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Sample records for inveon pet preclinical

  1. NEMA NU 4-2008 Comparison of Preclinical PET Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L.; Bao, Qinan; Bergeron, Mélanie; Blankemeyer, Eric; Blinder, Stephan; Cañadas, Mario; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Dinelle, Katherine; Elhami, Esmat; Jans, Hans-Sonke; Lage, Eduardo; Lecomte, Roger; Sossi, Vesna; Surti, Suleman; Tai, Yuan-Chuan; Vaquero, Juan José; Vicente, Esther; Williams, Darin A.; Laforest, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard NU 4-2008 for performance measurements of small-animal tomographs was recently published. Before this standard, there were no standard testing procedures for preclinical PET systems, and manufacturers could not provide clear specifications similar to those available for clinical systems under NEMA NU 2-1994 and 2-2001. Consequently, performance evaluation papers used methods that were modified ad hoc from the clinical PET NEMA standard, thus making comparisons between systems difficult. Methods We acquired NEMA NU 4-2008 performance data for a collection of commercial animal PET systems manufactured since 2000: micro- PET P4, microPET R4, microPET Focus 120, microPET Focus 220, Inveon, ClearPET, Mosaic HP, Argus (formerly eXplore Vista), VrPET, LabPET 8, and LabPET 12. The data included spatial resolution, counting-rate performance, scatter fraction, sensitivity, and image quality and were acquired using settings for routine PET. Results The data showed a steady improvement in system performance for newer systems as compared with first-generation systems, with notable improvements in spatial resolution and sensitivity. Conclusion Variation in system design makes direct comparisons between systems from different vendors difficult. When considering the results from NEMA testing, one must also consider the suitability of the PET system for the specific imaging task at hand. PMID:22699999

  2. Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Putamen 18F-dopa uptake of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is reduced by at least 35% at onset of symptoms; therefore, positron-emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect preclinical disease in clinically unaffected twins and relatives of patients with PD. Three out of 6 monozygotic and 2 out of 3 dizygotic unaffected PD co-twins have shown reduced putamen 18F-dopa uptake to date. In addition, an intact sibling and a daughter of 1 of 4 siblings with PD both had low putamen 18F-dopa uptake. These preliminary findings suggest there may be a familial component to the etiology of PD. PET can also be used to detect underlying nigral pathology in patients with isolated tremor and patients who become rigid taking dopamine-receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Patients with familial essential tremor have normal, and those with isolated rest tremor have consistently low, putamen 18F-dopa uptake. Drug-induced parkinsonism is infrequently associated with underlying nigral pathology

  3. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  4. Quantitative preclinical PET imaging: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKuntner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available PET imaging of metabolism involves many choices, from hardware settings, software options to animal handling considerations. How to decide what settings or conditions to use is not straightforward, as the experimental design is dependent on the particular science being investigated. There is no single answer, yet there are factors that are common to all experiments that are the subject of this review. From physics to physiology, there are many factors to consider, each of which can have a significant impact upon measurements of metabolism in vivo. This review examines the most common factors related to all types of quantitative PET imaging.

  5. Preclinical Testing of Novel Radiotracers for Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Sijbesma, Jurgen; Doorduin, Janine; Elsinga, Philippus; de Vries, Erik; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; van Zanten, Annie K; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Cees T B

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical tests of novel radiotracers in experimental animals are required to move tracer candidates from the stage of in vitro testing to the stage of toxicity testing and finally studies in human volunteers. Such preclinical tests are aimed at demonstrating: (1) specific in vivo interaction of

  6. Image quality of Zr-89 PET imaging in the Siemens microPET Focus 220 preclinical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Tyler J; Voorbach, Martin J; Reuter, David R; Giamis, Anthony M; Mudd, Sarah R; Beaver, John D

    2016-06-01

    Zr-89 positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for understanding the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of antibody-based therapeutics. We compared the image quality of Zr-89 PET and F-18 PET in the Siemens microPET Focus 220 preclinical scanner using different reconstruction methods. Image quality metrics were measured in various Zr-89 and F-18 PET phantoms, including the NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom. Images were reconstructed using various algorithms. Zr-89 PET had greater image noise, inferior spatial resolution, and greater spillover than F-18 PET, but comparable recovery coefficients for cylinders of various diameters. Of the reconstruction methods, OSEM3D resulted in the lowest noise, highest recovery coefficients, best spatial resolution, but also the greatest spillover. Scatter correction results were found to be sensitive to varying object sizes. Zr-89 PET image quality was inferior to that of F-18, and no single reconstruction method was superior in all aspects of image quality.

