the 1980s, and there has been an evident increase in the production of papers related to environmental damage in the last decade. The rate of production of papers concerning the role of invertebrates in ecosystems and the effects of different Spatial Scales has been increasing since the 2000s. Conclusion There is a clear tendency towards the increased continuity of paper production concerning freshwater benthic invertebrates, and relatively new approaches as Conservation and Exotic Species are becoming relevant.

  9. Burrowing seabird effects on invertebrate communities in soil and litter are dominated by ecosystem engineering rather than nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Kate H; Wardle, David A; Towns, David R; St John, Mark G; Bellingham, Peter J; Jones, Chris; Fitzgerald, Brian M; Parrish, Richard G; Lyver, Phil O'B

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate consumers can be important drivers of the structure and functioning of ecosystems, including the soil and litter invertebrate communities that drive many ecosystem processes. Burrowing seabirds, as prevalent vertebrate consumers, have the potential to impact consumptive effects via adding marine nutrients to soil (i.e. resource subsidies) and non-consumptive effects via soil disturbance associated with excavating burrows (i.e. ecosystem engineering). However, the exact mechanisms by which they influence invertebrates are poorly understood. We examined how soil chemistry and plant and invertebrate communities changed across a gradient of seabird burrow density on two islands in northern New Zealand. Increasing seabird burrow density was associated with increased soil nutrient availability and changes in plant community structure and the abundance of nearly all the measured invertebrate groups. Increasing seabird densities had a negative effect on invertebrates that were strongly influenced by soil-surface litter, a positive effect on fungal-feeding invertebrates, and variable effects on invertebrate groups with diverse feeding strategies. Gastropoda and Araneae species richness and composition were also influenced by seabird activity. Generalized multilevel path analysis revealed that invertebrate responses were strongly driven by seabird engineering effects, via increased soil disturbance, reduced soil-surface litter, and changes in trophic interactions. Almost no significant effects of resource subsidies were detected. Our results show that seabirds, and in particular their non-consumptive effects, were significant drivers of invertebrate food web structure. Reductions in seabird populations, due to predation and human activity, may therefore have far-reaching consequences for the functioning of these ecosystems.

  10. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  11. Multiple mating and clutch size in invertebrate brooders versus pregnant vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, John C; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2011-07-12

    We summarize the genetic literature on polygamy rates and sire numbers per clutch in invertebrate animals that brood their offspring and then compare findings with analogous data previously compiled for vertebrate species displaying viviparity or other pregnancy-like syndromes. As deduced from molecular parentage analyses of several thousand broods from more than 100 "pregnant" species, invertebrate brooders had significantly higher mean incidences of multiple mating than pregnant vertebrates, a finding generally consistent with the postulate that clutch size constrains successful mate numbers in species with extended parental care. However, we uncovered no significant correlation in invertebrates between brood size and genetically deduced rates of multiple mating by the incubating sex. Instead, in embryo-gestating animals otherwise as different as mammals and mollusks, polygamy rates and histograms of successful mates per brooder proved to be strikingly similar. Most previous studies have sought to understand why gestating parents have so many mates and such high incidences of successful multiple mating; an alternative perspective based on logistical constraints turns the issue on its head by asking why mate numbers and polygamy rates are much lower than they theoretically could be, given the parentage-resolving power of molecular markers and the huge sizes of many invertebrate broods.

  12. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of the Interleukin 17 Gene Family in Invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-De Huang

    Full Text Available Interleukin 17 (IL-17 is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and plays critical roles in the immune response to pathogens and in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Despite its important functions, the origin and evolution of IL-17 in animal phyla have not been characterized. As determined in this study, the distribution of the IL-17 family among 10 invertebrate species and 7 vertebrate species suggests that the IL-17 gene may have originated from Nematoda but is absent from Saccoglossus kowalevskii (Hemichordata and Insecta. Moreover, the gene number, protein length and domain number of IL-17 differ widely. A comparison of IL-17-containing domains and conserved motifs indicated somewhat low amino acid sequence similarity but high conservation at the motif level, although some motifs were lost in certain species. The third disulfide bond for the cystine knot fold is formed by two cysteine residues in invertebrates, but these have been replaced by two serine residues in Chordata and vertebrates. One third of invertebrate IL-17 proteins were found to have no predicted signal peptide. Furthermore, an analysis of phylogenetic trees and exon-intron structures indicated that the IL-17 family lacks conservation and displays high divergence. These results suggest that invertebrate IL-17 proteins have undergone complex differentiation and that their members may have developed novel functions during evolution.

  13. The role of histones in the immune responses of aquatic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nikapitiya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histones are primary components of eukaryotic chromatin and highly abundant in all animal cells. In addition to their important role in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, histones contribute to innate immune responses. In several aquatic invertebrate species, as well as in many other invertebrate and vertebrate species, the transcripts for core histones are upregulated in response to immune challenge and exposure to environmental stressors. Histones show antimicrobial activity against bacteria and parasites in vitro and in vivo and have the ability to bind bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other pathogen-associated molecules. Several mechanisms regulating and facilitating the antimicrobial action of histones against pathogens have been described in vertebrate and some invertebrate species, including the production of Extracellular Traps (ETs and the accumulation of histones in lipid droplets that can be selectively released in response to immune stimuli. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of action of histones in immune responses in aquatic invertebrates and investigate the potential use of histones in the treatment of infectious diseases in aquaculture

  14. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  15. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  16. Movement of carbon among estuarine habitats and its assimilation by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Guest, Michaela A

    2005-08-01

    We measured the extent of movement of carbon and its assimilation by invertebrates among estuarine habitats by analysing carbon stable isotopes of invertebrates collected along transects crossing the boundary of two habitats. The habitats were dominated by autotrophs with distinct isotope values: (1) mudflats containing benthic microalgae (mean -22.6, SE 0.6 per thousand) and (2) seagrass and its associated epiphytic algae (similar values, pooled mean -9.8, 0.5 per thousand). Three species of invertebrates were analysed: a palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium intermedium, and two polychaete worms, Nephtys australiensis and Australonereis ehlersi. All species had a similar narrow range of isotope values (-9 to -14 per thousand), and showed no statistically significant relationship between position along transect and isotope values. Animals were relying on carbon from seagrass meadows whether they were in seagrass or on mudflats hundreds of metres away. Particulate organic matter collected from superficial sediments along the transects had similar values to animals (mean -11.1, SE 1.3 per thousand) and also showed no significant relationship with position. The isotope values of these relatively immobile invertebrates and the particulate detritus suggest that carbon moves from subtidal seagrass meadows to mudflats as particulate matter and is assimilated by invertebrates. This assimilation might be direct in the case of the detritivorous worm, A. ehlersi, but must be via invertebrate prey in the case of the carnivorous worm, N. australiensis and the scavenging shrimp, M. intermedium. The extent of movement of carbon among habitats, especially towards shallower habitats, is surprising since in theory, carbon is more likely to move offshore in situations such as the current study where habitats are in relatively open, unprotected waters.

  17. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues.

  18. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  19. Effects of high and low temperatures on thermal tolerance in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe; Holmstrup, Martin; Bayley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    on invertebrates, significant increases in thermal resistance have been shown to occur on this short timescale after exposure to environmentally realistic alterations in temperature (e.g. Dahlgaard et al., 1998). In the present study, the thermal shock tolerance of adult F. candida was tested after either exposure...... to a constant temperature (control) or exposure to a fluctuating temperature for between 4 and 24 h. Both ends of the thermal tolerance scale were tested. Temperature fluctuation between - 1 and 19.8 °C (± 0.1 °C) had no significant effect on the survival of F. candida after a 2-hour cold shock at - 5.4 (100......% survival), - 6.4 or - 7.4 °C (100% mortality) compared with the control. In contrast, fluctuation between 20 and 30.1 °C (± 0.1°C) induced a significantly increased tolerance to a 34.6 °C heat shock with survival increasing from about 10% in the controls to a maximum of 80% in the animals exposed...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  1. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of Roebu

  2. The Early Years: An Invertebrate Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    For farmers and gardeners, slugs and snails may be serious pests that will limit the amount of harvest, but for a child, they represent a world to be explored. To teachers, however, invertebrates are tools for broadening students' understanding about animals, the connections between animals and habitats or plants, and an engaging subject to write…

  3. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  4. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  5. Temporal abiotic variability structures invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic variability is known to structure lotic invertebrate communities, yet its influence on lentic invertebrates is not clear. This study tests the hypothesis that variability of nutrients and macro-ions are structuring invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches. This was determine

  6. Temporal abiotic variability structures invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic variability is known to structure lotic invertebrate communities, yet its influence on lentic invertebrates is not clear. This study tests the hypothesis that variability of nutrients and macro-ions are structuring invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches. This was

  7. Tropical seaweed beds are important habitats for mobile invertebrate epifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Stina; Eggertsen, M.; Wikström, S. A.; Berkström, C.; Buriyo, A. S.; Halling, C.

    2016-12-01

    Marine macrophyte habitats in temperate regions provide productive habitats for numerous organisms, with their abundant and diverse invertebrate epifaunal assemblages constituting important linkages between benthic primary production and higher trophic levels. While it is commonly also recognized that certain vegetated habitats in the tropics, such as seagrass meadows, can harbour diverse epifaunal assemblages and may constitute important feeding grounds to fish, little is known about the epifaunal assemblages associated with tropical seaweed beds. We investigated the abundance, biomass and taxon richness of the mobile epifaunal community (≥1 mm) of tropical East African seaweed beds, as well as the abundance of invertivorous fishes, and compared it with that of closely situated seagrass meadows, to establish the ecological role of seaweed beds as habitat for epifauna as well as potential feeding grounds for fish. The results showed that seaweed beds had a higher abundance of mobile epifauna (mean ± SD: 10,600 ± 6000 vs 3700 ± 2800 per m2) than seagrass meadows, as well as a higher invertebrate biomass (35.9 ± 46.8 vs 1.9 ± 2.1 g per m2) and taxon richness (32.7 ± 11.8 vs 19.1 ± 6.3 taxa per sample), despite having a lower macrophyte biomass. Additionally, the high abundance of invertivorous fishes found in seaweed beds indicates that they act as important feeding grounds to several fish species in the region.

  8. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  9. A screening method for prioritizing non-target invertebrates for improved biosafety testing of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jacqui H; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Barraclough, Emma I; Malone, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a screening method that can be used during the problem formulation phase of risk assessment to identify and prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk analysis with any transgenic plant. In previously published protocols for this task, five criteria predominated. These criteria have been combined by our method in a simple model which assesses: (1) the possible level of risk presented by the plant to each invertebrate species (through measurements of potential hazard and exposure, the two principal criteria); (2) the hypothetical environmental impact of this risk (determined by the currently known status of the species' population in the ecosystem and its potential resilience to environmental perturbations); (3) the estimated economic, social and cultural value of each species; and (4) the assessed ability to conduct tests with the species. The screening method uses information on each of these criteria entered into a specially designed database that was developed using Microsoft Access 2003. The database holds biological and ecological information for each non-target species, as well as information about the transgenic plant that is the subject of the risk assessment procedure. Each piece of information is then ranked on the basis of the value of the information to each criterion being measured. This ranking system is flexible, allowing the method to be easily adapted for use in any agro-ecosystem and with any plant modification. A model is then used to produce a Priority Ranking of Non-Target Invertebrates (PRONTI) score for each species, which in turn allows the species to be prioritized for risk assessment. As an example, the method was used to prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk assessment of a hypothetical introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac-expressing Pinus radiata trees into New Zealand.

  10. Reproductive performance of the generalist predator Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari: Gamasida) when foraging on different invertebrate prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Ruf, A.; Nienstedt, K. M.;

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of prey quality and prey biomass during a standardized 3- week test on adult survival and reproductive output of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer when fed one of six different diets: springtails (Folsomia candida and F. fimetaria), a storage mite (Ca...

  11. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: > Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. > Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. > Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  12. Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Casper H A; Lovas-Kiss, Ádám; Ovegård, Maria; Green, Andy J

    2017-10-01

    In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested this hypothesis in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.). Cormorants regurgitate pellets daily, which we collected at seven European locations and examined for intact propagules. One-third of pellets contained at least one intact plant seed, with seeds from 16 families covering a broad range of freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. Of 21 plant species, only two have an endozoochory dispersal syndrome, compared with five for water and eight for unassisted dispersal syndromes. One-fifth of the pellets contained at least one intact propagule of aquatic invertebrates from seven taxa. Secondary dispersal by piscivorous birds may be vital to maintain connectivity in meta-populations and between river catchments, and in the movement of plants and invertebrates in response to climate change. Secondary dispersal pathways associated with complex food webs must be studied in detail if we are to understand species movements in a changing world. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  14. Book review: Rare and endangered biota of Florida, volume IV. Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Book Review: Of all of the Florida invertebrates that exist, or may have existed (one estimate claims 50,000 species) only descriptions of 350 species are included in this book. These are species that are thought to be, according to the many individual authors who wrote the accounts of these species, in decline or in danger of extinction. Final acceptance to be included in this book, and others in the series, is made by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals. They bel...

  15. Therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparative survey and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2017-02-07

    Traditional healing methods involving hundreds of insect and other invertebrate species are reviewed. Some of the uses are based on the tenet of "similia similibus" (let likes be cured by likes), but not all non-conventional health promoting practices should be dismissed as superstition or wishful thinking, for they have stood the test of time. Two questions are addressed: how can totally different organ systems in a human possibly benefit from extracts, potions, powders, secretions, ashes, etc. of a single species and how can different target organs, e.g. bronchi, lungs, the urinary bladder, kidneys, etc. apparently respond to a range of taxonomically not even closely related species? Even though therapeutically used invertebrates are generally small, they nevertheless possess organs for specific functions, e.g. digestion, gas exchange, reproduction. They have a nervous system, endocrine glands, a heart and muscle tissue and they contain a multitude of different molecules like metabolites, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, secretions, etc. that have come under increased scientific scrutiny for pharmacological properties. Bearing that in mind it seems likely that a single species prepared and used in different ways could have a multitude of uses. But how, for example, can there be remedies for breathing and other problems, involving earthworms, molluscs, termites, beetles, cockroaches, bugs, and dragonflies? Since invertebrates themselves can suffer from infections and cancers, common defence reactions are likely to have evolved in all invertebrates, which is why it would be far more surprising to find that each species had evolved its own unique disease fighting system. To obtain a more comprehensive picture, however, we still need information on folk medicinal uses of insects and other invertebrates from a wider range of regions and ethnic groups, but this task is hampered by western-based medicines becoming increasingly dominant and traditional healers being

  16. Invertebrate availability and vegetation characteristics explain use of nonnesting cover types by mature-forest songbirds during the postfledging period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Some species of mature-forest-nesting songbirds use regenerating clearcuts and forested wetlands during the postfledging period (between nesting and migration). Relatively dense vegetation structure and abundant food resources in non-mature-forest cover types have been hypothesized to explain this phenomenon. We examined the relative importance of vegetation structure and invertebrate availability on use of nonnesting cover types by adult and hatch-year Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) during the postfledging period of 2009 in northern Minnesota. We used mist nets to sample bird use of forested wetlands and regenerating clearcuts of three age groups: 1-6, 7-12, and 16-19 yr after harvest. We modeled captures of birds using vegetation characteristics and invertebrate availability sampled around nets as explanatory variables. For all birds studied, captures were best explained by food availability and secondarily by vegetation characteristics including litter depth and woody debris for Ovenbirds and canopy height for American Redstarts. Shrub-level invertebrate availability received a cumulative weight of 0.74-0.99 in Akaike's information criterion corrected ranked models for adult and hatch-year birds of both species. Vegetation density and variation in vegetation density explained almost no variation in captures of either species. We conclude that both invertebrate availability and some vegetation characteristics influence use of nonnesting cover types by Ovenbirds and American Redstarts during the postfledging period, but that invertebrate availability is generally the stronger predictor of that use. ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. INVHOGEN: a database of homologous invertebrate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Ingo; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2006-01-01

    Classification of proteins into families of homologous sequences constitutes the basis of functional analysis or of evolutionary studies. Here we present INVertebrate HOmologous GENes (INVHOGEN), a database combining the available invertebrate protein genes from UniProt (consisting of Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL) into gene families. For each family INVHOGEN provides a multiple protein alignment, a maximum likelihood based phylogenetic tree and taxonomic information about the sequences. It is possible to download the corresponding GenBank flatfiles, the alignment and the tree in Newick format. Sequences and related information have been structured in an ACNUC database under a client/server architecture. Thus, complex selections can be performed. An external graphical tool (FamFetch) allows access to the data to evaluate homology relationships between genes and distinguish orthologous from paralogous sequences. Thus, INVHOGEN complements the well-known HOVERGEN database. The databank is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/~invhogen/invhogen.html.

  18. [Food poisoning with marine animal toxins of invertebrate origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, E; Legnani, P; Boari, C; Forni, M C; Gennari, P

    1983-06-30

    The consumption of seafood is increasing and hence the risk of poisoning. For this reason, the study of food poisoning caused by zootoxins from marine invertebrates has become of signal importance. These toxins come from bivalve molluscs and other species. Depending on the type of toxin concerned, poisoning attributable to molluscs may give rise to paralysis, caused by saxitossin, neurotoxic effects (gimbretoxin), or haemolysis (venerupin). Poisoning caused by coelenterates, echinoderms, cephalopods, Neptunea, abalone, crabs and lobsters is less common, and its clinical pictures and pathogenesis have not been fully established. In some instances, toxins presented in the phytoplankton ingested by these animals appear to be responsible, whereas in others its would seem that they themselves elaborate the active principles directly.

  19. Influence of soil type and organic matter content on the bioavailability, accumulation, and toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Hartnik, Thomas; Christensen, Peter; Andersen, Ole; Jensen, John

    2010-05-01

    The influence of organic matter (OM) content on alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations and springtail Folsomia candida accumulation was investigated in two soils with different levels of organic matter, a forest soil with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 5.0% (OM=11.5%) and an agricultural soil with a TOC content of 1.3% (OM=4.0%). Also, the effects of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in soil and pore water and the influence of soil aging on springtail reproduction were investigated. Springtail reproduction was severely affected by increasing alpha-cypermethrin in soil with 1.3% TOC; the median effective concentration value (EC50) was estimated to 23.4 mg/kg (dry wt). Reproduction was only marginally affected in the soil with 5.0% TOC, and no EC50 value could be estimated. However, when expressing alpha-cypermethrin accumulation as a function of soil alpha-cypermethrin concentrations, no difference was found between the two soil types, and no additional alpha-cypermethrin uptake was observed at soil concentrations above approximately 200 mg/kg (dry wt). By using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), it could be demonstrated that alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations were higher in the soil with low organic matter (LOM) content than in the soil with high organic matter (HOM) content. Furthermore, a clear relationship was found between alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in springtails and porewater. Soil aging was not found to exert any effect on alpha-cypermethrin toxicity toward springtails. The study indicates that the springtail's accumulation of alpha-cypermethrin and reproduction is governed by alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations rather than the total alpha-cypermethrin concentration in soil.

  20. Influence of Ca and pH on the uptake and effects of Cd in Folsomia candida exposed to simplified soil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; Ortiz, Maria Diez; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-08-01

    The present study sought to quantify the components of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for the effects of Cd on Folsomia candida (Collembola). Assuming that soil porewater is the main route of exposure and to exclude the effects of soil particles on metal availability, animals were exposed for 7 d to different Cd concentrations between 0.1 mM and 100 mM in simplified soil solutions at different Ca concentrations (0.2 mM, 0.8 mM, 3.2 mM, and 12.8 mM) or at different pH (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0). Higher Ca concentrations decreased the toxicity of Cd (adult survival) in test solutions, whereas toxicity was slightly lower at pH 7 and 6 than at pH 5, suggesting a mitigating effect of Ca and to a lesser extent pH on Cd toxicity to F. candida. Internal Cd concentrations in the animals increased with increasing exposure level but were significantly reduced by increasing Ca concentrations and were not significantly affected by pH. By using Langmuir isotherms, binding constants for Cd, Ca, and protons and the fraction of binding sites occupied by Cd were calculated and used to predict effects of Cd on survival. Predicted toxicity showed a good agreement with measured responses when Ca and pH were used as separate factors or combined together. The present study shows indications of protective effects of Ca but less of protons on the toxicity and uptake of Cd in F. candida on exposure to simplified soil solutions, which can be described using the principles of a biotic ligand model.

  1. Effect of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Rupp, Svenja; Lofts, Stephen; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) and pH may influence nanoparticle fate and effects in soil. This study investigated the influence of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO-NP and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida in four natural soils, having between 2.37% and 14.7% OM and [Formula: see text] levels between 5.0 and 6.8. Porewater Zn concentrations were much lower in ZnO-NP than in ZnCl2 spiked soils, resulting in higher Freundlich sorption constants for ZnO-NP. For ZnCl2 the porewater Zn concentrations were significantly higher in less organic soils, while for ZnO-NP the highest soluble Zn level (23mgZn/l) was measured in the most organic soil, which had the lowest pH. Free Zn(2+) ion concentrations were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP and were greatly dependent on pH (pHpw) and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. The 28-d EC50 values for the effect of ZnCl2 on the reproduction of F. candida increased with increasing OM content from 356 to 1592mgZn/kg d.w. For ZnO-NP no correlation between EC50 values and OM content was found and EC50 values ranged from 1695 in the most organic soil to 4446mgZn/kg d.w. in the higher pH soil. When based on porewater and free Zn(2+) concentrations, EC50 values were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP, and consistently decreased with increasing pHpw. This study shows that ZnO-NP toxicity is dependent on soil properties, but is mainly driven by soil pH.

  2. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A Vulnerability Assessment of Fish and Invertebrates to Climate Change on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan A; Morrison, Wendy E; Nelson, Mark W; Stachura, Megan M; Teeters, Eric J; Griffis, Roger B; Alexander, Michael A; Scott, James D; Alade, Larry; Bell, Richard J; Chute, Antonie S; Curti, Kiersten L; Curtis, Tobey H; Kircheis, Daniel; Kocik, John F; Lucey, Sean M; McCandless, Camilla T; Milke, Lisa M; Richardson, David E; Robillard, Eric; Walsh, Harvey J; McManus, M Conor; Marancik, Katrin E; Griswold, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply these approaches to large numbers of species owing to the lack of mechanistic understanding sufficient for quantitative analyses, as well as the lack of scientific infrastructure to support these more detailed studies. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species with existing information. These methods combine the exposure of a species to a stressor (climate change and decadal variability) and the sensitivity of species to the stressor. These two components are then combined to estimate an overall vulnerability. Quantitative data are used when available, but qualitative information and expert opinion are used when quantitative data is lacking. Here we conduct a climate vulnerability assessment on 82 fish and invertebrate species in the Northeast U.S. Shelf including exploited, forage, and protected species. We define climate vulnerability as the extent to which abundance or productivity of a species in the region could be impacted by climate change and decadal variability. We find that the overall climate vulnerability is high to very high for approximately half the species assessed; diadromous and benthic invertebrate species exhibit the greatest vulnerability. In addition, the majority of species included in the assessment have a high potential for a change in distribution in response to projected changes in climate. Negative effects of climate change are expected for approximately half of the species assessed, but some species are expected to be positively affected (e.g., increase in productivity or move into the region). These results will inform

  4. A Vulnerability Assessment of Fish and Invertebrates to Climate Change on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hare

    Full Text Available Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply these approaches to large numbers of species owing to the lack of mechanistic understanding sufficient for quantitative analyses, as well as the lack of scientific infrastructure to support these more detailed studies. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species with existing information. These methods combine the exposure of a species to a stressor (climate change and decadal variability and the sensitivity of species to the stressor. These two components are then combined to estimate an overall vulnerability. Quantitative data are used when available, but qualitative information and expert opinion are used when quantitative data is lacking. Here we conduct a climate vulnerability assessment on 82 fish and invertebrate species in the Northeast U.S. Shelf including exploited, forage, and protected species. We define climate vulnerability as the extent to which abundance or productivity of a species in the region could be impacted by climate change and decadal variability. We find that the overall climate vulnerability is high to very high for approximately half the species assessed; diadromous and benthic invertebrate species exhibit the greatest vulnerability. In addition, the majority of species included in the assessment have a high potential for a change in distribution in response to projected changes in climate. Negative effects of climate change are expected for approximately half of the species assessed, but some species are expected to be positively affected (e.g., increase in productivity or move into the region. These

  5. Iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates in near shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-04-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radula (teeth or rasping tongue) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radula might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radula collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Furthermore, by comparing two species that have very different feeding habits but collected from the same location, we infer a possible link between diet and Fe isotopic signatures. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds primarily on green algae, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Although chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, these preliminary results suggest that Fe isotopes provide information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near shore environments, and might be used to probe sources of Fe in the diets of different organisms.

  6. Shear Stress Drives Local Variation in Invertebrate Drift in a Large River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, J. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in physical stream flow measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have yielded important insights in hydrology and geomorphology related to discharge and processes such as bed sediment incipient motion. These measurements also have underappreciated potential for use in ecological studies. For example, invertebrate drift, or the downstream transport of benthic-derived invertebrates, is a fundamental process in streams and rivers: it is both critical to the maintenance of benthic invertebrate populations and provides a key mechanism of resource delivery to drift-feeding fishes. However, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the factors that drive spatial variation in invertebrate drift, particularly in large rivers. While laboratory studies in flumes have demonstrated the importance of shear stress in initiating invertebrate drift (similar to studies of bed sediment critical shear stress in fluvial geomorphology), field-based evaluations of the relationship between shear stress and drift would be beneficial. Such field studies, however, are rare. Here, we evaluate the relationship between localized shear stress (N/m2) and invertebrate drift concentrations (#/m3) for the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (steady discharge of 228 m3/s during study). Invertebrate drift was quantified at 25 stations throughout the 25 km long Glen Canyon tailwater segment. We link these drift measurements to empirical measurements of water column shear stress derived from ADCP data, taken at the location of each drift sample and 250 m upstream of each drift sampling location (50 total profiles). Invertebrate drift concentrations varied strongly throughout the 25 km reach, and much of this variation can be explained by localized differences in shear stress. Species composition in the drift also varied with shear stress, suggesting that shear stress exerts a differential control on drift initiation for individual taxa. These results

  7. Evolutionary concepts in ecotoxicology: tracing the genetic background of differential cadmium sensitivities in invertebrate lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinger, Reinhard; Höckner, Martina

    2013-07-01

    In many toxicological and ecotoxicological studies and experimental setups, the investigator is mainly interested in traditional parameters such as toxicity data and effects of toxicants on molecular, cellular or physiological functions of individuals, species or statistical populations. It is clear, however, that such approaches focus on the phenotype level of animal species, whilst the genetic and evolutionary background of reactions to environmental toxicants may remain untold. In ecotoxicological risk assessment, moreover, species sensitivities towards pollutants are often regarded as random variables in a statistical approach. Beyond statistics, however, toxicant sensitivity of every species assumes a biological significance, especially if we consider that sensitivity traits have developed in lineages of species with common evolutionary roots. In this article, the genetic and evolutionary background of differential Cd sensitivities among invertebrate populations and species and their potential of adaptation to environmental Cd exposure will be highlighted. Important evolutionary and population genetic concepts such as genome structure and their importance for evolutionary adaptation, population structure of affected individuals, as well as micro and macroevolutionary mechanisms of Cd resistance in invertebrate lineages will be stressed by discussing examples of work from our own laboratory along with a review of relevant literature data and a brief discussion of open questions along with some perspectives for further research. Both, differences and similarities in Cd sensitivity traits of related invertebrate species can only be understood if we consider the underlying evolutionary processes and genetic (or epigenetic) mechanisms. Keeping in mind this perception can help us to better understand and interpret more precisely why the sensitivity of some species or species groups towards a certain toxicant (or metal) may be ranked in the lower or higher range of

  8. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct

  9. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fröcklin

    Full Text Available Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010, threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  10. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  11. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  12. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Peco

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global

  13. Potential Effects of the Loss of Native Grasses on Grassland Invertebrate Diversity in Southeastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Edgcumbe Clay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in area of the southeastern temperate grasslands of Australia since European settlement has been accompanied by degradation of remaining remnants by various factors, including the replacement of native plant species by introduced ones. There are suggestions that these replacements have had deleterious effects on the invertebrate grassland community, but there is little evidence to support these suggestions. In the eastern Adelaide Hills of South Australia, four grassland invertebrate sampling areas, in close proximity, were chosen to be as similar as possible except for the visible amount of native grass they contained. Sample areas were surveyed in four periods (summer, winter, spring, and a repeat summer using pitfall traps and sweep-netting. A vegetation cover survey was conducted in spring. Morphospecies richness and Fisher’s alpha were compared and showed significant differences between sample areas, mainly in the summer periods. Regression analyses between morphospecies richness and various features of the groundcover/surface showed a strong positive and logical association between native grass cover and morphospecies richness. Two other associations with richness were less strong and lacked a logical explanation. If the suggested direct effect of native grass cover on invertebrate diversity is true, it has serious implications for the conservation of invertebrate biodiversity.

  14. Plant and invertebrate assemblages on waste rock at Wangaloa coal mine, Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufaut, C.G.; Hammit, S.; Craw, D.; Clearwater, S.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    Natural regeneration on waste rock was investigated at the old Wangaloa coal mine, south-east Otago. A 450-m long waste rock stack had been created 40-50 years ago, and has had little anthropogenic intervention since. The stack is made up of a gradient of three main waste rock types, defined as 'silt-rich', 'mixed', and I quartz-rich, which reflect different proportions of loess siltstone and quartz gravel conglomerate. Plant species assemblages were quantified in four 5-m{sup 2} quadrats in each waste rock type. Invertebrates were heat extracted from substrate cores (7 cm diameter; depth 5 cm) collected from quadrats over an eight-week period in spring 2003. Ordination analysis showed statistically distinct plant and invertebrate assemblages had arisen on each waste rock type. Revegetation patterns were dominated by native, woody individuals on all waste rock types, particularly manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). Plant cover on 'silt-rich' waste rock was four-fold that on 'quartz-rich' waste rock. Total numbers of invertebrates were highest on 'quartz-rich' waste rock, but richness greatest on 'silt-rich' waste rock. Collembola dominated the fauna but their numbers were proportionally greatest in poorly vegetated areas. Further work is required to explain the absence of plants and invertebrates from local areas of waste rock.

  15. Environmental Quality and Aquatic Invertebrate Metrics Relationships at Patagonian Wetlands Subjected to Livestock Grazing Pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Beltrán Epele

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing can compromise the biotic integrity and health of wetlands, especially in remotes areas like Patagonia, which provide habitat for several endemic terrestrial and aquatic species. Understanding the effects of these land use practices on invertebrate communities can help prevent the deterioration of wetlands and provide insights for restoration. In this contribution, we assessed the responses of 36 metrics based on the structural and functional attributes of invertebrates (130 taxa at 30 Patagonian wetlands that were subject to different levels of livestock grazing intensity. These levels were categorized as low, medium and high based on eight features (livestock stock densities plus seven wetland measurements. Significant changes in environmental features were detected across the gradient of wetlands, mainly related to pH, conductivity, and nutrient values. Regardless of rainfall gradient, symptoms of eutrophication were remarkable at some highly disturbed sites. Seven invertebrate metrics consistently and accurately responded to livestock grazing on wetlands. All of them were negatively related to increased levels of grazing disturbance, with the number of insect families appearing as the most robust measure. A multivariate approach (RDA revealed that invertebrate metrics were significantly affected by environmental variables related to water quality: in particular, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and the richness and coverage of aquatic plants. Our results suggest that the seven aforementioned metrics could be used to assess ecological quality in the arid and semi-arid wetlands of Patagonia, helping to ensure the creation of protected areas and their associated ecological services.

  16. Annelid Endocrine Disruptors and a Survey of Invertebrate FMRFamide-Related Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Kevin G

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature describing the actions of endocrine disruptors on annelids. These pollutants cause decreases in growth and reproductive output, delay sexual maturation, and inhibit the immune system in annelids. More studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that underlie these responses. Most invertebrate endocrine disruptor research focuses on steroids. In recent years many new invertebrate peptide hormones including those related to the molluscan peptide FMRFamide have been identified. Since the storage of these peptides can be inhibited by steroids during insect metamorphosis, they may be affected by endocrine disruptors. Therefore, it is worthwhile to give a brief overview of this peptide family to those studying endocrine disruption in invertebrates with the hope that they may begin to consider these peptides in their future research. In 1977 Price and Greenberg isolated FMRFamide from the cerebral ganglia of the clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then researchers have used bioassays and immunoassays to identify a large number of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) from many invertebrate phyla. Even more peptides are predicted by the FaRP genes that have been sequenced. FaRPs have a variety of functions and act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones. Each function is species and tissue specific. Most FaRP receptors are linked to a second messenger system. However, at least one is a ligand gated sodium channel. On going studies are examining FaRPs from the molecular to organismal level.

  17. Environmental Quality and Aquatic Invertebrate Metrics Relationships at Patagonian Wetlands Subjected to Livestock Grazing Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Livestock grazing can compromise the biotic integrity and health of wetlands, especially in remotes areas like Patagonia, which provide habitat for several endemic terrestrial and aquatic species. Understanding the effects of these land use practices on invertebrate communities can help prevent the deterioration of wetlands and provide insights for restoration. In this contribution, we assessed the responses of 36 metrics based on the structural and functional attributes of invertebrates (130 taxa) at 30 Patagonian wetlands that were subject to different levels of livestock grazing intensity. These levels were categorized as low, medium and high based on eight features (livestock stock densities plus seven wetland measurements). Significant changes in environmental features were detected across the gradient of wetlands, mainly related to pH, conductivity, and nutrient values. Regardless of rainfall gradient, symptoms of eutrophication were remarkable at some highly disturbed sites. Seven invertebrate metrics consistently and accurately responded to livestock grazing on wetlands. All of them were negatively related to increased levels of grazing disturbance, with the number of insect families appearing as the most robust measure. A multivariate approach (RDA) revealed that invertebrate metrics were significantly affected by environmental variables related to water quality: in particular, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and the richness and coverage of aquatic plants. Our results suggest that the seven aforementioned metrics could be used to assess ecological quality in the arid and semi-arid wetlands of Patagonia, helping to ensure the creation of protected areas and their associated ecological services. PMID:26448652

  18. Comparative toxicity of methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide to freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, S.H.; Knuth, M.L.; Anderson-Buchou, C.D.; Brooke, L.T.; Lima, A.R.; Shubat, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    The organic solvents methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are used widely as industrial solvents. Although some toxicity data appear in the literature for methanol and DMF, there have been few studies which have been flow-through tests for a standard 48- or 96-h exposure period with measured toxicant concentrations. In this study, 96-h flow-through acute toxicity tests with methanol and DMF were conducted with three species of freshwater fish - rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Static acute toxicity tests (48 h) were conducted with DMF and two species of freshwater invertebrates - a midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus) and a daphnid (Daphnia magna). Median lethal (LC50) and median effect (EC50) concentrations for 96-h exposures were determined for fish and 48-h EC50's were determined for invertebrates.

  19. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R

    1994-10-01

    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  20. Possibilities of usage of aboveground invertebrates for indication of gradations of edaphotope moistening in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the variance analysis the absence of a correlation between the different gradations of soil humidity and the number of dominant taxons of litter invertebrates, the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, separate life-forms of the ground beetles and the indices of species diversity is demonstrated. The most sensitive indicator of soil humidity gradations in forest ecosystems is the mixophytophages part in the ground beetles’ complex.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1986-04-01

    Entirely as a result of human activities, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are now distributed worldwide, with measurable concentrations recorded in fishery and wildlife resources from numerous and disparate locations. PCBs elicit a variety of biologic effects including death, birth defects, tumors, and a wasting syndrome. The account summarizes the recent technical literature on the environmental chemistry of PCBs, lists PCB background concentrations in fish, wildlife, and invertebrates; documents their toxic and sublethal properties; and reviews and provides recommendations for the protection of sensitive species.