  7. A new PET detector concept for compact preclinical high-resolution hybrid MR-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneking, Arne; Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Finster, Felix; Rucatti, Daniele; Paternoster, Giovanni; Jon Shah, N.; Piemonte, Claudio; Lerche, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a new PET detector concept for compact preclinical hybrid MR-PET. The detector concept is based on Linearly-Graded SiPM produced with current FBK RGB-HD technology. One 7.75 mm x 7.75 mm large sensor chip is coupled with optical grease to a black coated 8 mm x 8 mm large and 3 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal. The readout is obtained from four readout channels with the linear encoding based on integrated resistors and the Center of Gravity approach. To characterize the new detector concept, the spatial and energy resolutions were measured. Therefore, the measurement setup was prepared to radiate a collimated beam to 25 different points perpendicular to the monolithic scintillator crystal. Starting in the center point of the crystal at 0 mm / 0 mm and sampling a grid with a pitch of 1.75 mm, all significant points of the detector were covered by the collimator beam. The measured intrinsic spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.74 +/- 0.01 mm in x- and 0.69 +/- 0.01 mm in the y-direction at the center of the detector. At the same point, the measured energy resolution (FWHM) was 13.01 +/- 0.05 %. The mean intrinsic spatial resolution (FWHM) over the whole detector was 0.80 +/- 0.28 mm in x- and 0.72 +/- 0.19 mm in y-direction. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the detector was between 13 and 17.3 % with an average energy resolution of 15.7 +/- 1.0 %. Due to the reduced thickness, the sensitivity of this gamma detector is low but still higher than pixelated designs with the same thickness due to the monolithic crystals. Combining compact design, high spatial resolution, and high sensitivity, the detector concept is particularly suitable for applications where the scanner bore size is limited and high resolution is required - as is the case in small animal hybrid MR-PET.

  8. Evaluation of PET performance and MR compatibility of a preclinical PET/MR insert with digital silicon photomultiplier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen, Patrick; Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Weissler, Bjorn [Department of Chemical Application Research, Philips Research (Germany); Gebhardt, Pierre [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London (United Kingdom); Goldschmidt, Benjamin [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Salomon, Andre [Department of Oncology Solutions, Philips Research (Germany); Duppenbecker, Peter [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian [Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Schultz, Volkmar [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    In this work we present detailed characterizations of our preclinical high resolution PET/MR insert based on the Hyperion-IID platform. The PET/MR insert consists of a ring of 10 singles detection modules, each comprising 2x3 scintillation detector stacks. Each detector stack features a 30x30 pixelated LYSO crystal array with a height of 12 mm and a pitch of 1 mm, coupled via a slit 2 mm light guide to a digital SiPM tile. The PET performance is stable under a wide range of operating points. The spatial resolution is below 1Ä,mm and the CRT reaches 260 or 450 ps depending on trigger settings. The energy resolution is 12.6% FWHM. The characterization of the MR compatibility showed no relevant degradation in PET performance during MRI operation. On the MRI side, we observe a degradation in B0 homogeneity from a VRMS of 0.03 ppm to 0.08 ppm with active shimming, while observing only minor degradations in the B0 field. The noise floor is slightly increased by 2-15% without any observable dependence on the activity. The Z gradients induces an observable eddy current inside the PET inserts which can lead to ghosting artifacts for EPI sequences. However, we don't observe any visible image degradation for widely used anatomical imaging sequences such as gradient echo and turbo spin echo sequences. To prove the viability of our PET/MR insert for in vivo small animal studies, we successfully performed a longitudinal mouse study with subcutaneously injected tumor model cells. The simultaneously acquired PET/MR images provide a high level of anatomical information and soft tissue contrast in the MR layer together with a high resolution image of the FDG tracer distribution in the PET layer.

  9. Preclinical quantitative MicroPET imaging in evaluation of neuroprotective drug candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Kyeong Min; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Using in vivo molecular imaging with microPET/SPECT has been expected to facilitate drug discovery and development. In this study, we applied quantitative microPET to the preclinical evaluation of the effects of two neuroprotective drug candidates to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal damage. Fifteen SD rats were divided into three groups. The rats of each group were orally administrated one of neuroprotective candidate; NeuProtec (100mg/kg bid) and SureCero (10mg/kg, qd) or normal saline (0.1ml, qd) for 3 weeks. 6-OHDA was sterotactically placed to the right striatum on eighth day after starting while continuing the medication for additional 14 days. [ 124 I]FP-ClT PET scans were obtained using microPET R4 scanner. The behavioral test by amphetamine-induced rotation and the histological examination after thyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining were performed. Different uptake in the lesioned striatum among the groups were demonstrated on [ 124 I]FP-CIT PET images. The rats with NeuProtec showed higher binding in the lesion than controls. No differences were observed in SureCere groups. The FP-CIT uptake in the lesioned striatum was well correlated with the % reduction of TH(+) cells (rho =0.73, p=0.025), and also correlated with rotation test (rho =0.79, p=0.001) [ 124 I]FP-CIT animal PET depicted the neuroprotective effects of NeuProtec to the 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the rat striatum. No demonstrable effect of SureCero might indicate that inadequate dosage was used in this study. MicroPET imaging with small animal could be a great tool in preclinical evaluation of drug efficacy

  10. Use of a clinical PET/MR scanner for preclinical research with first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chary, Karthik; Teuho, Jarmo; Virta, Jenni; Sipilä, Hannu; Saunavaara, Virva; Roivainen, Anne; Teräs, Mika