  2. Soil Invertebrates As Bio-Monitors of Toxic Metals Pollution in Impacted Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Imaobong I. Udousoro; I. U. Umoren; J. M. Izuagie; C. U. Ikpo; S. F. Ngeri; E. S. Shaibu

    2015-01-01

    The bio-indicator potentials of two invertebrate species, Eudrilus eugeniae (earthworm) and Pachybolus ligulatus (millipede) in toxic metals impacted soils in Akwa Ibom State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were assessed. The study involved collection of Eudrilus eugeniae and Pachybolus ligulatus, and their site soil samples from different impacted and non-impacted soils in ten locations spread over four Local Government Areas. Toxic metals (Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni and Cd) in soils and in the bi...

  3. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode;

    2015-01-01

    experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...

  4. The groundwater invertebrate fauna of the Channel Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R.F.D. Knight

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Channel Islands are a small archipelago of British dependencies just off the coast of Normandy at the western end of the English Channel. There were only three records for stygobitic Crustacea [Niphargus fontanus Bate, 1859 and N. kochianus Bate, 1859 from Jersey and N. aquilex Schiődte, 1855 from Guernsey] from the archipelago and no systematic survey has been carried out of the islands for their groundwater fauna till present. Recently sampling was carried out in wells, boreholes and springs on the four largest islands, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark during February 2012. Niphargus aquilex was widespread across all four islands and did not appear to be restricted to any particular geology. Niphargus ladmiraulti was present in large numbers in a single borehole on Jersey, the first record of this species from the archipelago. Niphargus kochianus was collected from two sites on Alderney and the syncarid Antrobathynella stammeri (Jakobi, 1954 from two sites on the west coast of Jersey. The records for A. stammeri are new for the Channel Islands and possibly represent the first records of this species from the French bio-geographical area. The presence of N. fontanus on the islands was not confirmed. Several species of stygophilic Cyclopoida were also recorded during the survey along with epigean freshwater invertebrate taxa, which were mostly present in springs and shallow wells close to surface streams.

  5. Paraquat Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1`dimethyl4,4`bipyridinium) are broad-spectrum contact plant killers and herbage desiccants that were introduced commercially during the past 25 years. Today, they rank among the most widely used herbicides globally and are frequently used in combination with other herbicides. The recommended paraquat field application rates for terrestrial weed control usually range between 0.28 and 1.12 kg/ha (0.25 and 1.0 lb/acre), and for aquatic weed control the range is 0.12.0 mg/l. Paraquat in surface soils generally photodecomposes in several weeks, but paraquat in subsurface soils and sediments may remain bound and biologically unavailablefor many years without significant degradation. Paraquat is not significantly accumulated by earthworms and other species of soil invertebrates and is usually excreted rapidly by higher animals; however, delayed toxic effects including death of birds and mammals are common. At concentrations below the recommended application rate, paraquat is embryotoxic to developing eggs of migratory waterfowl and adversely affects sensitive species of freshwater algae and macrophytes, larvae of crustaceans and frog tadpoles and carp. Sensitive species of birds are negatively affected at daily dose rates of 10 mg/kg body weight or when fed diets containing 20 mg/kg ration or drinking water containing 40 mg/l.

  6. Role of diapause in dispersal and invasion success by aquatic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of existing literature shows an important role of diapause in dispersal of aquatic invertebrates. There is evidence that among aquatic invertebrates, the role of diapause in dispersal can be important in crustaceans, specifically for species that produce resting eggs. Analysis of dispersal vectors of diapausing species revealed the increasing role of human-mediated vectors of species dispersal during last century (intentional and unintentional introductions, specifically associated with shipping in comparison with natural vectors (currents, wind, birds. Generally, the role of human-mediated vectors is most important for species dispersal across geographical barriers and into large aquatic ecosystems affected by shipping. Current human-mediated transport vectors increase rates of aquatic species introductions in many orders of magnitude in comparison with historical nature-driven species dispersal rates. Ability to develop diapausing resting stages facilitates species survival during movement across geographical barriers under extreme conditions, such as in ballast tanks of ships. Case studies for invasive species of Cladocera show that some invaders may possess adaptive life cycles, switching to the early prolonged gamogenetic reproduction, which facilitates their invasion success into novel ecosystems and further dispersal by both natural and human-mediated vectors.

  7. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.

    1983-08-01

    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  8. Invertebrates Collected on and around Carroll Island, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INVERTEBRATES, *MARYLAND, *WATER POLLUTION, TEST FACILITIES, TEST FACILITIES, ECOLOGY, CHESAPEAKE BAY, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, ANNELIDA, MOLLUSCA, PROTOZOA, ARTHROPODA, CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDA , PLANKTON, WORMS.

  9. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  10. Evaluation of coal-mining impacts using numerical classification of benthic invertebrate data from streams draining a heavily mined basin in eastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-mining impacts on Smoky Creek, eastern Tennessee were evaluated using water quality and benthic invertebrate data. Data from mined sites were also compared with water quality and invertebrate fauna found at Crabapple Branch, an undisturbed stream in a nearby basin. Although differences in water quality constituent concentrations and physical habitat conditions at sampling sites were apparent, commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate sample data such as number of taxa, sample diversity, number of organisms, and biomass were inadequate for determining differences in stream environments. Clustering algorithms were more useful in determining differences in benthic invertebrate community structure and composition. Normal (collections) and inverse (species) analyses based on presence-absence data of species of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera were compared using constancy, fidelity, and relative abundance of species found at stations with similar fauna. These analyses identified differences in benthic community composition due to seasonal variations in invertebrate life histories. When data from a single season were examined, sites on tributary streams generally clustered separately from sites on Smoky Creek. These analyses compared with differences in water quality, stream size, and substrate characteristics between tributary sites and the more degraded main stem sites, indicated that numerical classification of invertebrate data can provide discharge-independent information useful in rapid evaluations of in-stream environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  11. The Ins and Outs of Bioaccumulation: Metal Bioaccumulation Kinetics in Soil Invertebrates in Relation to Availability and Physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaccumulation is the nett result of a metal influx influenced by the environment and an outflux driven by the animal. In this thesis two physiological different invertebrate species, the earthworm and isopod are studied. The focus of the research was on the route of uptake, the quantification of

  12. Effecy of parathion-methyl on Amazonian fish and freshwater invertebrates: A comparison of sensivity with temperate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Artero, A.; Geber, R.; Campos Souto, P.; Garcia, M.V.B.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Parathion-methyl is an organophosphorous insecticide that is widely used in agricultural production sites in the Amazon. The use of this pesticide might pose a potential risk for the biodiversity and abundance of fish and invertebrate species inhabiting aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the agricultura

  13. Can we successfully monitor a population density decline of elusive invertebrates? A statistical power analysis on Lucanus cervus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Thomaes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring global biodiversity is essential for understanding and countering its current loss. However, monitoring of many species is hindered by their difficult detection due to crepuscular activity, hidden phases of the life cycle, short activity period and low population density. Few statistical power analyses of declining trends have been published for terrestrial invertebrates. Consequently, no knowledge exists of the success rate of monitoring elusive invertebrates. Here data from monitoring transects of the European stag beetle, Lucanus cervus, is used to investigate whether the population trend of this elusive species can be adequately monitored. Data from studies in UK, Switzerland and Germany were compiled to parameterize a simulation model explaining the stag beetle abundance as a function of temperature and seasonality. A Monte-Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the effort needed to detect a population abundance decline of 1%/year over a period of 12 years. To reveal such a decline, at least 240 1-hour transect walks on 40 to 100 transects need to be implemented in weekly intervals during warm evenings. It is concluded that monitoring of stag beetles is feasible and the effort is not greater than that which has been found for other invertebrates. Based on this example, it is assumed that many other elusive species with similar life history traits can be monitored with moderate efforts. As saproxylic invertebrates account for a large share of the forest biodiversity, although many are elusive, it is proposed that at least some flagship species are included in monitoring programmes.

  14. Overview of the chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates along the western Antarctic peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J

    2010-12-01

    Thirteen years ago in a review that appeared in the American Zoologist, we presented the first survey of the chemical and ecological bioactivity of Antarctic shallow-water marine invertebrates. In essence, we reported that despite theoretical predictions to the contrary the incidence of chemical defenses among sessile and sluggish Antarctic marine invertebrates was widespread. Since that time we and others have significantly expanded upon the base of knowledge of Antarctic marine invertebrates' chemical ecology, both from the perspective of examining marine invertebrates in new, distinct geographic provinces, as well as broadening the evaluation of the ecological significance of secondary metabolites. Importantly, many of these studies have been framed within established theoretical constructs, particularly the Optimal Defense Theory. In the present article, we review the current knowledge of chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates comprising communities along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), a region of Antarctica that is both physically and biologically distinct from the rest of the continent. Our overview indicates that, similar to other regions of Antarctica, anti-predator chemical defenses are widespread among species occurring along the WAP. In some groups, such as the sponges, the incidence of chemical defenses against predation is comparable to, or even slightly higher than, that found in tropical marine systems. While there is substantial knowledge of the chemical defenses of benthic marine invertebrates against predators, much less is known about chemical anti-foulants. The sole survey conducted to date suggests that secondary metabolites in benthic sponges are likely to be important in the prevention of fouling by benthic diatoms, yet generally lack activity against marine bacteria. Our understanding of the sensory ecology of Antarctic benthic marine invertebrates, despite its great potential, remains in its infancy. For example, along the

  15. Invertebrates on isolated peaks in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Armstrong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey to document and describe the alpine flora and various focal faunal taxa on six isolated inselberg-like peaks (total area of 31.9 ha, all 3000 m or higher, located in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa, was undertaken in early summer in 2005. Study of the fauna of these peaks should be informative because the impacts of controllable anthropogenic threats on the invertebrate communities on them should be minimal or absent in comparison with those on the main massif. A total of 341 invertebrate individuals representing 61 species were recorded from the focal taxa (Oligochaeta, Gastropoda and certain groups of Insecta, i.e. focal taxa within the Blattoidea, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. The 61 species recorded consisted of two species from the Oligochaeta, one species from the Gastropoda and 58 species from the Insecta. Eleven species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are endemic and 11 species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are probably endemic to the Drakensberg Alpine Centre, constituting 36.1% of the total species recorded. The results suggest that the Drakensberg Alpine Centre (DAC, as for plants, is a centre of endemism for invertebrates. Cluster analysis showed that the species composition of the two northern peaks, Sentinel and Eastern Buttress, clustered together, separate from a cluster formed by the Outer Horn, Inner Horn and Dragon’s Back and from the cluster formed by the southernmost peak, Cathkin. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling results indicated that distance from the Sentinel, the most northerly peak sampled, and mean minimum temperature for July had the strongest correlations with the species data, reflecting change over a straight-line distance of nearly 60 km in a south-easterly direction.Conservation implications: Only a small proportion (ca. 5.5% of the DAC is conserved, the majority of which lies

  16. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  17. Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

    2005-05-01

    This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes.

  18. Consequences for invertebrates of the use of forest fuel; Skogsbraensleanvaendningens konsekvenser foer ryggradsloesa djur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weslien, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of increased use of forest fuel for, primarily, red-listed (i.e. disappeared, threatened, vulnerable, rare or care demanding) invertebrates in Sweden. The report concentrates in invertebrate animals that largely live in parts of trees, trees or in tree biotopes that today are not utilised in conventional forestry but which to varying extents may be affected by increased removal of forest fuel. Certain environments should not in any way be utilised for removal of fuel, whereas others can be used provided that relevant consideration is taken to nature. Felling residues such as processor piles are of little value for red-listed species. Lying or standing trees left in the felling areas are of great importance for invertebrates in the category `care demanding` and should not be removed. Return of stabilised slowly available ashes have so far had little effect on the soil fauna studied, but there are no data on long-term effects. Fire-damaged trees are very valuable and should be saved. In the event of felling large burnt over areas, a selection of fire-damaged trees and groups of trees should be left. Forest edges, certain rocky outcrops in arable fields, and wooded meadows are frequently very species-rich environments and should usually not be used. In environments where overgrowing is a problem removal of fuel in the form of a careful thinning is positive for the invertebrate fauna. Old deciduous trees, both in the forest and in the cultivated countryside are valuable environments for many species and should be saved. If the interest in biofuels leads to deciduous trees being given extra space this will be positive for the fauna, provided that a continuity of old and dead deciduous trees is assured. Requirements for consideration to nature differ slightly in different parts of Sweden. 12 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR.

  20. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  1. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David B.; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the 13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this 13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic

  2. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate species, their invasiveness tendencies, threat to the native biology or their route of entry. Such baseline information is critical for appropriate management strategies. Fifteen alien invertebrate species have established in the Svalbard environment, many of which have been introduced via imported soils. Biosecurity legislation now prohibits such activities. None of the recorded established aliens yet show invasive tendencies but some may have locally negative effects. Ten species are considered to be vagrants and a further seven are classified as observations. Vagrants and the observations are not believed to be able to establish in the current tundra environment. The high connectivity of Svalbard has facilitated natural dispersal processes and may explain why few alien species are recorded compared to isolated islands in the maritime Antarctic. The vagrant species observed are conspicuous Lepidoptera, implying that less evident vagrant species are also arriving regularly. Projected climate change may enable vagrant species to establish, with results that are difficult to foresee.

  3. Biological control using invertebrates and microorganisms: plenty of new opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van Joop C.; Bolckmans, Karel; Kohl, Jurgen; Ravensberg, Willem J.; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In augmentative biological control (ABC), invertebrate and microbial organisms are seasonally released in large numbers to reduce pests. Today it is applied on more than 30 million ha worldwide. Europe is the largest commercial market for invertebrate biological control agents, while North America

  4. EU guidelines for the care and welfare of an "exceptional invertebrate class" in scientific research. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Vitale, Augusto; Carere, Claudio; Alleva, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods have been defined as "advanced invertebrates" due to the complexity of their nervous system and to their sophisticated behavioural repertoire. However, until recently, the protection and welfare of this class of invertebrates has been mostly disregarded by EU regulations on the use of laboratory animals. The inclusion of "live cephalopods" in the Directive 2010/63/EU has been prompted by new scientific knowledge on the "sentience" of animals used for experimental or other scientific purposes, a fundamental criterion to which animal species are included or not under the protective umbrella of the Directive. In this scenario, the imminent publication of the Guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods in research as an initiative by the CephRes-FELASA-Boyd Group is a sign of ethical progress in the consideration of animals in research, and is likely to have a significant impact on both scientific and practical aspects of research conducted with these animals.

  5. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

  6. Venus Kinase Receptors: prospects in signalling and biological functions of these invertebrate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette eDissous

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Venus Kinase Receptors (VKRs form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors which contain an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT structure similar to the ligand binding domain of G Protein Coupled Receptors of class C, and an intracellular Tyrosine Kinase domain close to that of Insulin Receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms, and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. Vkr gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in Schistosoma .mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino-acids, and highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates, nor in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/ control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  7. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  10. Notes on common macrobenthic reef invertebrates of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Beth S. Jontila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic reef invertebrates are important reef health indicators and fishery resources but are not very well documented in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. To provide notes on the species composition and the abundance and size of commonly encountered macrobenthic reef invertebrates, belt transects survey in intertidal, shallow, and deep subtidal reef habitats were conducted. In total, 18 species were recorded, six of which were echinoderms and 12 were mollusks, which include the rare giant clam Hippopusporcellanus. Only the giant clam Tridacna crocea and the top shell Trochus niloticus occurred in all seven permanent monitoring sites but the two species varied in densities across depths. There was also an outbreak of crown-of-thorns (COTs sea stars in some sites. The large variation in the density of each species across sites and depths suggests niche differences, overharvesting, or their recovery fromhaving been overly exploited. Separate monitoring areas for each commercially important species are suggested to determine how their populations respond to poaching and their implications on the park’s long term management.

  11. The effect of off-road vehicles on barrier beach invertebrates at Cape Cod and Fire Island National Seashores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluft, J. M.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of off-road vehicles (ORVS) on invertebrates inhabiting seaweed debris (wrack) and supratidal sands on energetic beaches in the northeastern United States were studied at Cape Cod National Seashore, MA, and Fire Island, NY. Cores, wrack quadrats, and pitfall traps were used to sample four beaches, which all had vehicle-free sections in close proximity to ORV corridors, allowing for paired traffic/no-traffic samples at these sites. A manipulative experiment was also performed by directly driving over nylon-mesh bags filled with eelgrass (Zostera marina) wrack that had been colonized by beach invertebrates, then subjected to treatments of high-, low-, and no-traffic. Pitfall trap samples had consistently higher overall invertebrate abundances in vehicle-free than in high-traffic zones on all four beaches. In contrast, both wrack quadrats (with intact wrack clumps) and the cores taken directly beneath them did not show consistent differences in overall invertebrate abundances in areas open and closed to vehicles. Overall abundance of wrack was lower on beaches with vehicle traffic. The talitrid amphipod Talorchestia longicornis and the lycosid spider Arctosa littoralis, both of which roam widely on the beach and burrow in supratidal bare sands as adults, were always less abundant in beach sections open to vehicle traffic, regardless of the sampling method used. Other invertebrates, such as oligochaetes (family Enchytraeidae) and Tethinid flies (Tethina parvula), both of which spend most of their lives within/beneath wrack detritus, showed either no response or a positive response to traffic disturbance. In the drive-over experiment, different species responded differently to traffic. The tenebrionid beetle Phaleria testacea (85% larvae) was significantly less abundant in disturbed wrack bags than in controls, while Tethina parvula (90% larvae) showed the reverse trend. Therefore, ORVs adversely affected beach invertebrates, both by killing or displacing

  12. Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bateman, Kelly S.

    2015-10-01

    Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

  13. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz`s EPAH model was not applicable to the authors` results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed.