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of preclinical imaging in a clinical PET/MR system. Preliminary sequences were evaluated for establishing preclinical protocols for rat brain and rabbit knee. Rats were placed in a stereotactic holder, allowing a 30 minute scan time before re-administration of anesthesia. In-house developed warm-water heating system was used to maintain the body temperature at 37.5°C, monitored using an MR-compatible rectal probe. Brain imaging was performed with a dedicated 4 channel phased array receive coil (RAPID Biomedical GmbH, Germany). High resolution coronal images were acquired using conventional T1-SE (0.30x0.30x1.2mm) and T2-TSE (0.23x0.23x0.7mm) with a total scan time of 30 min. PET/MR imaging was performed on two white rabbits. The rabbits were imaged in a custom wooden holder. PET/MR protocol had a total duration of 45 minutes. No external heating was used. MR protocol consisted of anatomical T1, T2 and PDW of the knees, using a SENSE Flex-S coil. MR attenuation correction (MRAC) was acquired with 3D T1-FFE using three-class segmentation. A dynamic 30 minute PET acquisition was started on injection of 33.8MBq of Ga-68. Animal coils enabled high resolution images to be acquired in reasonable acquisition time with regards to animal handling and anesthesia. T1 and T2 images provided good differentiation of anatomy in the rat brain with high contrast. T1, T2 and PDW images of the rabbit knee had high resolution and differentiation of anatomical structures. MRAC was able to distinguish the knees and the body contour. Image fusion of PET and MR was able to localize the infection, which was confirmed by a physician. Pre-clinical imaging with the Ingenuity TF was deemed feasible, although PET imaging is limited by the resolution of the scanner. The preliminary sequences were successfully implemented for future studies on the Ingenuity TF.

  11. Use of a clinical PET/MR scanner for preclinical research with first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chary, Karthik; Teuho, Jarmo; Virta, Jenni; Sipilä, Hannu; Saunavaara, Virva; Roivainen, Anne; Teräs, Mika [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-29

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of preclinical imaging in a clinical PET/MR system. Preliminary sequences were evaluated for establishing preclinical protocols for rat brain and rabbit knee. Rats were placed in a stereotactic holder, allowing a 30 minute scan time before re-administration of anesthesia. In-house developed warm-water heating system was used to maintain the body temperature at 37.5°C, monitored using an MR-compatible rectal probe. Brain imaging was performed with a dedicated 4 channel phased array receive coil (RAPID Biomedical GmbH, Germany). High resolution coronal images were acquired using conventional T1-SE (0.30x0.30x1.2mm) and T2-TSE (0.23x0.23x0.7mm) with a total scan time of 30 min. PET/MR imaging was performed on two white rabbits. The rabbits were imaged in a custom wooden holder. PET/MR protocol had a total duration of 45 minutes. No external heating was used. MR protocol consisted of anatomical T1, T2 and PDW of the knees, using a SENSE Flex-S coil. MR attenuation correction (MRAC) was acquired with 3D T1-FFE using three-class segmentation. A dynamic 30 minute PET acquisition was started on injection of 33.8MBq of Ga-68. Animal coils enabled high resolution images to be acquired in reasonable acquisition time with regards to animal handling and anesthesia. T1 and T2 images provided good differentiation of anatomy in the rat brain with high contrast. T1, T2 and PDW images of the rabbit knee had high resolution and differentiation of anatomical structures. MRAC was able to distinguish the knees and the body contour. Image fusion of PET and MR was able to localize the infection, which was confirmed by a physician. Pre-clinical imaging with the Ingenuity TF was deemed feasible, although PET imaging is limited by the resolution of the scanner. The preliminary sequences were successfully implemented for future studies on the Ingenuity TF.

  12. Preclinical studies of potential amyloid binding PET/SPECT ligands in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svedberg, Marie M.; Rahman, Obaidur; Hall, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing the neuropathological hallmarks amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography will be of great value in diagnosing the individual patient and will also help in our understanding of the disease. The successful introduction of [ 11 C]PIB as a PET tracer for the amyloid plaques less than 10 years ago started an intensive research, and numerous new compounds for use in molecular imaging of the amyloid plaques have been developed. The candidates are based on dyes like thioflavin T, Congo red and chrysamine G, but also on other types such as benzoxazoles, curcumin and stilbenes. In the present review, we present methods of the radiochemistry and preclinical evaluation as well as the main properties of some of these compounds.

  13. AV-1451 PET imaging of tau pathology in preclinical Alzheimer disease: Defining a summary measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti; Gordon, Brian A; Su, Yi; Christensen, Jon; Friedrichsen, Karl; Jackson, Kelley; Hornbeck, Russ; Balota, David A; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2017-11-01

    Utilizing [18F]-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography (PET) as an Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker will require identification of brain regions that are most important in detecting elevated tau pathology in preclinical AD. Here, we utilized an unsupervised learning, data-driven approach to identify brain regions whose tau PET is most informative in discriminating low and high levels of [18F]-AV-1451 binding. 84 cognitively normal participants who had undergone AV-1451 PET imaging were used in a sparse k-means clustering with resampling analysis to identify the regions most informative in dividing a cognitively normal population into high tau and low tau groups. The highest-weighted FreeSurfer regions of interest (ROIs) separating these groups were the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, lateral occipital cortex, and inferior temporal cortex, and an average SUVR in these four ROIs was used as a summary metric for AV-1451 uptake. We propose an AV-1451 SUVR cut-off of 1.25 to define high tau as described by imaging. This spatial distribution of tau PET is a more widespread pattern than that predicted by pathological staging schemes. Our data-derived metric was validated first in this cognitively normal cohort by correlating with early measures of cognitive dysfunction, and with disease progression as measured by β-amyloid PET imaging. We additionally validated this summary metric in a cohort of 13 Alzheimer disease patients, and showed that this measure correlates with cognitive dysfunction and β-amyloid PET imaging in a diseased population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. submitter Preclinical in vivo application of $^{152}$Tb-DOTANOC: a radiolanthanide for PET imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Cristina; Johnston, Karl; Köster, Ulli; Schmid, Raffaella; Türler, Andreas; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Background:Terbium has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians due to the existence of four medically interesting radionuclides, potentially useful for SPECT and PET imaging, as well as for α- and $β^−$-radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to produce $^{152}$Tb $(T_{1/2} = 17.5 h, E_{β+av} = 1140 keV)$ and evaluate it in a preclinical setting in order to demonstrate its potential for PET imaging. For this purpose, DOTANOC was used for targeting the somatostatin receptor in AR42J tumor-bearing mice. Methods: $^{152}$Tb was produced by proton-induced spallation of tantalum targets, followed by an online isotope separation process at ISOLDE/CERN. After separation of $^{152}$Tb using cation exchange chromatography, it was directly employed for radiolabeling of DOTANOC. PET/CT scans were performed with AR42J tumor-bearing mice at different time points after injection of $^{152}$Tb-DOTANOC which was applied at variable molar peptide amounts. 177Lu-DOTANOC was prepared and used...

  15. Development of a PET Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Imaging Agent: Preclinical Translation for Future Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0603 TITLE: Development of a PET Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Imaging Agent: Preclinical Translation for Future...other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated...needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this

  16. Performance evaluation of the CT component of the IRIS PET/CT preclinical tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panetta, Daniele [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC-CNR), v. G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Belcari, Nicola [Department of Physics “E. Fermi”, University of Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Tripodi, Maria [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC-CNR), v. G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Burchielli, Silvia [Fondazione CNR/Toscana “G. Monasterio” – FTGM, v. G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Salvadori, Piero A. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC-CNR), v. G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, Alberto [Department of Physics “E. Fermi”, University of Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the physical performance of the CT component of the IRIS scanner, a novel combined PET/CT scanner for preclinical imaging. The performance assessment is based on phantom measurement for the determination of image quality parameters (spatial resolution, linearity, geometric accuracy, contrast to noise ratio) and reproducibility in dynamic (4D) imaging. The CTDI{sub 100} has been measured free in air with a pencil ionization chamber, and the animal dose was calculated using Monte Carlo derived conversion factors taken from the literature. The spatial resolution at the highest quality protocol was 6.9 lp/mm at 10% of the MTF, using the smallest reconstruction voxel size of 58.8 μm. The accuracy of the reconstruction voxel size was within 0.1%. The linearity of the CT numbers as a function of the concentration of iodine was very good, with R{sup 2}>0.996 for all the tube voltages. The animal dose depended strongly on the scanning protocol, ranging from 158 mGy for the highest quality protocol (2 min, 80 kV) to about 12 mGy for the fastest protocol (7.3 s, 80 kV). In 4D dynamic modality, the maximum scanning rate reached was 3.1 frames per minute, using a short-scan protocol with 7.3 s of scan time per frame at the isotropic voxel size of 235 μm. The reproducibility of the system was high throughout the 10 frames acquired in dynamic modality, with a standard deviation of the CT values of all frames <8 HU and an average spatial reproducibility within 30% of the voxel size across all the field of view. Example images obtained during animal experiments are also shown.

  17. Fully 3D tomographic reconstruction by Monte Carlo simulation of the system matrix in preclinical PET with iodine 124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Immuno-PET imaging can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic in radioimmunotherapy. When using iodine-124, PET quantitative imaging is limited by physics-based degrading factors within the detection system and the object, such as the long positron range in water and the complex spectrum of gamma photons. The objective of this thesis was to develop a fully 3D tomographic reconstruction method (S(MC)2PET) using Monte Carlo simulations for estimating the system matrix, in the context of preclinical imaging with iodine-124. The Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE was used for that respect. Several complexities of system matrices were calculated, with at least a model of the PET system response function. Physics processes in the object was either neglected or taken into account using a precise or a simplified object description. The impact of modelling refinement and statistical variance related to the system matrix elements was evaluated on final reconstructed images. These studies showed that a high level of complexity did not always improve qualitative and quantitative results, owing to the high-variance of the associated system matrices. (author)

  18. Preclinical tools in PET-tracer development : automatisation and biopharmaceutical evaluation with special emphasis on the adenosine A3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, D. I. B.