  14. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    of their bioirrigation behaviour (indirect N2O emission). 2. Two benthic invertebrate species were studied to determine (i) the dependence of direct N2O emission on the preferred diet of the animals, (ii) the regulation of direct N2O emission by seasonally changing factors, such as body size, temperature and NO3....... In contrast, larvae of the alderfly Sialis lutaria, which prefer a bacteria-poor carnivorous diet, emitted N2O at invariably low rates of 0–20 pmol Ind.-1 h-1. The N2O emission rate of E. danica larvae was positively correlated with seasonally changing factors (body size, temperature and NO3- availability......- availability and (iii) the quantitative relationship between direct and indirect N2O emission. 3. Larvae of the mayfly Ephemera danica, which prefer a bacteria-rich detritus diet, emitted N2O at rates of up to 90 pmol Ind.-1 h-1 under in situ conditions and 550 pmol Ind.-1 h-1 under laboratory conditions...

  15. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eRiviere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster’s developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5’-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  17. An Account of the Accessioned Collections of the UP Biology Invertebrate Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronniel D.C. Pedales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available he University of the Philippines (UP Biology Invertebrate Museum has recently completed the curation of its accessioned collections of invertebrates. This paper reports on the availability of the said collections to the community of researchers studying invertebrates. The accessioned collections were assessed in terms of their taxonomic scope, geographical range, and chronological breadth. A total of 4,238 accessioned specimens are in the Museum, which is composed of 1,108 non-insectan arthropods, 1,149 cnidarians, 178 echinoderms, and 1,803 mollusks. The insect specimens, all of which do not have any accession numbers, are yet to be curated. A total of 1,185 species belonging to 621 genera are found in the collections. The Museum’s sampling activities were greatest in the western part of the Philippines, specif ically in Puer to Galera, Oriental Mindoro. Much of the Eastern regions in the Philippines are yet to be sampled, particularly the terrestrial habitats. Prolif ic museum contributors include Francisco Nemenzo, Sr. (709 specimen lots, Neon Rosell (327 specimen lots, and Fernando Dayrit (233 specimen lots. At present, plans for collection expansion is underway, to encourage collaborative research with other natural history museums.

  18. Associations among land-use, habitat characteristics, and invertebrate community structure in nine streams on the island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Luton, Corene D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is one of 51 study units established as part of the U.S. Geological Surveys National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program to assess the status and trends of the Nations surface and ground-water resources, and to link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. As part of the NAWQA program, benthic invertebrate communities were surveyed at ten sites in nine streams representing the three main types of land use on Oahu: urban, agriculture, and forested. At each sampling site, habitat characteristics were determined at a range of spatial scales including drainage basin, segment, reach, transect, and point. Associations among land use, habitat characteristics, and benthic invertebrate community structure were examined. The rapid population growth and increasing urbanization on Oahu has resulted in substantial stream habitat alteration. Instream habitat characteristics at the urban and mixed (urban and agriculture) land-use sites were markedly different from those at the forested sites. Urban and mixed land-use sites, most of which were channelized, tended to have less riparian vegetation, higher water temperatures, smaller substrate, and higher levels of embeddedness and siltation than sites in forested watersheds. The majority of invertebrate taxa identified during this study were non-native. Invertebrate abundance was lower at urban and mixed land-use sites than at forested sites, while species richness (the number of different species) showed the opposite pattern. Multivariate analyses indicated that invertebrate species composition was similar at sites with similar land use. Aquatic insects of the orders Diptera and Trichoptera were the most common insects in all samples. The ratio of Diptera to Trichoptera abundance varied with urbanization. Forested sites were dominated by Trichoptera, and urban and mixed land-use sites were dominated by Diptera. Molluscs typically occurred in

  19. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode; Beumer, Larissa Teresa; Biersma, Elisabeth Machteld; Bråthen, Vegard Sandøy; D'Imperio, Ludovica; Jensen, Christina Kjellerup; Nilsen, Solveig; Paquin, Karolina; Stenkewitz, Ute; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Winkler, Judith; Müller, Eike; Coulson, Stephen James

    2015-12-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover may insulate terrestrial habitats from extreme air temperature fluctuations. Further, climate projections suggest large changes in precipitation will occur in the polar regions, with the greatest changes expected during the winter period and, hence, implications for the insulation of overwintering microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow, Shallow Snow (30 cm) and Deep Snow (120 cm). Air temperatures during the winter period fluctuated frequently between +3 and -24 °C, and the No Snow soil temperatures reflected this variation closely, with the extreme minimum being slightly lower. Under 30 cm of snow, soil temperatures varied less and did not decrease below -12 °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2 °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid and mesostigmatid mites, Araneae, Collembola, Nematocera larvae or Coleoptera. This indicates widespread tolerance, previously undocumented for the Araneae, Nematocera or Coleoptera, of

  20. Invertebrates control metal/metalloid sequestration and the quality of DOC/DON released during litter decay in slightly acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Machill, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are a main sink for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrate shredder (a key species in litter decay) on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only under alkaline water conditions whereas for slightly acidic waters nothing can be found. Furthermore, less is known about the effect of invertebrate shredders on the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) released during litter decay. We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of invertebrate shredder (Gammarus pulex) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization and on the quality of DOC/DON released under slightly acidic water conditions. During decomposition of leaf litter, invertebrate shredder facilitated significantly the emergence of smaller particle sizes of organic matter. The capacity of metal fixation was significantly higher in smaller particles (POM 2,000-63 μm) compared to original leaf litter and litter residues. Thus, G. pulex enhanced metal fixation by organic partition of sediments by increasing the amount of smaller particle of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. In contrast, the capacity of metal/metalloid fixation in the smallest fraction of POM (treatment without invertebrates. Remobilization of metals and metalloids was very low for all measured elements. A significant effect of invertebrates on quantitative formation of DOC/DON was confirmed. The quality of released DOC/DON, which may affect metal/metalloid remobilization, was also significantly affected by invertebrate shredders (e.g., more carboxylates). Hence, invertebrate shredder enhanced significantly the fixation of metals/metalloids into POM in slightly acidic environments.

  1. Invertebrate sampling at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results from an invertebrate study conducted on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purposes of this study were to: 1) quanitify...

  2. A Taxonomic and Ecological Survey of Aquatic Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study consisted of the identification and ecological distribution of macroscopic aquatic invertebrates from a pond, empounded by a beaver dam, located at the...

  3. South Florida Seagrass Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The South Florida Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network (FIAN) is a monitoring project within the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). It is an...

  4. Aquatic invertebrates doubly suspect in spreading duck malady : 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 1958 news release providing a brief overview of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's findings regarding the role aquatic invertebrates play in the spread of avian...

  5. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune-neuroendocrine biology of invertebrates: a collection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a considerable increase of interest towards the elucidation of several aspects of invertebrate biology, including immunity and neuroendocrinology. However, due to the difficulties connected to the great variety of morphology and adaptations displayed by invertebrates, and also in consideration of the number of techniques that are applied in the various laboratories, research on invertebrates still suffers from hampering that have been substantially overcome in vertebrate models, especially in mammals. The aim of this Technical Report is to provide the reader a useful list of well-established morphological and morpho-functional protocols in order to facilitate the design and make more homogeneous the realization of experiments in the field of invertebrate immune-neuroendocrinology.

  7. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning.

  8. Insight into Invertebrate Defensin Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Paulina; Wilmes, Miriam; Pugnière, Martine; Aumelas, André; Bachère, Evelyne; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schneider, Tanja; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Three oyster defensin variants (Cg-Defh1, Cg-Defh2, and Cg-Defm) were produced as recombinant peptides and characterized in terms of activities and mechanism of action. In agreement with their spectrum of activity almost specifically directed against Gram-positive bacteria, oyster defensins were shown here to be specific inhibitors of a bacterial biosynthesis pathway rather than mere membrane-active agents. Indeed, at lethal concentrations, the three defensins did not compromise Staphylococcus aureus membrane integrity but inhibited the cell wall biosynthesis as indicated by the accumulation of the UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide cell wall precursor. In addition, a combination of antagonization assays, thin layer chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that oyster defensins bind almost irreversibly to the lipid II peptidoglycan precursor, thereby inhibiting the cell wall biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of the mechanism of action of antibacterial defensins produced by invertebrates. Interestingly, the three defensins, which were chosen as representative of the oyster defensin molecular diversity, bound differentially to lipid II. This correlated with their differential antibacterial activities. From our experimental data and the analysis of oyster defensin sequence diversity, we propose that oyster defensin activity results from selective forces that have conserved residues involved in lipid II binding and diversified residues at the surface of oyster defensins that could improve electrostatic interactions with the bacterial membranes. PMID:20605792

  9. An invertebrate model for CNS drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Qadi, Sonia; Schiøtt, Morten; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABC efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier (BBB), namely the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), restrain the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. Consequently, early screening of CNS drug candidates is pivotal to identify those affected by efflux activity. Therefore, simple,...... barriers. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a conserved mechanism of brain efflux activity between insects and vertebrates, confirming that this model holds promise for inexpensive and high-throughput screening relative to in vivo models, for CNS drug discovery......., high-throughput and predictive screening models are required. The grasshopper (locust) has been developed as an invertebrate in situ model for BBB permeability assessment, as it has shown similarities to vertebrate models. METHODS: Transcriptome profiling of ABC efflux transporters in the locust brain......BACKGROUND: ABC efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier (BBB), namely the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), restrain the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. Consequently, early screening of CNS drug candidates is pivotal to identify those affected by efflux activity. Therefore, simple...

  10. Spatial and diurnal distribution of invertebrate and fish fauna of a Zostera marina bed and nearby unvegetated sediments in Damariscotta River, Maine (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Johanna; Chaplin, Glen; Eilers, Michele R.; Heck, Kenneth L.; O'Neal, Jonathan P.; Valentine, John F.

    1999-06-01

    Fish, epibenthos and macroinfauna were collected in a Zostera marina bed and nearby unvegetated sediments in the estuary of the Damariscotta River, on the mid-coast of Maine. Samples of epibenthic fauna and fish were collected at low tides both during day and night, and samples of infauna at low tides during the day. The mean density of Zostera shoots in the study area was 335 m -2. Abundance and species number of fish were greater at night than during the day and greater in eelgrass beds ( Z. marina) than in unvegetated habitats. Daytime fish collections were dominated by Atlantic silversides ( Medinia medinia), while juvenile winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus) dominated night collections. Also Zostera-associated epifaunal abundances and number of species were significantly higher at night than during the day. Mysis stenolepis, Idotea balthica and Littorina obtusata were dominant species in the epifauna samples. Of the total of 37 invertebrate species encountered, only five occurred both in the infaunal and epifaunal samples. Nineteen different taxa were collected from the benthic core samples. The most abundant invertebrate infaunal taxa were sipunculids, the polychaete Nereis virens, and oligochaetes. Infaunal invertebrate abundances and species diversity were significantly higher in eelgrass beds than in unvegetated sediments. The abundance and number of species of benthic invertebrates were also positively correlated to seagrass biomass. Community diversity values ( H') were relatively low but fit well in the general pattern of decreasing diversity towards northern latitudes.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance and evolution n invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thierry K.S.Janssens; Dick Roelofs; Nico M.van Straalen

    2009-01-01

    Following the genomics revolution,our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying defenses against stress has been greatly expanded.Under strong selective pressure many animals may evolve an enhanced stress tolerance.This can be achieved by altering the structure of proteins(through mutations in the coding regions of genes)or by altering the amount of protein(through changes in transcriptional regulation).The latter type of evolution Can be achieved by substitutions in the promoter of the gene of interest(cis-regulatory change)or by altering the structure or anaount of transcriptional regulator proteins (trans-regulatory change).The metallothionein system is one of the best studied stress response systems in the context of heavy metals.Metallothionein expression is assumed to be regulated by metal transcription factor 1(MTF-1);however,up to now the involvement of MTF-1 has only been proven for some vertebrates and Drosophila.Data on invertebrates such as nematodes and earthworms suggest that other mechanisms of metallothionein induction may be present.A detailed study of Cd tolerance was done for a species of soilliving springtail,Orchesella cincta.The metallothionein gene of this species is overexpressed in metal-exposed field populations.Analysis of the metallothionein promoter has demonstrated extensive polymorphisills that have a functional significance,as shown in bioreporter assays.In a study comparing 20 different populations,the frequency of a high-expresser promoter allele Was positively correlated with the concentration of metals in soil,especially Cd.The springtail study shows that cis-regulatory change of genes involved in the cellular stress response may contribute to evolution of metal tolerance.

  12. Long-term effects of beach nourishment on intertidal invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Tyler Brock

    2015-01-01

    Although beach nourishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, no consensus exists regarding how long nourishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of sandy beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a nourishment project at eight beaches across San Diego County. Each beach was split into nourished and control sections. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately fol...

  13. Biological control using invertebrates and microorganisms: plenty of new opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lenteren, van, J.C.; Bolckmans,Karel; Kohl, Jurgen; Ravensberg, Willem J.; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In augmentative biological control (ABC), invertebrate and microbial organisms are seasonally released in large numbers to reduce pests. Today it is applied on more than 30 million ha worldwide. Europe is the largest commercial market for invertebrate biological control agents, while North America has the largest sales of microbials. A strong growth in use of ABC, particularly of microbial agents, is taking place in Latin America, followed by Asia. The current popularity of ABC is due to (1) ...

  14. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie A. McGeoch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here we outline challenges and solutions to the integration of invertebrates into biodiversity management objectives and monitoring in protected areas in South Africa. We show that such integration is relevant and possible, and assess the relative suitability of seven key taxa in this context. Finally, we outline a series of recommendations for mainstreaming invertebrates in conservation planning, surveys and monitoring in and around protected areas.Conservation implications: Invertebrates constitute a substantial and functionally significant component of terrestrial biodiversity and are valuable indicators of environmental condition. Although consideration of invertebrates has historically been neglected in conservation planning and management, substantial progress with surveys, systematics and bioindication means that it is now both feasible and advisable to incorporate them into protected area monitoring activities.

  15. Trait-based structure of invertebrates along a gradient of sediment colmation: benthos versus hyporheos responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, S; Datry, T; Usseglio-Polatera, P

    2014-01-01

    Streambed colmation by fine sediment, e.g. the deposition, accumulation and storage of fines in the substrate, is known to have severe effects on invertebrate assemblages in both the benthic and hyporheic zones but the changes in biological attributes of invertebrate assemblages related to colmation have never been considered simultaneously for these two zones. We studied the effects of colmation on the invertebrate assemblages of three rivers, testing a priori hypotheses on the biological attributes that should be more selected in communities subjected to different levels of colmation in both zones. Only the proportion of organisms with high fecundity increased and the proportion of small-sized organisms decreased along the colmation gradient in both zones simultaneously. As expected, a higher number of traits were significantly modified with colmation in the benthic vs. hyporheic assemblages. Most of the biological attributes impaired were different in the two zones. In the benthic zone, colmation mainly selected particular physiological or trophic characteristics of species and features related to their resistance or resilience capacities. In contrast, the morphological attributes of species were much more impaired by colmation in the hyporheic zone than in the benthic zone. In clogged benthic habitats, traits seemed to be more impaired by an increase in physico-chemical constraints (e.g. the reduction of oxygen availability) and a reduction of potential exchanges (including exchanges of food resources) due to a decline in stream bed conductivity. The morphological attributes of the hyporheic species were probably more influenced by changes in interstitial space characteristics. A potential indicator of the effects of colmation on river health may be based on the functional traits of benthic communities because they (i) satisfy the WFD recommendations, (ii) respond consistently along a colmation gradient and (iii) are comparable among assemblages even across

  16. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  17. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Garrick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators. However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection.

  18. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the benthic invertebrate Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Fontaine, Madeleine; Norwood, Warren P; Brown, Mitra; Dixon, D George; Le, X Chris

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium has the potential to leach into the environment from petroleum coke, an oil sands byproduct. To determine uptake of vanadium species in the biota, we exposed the benthic invertebrate Hyalella azteca with increasing concentrations of two different vanadium species, V(IV) and V(V), for seven days. The concentrations of vanadium in the H. azteca tissue increased with the concentration of vanadium in the exposure water. Speciation analysis revealed that V(IV) in the exposure water was oxidized to V(V) between renewal periods, and therefore the animals were mostly exposed to V(V). Speciation analysis of the H. azteca tissue showed the presence of V(V), V(IV), and an unidentified vanadium species. These results indicate the uptake and metabolism of vanadium by H. azteca. Because H. azteca are widely distributed in freshwater systems and are an important food supply for many fish, determining the uptake and metabolism of vanadium allows for a better understanding of the potential environmental effects on invertebrates.

  19. Sexual selection and the evolution of egg-sperm interactions in broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Sherman, Craig D H

    2013-08-01

    Many marine invertebrate taxa are broadcast spawners, where multiple individuals release their gametes into the water for external fertilization, often in the presence of gametes from heterospecifics. Consequently, sperm encounter the considerable challenges of locating and fertilizing eggs from conspecific females. To overcome these challenges, many taxa exhibit species-specific attraction of sperm toward eggs through chemical signals released from eggs (sperm chemotaxis) and species-specific gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) that mediate compatibility of gametes at fertilization. In this prospective review, we highlight these selective forces, but also emphasize the role that sexual selection, manifested through sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes (sexual conflict), can also play in mediating the action of egg chemoattractants and GRPs, and thus individual reproductive fitness. Furthermore, we explore patterns of selection at the level of gametes (sperm phenotype, gamete plasticity, and egg traits) to identify putative traits targeted by sexual selection in these species. We conclude by emphasizing the excellent, but relatively untapped, potential of broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates as model systems to illuminate several areas of research in post-mating sexual selection.

  20. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-02-29

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection.

  1. Bioprospecting from cultivable bacterial communities of marine sediment and invertebrates from the underexplored Ubatuba region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Correa, Hebelin; Haltli, Brad; Vilegas, Wagner; Kerr, Russell G

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp fisheries along the Brazilian coast have significant environmental impact due to high by-catch rates (21 kg per kilogram of shrimp). Typically discarded, by-catch contains many invertebrates that may host a great variety of bacterial genera, some of which may produce bioactive natural products with biotechnological applications. Therefore, to utilize by-catch that is usually discarded we explored the biotechnological potential of culturable bacteria of two abundant by-catch invertebrate species, the snail Olivancillaria urceus and the sea star Luidia senegalensis. Sediment from the collection area was also investigated. Utilizing multiple isolation approaches, 134 isolates were obtained from the invertebrates and sediment. Small-subunit rRNA (16S) gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla and were distributed among 28 genera. Several genera known for their capacity to produce bioactive natural products (Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Serinicoccus and Verrucosispora) were retrieved from the invertebrate samples. To query the bacterial isolates for their ability to produce bioactive metabolites, all strains were fermented and fermentation extracts profiled by UP LC-HRMS and tested for antimicrobial activity. Four strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus warneri.