    2010-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the first choice technology for the visualization and quantification of receptors and transporters, enabling examination of e.g. neurological, psychiatric and oncological diseases on a molecular level. Therefore, new and innovative PET-radiopharmaceuticals need to be developed to get further insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved in pathological changes. PET-tracer development starts with the idea or modelling of the chemical structure of a (new) molecule with (hopefully) good binding characteristics to the desired target site. As next steps, the compound needs to be synthesized and radiolabelled with a suitable PET-nuclide. Then it has to be evaluated regarding its parameters in various preclinical experimental settings. Hence, two major tools are crucial in the development-process of new PET-tracers: 1) a fast and reliable production method, most desirable and optimal in an automated set-up, and 2) proof of tracer suitability (high affinity, high selectivity and specificity, beside low unspecific binding) through preclinical evaluation in an animal model, prior to human application. Both aspects, the radiochemical preparation and automatisation, as well as the biopharmaceutical evaluation are presented in the thesis in 5 different manuscripts. In detail, the development and preclinical evaluation of 4 different PET-tracers ([11C]DASB, [18F]FE SUPPY, [18F]FE SUPPY:2, and [18F]FE CIT) for 3 targets, the serotonin transporter (SERT), the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively, are covered in the present thesis. The first manuscript presents a method for a fast, reliable and fully-automated radiosynthesis of [11C]DASB (a tracer for the imaging of the SERT in human brain in e.g. depression patients) will facilitate further clinical investigations (e.g. for the department of psychiatry and psychotherapy of the medical university of Vienna) with this tracer. [18F]FE SUPPY was

  19. Radiation dosimetry of the α4β2 nicotinic receptor ligand (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing preclinical PET/MRI and PET/CT to first-in-human PET/CT results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+-[18F]flubatine compared to (−-[18F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+-[18F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (−-[18F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. To support the clinical translation, we investigated a fully image-based internal dosimetry approach for (+-[18F]flubatine, comparing mouse data collected on a preclinical PET/MRI system to piglet and first-in-human data acquired on a clinical PET/CT system. Time-activity curves (TACs were obtained from the three species, the animal data extrapolated to human scale, exponentially fitted and the organ doses (OD, and effective dose (ED calculated with OLINDA. Results The excreting organs (urinary bladder, kidneys, and liver receive the highest organ doses in all species. Hence, a renal/hepatobiliary excretion pathway can be assumed. In addition, the ED conversion factors of 12.1 μSv/MBq (mice, 14.3 μSv/MBq (piglets, and 23.0 μSv/MBq (humans were calculated which are well within the order of magnitude as known from other 18F-labeled radiotracers. Conclusions Although both enantiomers of [18F]flubatine exhibit different binding kinetics in the brain due to the respective affinities, the effective dose revealed no enantiomer-specific differences among the investigated species. The preclinical dosimetry and biodistribution of (+-[18F]flubatine was shown and the feasibility of a dose assessment based on image data acquired on a small animal PET/MR and a clinical PET/CT was demonstrated. Additionally, the first-in-human study confirmed the tolerability

  20. Iterative Image Processing for Early Diagnostic of Beta-Amyloid Plaque Deposition in Pre-Clinical Alzheimer's Disease Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavine, Nikolai V; Kulkarni, Padmakar V; McColl, Roderick W

    2017-08-01

    To test and evaluate an efficient iterative image processing strategy to improve the quality of sub-optimal pre-clinical PET images. A novel iterative resolution subsets-based method to reduce noise and enhance resolution (RSEMD) has been demonstrated on examples of PET imaging studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques deposition in mice brains. The RSEMD method was applied to imaging studies of non-invasive detection of beta-amyloid plaque in transgenic mouse models of AD. Data acquisition utilized a Siemens Inveon® micro PET/CT device. Quantitative uptake of the tracer in control and AD mice brains was determined by counting the extent of plaque deposition by histological staining. The pre-clinical imaging software inviCRO ® was used for fitting the recovery PET images to the mouse brain atlas and obtaining the time activity curves (TAC) from different brain areas. In all of the AD studies the post-processed images proved to have higher resolution and lower noise as compared with images reconstructed by conventional OSEM method. In general, the values of SNR reached a plateau at around 10 iterations with an improvement factor of about 2 over sub-optimal PET brain images. A rapidly converging, iterative deconvolution image processing algorithm with a resolution subsets-based approach RSEMD has been used for quantitative studies of changes in Alzheimer's pathology over time. The RSEMD method can be applied to sub-optimal clinical PET brain images to improve image quality to diagnostically acceptable levels and will be crucial in order to facilitate diagnosis of AD progression at the earliest stages.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and preclinical validation of a PET radiopharmaceutical for interrogating Aβ (β-amyloid) plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Guruswami Sm; Dhavale, Dhruva; Prior, Julie L; Sivapackiam, Jothilingam; Laforest, Richard; Kotzbauer, Paul; Sharma, Vijay

    2015-12-01

    PET radiopharmaceuticals capable of imaging β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden in the brain could offer highly valuable diagnostic tools for clinical studies of Alzheimer's disease. To further supplement existing armamentarium of FDA-approved agents as well as those under development, and to correlate multiphoton-imaging data reported earlier, herein, we describe preclinical validation of a PET tracer. A novel PET radiopharmaceutical ((18)F-7B) was synthesized and characterized. To assess its affinity for Aβ, binding assays with Aβ1-42 fibrils, Alzheimer's disease (AD) homogenates, and autoradiography studies and their IHC correlations were performed. For assessing its overall pharmacokinetic profiles in general and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in particular, biodistribution studies in normal mice were performed. Finally, for evaluating potential for (18)F-7B to serve as a targeted Aβ probe, the microPET/CT imaging was performed in age-matched amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mice and wild-type (WT) counterparts. The radiotracer (18)F-7B shows saturable binding to autopsy-confirmed AD homogenates (K d = 17.7 nM) and Aβ1-42 fibrils (K d = 61 nM). Preliminary autoradiography studies show binding of (18)F-7B to cortical Aβ plaques in autopsy-confirmed AD tissue sections, inhibition of that binding by unlabeled counterpart 7A-indicating specificity, and a good correlation of tracer binding with Aβ immunostaining. The agent indicates high initial penetration into brains (7.23 ± 0.47%ID/g; 5 min) of normal mice, thus indicating a 5-min/120-min brain uptake clearance ratio of 4.7, a benchmark value (>4) consistent with the ability of agents to traverse the BBB to enable PET brain imaging. Additionally, (18)F-7B demonstrates the presence of parental species in human serum. Preliminary microPET/CT imaging demonstrates significantly higher retention of (18)F-7B in brains of transgenic mice compared with their WT counterparts

  2. Preclinical Study on GRPR-Targeted (68)Ga-Probes for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeted positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly promising approach for imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) in small animal models and patients. Developing a GRPR-targeted PET probe with excellent in vivo performance such as high tumor uptake, high....../g, 2 h) and high tumor/muscle contrast (16.6 ± 1.50 vs 8.42 ± 0.61%ID/g, 2 h). Importantly, biodistribution data indicated a relatively similar accumulation of (68)Ga-NODAGA-SCH1 was observed in the liver (4.21 ± 0.42%ID/g) and kidney (3.41 ± 0.46%ID/g) suggesting that the clearance is through both...... the kidney and the liver. Overall, (68)Ga-NODAGA-SCH1 showed promising in vivo properties and is a promising candidate for translation into clinical PET-imaging of PCa patients....

  3. VECTor: A Preclinical Imaging System for Simultaneous Submillimeter SPECT and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorden, M.C.; van der Have, F.; Kreuger, R.; Ramakers, R.M.; Vastenhouw, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Booij, J.; Molthoff, C.F.M.; Beekman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Today, PET and SPECT tracers cannot be imaged simultaneously at high resolutions but require 2 separate imaging systems. This paper introduces a Versatile Emission Computed Tomography system (VECTor) for radionuclides that enables simultaneous submillimeter imaging of single-photon and positron-

  4. High throughput static and dynamic small animal imaging using clinical PET/CT: potential preclinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aide, Nicolas; Desmonts, Cedric; Agostini, Denis; Bardet, Stephane; Bouvard, Gerard; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Roselt, Peter; Neels, Oliver; Beyer, Thomas; Kinross, Kathryn; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical PET/CT technology in performing static and dynamic imaging of several mice simultaneously. A mouse-sized phantom was imaged mimicking simultaneous imaging of three mice with computation of recovery coefficients (RCs) and spillover ratios (SORs). Fifteen mice harbouring abdominal or subcutaneous tumours were imaged on clinical PET/CT with point spread function (PSF) reconstruction after injection of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose or [18F]fluorothymidine. Three of these mice were imaged alone and simultaneously at radial positions -5, 0 and 5 cm. The remaining 12 tumour-bearing mice were imaged in groups of 3 to establish the quantitative accuracy of PET data using ex vivo gamma counting as the reference. Finally, a dynamic scan was performed in three mice simultaneously after the injection of 68 Ga-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). For typical lesion sizes of 7-8 mm phantom experiments indicated RCs of 0.42 and 0.76 for ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) and PSF reconstruction, respectively. For PSF reconstruction, SOR air and SOR water were 5.3 and 7.5%, respectively. A strong correlation (r 2 = 0.97, p 2 = 0.98; slope = 0.89, p 2 = 0.96; slope = 0.62, p 68 Ga-EDTA dynamic acquisition. New generation clinical PET/CT can be used for simultaneous imaging of multiple small animals in experiments requiring high throughput and where a dedicated small animal PET system is not available. (orig.)

  5. PET imaging of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a pre-clinical colorectal cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Ole; Wuest, Melinda; Marshall, Alison; Glubrecht, Darryl; Hamann, Ingrit; Wang, Monica; Bergman, Cody; Way, Jenilee D; Wuest, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the inducible isoform of the cyclooxygenase enzyme family. COX-2 is involved in tumor development and progression, and frequent overexpression of COX-2 in a variety of human cancers has made COX-2 an important drug target for cancer treatment. Non-invasive imaging of COX-2 expression in cancer would be useful for assessing COX-2-mediated effects on chemoprevention and radiosensitization using COX-2 inhibitors as an emerging class of anti-cancer drugs, especially for colorectal cancer. Herein, we describe the radiopharmacological analysis of [(18)F]Pyricoxib, a novel radiolabeled COX-2 inhibitor, for specific PET imaging of COX-2 in colorectal cancer. Uptake of [(18)F]Pyricoxib was assessed in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCA-7 (COX-2 positive) and HCT-116 (COX-2 negative). Standard COX-2 inhibitors were used to test for specificity of [(18)F]Pyricoxib for COX-2 binding in vitro and in vivo. PET imaging, biodistribution, and radiometabolite analyses were included into radiopharmacological evaluation of [(18)F]Pyricoxib. Radiotracer uptake in COX-2 positive HCA-7 cells was significantly higher than in COX-2 negative HCT-116 cells (P COX-2 inhibitors, celecoxib, rofecoxib, and SC58125, blocked uptake of [(18)F]Pyricoxib in HCA-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The radiotracer was slowly metabolized in mice, with approximately 60 % of intact compound after 2 h post-injection. Selective COX-2-mediated tumor uptake of [(18)F]Pyricoxib in HCA-7 xenografts was confirmed in vivo. Celecoxib (100 mg/kg) selectively blocked tumor uptake by 16 % (PET image analysis; P COX-2 expression in cancer in vivo.