  2. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions.

  3. Uptake and impact of natural diet-derived small RNA in invertebrates: Implications for ecology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen Y; Snow, Jonathan W

    2016-10-20

    The putative transfer and gene regulatory activities of diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in ingesting animals are still debated. The existence of natural uptake of diet-derived sRNA by invertebrate species could have significant implication for our understanding of ecological relationships and could synergize with efforts to use RNA interference (RNAi) technology in agriculture. Here, we synthesize information gathered from studies in invertebrates using natural or artificial dietary delivery of sRNA and from studies of sRNA in vertebrate animals and plants to review our current understanding of uptake and impact of natural diet-derived sRNA on invertebrates. Our understanding has been influenced and sometimes confounded by the diversity of invertebrates and ingested plants studied, our limited insights into how gene expression may be modulated by dietary sRNAs at the mechanistic level, and the paucity of studies focusing directly on natural uptake of sRNA. As such, we suggest 2 strategies to investigate this phenomenon more comprehensively and thus facilitate the realization of its potentially broad impact on ecology and agriculture in the future.

  4. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  5. Drug-seeking behavior in an invertebrate system: evidence of morphine-induced reward, extinction and reinstatement in crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Panksepp, Jaak; Huber, Robert

    2009-02-11

    Several lines of evidence suggest that exploring the neurochemical basis of reward in invertebrate species may provide clues for the fundamental behavioral and neurobiology underpinnings of drug addiction. How the presence of drug-sensitive reward relates to a decrease in drug-seeking behavior and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in invertebrate systems is not known. The present study of a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) explores morphine-induced reward, extinction and reinstatement. Repeated intra-circulatory infusions of 2.5 microg/g, 5.0 microg/g and 10.0 microg/g doses of morphine over 5 days serve as a reward when paired with a distinct visual or tactile environment. Morphine-induced CPP was extinguished after repeated saline injections for 5 days in the previously morphine-paired compartment. After the previously established CPP had been eliminated during the extinction phase, morphine-experienced crayfish were challenged with 2.5 microg/g, 5.0 microg/g and 10.0 microg/g, respectively. The priming injections of morphine reinstated CPP in all training doses, suggesting that morphine-induced CPP is unrelenting, and that with time, it can be reinstated by morphine following extinction in an invertebrate model just like in mammals. Together with other recent studies, this work demonstrates the advantage of using crayfish as an invertebrate animal model to investigate the basic biological processes that underline exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse.

  6. Step process for selecting and testing surrogates and indicators of afrotemperate forest invertebrate diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Uys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating and temporal (seasonal effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season. The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species. This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study.

  7. Structure and diversity of invertebrate communities in the presence and absence of canopy-forming Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Sofia A.; Kautsky, Lena

    2007-03-01

    Canopy-forming seaweeds are regarded as important habitat-formers in shallow coastal zones and their present decline or disappearance in many coastal areas can potentially affect diversity and abundance of associated species. Here, we evaluate potential effects of large-scale disappearance of the dominant canopy-forming species Fucus vesiculosus L. on vegetation-associated invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. We compare the macroalgal and invertebrate assemblages between sites where F. vesiculosus has disappeared over a larger area and adjacent sites with intact Fucus vegetation. The species richness of animals did not differ between sites with and without F. vesiculosus and no species were clearly confined to sites with Fucus. However, total animal abundance and biomass were generally lower when F. vesiculosus was absent and the animal assemblage at sites without Fucus differed consistently from adjacent Fucus sites. Since the assemblage of epiphytic and turf-forming macroalgae also differed with the presence of Fucus, the differences in invertebrate assemblages can be explained either by direct effects of the Fucus plants or by altered abundance of other macroalgal species. Based on these observations we suggest that large-scale disappearance of F. vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea may result in a changed composition and biomass of vegetation-associated invertebrates, with potential effects on higher trophic levels.

  8. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna eRosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs, which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.

  9. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  10. HABITAT USE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR AVIAN SPECIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agidi

    species were observed, identified, counted and the associated vegetation variables were estimated in a ..... in insectivorous prey as leaf-litter and soil- dwelling invertebrates decline as a result of desiccation in ..... Communities in Oak and Pine.

  11. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  12. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  13. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  14. Conservation of estrogen receptor function in invertebrate reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brande L; Walker, Chris; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren; Williams, Loren Dean; Snell, Terry W

    2017-03-04

    Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clearly demonstrated. Insights into the evolution of sex signaling pathways can be gained by clarifying how receptors function in invertebrate reproduction. In this paper, we show that a ligand-activated estrogen-like receptor in rotifers binds human estradiol and regulates reproductive output in females. In other invertebrates characterized thus far, ER ligand binding domains have occluded ligand-binding sites and the ERs are not ligand activated. We have used a suite of computational, biochemical and biological techniques to determine that the rotifer ER binding site is not occluded and can bind human estradiol. Our results demonstrate that this mammalian hormone receptor plays a key role in reproduction of the ancient microinvertebrate Brachinous manjavacas. The presence and activity of the ER within the phylum Rotifera indicates that the ER structure and function is highly conserved throughout animal evolution.

  15. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  16. Suitability of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Cells in a Portable Impedance-Based Toxicity Sensor: Temperature Mediated Impacts on Long-Term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    Cell lines used and culture conditions tested. Cell line designation: tissue origin and species name Source & reference for each cell line Medi SF9 ...based biosensor. Animal group, cell line designation & animal origin (common name) Preferred Invertebrate cells SF9 : fall armyworm Concanav HvAM1

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the imino acids (opines) meso-alanopine and D-strombine in muscle extract of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandee, B.; Schipper, C.A.; Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC method is presented for the determination of the imino acids alanopine and strombine, anaerobic metabolites that are formed in muscle tissue of several species of invertebrates. The separation of alanopine and strombine was achieved using the Alltech OA 2000 cation-exchange column.

  18. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  19. The effects of riparian forestry on invertebrate drift and brown trout in upland streams of contrasting acidity

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    S. J. Ormerod

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in macroinvertebrate drift and benthic invertebrate abundance were assessed in 30 upland Welsh streams of varying acidity (pH Salmo trutta were also assessed. As expected from previous studies, there were significant reductions in benthic invertebrate abundance, aquatic drift density (by >60%, aquatic drift biomass (by >35%, total drift density (by >35% and total drift biomass (by >20% at acid sites by comparison with circumneutral sites due largely to the scarcity of mayflies. Absolute drift from terrestrial sources was unrelated to stream pH but formed a significantly greater proportion of total drift at acid sites (30-65% of density than at circumneutral sites (20-40% as aquatic contributions declined. Most of this apparent land use effect reflected significantly increased terrestrial drift under broadleaves. There was no significant reduction in terrestrial or aquatic drift at conifer forest sites per se after accounting for low pH. Trout diet varied substantially between locations partly reflecting variations in drift: significantly fewer mayflies and stoneflies were eaten at acid sites, and significantly more terrestrial prey were eaten under broadleaves. However, acidity did not reduce trout condition or gut-fullness. Unexpectedly, trout condition was significantly enhanced at conifer sites, irrespective of their pH. Hence, acidity has greater effects on the benthic abundance and drift density of invertebrates in upland streams than does riparian land use. However, trout forage flexibly enough to offset any possible food deficit, for example by switching to chironomids and terrestrial invertebrates. Enhanced terrestrial contributions to invertebrate drift from riparian broadleaf trees may be important in supplementing foraging opportunities for trout where aquatic prey are scarce. These data illustrate the value of native tree species in riparian locations in upland Britain and the energy subsidy they provide might well be

  20. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ruhí

    Full Text Available In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation, we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold, and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity

  1. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Laura J; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Schiebelhut, Lauren M; Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  2. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  3. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Jurgens

    Full Text Available Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer, and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp. were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  4. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  5. Isolation of key retinoid signalling and metabolic modules in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana André

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are a class of molecules related to vitamin A (Retinol that are required for regulation of critical chordate ndocrine-mediated process, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and vision. To maintain such physiological process, chordates have a complex mechanism to regulate the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids that includes metabolic and signalling modules. Initially, retinoid modules were seen as a chordate novelty. However, emerging biochemical and genomic evidences have challenged this view, clearly pointing to a more basal ancestry than previously thought. However, for the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages a clearly characterization of the main enzymatic/molecular players is still missing. Despite limited, the available evidence supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. In order to enhance our insights on retinoid biology, evolution, and its putative disruption by environmental chemicals, the isolation and functional characterization of key retinoid metabolic players in marine invertebrates has been carried out.

  6. The genetics of host-virus coevolution in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Darren J; Dudas, Gytis

    2014-10-01

    Although viral infection and antiviral defence are ubiquitous, genetic data are currently unavailable from the vast majority of animal phyla-potentially biasing our overall perspective of the coevolutionary process. Rapid adaptive evolution is seen in some insect antiviral genes, consistent with invertebrate-virus 'arms-race' coevolution, but equivalent signatures of selection are hard to detect in viruses. We find that, despite the large differences in vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant immune responses, comparison of viral evolution fails to identify any difference among these hosts in the impact of positive selection. The best evidence for invertebrate-virus coevolution is currently provided by large-effect polymorphisms for host resistance and/or viral evasion, as these often appear to have arisen and spread recently, and can be favoured by virus-mediated selection.

  7. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-09-29

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic-biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night.

  8. Spatial and seasonal distribution of invertebrates in Northern Apennine rheocrene springs

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    Valentina PIERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four perennial rheocrene springs located between 919 and 1252 m a.s.l. on substrata characterized by different lithologies were studied. Water samples and invertebrates were collected seasonally for one year. The crenic fauna was collected using three sampling techniques: moss washing, drift tubes and benthic traps. Each sampling technique was particularly efficient for collecting specific taxa typical of the different habitats (crenophilous crustaceans and crenoxenic benthic insects were dominant in benthic traps and moss; crenophilic, stygophilic and stygobiotic crustaceans in drift tubes. A total of 3,284 invertebrates belonging to 54 taxa were collected. Ostracoda, Harpacticoida, and Diptera were the most abundant taxa. Species assemblages collected at each spring, in each season, in traps and mosses, differed among springs, and, based on invertebrate assemblages, the ordination of the investigated springs did not correspond to that based on environmental parameters. Of the environmental variables only pH and temperature explained the diversity pattern. Assemblages collected from different habitats also differed: benthic traps collected mainly Chironomidae, Ostracoda, other Diptera, crenophilous Harpacticoida, and Gastropoda; in moss assemblages, the fauna was mostly represented by crenophilic Harpacticoida, Ostracoda, Plecoptera, Chironomidae. Finally, the groundwater assemblages, collected with drift tubes, were dominated by crenophilous Harpacticoida, Chironomidae and Plecoptera. Variation in number of taxa over time was observed in traps and moss samples, whereas drift tubes showed no seasonality. Meiofauna (i.e., permanent meiofauna, represented by Nematoda, Copepoda, Ostracoda, and Hydrachnidia, and temporary meiofauna, represented by early instars of insect larvae dominated all habitats, probably because of constant flow and favourable habitats such as moss. The presence of mosses was a factor that increased the species diversity of

  9. Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ≥4°C/ ≤pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over

  10. Effect of seasonality on trophic functional groups of benthic invertebrates in rocky substrate in Rio Palmital, União da Vitória-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Costa Delonzek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the benthic invertebrates found in the rocky substrate in seasonal periods in Rio Palmital, União da Vitória, Parana, Brazil, characterizing the trophic functional groups (collectors, collectors-gatherers, collectors-filterers, shredders, predators and scrapers. Sampling was carried out during the dry (June/July-2011 and rainy (November/December-2011 seasons. The data indicate that the functional group of collectors was the most frequent. The results suggest that there are influences of the disturbances caused by precipitation on the invertebrate fauna during the rainy season, and certain trophic species found may be related to the presence of organic matter as a food source in the diet of invertebrates present there.

  11. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David E.; Flemer, David A.; Bundrick, Charles M.

    1992-09-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. A series of 15·3 cm diameter cores of the seagrass-invertebrate community was collected from field sites for establishment and sampling of microcosms and in the sampling of field plots over time. Weekly exposures to drilling fluid were conducted in the laboratory microcosms at a mean total suspended matter concentration of 110·7 mg l -1 (± 17·7 SD), and in field plots by usage of acrylic exposure chambers at a mean concentration of 132·8 mg l -1 (±33·3 SD). Standing crop of T. testudinum was not affected by drilling fluid in the laboratory or field when measured after 6 and 12 week exposure periods. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

  12. Evolutionary history of the GABA transporter (GAT group revealed by marine invertebrate GAT-1.

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    Azusa Kinjo

    Full Text Available The GABA transporter (GAT group is one of the major subgroups in the solute career 6 (SLC6 family of transmembrane proteins. The GAT group, which has been well studied in mammals, has 6 known members, i.e., a taurine transporter (TAUT, four GABA transporters (GAT-1, -2, -3, - 4, and a creatine transporter (CT1, which have important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the GAT group has not been extensively investigated in invertebrates; only TAUT has been reported in marine invertebrates such as bivalves and krills, and GAT-1 has been reported in several insect species and nematodes. Thus, it is unknown how transporters in the GAT group arose during the course of animal evolution. In this study, we cloned GAT-1 cDNAs from the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, whose TAUT cDNA has already been cloned. To understand the evolutionary history of the GAT group, we conducted phylogenetic and synteny analyses on the GAT group transporters of vertebrates and invertebrates. Our findings suggest that transporters of the GAT group evolved through the following processes. First, GAT-1 and CT1 arose by tandem duplication of an ancestral transporter gene before the divergence of Deuterostomia and Protostomia; next, the TAUT gene arose and GAT-3 was formed by the tandem duplication of the TAUT gene; and finally, GAT-2 and GAT-4 evolved from a GAT-3 gene by chromosomal duplication in the ancestral vertebrates. Based on synteny and phylogenetic evidence, the present naming of the GAT group members does not accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships.

  13. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, ‘color-blind’ humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert ‘water below!’ to water-seeking bugs. PMID:27974532

  14. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-12-15

    The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, 'color-blind' humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert 'water below!' to water-seeking bugs.

  15. Preparation and representation of recombinant Mn-ferritin flower-like spherical aggregates from marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    Full Text Available Ferritin has important functions in the transition and storage of toxic metal ions, but its regulation and function in many invertebrate species are still largely unknown. In our previous work, the cDNA sequence of Sinonovacula constricta, Apostichopus japonicas and Acaudina leucoprocta were constructed and efficiently expressed in E. Coli BL21 under IPTG induction. In this follow-up study, the recombinant ferritins were exposed to heavy metal manganese. The manganese concentration levels in three recombinant ferritins were greater than horse spleen ferritin (HSF. Compared with HSF, the amount of manganese enrichment in the three recombinant ferritins was 1.75-fold, 3.25-fold and 2.42-fold increases in ScFER, AjFER, and AlFER, respectively. After phosphate stimulation, the concentration of manganese increased and was higher than the ordinary dialysis control groups. The ScFER was four times its baseline value. The AjFER and AlFER were 1.4- and 8-fold higher, respectively. The AlFER sample stimulated by phosphate was 22-fold that of HSF. The morphologies of the resulting Mn-Ferritin from different marine invertebrates were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Surface morphologies were lamella flower-like and are consistent with changes in surface morphologies of the standard Mn-HSF. Invertebrate recombinant ferritin and HSF both can uptake manganese. We found that the structure of A. leucoproctarecombinant Mn-Ferritin aggregate changed over time. The surface formed lamella flower-like aggregate, but gradually merged to create a relatively uniform plate-like phase of aggregate spherically and fused without clear boundaries.

  16. Effects of sewage on benthic invertebrates in the lake of Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubini-Ferlin, V.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981-83 sublittoral macroinvertebrates were collected by means of SCUBA diving from artificial substrates submerged near the outfalls from eight sewage treatment plants in Lake Zurich. Pollution around the outfall resulted on the one hand in a reduction of pollution intolerant benthic invertebrates, on the other hand in a considerable increase in the relative abundance of pollution tolerant taxa such as leeches, flatworms and crustaceans. Changes in the faunal composition were related to nutrient enrichment and changes in the nature of the substratum due to sedimentation of sewage sludge. Species diversity (Simpson index) showed low values near the outfall from some plants, high values near the outfall from others. Low species diversity did not always mark the sites where greatest pollution has been observed.

  17. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M.H.; van der Geest, H.G.; Mulder, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing

  18. Transport of Exogenous Organic Substances by Invertebrate Integuments: The Field Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomme, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    Transport, organic substances, monosaccharides, amino acids, marine invertebrates, integument, DOM, marine animals, L-alanine, D-glucos......Transport, organic substances, monosaccharides, amino acids, marine invertebrates, integument, DOM, marine animals, L-alanine, D-glucos...

  19. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M.H.; van der Geest, H.G.; Mulder, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing

  20. Invertebrate resources in Mississippi hardwood bottomlands, moist-soil habitat, and flooded cropland: Completion report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of invertebrate resources in green tree reservoirs and seasonally-flooded crop fields at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge. Mean winter invertebrate...

  1. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Some Other Invertebrates from the Managed Nature Reserves "Dolna Topchiya" and "Balabana" (Lower Valley of the River of Tundzha, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the "Balabana" and "Dolna Topchiya" managed nature reserves is studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. The area of study is interesting from a biological point of view, as the Tundzha River constitutes a corridor of penetration of southern and thermophilic elements. On the other hand, the specifics of the territory predetermine the presence of many typically forest and some mountain species, as well as a lot of inhabitants of open biotopes, in particular – steppe forms. During the study, altogether 2041 specimens of carabid beetles belonging to 88 species are captured, as well as 76 other invertebrate species, some of which are with a conservation significance – new, endemic, rare, protected or endangered. Forty-six carabid species are reported for the first time for the Sakar-Tundzha region. Ground beetles are characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging and the life forms they refer to.