  6. Measuring serotonin synthesis: from conventional methods to PET tracers and their (pre)clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Anniek K.D.; Waarde, Aren van; Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Bosker, Fokko J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Luiten, Paul G.M. [University of Groningen, Center for Behavior and Neurosciences, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Haren (Netherlands); Boer, Johan A. den [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The serotonergic system of the brain is complex, with an extensive innervation pattern covering all brain regions and endowed with at least 15 different receptors (each with their particular distribution patterns), specific reuptake mechanisms and synthetic processes. Many aspects of the functioning of the serotonergic system are still unclear, partially because of the difficulty of measuring physiological processes in the living brain. In this review we give an overview of the conventional methods of measuring serotonin synthesis and methods using positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, more specifically with respect to serotonergic function in affective disorders. Conventional methods are invasive and do not directly measure synthesis rates. Although they may give insight into turnover rates, a more direct measurement may be preferred. PET is a noninvasive technique which can trace metabolic processes, like serotonin synthesis. Tracers developed for this purpose are {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyltryptophan ([{sup 11}C]AMT) and 5-hydroxy-L-[{beta}-{sup 11}C]tryptophan ([{sup 11}C]5-HTP). Both tracers have advantages and disadvantages. [{sup 11}C]AMT can enter the kynurenine pathway under inflammatory conditions (and thus provide a false signal), but this tracer has been used in many studies leading to novel insights regarding antidepressant action. [{sup 11}C]5-HTP is difficult to produce, but trapping of this compound may better represent serotonin synthesis. AMT and 5-HTP kinetics are differently affected by tryptophan depletion and changes of mood. This may indicate that both tracers are associated with different enzymatic processes. In conclusion, PET with radiolabelled substrates for the serotonergic pathway is the only direct way to detect changes of serotonin synthesis in the living brain. (orig.)

  7. Design and performance evaluation of a high resolution IRI-microPET preclinical scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islami rad, S.Z., E-mail: szislami@yahoo.com [Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peyvandi, R. Gholipour; Lehdarboni, M. Askari; Ghafari, A.A. [Instrumentation Research Group, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    PET for small animal, IRI-microPET, was designed and built at the NSTRI. The scanner is made of four detectors positioned on a rotating gantry at a distance 50 mm from the center. Each detector consists of a 10×10 crystal matrix of 2×2×10 mm{sup 3} directly coupled to a PS-PMT. A position encoding circuit for specific PS-PMT has been designed, built and tested with a PD-MFS-2MS/s-8/14 data acquisition board. After implementing reconstruction algorithms (FBP, MLEM and SART) on sinograms, images quality and system performance were evaluated by energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, RMS contrast and SNR parameters. The energy spectra were obtained for the crystals with an energy window of 300–700 keV. The energy resolution in 511 keV averaged over all modules, detectors, and crystals, was 23.5%. A timing resolution of 2.4 ns FWHM obtained by coincidence timing spectrum was measured with crystal LYSO. The radial and tangential resolutions for {sup 18}F (1.15-mm inner diameter) at the center of the field of view were 1.81 mm and 1.90 mm, respectively. At a radial offset of 5 mm, the FWHM values were 1.96 and 2.06 mm. The system scatter fraction was 7.1% for the mouse phantom. The sensitivity was measured for different energy windows, leading to a sensitivity of 1.74% at the center of FOV. Also, images quality was evaluated by RMS contrast and SNR factors, and the results show that the reconstructed images by MLEM algorithm have the best RMS contrast, and SNR. The IRI-microPET presents high image resolution, low scatter fraction values and improved SNR for animal studies.

  8. Human Organotypic Lung Tumor Models: Suitable For Preclinical 18F-FDG PET-Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fecher

    Full Text Available Development of predictable in vitro tumor models is a challenging task due to the enormous complexity of tumors in vivo. The closer the resemblance of these models to human tumor characteristics, the more suitable they are for drug-development and -testing. In the present study, we generated a complex 3D lung tumor test system based on acellular rat lungs. A decellularization protocol was established preserving the architecture, important ECM components and the basement membrane of the lung. Human lung tumor cells cultured on the scaffold formed cluster and exhibited an up-regulation of the carcinoma-associated marker mucin1 as well as a reduced proliferation rate compared to respective 2D culture. Additionally, employing functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET these tumor cell cluster could be detected and tracked over time. This approach allowed monitoring of a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in the in vitro lung tumor model non-destructively. Surprisingly, FDG-PET assessment of single tumor cell cluster on the same scaffold exhibited differences in their response to therapy, indicating heterogeneity in the lung tumor model. In conclusion, our complex lung tumor test system features important characteristics of tumors and its microenvironment and allows monitoring of tumor growth and -metabolism in combination with functional imaging. In longitudinal studies, new therapeutic approaches and their long-term effects can be evaluated to adapt treatment regimes in future.