  2. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  3. Bibliography of African inland water invertebrates (to 1980)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davies, BR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography is a direct outcome of the SIL-UNEP Workshop on African Limnology held at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, between 16-23 December, 1979. Part 1 of the framework document for the A4 section of the Workshop - "Invertebrates...

  4. Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voultsiadou, E.; Vafidis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring to light Aristotle’s knowledge of marine invertebrate diversity as this has been recorded in his works 25 centuries ago, and set it against current knowledge. The analysis of information derived from a thorough study of his zoological writings revealed 866 records r

  5. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.

  6. Nanoparticle-protein corona in invertebrate in vitro testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Scavenius, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    , and the primary cells were thus exposed to silver nanoparticles with pre-formed corona of serum albumin (a major serum protein). Here we have profiled proteins forming the hard corona around silver nanoparticles (OECD reference materials, 15 nm and 75 nm) using gel electrophoresis techniques to identify proteins...... for evaluation of the protein corona in invertebrate in vitro setting....

  7. Neuroexcitatory Drug Receptors in Mammals and Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-16

    several animal species investigated. We identified the codfish as having a single polypeptide/gene for CABA -A receptors, as compared to 10-15 different...through blocking of CABA receptor functions. The CABA receptor-chloride channel system is important in wide-spread regions of the mammalian nervous... CABA receptor distribution was quantitated and mapped (14). For this analysis, we employed an image analyzer purchased by Drs. Olsen and de Vellis under

  8. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING EXISTING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.

  9. Invertebrate grazing during the regenerative phase affects the ultimate structure of macrophyte communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elger, A.F.; Willby, N.; Cabello-Martinez, M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Although the biomass of freshwater macrophytes consumed by invertebrate herbivores (excluding crayfish) is usually low, there is growing evidence that invertebrates do exert a structuring effect on macrophyte communities. To explain this, we postulated that the effect of invertebrates may be conc

  10. Invertebrate community composition differs between invasive herb alligator weed and native sedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Imogen E.; Paynter, Quentin; Beggs, Jacqueline R.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical and/or architectural differences between native and exotic plants may influence invertebrate community composition. According to the enemy release hypothesis, invasive weeds should host fewer and less specialised invertebrates than native vegetation. Invertebrate communities were compared on invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) and native sedges (Isolepis prolifer and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) in a New Zealand lake. A. philoxeroides is more architecturally and chemically similar to I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. Lower invertebrate abundance, richness and proportionally fewer specialists were predicted on A. philoxeroides compared to native sedges, but with greatest differences between A. philoxeroides and S. tabernaemontani. A. philoxeroides is more architecturally and chemically similar to I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. Invertebrate abundance showed taxa-specific responses, rather than consistently lower abundance on A. philoxeroides. Nevertheless, as predicted, invertebrate fauna of A. philoxeroides was more similar to that of I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. The prediction of a depauperate native fauna on A. philoxeroides received support from some but not all taxa. All vegetation types hosted generalist-dominated invertebrate communities with simple guild structures. The enemy release hypothesis thus had minimal ability to predict patterns in this system. Results suggest the extent of architectural and chemical differences between native and invasive vegetation may be useful in predicting the extent to which they will host different invertebrate communities. However, invertebrate ecology also affects whether invertebrate taxa respond positively or negatively to weed invasion. Thus, exotic vegetation may support distinct invertebrate communities despite similar overall invertebrate abundance to native vegetation.

  11. The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Polidoro, Beth A; Hamel, Jean-François; Gamboa, Ruth U; Mercier, Annie

    2014-04-22

    Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea cucumber within the order Aspidochirotida, many of which are exploited worldwide as luxury seafood for Asian markets. Extinction risk was primarily driven by high market value, compounded by accessibility and familiarity (well known) in the marketplace. Extinction risk in marine animals often relates closely to body size and small geographical range but our study shows a clear exception. Conservation must not lose sight of common species, especially those of high value. Greater human population density and poorer economies in the geographical ranges of endangered species illustrate that anthropogenic variables can also predict extinction risks in marine animals. Local-level regulatory measures must prevent opportunistic exploitation of high-value species. Trade agreements, for example CITES, may aid conservation but will depend on international technical support to low-income tropical countries. The high proportion of data deficient species also stresses a need for research on the ecology and population demographics of unglamorous invertebrates.

  12. The complement C3 protein family in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nonaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement C3 plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system of mammals as the central component of the complement system essential for its activation mechanism and effecter function. C3 has a unique intra-chain thioester bond that is shared by some complement and non-complement proteins forming a thioester protein (TEP family. Phylogenetic analysis of TEP family genes of vertebrates and invertebrates revealed that the TEP family is divided into two subfamilies, the C3 subfamily and the alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M subfamily. The establishment of the TEP genes and differentiation of them into the C3 and A2M subfamilies occurred prior to the divergence of Cnidaria and Bilateria, in a common ancestor of Eumetazoa more than 600 MYA. Since then the A2M subfamily has been retained by all metazoan lineages analyzed thus far. In contrast, the C3 subfamily has been retained only by deuterostomes and some protostomes, and has been lost in multiple protostome lineages. Although the direct functional analysis of the most invertebrate TEPs is still to be performed, conservation of the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule suggests that the basic function is also conserved. Functional analyses performed on a few invertebrate C3 support this conclusion. The gene duplication events that generated C4 and C5 from C3 occurred in a common ancestor of jawed vertebrates, indicating that invertebrate and cyclostome C3s represent the pre-duplication state. In addition to C3, complement Bf and MASP involved in the activation of C3 are also identified in Cnidaria and some invertebrates, indicating that the complement system is one of the most ancient innate immune systems of Eumetazoa.

  13. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M. [Enviros, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C. [Liverpool Univ., Environmental Research and Consultancy (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 137}Cs and 2x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 90}Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10{sup 6} TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} to 140 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Corresponding mean concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10{sup 2} to 3.10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup -1} dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and

  14. Phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration in a marine modular invertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique Nelson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest decoupling of evolution at the polyp vs. branch/internode levels. Thus, evolutionary change in polyp form or size (the colonial module sensu stricto does not imply a change in colony form (constructed of modular branches and other emergent features. This study examined the patterns of morphological integration at the intraspecific level. Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata (Verrill (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae is a Caribbean shallow water gorgonian that can colonize most reef habitats (shallow/exposed vs. deep/protected; 1–45 m and shows great morphological variation. Results To characterize the genotype/environment relationship and phenotypic plasticity in P. bipinnata, two microsatellite loci, mitochondrial (MSH1 and nuclear (ITS DNA sequences, and (ITS2 DGGE banding patterns were initially compared among the populations present in the coral reefs of Belize (Carrie Bow Cay, Panama (Bocas del Toro, Colombia (Cartagena and the Bahamas (San Salvador. Despite the large and discrete differentiation of morphotypes, there was no concordant genetic variation (DGGE banding patterns in the ITS2 genotypes from Belize, Panama and Colombia. ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis afforded evidence for considering the species P. kallos (Bielschowsky as the shallow-most morphotype of P. bipinnata from exposed environments. The population from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize (1–45 m was examined to determine the phenotypic integration of modular features such as branch thickness, polyp aperture, inter-polyp distance, internode length and branch length. Third-order partial correlation coefficients suggested significant integration between polypar and colonial traits. Some features did not change at all despite 10-fold differences in other integrated

  15. Photothermal and Structural Comparative Analysis of Chitinous Exoskeletons of Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B. A.; Yañez-Limón, J. M.; Tiburcio-Moreno, J. A.; Zambrano, M.; Ardisson, P.-L.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Chitinous materials are common in nature and provide different functions including protection and support of many invertebrate animals. Exoskeletons in these organisms constitute the boundary regulating interaction between the animal and the external environment. For this reason, it is important to study the physical properties of these skeletons, in particular, thermal properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal diffusivity of the skeletons of four species of marine invertebrates, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral), Panulinus argus (lobster), Callinectes sapidus (crab), and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure). Thermal characterization is performed using photothermal radiometry (PTR) and laser-flash techniques. The measurements are complemented with structural characterization using X-ray diffraction. The results using both laser flash and PTR are consistent. These indicate that the thermal properties are strongly dependent on the presence of biogenic minerals (calcium and/or magnesium) and on the crystallinity index of the structure. The thermal-diffusivity values show an increase as a function of the crystallinity index.

  16. Estimation of invertebrate production from patterns of fish predation in western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Kitchell, James F.

    1998-01-01

    We used bioenergetic models for lake herring Coregonus artedi, bloater Coregonus hoyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax to estimate consumption of zooplankton,Mysis, andDiporeia in western Lake Superior for selected years between 1978 and 1995. Total invertebrate biomass consumed yearly ranged from 2.5 to 38 g/m2 with nearly 40% consumed between August and October in all years. Copepod zooplankton represented the largest proportion of biomass collectively consumed by the three species (81%), although rainbow smelt consumed almost twice as much Mysis as zooplankton. Growth efficiency was highest for rainbow smelt (3.84–16.64%) and lower for the coregonids (1.91–12.26%). In the absence of quantitative secondary production values, we suggest our estimates of predatory demand provide a conservative range of the minimum invertebrate production in western Lake Superior during the past 20 years.

  17. Distribution of benthic invertebrates at different depths in a shallow reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Samways

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The bottom of a freshwater reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands was sampled for macro-invertebrates and macrophytes at depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, and 3 m. The water plants Elodea spp. which did not occur much beyond 1 m appeared to be a major deter-minant for the presence of invertebrates. At 2 m and 3 m, when temperature and light decreased greatly, it was replaced by the algae Chara spp. Over 98 of the macroinvertebrate individuals in 21 species and 14 families occurred in water 1 m or less in depth. At 2 m and deeper, there was a rapid decline of species, with only one, a snail, occurring at 3 m. Odonata species occurred only in water 1 m or less in depth. Among the Ephemeroptera, Caenis sp. was abundant at 0.5 m and the most dominant species of all. At 1 m, the most dominant species was Cleon palidulosum of the Baetidae. Both in terms of food for waterfowl and trout, and as a reserve for aquatic macroin vertebrates, the shallow fringe of the reservoir was playing by far the major role compared with the deeper, open water. It is recommended both for biotic conservation and fishing that reservoirs have a shallow rim and constant water levels.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING MACRO-INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS: A CASE STUDY OF BHALU KHOLA TRIBUTARY, BUDHIGANDAKI RIVER, GORKHA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Rana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Macroinvertebrates are widely considered as indicators of water quality. The present research work was conducted in Bhalu khola, a tributary of Budhigandaki River, Nepal, to identify water quality using macro invertebrates with Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS, and examine its applicability by comparing with Water Quality Index (WQI.The diversity of macro invertebrates in the studied river was high as depicted by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index. Altogether, 103 macro invertebrates were identified from 11 families and five orders. There were no dominant species, and most of the species were in clumped distribution. According to NEPBIOS index, river water was found to comply with the characteristics of WQ class I-II that means water quality of the river was good. Other indices such as Hilsenhoff and Lincoln quality index (LQI index also supported this result. Similarly, water quality index (WQI also showed similarity with NEPBIOS index, indicating water appropriate for drinking purpose. Thus, it is concluded that the macro invertebrates can be used as economic tools for determining water quality of streams and rivers as efficient water quality indicators.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 55-68

  19. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  20. Crayfish impact desert river ecosystem function and litter-dwelling invertebrate communities through association with novel detrital resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Moody

    Full Text Available Shifts in plant species distributions due to global change are increasing the availability of novel resources in a variety of ecosystems worldwide. In semiarid riparian areas, hydric pioneer tree species are being replaced by drought-tolerant plant species as water availability decreases. Additionally, introduced omnivorous crayfish, which feed upon primary producers, allochthonous detritus, and benthic invertebrates, can impact communities at multiple levels through both direct and indirect effects mediated by drought-tolerant plants. We tested the impact of both virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis and litter type on benthic invertebrates and the effect of crayfish on detrital resources across a gradient of riparian vegetation drought-tolerance using field cages with leaf litter bags in the San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona. Virile crayfish increased breakdown rate of novel drought-tolerant saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, but did not impact breakdown of drought-tolerant seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia or hydric Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Gooding's willow (Salix goodingii. Effects on invertebrate diversity were observed at the litter bag scale, but no effects were found at the cage scale. Crayfish decreased alpha diversity of colonizing macroinvertebrates, but did not affect beta diversity. In contrast, the drought-tolerant litter treatment decreased beta diversity relative to hydric litter. As drought-tolerant species become more abundant in riparian zones, their litter will become a larger component of the organic matter budget of desert streams which may serve to homogenize the litter-dwelling community and support elevated populations of virile crayfish. Through impacts at multiple trophic levels, crayfish have a significant effect on desert stream ecosystems.

  1. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  2. Low temperature adaption experiments on Folsomia candida fed isogenic and Bt-rice%转Bt基因水稻对白符跳虫适应低温环境与排泄的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玺; 袁一杨; 戈峰; 肖铁光

    2014-01-01

    [目的]为探讨转基因Bt水稻种植对土壤重要分解者跳虫的潜在生态风险性.[方法]将同一非转基因亲本插入3种不同的Bt基因(cry1C、cry2A、cry1AblAc)的转Bt基因水稻叶片残体饲养白符跳虫Folsomia candida,通过放入不同低温环境下观察其存活率和粪便排泄速率以分析白符跳虫取食Bt水稻叶片后的适应低温行为.[结果]结果表明,3种转Bt基因水稻相对于非转基因亲本水稻品种而言,不会影响白符跳虫的适应低温环境;而不同Bt基因插入后导致的水稻成分的变化可能影响了白符跳虫对水稻残体的偏好性,进而影响其在低温环境下的适应行为.[结论]结果可为评估转Bt水稻对土壤生态系统影响提供参考价值,为转Bt水稻安全性评价提供科学的依据.

  3. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands.

  4. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  5. Innate immunity against moulds: lessons learned from invertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    The emergence over the past two decades of invasive mycoses as a significant problem in immunocompromised patients underscores the importance of deciphering innate immunity against filamentous fungi. However, the complexity and cost of traditionally used mammalian model hosts presents a bottleneck that has limited the rate of advances in this field. In contrast, invertebrate model hosts have several important advantages, including simple immune systems, genetic tractability, and amenity to high-throughput experiments. The application of these models to studies of host-pathogen interactions is contingent on two tenets: (1) host innate defenses are preserved across widely disparate taxa, and (2) similar fungal virulence factors are operative in insects and in mammals. Validation of these principles paved the way for the use of invertebrates as facile models for studying invasive mould infections. These studies have helped shape our understanding of human pattern recognition receptors, phagocytic cell function and antimicrobial proteins, and their roles in host defense against filamentous fungi.

  6. Nutraceutical Interventions for Promoting Healthy Aging in Invertebrate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex and inevitable biological process that is associated with numerous chronically debilitating health effects. Development of effective interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research. Mechanistic studies in various model organisms, noticeably two invertebrates, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have identified many genes and pathways as well as dietary interventions that modulate lifespan and healthspan. These studies have shed light on some of the mechanisms involved in aging processes and provide valuable guidance for developing efficacious aging interventions. Nutraceuticals made from various plants contain a significant amount of phytochemicals with diverse biological activities. Phytochemicals can modulate many signaling pathways that exert numerous health benefits, such as reducing cancer incidence and inflammation, and promoting healthy aging. In this paper, we outline the current progress in aging intervention studies using nutraceuticals from an evolutionary perspective in invertebrate models.

  7. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  8. Pliocene Invertebrates From the Travertine Point Outcrop of the Imperial Formation, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-four invertebrate taxa, including one coral, 40 mollusks (30 bivalves and 10 gastropods), and three echinoids are recognized from a thin marine interval of the Imperial Formation near Travertine Point, Imperial County, California. The Travertine Point outcrop lies about midway between exposures of the Imperial Formation around Palm Springs, Riverside County, and exposures centered at Coyote Mountain in Imperial and San Diego Counties. Based on faunal comparisons, the Travertine Point outcrop corresponds to the Imperial and San Diego outcrops. The Travertine Point fauna is inferred to have lived in subtropical to tropical waters at littoral to inner sublittorial (<50 m) water depths. Coral and molluscan species from the Travertine Point outcrop indicate a Pliocene age. Two extant bivalve mollusks present have not previously been reported as fossils Anadara reinharti and forms questionably referred to Dosinia semiobliterata.

  9. Heparan sulfates and heparins: similar compounds performing the same functions in vertebrates and invertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and structure of heparan sulfate and heparin are briefly reviewed. Heparan sulfate is a ubiquitous compound of animal cells whose structure has been maintained throughout evolution, showing an enormous variability regarding the relative amounts of its disaccharide units. Heparin, on the other hand, is present only in a few tissues and species of the animal kingdom and in the form of granules inside organelles in the cytoplasm of special cells. Thus, the distribution as well as the main structural features of the molecule, including its main disaccharide unit, have been maintained through evolution. These and other studies led to the proposal that heparan sulfate may be involved in the cell-cell recognition phenomena and control of cell growth, whereas heparin may be involved in defense mechanisms against bacteria and other foreign materials. All indications obtained thus far suggest that these molecules perform the same functions in vertebrates and invertebrates.

  10. Nutraceutical Interventions for Promoting Healthy Aging in Invertebrate Models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a complex and inevitable biological process that is associated with numerous chronically debilitating health effects. Development of effective interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research. Mechanistic studies in various model organisms, noticeably two invertebrates, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have identified many genes and pathways as well as dietary interventions that modulate lifespan and healthspan. These studies ...

  11. Envisioning invertebrates and other aquatic encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Eva

    2007-12-01

    To "envision" animals is to visualize, to experience, to figure, to image, kinds of species, discourses, representations, institutions, histories, epistemologies; and, to "imagine possible" a set of material and ethical relationships between species. This dissertation explores the "envisioning of animals" that takes place through/across/between the interfaces of seawater/visuality/experience/biology/technology/phyla---as illustrated in the documentary works of Jean Painleve (scientist and filmmaker), Genevieve Hamon (filmmaker and set-designer), Leni Riefenstahl (filmmaker and photographer), and David Powell (scientist and aquarist). In each case, aesthetic conceptions of beauty and/or ambiguity coupled with biological epistemology and phenomenology of the organisms themselves compete over "what gets to count as culture and nature," and in doing so, construct a host of hybridized and enmeshed "encounters." In the process the following questions are raised: What is the role of the ocean---it's ecosystems and semiotics---in the production of "envisioning"? How are animals used---and in turn shape and reshape the users---to construct tropes of encounter? What theories can be used to understand the phenomenological, semiotic, material, and rhetorical use/miss-use of animals in the articulation of history, economy, biology, narrativity, and representation? How does this motley crew of documentarians answer differently "the animal question," and challenge and/or reinforce anthropocentrism? Divided into two parts, the dissertation first develops a set of methodological questions derived from critical appraisal of "envisioning," encountering, and embodying through science studies, as well as an account of the use and misuse of animals as only "stand ins" for human intentionality; secondly, the dissertation analyses the work of the documentarians in question. Jean Painleve and Genevieve Hamon are shown to critique traditions of representation in nature/science films

  12. Potential of the small cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana as an invertebrate model for ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Hui-Su; Han, Jeonghoon; Park, Heum Gi; Souissi, Sami; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels. In this regard, a supratidal and benthic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus Mori (order Harpacticoida) has shown promising characteristics as a test organism in the field of ecotoxicology. Because there is a need to standardize a battery of test organisms from species in different phylogenetic and critical ecosystem positions, it is important to identify another unrelated planktonic species for wider application and comparison. In this regard, the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana Smirnov (order Cyclopoida) has emerged as a potential test organism to meet such requirements. Like T. japonicus, it has a number of features that make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Recently, the genomics of P. nana has been unraveled. Data on biochemical and molecular responses of P. nana against exposure to environmental chemicals and other stressors have been collected. Recently, sequences and expression profiles of a number of genes in P. nana encoding for heat shock proteins, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidants have been reported. These genes serve as potential biomarkers in biomonitoring of environmental pollutants. Moreover, the application of gene expression techniques and the use of its whole transcriptome have allowed evaluation of transcriptional changes in P. nana with the ultimate aim of understanding the mechanisms of action of environmental stressors

  13. Chronic Effects of Coated Silver Nanoparticles on Marine Invertebrate Larvae: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ying Shan Chan

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, have become increasingly popular in consumer products. However, data on their potential biological effects on marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain very limited. This proof of principle study reports the chronic sub-lethal toxicity of two coated AgNPs (oleic acid coated AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs on marine benthic invertebrate larvae across three phyla (i.e., the barnacle Balanus Amphitrite, the slipper-limpet Crepidula onyx, and the polychaete Hydroides elegans in terms of growth, development, and metamorphosis. Bioaccumulation and biodistribution of silver were also investigated. Larvae were also exposed to silver nitrate (AgNO3 in parallel to distinguish the toxic effects derived from nano-silver and the aqueous form of silver. The sub-lethal effect of chronic exposure to coated AgNPs resulted in a significant retardation in growth and development, and reduction of larval settlement rate. The larval settlement rate of H. elegans was significantly lower in the coated AgNP treatment than the AgNO3 treatment, suggesting that the toxicity of coated AgNPs might not be solely evoked by the release of silver ions (Ag+ in the test medium. The three species accumulated silver effectively from coated AgNPs as well as AgNO3, and coated AgNPs were observed in the vacuoles of epithelial cell in the digestive tract of C. onyx. Types of surface coatings did not affect the sub-lethal toxicity of AgNPs. This study demonstrated that coated AgNPs exerted toxic effects in a species-specific manner, and their exposure might allow bioaccumulation of silver, and affect growth, development, and settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. This study also highlighted the possibility that coated AgNPs could be taken up through diet and the toxicity of coated AgNPs might be mediated through toxic Ag+ as well as the novel modalities of coated AgNPs.

  14. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  15. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Staudacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  16. Integration of ESCA index through the use of sessile invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ESCA (Ecological Status of Coralligenous Assemblages index was developed to assess the ecological quality of coralligenous habitat using macroalgae as a biological indicator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to human-induced pressures of macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates shaping the coralligenous habitat and to integrate their sensitivity into the ESCA index. Coralligenous assemblages were sampled at 15 locations of the NW Mediterranean Sea classified into three groups: i marine protected areas; ii low urbanized locations; and iii highly urbanized locations. A sensitivity level value was assigned to each taxon/group on the basis of its abundance in each environmental condition, the data available in the literature and the results of an expert judgement survey. The index that includes the totality of the assemblages (named ESCA-TA, calculated using both macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates, detected the levels of human pressure more precisely than the index calculated with only macroalgae or with only invertebrates. The potential for assessing the ecological quality of marine coastal areas was thus increased with the ESCA-TA index thanks to the use of a higher variety of descriptors.

  17. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  18. Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: physical or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, P. Silver; Patterson, Benjamin A.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    In soft sediments, Dreissena spp. create firm substrate in the form of aggregates of living mussels (druses) that roll free on the sediments. Druses provide physical structure which increases habitat heterogeneity, and the mussels increase benthic organic matter through the production of pseudofeces and feces. Descriptive and experimental studies were used to determine: 1) whether the density of benthic invertebrates in soft sediments increased in the presence of druses, and 2) whether the invertebrate assemblage responded to the physical structure provided by a druse or to some biotic effect associated with the presence of living mussels. In core samples collected biweekly during summer in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania, amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, turbellarians, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in sand with druses than in bare sand. When mesh bags containing either a living druse, non-living druse, or no druse were incubated in the bay for 33 d, we found that chironomids were significantly more abundant in treatments with living druses than with non-living druses, and in treatments with non-living druses than with no druse; turbellarians, amphipods, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in treatments with living or non-living druses than with no druse; oligochaetes showed no significant differences among treatments. This study demonstrates that most taxa of benthic invertebrates in soft substrate respond specifically to the physical structure associated with aggregates of mussel shells, but further study is needed to examine chironomid responses to some biotic effect dependent on the presence of living mussels.

  19. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  20. Toll-like receptors in invertebrate innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among invertebrates, innate immunity is the only defense mechanism against harmful non-self agents.In response to recognition of microbial pattern molecules, Drosophila melanogaster activates either theToll or Imd pathway, leading to the translocation of NF-kB (or Rel transcription factors from the cytoplasmto the nucleus and the subsequent production of antimicrobial peptides, which provide systemic innateimmunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRRdomain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. TLRs are found from cnidarians tomammals. Here we argue that TLR mediated innate immunity developed during an early stage ofevolution when organisms acquired a body cavity. This is supported by the distributions of TLR and Relgenes in the animal kingdom. Further, TLR mediated immunity appears to have developed independentlyin invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that microbial molecules, with the potentialto signal through TLR, can be beneficial to host survival. Studies on this signaling pathway could opendoors to a better understanding of the origins of innate immunity in invertebrates and potentialtransmission blocking strategies aimed at ameliorating vector-borne diseases.

  1. Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Antonio; Amich, Francisco; Postigo-Mota, Salvador; Vallejo, José Ramón

    2016-09-05

    Zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine are important in many socio-cultural environments around the world, particularly in developing countries, and they have recently started to be inventoried and studied in Europe. In light of this, the purpose of this review is to describe the local knowledge and folk remedies based on the use of invertebrates and their derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. An overview in the fields of ethnozoology, ethnoveterinary medicine and folklore was made. Automated searches in the most important databases were performed. All related works were examined thoroughly and use-reports were obtained from 53 documentary sources. The traditional use of 18 invertebrate species and five ethnotaxa and a total of 86 empirical remedies based on the use of a single species was recorded. The two most relevant zoological groups were found to be insects and molluscs. A broad diversity of body parts or derivative products have been and are used to treat or prevent ca. 50 animal diseases or conditions, in particular diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, different infectious livestock diseases, and disorders of the eye and adnexa. Cattle, sheep and equines form the group of domestic animals in which the greatest number of remedies are mentioned. In addition, seven magical remedies and practices are documented. In comparison with other culturally related areas, this is a rich heritage. The use-reports included here will help in the search for new and low-cost drugs for treating livestock and alternative materials for pharmaceutical purposes, future research addressing the validation of the effects and the development of organic farming.

  2. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Emilie [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Alonzo, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent [Laboratoire de biogeochimie, biodisponibilite et transferts des radionucleides (L2BT) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France)

    2012-07-01

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R{sub 0} (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate {lambda} (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R{sub 0} and {lambda} to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R{sub 0}. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for {lambda} independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population {lambda} were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 {mu}Gy{center_dot}h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in {lambda} a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R{sub 0} and {lambda} were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather

  3. Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: a case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Malone, Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Regulators are acutely aware of the need for meaningful risk assessments to support decisions on the safety of GM crops to non-target invertebrates in determining their suitability for field release. We describe a process for developing appropriate, testable risk hypotheses for invertebrates in agroecosystems that might be exposed to plants developed by GM and future novel technologies. An existing model (PRONTI) generates a ranked list of invertebrate species for biosafety testing by accessing a database of biological, ecological and food web information about species which occur in cropping environments and their potential interactions with a particular stressor (Eco Invertebase). Our objective in this contribution is to explore and further utilise these resources to assist in the process of problem formulation by identifying potentially significant effects of the stressor on the invertebrate community and the ecosystem services they provide. We propose that for high ranking species, a conceptual food web using information in Eco Invertebase is constructed, and using an accepted regulatory risk analysis framework, the likelihood of risk, and magnitude of impact for each link in the food web is evaluated. Using as filters only those risks evaluated as likely to extremely likely, and the magnitude of an effect being considered as moderate to massive, the most significant potential effects can be identified. A stepwise approach is suggested to develop a sequence of appropriate tests. The GM ryegrass plant used as the "stressor" in this study has been modified to increase triacylglyceride levels in foliage by 100% to increase the metabolisable energy content of forage for grazing animals. The high-ranking "test" species chosen to illustrate the concept are New Zealand native species Wiseana cervinata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Persectania aversa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the self-introduced grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller).

  4. Evolution of Innate Immunity: Clues from Invertebrates via Fish to Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Host responses against invading pathogens are basic physiological reactions of all living organisms. Since the appearance of the first eukaryotic cells, a series of defense mechanisms have evolved in order to secure cellular integrity, homeostasis, and survival of the host. Invertebrates, ranging from protozoans to metazoans, possess cellular receptors, which bind to foreign elements and differentiate self from non-self. This ability is in multicellular animals associated with presence of phagocytes, bearing different names (amebocytes, hemocytes, coelomocytes) in various groups including animal sponges, worms, cnidarians, mollusks, crustaceans, chelicerates, insects, and echinoderms (sea stars and urchins). Basically, these cells have a macrophage-like appearance and function and the repair and/or fight functions associated with these cells are prominent even at the earliest evolutionary stage. The cells possess pathogen recognition receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are well-conserved molecular structures expressed by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths). Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are prominent representatives within this group of host receptors. Following receptor-ligand binding, signal transduction initiates a complex cascade of cellular reactions, which lead to production of one or more of a wide array of effector molecules. Cytokines take part in this orchestration of responses even in lower invertebrates, which eventually may result in elimination or inactivation of the intruder. Important innate effector molecules are oxygen and nitrogen species, antimicrobial peptides, lectins, fibrinogen-related peptides, leucine rich repeats (LRRs), pentraxins, and complement-related proteins. Echinoderms represent the most developed invertebrates and the bridge leading to the primitive chordates, cephalochordates, and urochordates, in which many autologous genes

  5. Habitat use pattern of three species of egrets in a small coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Ghana to determine the extent of utilisation of non-fish resources by these species, ... whereas those in marginal water forage on fish and possibly aquatic invertebrates. ... Keywords: arthropods, Egretta, fish, human-wildlife conflict, niche ...

  6. Distribution of the three major species of fish in the Hartbeespoort ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-08-05

    Aug 5, 1985 ... ... of fish in the. Hartbeespoort Dam in relation to some environmental .... The factors considered most likely to influence fish distribution were ..... and species diversity of benthic invertebrates decreases with increasing depth ...

  7. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  8. How does predation from fish influence the benthic invertebrates’ species composition in the Phragmites australis and Chara vegetation of Lake Takern?

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbavbiere, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Predation is one of the important selective factors that regulate the species composition of benthic invertebrate communities. The study objective was to investigate the invertebrate distribution in two contrasting habitats in Lake Takern, southern Sweden, submerged Chara vegetation and emergent Phragmites australis vegetation, and to investigate the influence of predation from fish on certain invertebrates. Laboratory studies were used to estimate handling time and the intake rate (mg/sec) b...

  9. Settling distances of benthic invertebrates in a sediment mobilization simulation in semi-natural flumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drift time and distance depend on the ability of the drifting invertebrates to alter their body posture or by swimming, and these behaviors may change according to the local hydraulic environment, resulting in different distances travelled before exiting the drift. Such drift and settlement mediated invertebrate movement determine dispersal processes and ultimately generates distribution patterns within streams. We conducted an experiment in an open-air, artificial flume system directly fed by an Alpine stream, where we disturbed the sediment in the flumes, inducing catastrophic drift in the benthic community, and then assessed the settlement distances of benthic invertebrates. For each flume, we collected drift samples by disturbing the substrate at 1.5 m intervals, at increasing distance from the downstream end, for a total of 7 disturbances and a maximum settling distance of 10 m in each flume, with five replicates (i.e., five flumes for each disturbance. The disturbances induced a massive catastrophic drift in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, always higher than the behaviorally-occurring basedrift. The Settling Index calculated over the total drift collected at each distance increased with increasing distance, and after 10 m, 90% of the drifting animals had settled. Evenness and taxa richness progressively decrease with increasing settling distance. All drifting taxa were represented mainly by young instars. We used the drift collected at 1 m from the disturbance to standardize the remaining samples, based on the assumption that 1 m is not a distance long enough to allow animals to settle at that water velocity. We calculated the percentage of possible drifters which settled by computing a Settling Index for each taxon. The drifting taxa listed by decreasing Settling Index scores were Epeorus sp., Rhithrogena semicolorata, Isoperla spp., Sericostoma spp., Ecdyonurus spp., Nemoura spp., Leuctra spp., Baetis spp., Hydropsyche spp

  10. [Effects of invertebrate bioturbation on vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed for a river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao-Liang; Song, Jin-Xi; Yang, Xiao-Gang; Xue, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is a key factor influencing water exchange between surface water and groundwater. However, the streambed invertebrate bioturbation has a great effect on the hydraulic conductivity. In order to determine the impact of invertebrate bioturbation on streambed hydraulic conductivity, the investigation of invertebrate bioturbation and in-situ test of vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed are simultaneously conducted at five points along the main stream of the Weihe River. Firstly, correlation between the streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution is analyzed. Secondly, type and density of the invertebrate and their correlation to hydraulic conductivity are determined. Finally, the effect of invertebrate bioturbation on the streambed hydraulic conductivity is illustrated. The results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are 18.479 m x d(-1) and 139 ind x m(-2), respectively for the Caotan site, where sediment composition with a large amount of sand and gravel particles. For Meixian site, the sediment constitutes a large amount of silt and clay particles, in which the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are 2.807 m x d(-1) and 2 742 ind x m(-2) respectively. Besides, for the low permeability of four sites (Meixian, Xianyang, Lintong and Huaxian), grain size particles are similar while the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are significantly different from one site to another. However, for each site, the vertical hydraulic conductivity closely related to biological density of invertebrate, the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.987. It can be concluded that both grain size particles and invertebrate bioturbation influence sediment permeability. For example, higher values of streambed hydraulic conductivity from strong permeability site mainly due to the large amount of large-size particles

  11. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  12. From birds to bees: applying video observation techniques to invertebrate pollinators

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    C J Lortie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation is a critical element of behavioural ecology and ethology. Here, we propose a similar set of techniques to enhance the study of the diversity patterns of invertebrate pollinators and associated plant species. In a body of avian research, cameras are set up on nests in blinds to examine chick and parent interactions. This avoids observer bias, minimizes interference, and provides numerous other benefits including timestamps, the capacity to record frequency and duration of activities, and provides a permanent archive of activity for later analyses. Hence, we propose that small video cameras in blinds can also be used to continuously monitor pollinator activity on plants thereby capitalizing on those same benefits. This method was proofed in 2010 in the alpine in BC, Canada on target focal plant species and on open mixed assemblages of plant species. Apple ipod nanos successfully recorded activity for an entire day at a time totalling 450 hours and provided sufficient resolution and field of view to both identify pollinators to recognizable taxonomic units and monitor movement and visitation rates at a scale of view of approximately 50 cm2. This method is not a replacement for pan traps or sweep nets but an opportunity to enhance these datasets with more detailed, finer-resolution data. Importantly, the test of this specific method also indicates that far more hours of observation - using any method - are likely required than most current ecological studies published to accurately estimate pollinator diversity.

  13. Ecotoxicological effects of jute retting on the survival of two freshwater fish and two invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debjit Kumar; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2008-04-01

    Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Attempts were made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of two species of freshwater fish (Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and two species of freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna, a Cladocera, and Branchiura sowerbyi, an Oligochaeta). Results showed that jute retting in a pond for 30 days resulted in a sharp increase in the BOD (>1,000 times) and COD (>25 times) of the water, along with a sharp decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO). Free CO(2), total ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen also increased (three to five times) in water as a result of jute retting. Ninety-six-hour static bioassays performed in the laboratory with different dilutions of jute-retting water (JRW) revealed that D. magna and B. sowerbyi were not susceptible to even the raw JRW whereas fingerlings of both species of fish were highly susceptible, L. rohita being more sensitive (96 h LC(50) 37.55% JRW) than H. molitrix (96 h LC(50) 57.54% JRW). Mortality of fish was significantly correlated with the percentage of JRW.

  14. Dominant predators mediate the impact of habitat size on trophic structure in bromeliad invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Jocque, Merlijn; Kratina, Pavel; MacDonald, A Andrew M; Marino, Nicholas A C; De Omena, Paula M; Piccoli, Gustavo C O; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Romero, Gustavo Q; Videla, Martin; Srivastava, Diane S

    2015-02-01

    Local habitat size has been shown to influence colonization and extinction processes of species in patchy environments. However, species differ in body size, mobility, and trophic level, and may not respond in the same way to habitat size. Thus far, we have a limited understanding of how habitat size influences the structure of multitrophic communities and to what extent the effects may be generalizable over a broad geographic range. Here, we used water-filled bromeliads of different sizes as a natural model system to examine the effects of habitat size on the trophic structure of their inhabiting invertebrate communities. We collected composition and biomass data from 651 bromeliad communities from eight sites across Central and South America differing in environmental conditions, species pools, and the presence of large-bodied odonate predators. We found that trophic structure in the communities changed dramatically with changes in habitat (bromeliad) size. Detritivore : resource ratios showed a consistent negative relationship with habitat size across sites. In contrast, changes in predator: detritivore (prey) ratios depended on the presence of odonates as dominant predators in the regional pool. At sites without odonates, predator: detritivore biomass ratios decreased with increasing habitat size. At sites with odonates, we found odonates to be more frequently present in large than in small bromeliads, and predator: detritivore biomass ratios increased with increasing habitat size to the point where some trophic pyramids became inverted. Our results show that the distribution of biomass amongst food-web levels depends strongly on habitat size, largely irrespective of geographic differences in environmental conditions or detritivore species compositions. However, the presence of large-bodied predators in the regional species pool may fundamentally alter this relationship between habitat size and trophic structure. We conclude that taking into account the

  15. Chemical Screening Method for the Rapid Identification of Microbial Sources of Marine Invertebrate-Associated Metabolites

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    Russell G. Kerr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates have proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites. The growing recognition that marine microorganisms associated with invertebrate hosts are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites offers new alternatives for the discovery and development of marine natural products. However, the discovery of microorganisms producing secondary metabolites previously attributed to an invertebrate host poses a significant challenge. This study describes an efficient chemical screening method utilizing a 96-well plate-based bacterial cultivation strategy to identify and isolate microbial producers of marine invertebrate-associated metabolites.

  16. Testing the effects of an introduced palm on a riparian invertebrate community in southern California.

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    Theresa Sinicrope Talley

    Full Text Available Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA, the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis. The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm's effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans, and more taxa likely using only the plant's physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans. There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management decisions.

  17. Climate and recruitment of rocky shore intertidal invertebrates in the eastern North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Bernardo R; Mieszkowska, Nova; Helmuth, Brian; Blanchette, Carol A

    2008-11-01

    Studies of the impacts of climate and climate change on biological systems often attempt to correlate ecological responses with basin-scale indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, such correlations, while useful for detecting long-term trends, are unable to provide a mechanism linking the physical environment and ecological processes. Here we evaluate the effects of the NAO on recruitment variability of rocky intertidal invertebrates in the North Atlantic examining two possible climate-related pathways. Using a highly conservative test we interpret associations with the NAO integrated over a season (three months) as an indicator of atmospheric effects on newly settled recruits (NAO3), and the effects of the NAO integrated over six months (NAO6) as an indicator of changes in ocean circulation affecting patterns of larval transport. Through an extensive literature survey we found 13 time series, restricted to southwest Ireland and Britain and comprising five species, that could be used for statistical analysis. Significant correlations with NAO3, our proxy for atmospheric effects, were observed in the south-central domain of our study region (southwest Ireland and south England). Significant correlations with NAO6, the proxy for ocean circulation effects, were detected on southwest Ireland. The associations were detected for three (two barnacles and a topshell) at two sites. These results suggest that the NAO can have effects on the recruitment of intertidal invertebrates through different pathways linked to climate and be distributed heterogeneously in space. Based on previous evidence and the sign and geographic location of significant correlations, we suggest that winter NAO effects are likely to occur as a result of effects on the survival of early life stages settling during spring or through changes in phenology. Our results argue that a combination of modeling and synthesis can be used to generate hypotheses regarding the effects of

  18. The phylogeny of invertebrates and the evolution of myelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Betty I

    2008-05-01

    Current concepts of invertebrate phylogeny are reviewed. Annelida and Arthropoda, previously regarded as closely related, are now placed in separate clades. Myelin, a sheath of multiple layers of membranes around nerve axons, is found in members of the Annelida, Arthropoda and Chordata. The structure, composition and function of the sheaths in Annelida and Arthropoda are examined and evidence for the separate evolutionary origins of myelin in the three clades is presented. That myelin has arisen independently at least three times, namely in Annelids, Arthropodas and Chordates, provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution.

  19. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

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    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as provide an insight on the applications of the biobanking of these model organisms.

  20. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  1. There is no universal molecular clock for invertebrates, but rate variation does not scale with body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessica A; Welch, John J; Woolfit, Megan; Bromham, Lindell

    2006-05-01

    The existence of a universal molecular clock has been called into question by observations that substitution rates vary widely between lineages. However, increasing empirical evidence for the systematic effects of different life history traits on the rate of molecular evolution has raised hopes that rate variation may be predictable, potentially allowing the "correction" of the molecular clock. One such example is the body size trend observed in vertebrates; smaller species tend to have faster rates of molecular evolution. This effect has led to the proposal of general predictive models correcting for rate heterogeneity and has also been invoked to explain discrepancies between molecular and paleontological dates for explosive radiations in the fossil record. Yet, there have been no tests of an effect in any nonvertebrate taxa. In this study, we have tested the generality of the body size effect by surveying a wide range of invertebrate metazoan lineages. DNA sequences and body size data were collected from the literature for 330 species across five phyla. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to investigate a relationship between average body size and substitution rate at both interspecies and interfamily comparison levels. We demonstrate significant rate variation in all phyla and most genes examined, implying a strict molecular clock cannot be assumed for the Metazoa. Furthermore, we find no evidence of any influence of body size on invertebrate substitution rates. We conclude that the vertebrate body size effect is a special case, which cannot be simply extrapolated to the rest of the animal kingdom.

  2. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators.

  3. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Gossner

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic. We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when

  4. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  5. Seasonal changes in the invertebrate community of granular activated carbon filters and control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; You, Wei; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Lijun

    2014-03-15

    Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon (GAC) filters in the waterworks is one of the most frequently occurring and least studied biological problems of water processing in China. A survey of invertebrate colonization of GAC filters was carried out weekly from October 2010 to December 2011 at a reservoir water treatment works in South China. Twenty-six kinds of invertebrates were observed. The abundance was as high as 5600ind.m(-3) with a mean of 860ind.m(-3). Large variations in abundance were observed among different seasons and before and after GAC filtration. The dominant organisms were rotifers and copepods. The average invertebrate abundance in the filtrate was 12-18.7 times of that in the pre-filtered water. Results showed that the GAC filters were colonized by invertebrates which may lead to a higher output of organisms in the filtrate than in the pre-filtered water. The invertebrate abundance in the GAC filters was statistically correlated with the water temperature. Seasonal patterns were observed. The invertebrate abundance grew faster in the spring and summer. Copepods were dominant in the summer while rotifers dominated in all other seasons of the year. There was a transition of small invertebrates (rotifers) gradually being substituted by larger invertebrates (copepods) from spring to summer. Control measures such as backwashing with chloric water, drying filter beds and soaking with saliferous water were implemented in the waterworks to reduce invertebrate abundances in the GAC filters. The results showed that soaking with saliferous water (99%, reduction in percent) was best but drying the filter beds (84%) was more economical. Soaking filter beds with 20g/L saliferous water for one day can be implemented in case of emergency. In order to keep invertebrate abundance in the acceptable range, some of these measures should be adopted.

  6. Role of hemocytes in invertebrate adult neurogenesis and brain repair

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    PG Chaves da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The repair of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS varies widely throughout the animal kingdom. At the level of neuronal replacement lie the major differences in CNS regeneration. At one extreme are the amniote vertebrates (reptile, avian and mammalian groups, which have very limited capacity for neuronal replacement, and therefore for neural regeneration; at the other extreme, animals such as planarians (flatworms and colonial tunicates can repair their entire CNS after major injuries. These differences can be attributed to the abundance of multipotent and/or pluripotent stem cells and/or undifferentiated precursors among the general cell population. In this review we discuss recent advancements in knowledge of regeneration of the CNS of invertebrates. We focus on ascidians, which are a sister group of vertebrates, but we also address other invertebrate groups. Because neurogenesis is central to the events that allow regeneration of the adult CNS, we address this issue focusing on crustaceans, which have provided a paradigm to study the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The attraction of hemocytes toward a neurogenic niche and respecification of these cells toward a neural fate has been strongly suggested. Based on recent and emerging research, we suggest that cells of the blood lineage are not only associated with the roles that are generally attributed to them, but are the cells that either signal other cell types to differentiate into neural cells, or even eventually themselves transdifferentiate into neural cells.

  7. Many roads to resistance: how invertebrates adapt to Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Joel S; Aroian, Raffi V

    2005-06-01

    The Cry family of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal and nematicidal proteins constitutes a valuable source of environmentally benign compounds for the control of insect pests and disease agents. An understanding of Cry toxin resistance at a molecular level will be critical to the long-term utility of this technology; it may also shed light on basic mechanisms used by other bacterial toxins that target specific organisms or cell types. Selection and cross-resistance studies have confirmed that genetic adaptation can elicit varying patterns of Cry toxin resistance, which has been associated with deficient protoxin activation by host proteases, and defective Cry toxin-binding cell surface molecules, such as cadherins, aminopeptidases and glycolipids. Recent work also suggests Cry toxin resistance may be induced in invertebrates as an active immune response. The use of model invertebrates, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, as well as advances in insect genomics, are likely to accelerate efforts to clone Cry toxin resistance genes and come to a detailed and broad understanding of Cry toxin resistance.

  8. Hydrologic variability enhances stream biofilm grazing by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Hödl, I.; Adlboller, M.; Singer, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Botter, G.; Battin, T. J.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal variability of streamflows is a key feature structuring and controlling ecological communities and ecosystem processes. The magnitude, frequency and predictability of streamflows, and thus of velocity and near-bed shear stress fields, control structure and function of benthic invertebrates and biofilms - attached and matrix-enclosed microbial communities at the base of the food chain. Although alterations of streamflow regime due to climate change, habitat fragmentation or other anthropogenic factors are ubiquitous, their ecological implications remain poorly understood. Here, by experimenting with two contrasting flow regimes in stream microcosms, we show how flow variability affects invertebrate grazing of phototrophic biofilms (i.e. periphyton). In both flow regimes, we manipulated light availability as a key control on biofilm algal productivity and grazer activity, thereby allowing the test of flow regime effects across various biofilm biomass to grazing activity ratios. Average grazing rates were significantly enhanced under variable flow conditions and highest at intermediate light availability. Our results suggest that stochastic flow regime offers increased opportunity for grazing under more favorable shear stress conditions, with implications for trophic carbon transfer in stream food webs.

  9. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  10. Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

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    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’ was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006 when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01. This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco

  11. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; L.K. Croft; J.F. Lehmkuhl; R.H. Naney; C.G. Niwa; W.R. Owen; R.E. Sandquist

    1998-01-01

    This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species...

  12. Morbidity and mortality of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals at a major exotic companion animal wholesaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Shawn; Brown, Susan; Ledford, Joel; Martin, Janet; Nash, Ann-Elizabeth; Terry, Amanda; Tristan, Tim; Warwick, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The authors formally investigated a major international wildlife wholesaler and subsequently confiscated more than 26,400 nonhuman animals of 171 species and types. Approximately 80% of the nonhuman animals were identified as grossly sick, injured, or dead, with the remaining in suspected suboptimal condition. Almost 3,500 deceased or moribund animals (12% of stock), mostly reptiles, were being discarded on a weekly basis. Mortality during the 6-week "stock turnover" period was determined to be 72%. During a 10-day period after confiscation, mortality rates (including euthanasia for humane reasons) for the various taxa were 18% for invertebrates, 44.5% for amphibians, 41.6% for reptiles, and 5.5% for mammals. Causes of morbidity and mortality included cannibalism, crushing, dehydration, emaciation, hypothermic stress, infection, parasite infestation, starvation, overcrowding, stress/injuries, euthanasia on compassionate grounds, and undetermined causes. Contributing factors for disease and injury included poor hygiene; inadequate, unreliable, or inappropriate provision of food, water, heat, and humidity; presumed high levels of stress due to inappropriate housing leading to intraspecific aggression; absent or minimal environmental enrichment; and crowding. Risks for introduction of invasive species through escapes and/or spread of pathogens to naive populations also were identified.

  13. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  14. Effects of short-term exposure to dispersed oil in Arctic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageau, C.; Englehardt, F.R.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experimental studies was carried out as part of the Baffin Island Oil Spill (BIOS) Project to define the behavioural, physiological and biochemical reactions of three arctic marine benthic invertebrate species exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil. Behavioural responses and patterns of hydrocarbon accumulation and release observed in the bivalves and the urchin during the 1981 field spill were similar to those observed during the laboratory simulations. Ostial closure, loss of responsiveness to mechanical stimuli and narcosis were characteristic of the bivalves. Exposed urchins displayed a functional loss of tube foot and spine behaviour. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis indicated different uptake dynamics among the species. The effects of dispersed oil were immediate and short lived and resulted in temporary accumulation of hydrocarbons. Depuration of these stored hydrocarbons occurred during the experimental recovery period. In vivo biodegradation of hydrocarbons was indicated in the bivalves. Physiological parameters measured in bivalves exposed to oil included elements of scope for growth, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Dose-response relationships between physiological rates and hydrocarbon body burden were apparent.

  15. Structural and functional responses of benthic invertebrates to imidacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, J.L.T., E-mail: jpestana@ua.p [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Alexander, A.C., E-mail: alexa.alexander@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Culp, J.M., E-mail: jculp@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Baird, D.J., E-mail: djbaird@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Cessna, A.J., E-mail: asoares@ua.p [Environment Canada, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Soares, A.M.V.M., E-mail: asoares@ua.p [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    Structural and functional responses of a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage to pulses of the insecticide imidacloprid were assessed in outdoor stream mesocosms. Imidacloprid pulses reduced invertebrate abundance and community diversity in imidacloprid-dosed streams compared to control streams. These results correlated well with effects of imidacloprid on leaf litter decomposition and feeding rates of Pteronarcys comstocki, a stonefly, in artificial streams. Reductions in oxygen consumption of stoneflies exposed to imidacloprid were also observed in laboratory experiments. Our findings suggest that leaf litter degradation and single species responses can be sensitive ecotoxicological endpoints that can be used as early warning indicators and biomonitoring tools for pesticide contamination. The data generated illustrates the value of mesocosm experiments in environmental assessment and how the consideration of functional and structural endpoints of natural communities together with in situ single species bioassays can improve the evaluation and prediction of pesticide effects on stream ecosystems. - Combining organism-level responses with community-level processes for the evaluation and prediction of pesticide effects on stream ecosystems.

  16. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout food resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Romaniszyn; John J. Jr. Hutchens; J. Bruce Wallance

    2007-01-01

    We characterised aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in six south-western North Carolina streams and their implications for trout production. Streams of this region typically have low standing stock and production of trout because of low benthic productivity. However, little is known about the contribution of terrestrial invertebrates entering drift, the factors...

  17. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impacts on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Martin Schutz; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Wim H. van der Putten; Henk Duyts; Ursina Raschein; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stephan Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate...

  18. Element fluxes in the ecosystem 'spruce-stand' with special regard to invertebrate animals. Elementfluesse im Oekosystem 'Fichtenforst' unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung wirbelloser Tiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Holzapfel, M.; Funke, W.

    1989-04-01

    In the most important representatives of invertebrate-fauna of a spruce-stand nearby Ulm (Swabian Alb) the concentrations of essential and toxic elements have been determined by the mean of ICP-atomic-emissionspectroscopy and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. Estimation of 'element-fluxes' in the ecosystem, with special regard to invertebrates and the question, if animals are suited as indicators of heavy metal pollution, have been of special interest. Species of different systematic and trophic groups (Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae, Diplopoda, Araneae, Collembola, Coleoptera and Diptera of phytophagous, saprophagous and zoophagous trophic levels) have been investigated. Invertebrates accumulate - except of Cd - predominantly physiological active elements (Cu, Zn, K, Mg, Ca). Most elements were accumulated by animals of low trophic level. Because of the high enrichment of Cd in Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae and Nematocera, these species seem to be suited as indicators of Cd burden of the environment. (orig./KG).

  19. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box.

  20. Spatial variation in population structure and its relation to movement and the potential for dispersal in a model intertidal invertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor T Bringloe

    Full Text Available Dispersal, the movement of an individual away from its natal or breeding ground, has been studied extensively in birds and mammals to understand the costs and benefits of movement behavior. Whether or not invertebrates disperse in response to such attributes as habitat quality or density of conspecifics remains uncertain, due in part to the difficulties in marking and recapturing invertebrates. In the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator swims at night around the new or full moon. Furthermore, this species is regionally widespread across a large spatial scale with site-to-site variation in population structure. Such variation provides a backdrop against which biological determinants of dispersal can be investigated. We conducted a large-scale study at nine mudflats, and used swimmer density, sampled using stationary plankton nets, as a proxy for dispersing individuals. We also sampled mud residents using sediment cores over 3 sampling rounds (20-28 June, 10-17 July, 2-11 August 2010. Density of swimmers was most variable at the largest spatial scales, indicating important population-level variation. The smallest juveniles and large juveniles or small adults (particularly females were consistently overrepresented as swimmers. Small juveniles swam at most times and locations, whereas swimming of young females decreased with increasing mud presence of young males, and swimming of large juveniles decreased with increasing mud presence of adults. Swimming in most stages increased with density of mud residents; however, proportionally less swimming occurred as total mud resident density increased. We suggest small juveniles move in search of C. volutator aggregations which possibly act as a proxy for better habitat. We also suggest large juveniles and small adults move if potential mates are limiting. Future studies can use sampling designs over large spatial scales with varying population structure to help