  9. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  10. CaLIPSO optical demonstrator for clinical and pre-clinical PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    PET detectors are usually based on scintillation crystals or semiconductor materials. The CaLIPSO project aims to build a PET detector working on the double detection of Cerenkov light and pair productions in a novel detection material called Trimethyl-Bismuth. This would allow at the same time an enhanced time resolution (thanks to the Cerenkov signal) and a excellent spatial resolution (thanks to the ionization signal). Liquid TMBi (at room temperature), thanks to its good photo fraction (47%), allows a good detection efficiency, principally by photoelectric effect. In this context, this work aims to design and optimize an optical detector as a proof of concept for the Cerenkov detection of 511 keV gamma photons, and to measure the time resolution and detection efficiency of such a detector. The optical signal based on Cerenkov effect in TMBi has been observed on a first demonstrator, but its performances were clearly inappropriate. So we used a Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of the detector in order to model the relevant phenomena and to optimize de detection. It appeared that light collection efficiency in the detector was the most important parameter to optimize so as to improve time resolution and detection efficiency. Before that, we measured TMBi optical properties (refractive index, light absorption and diffusion), in order to model accurately the Cerenkov light propagation in the detector. The tool used for the time resolution measurement is a YAP: Ce scintillator coupled to a PMT. We also needed to optimize this tool in order to allow a more accurate measurement of the detector time resolution. At the end of this work, a second version of the optical demonstrator was built. We measured a detection efficiency of 32%, and a time resolution of 660 ps FWHM. The measured efficiency proved that our detector is fully efficient to detect the photoelectric conversions of the 511 keV photons (27% of the incident photons). Several technological optimizations are

  11. Performance Evaluation of a Dedicated Preclinical PET/CT System for the Assessment of Mineralization Process in a Mouse Model of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucher, Guillaume; Cameliere, Lucie; Fendri, Jihene; Abbas, Ahmed; Dupont, Kevin; Kamel, Said; Delcroix, Nicolas; Dupont, Axel; Berger, Ludovic; Manrique, Alain

    2018-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) acquisition and reconstruction parameters on the assessment of mineralization process in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. All experiments were performed on a dedicated preclinical PET/CT system. CT was evaluated using five acquisition configurations using both a tungsten wire phantom for in-plane resolution assessment and a bar pattern phantom for cross-plane resolution. Furthermore, the radiation dose of these acquisition configurations was calculated. The PET system was assessed using longitudinal line sources to determine the optimal reconstruction parameters by measuring central resolution and its coefficient of variation. An in vivo PET study was performed using uremic ApoE -/- , non-uremic ApoE -/- , and control mice to evaluate optimal PET reconstruction parameters for the detection of sodium [ 18 F]fluoride (Na[ 18 F]F) aortic uptake and for quantitative measurement of Na[ 18 F]F bone influx (Ki) with a Patlak analysis. For CT, the use of 1 × 1 and 2 × 2 binning detector mode increased both in-plane and cross-plane resolution. However, resolution improvement (163 to 62 μm for in-plane resolution) was associated with an important radiation dose increase (1.67 to 32.78 Gy). With PET, 3D-ordered subset expectation maximization (3D-OSEM) algorithm increased the central resolution compared to filtered back projection (1.42 ± 0.35 mm vs. 1.91 ± 0.08, p PET resolution for preclinical study (FWHM = 0.98 mm). These PET reconstruction parameters allowed the detection of Na[ 18 F]F aortic uptake in 3/14 ApoE -/- mice and demonstrated a decreased Ki in uremic ApoE -/- compared to non-uremic ApoE -/- and control mice (p PET. In addition, improving the CT resolution was associated with a dramatic radiation dose increase.

  12. Effects of MK-801 treatment across several pre-clinical analyses including a novel assessment of brain metabolic function utilizing PET and CT fused imaging in live rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, R P; Bhandari, J K; Hui, P A; Tian, Y; Farncombe, T; Mishra, R K

    2014-02-01

    Functional imaging studies in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated metabolic brain abnormalities during cognitive tasks. This study aimed to 1) introduce a novel analysis of brain metabolic function in live animals to characterize the hypo- and hyperfrontality phenomena observed in schizophrenia and following NMDA antagonist exposure, and 2) identify a robust and representative MK-801 treatment regimen that effectively models brain metabolic abnormalities as well as a range of established behavioural abnormalities representative of schizophrenia. The validity of the MK-801 animal model was examined across several established pre-clinical tests, and a novel assessment of brain metabolic function using PET/CT fused imaging. In the present study, MK-801 was administered acutely at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, and sub-chronically at 0.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Acute treatment at 0.5 mg/kg-disrupted facets of memory measured through performance in the 8-arm radial maze task and generated abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, social interaction and locomotor activity. Furthermore, this treatment regimen induced hyperfrontality (increased brain metabolic function in the prefrontal area) observed via PET/CT fused imaging in the live rat. While PET and CT fused imaging in the live rat offers a functional representation of metabolic function, more advanced PET/CT integration is required to analyze more discrete brain regions. These findings provide insight on the effectiveness of the MK-801 pre-clinical model of schizophrenia and provide an optimal regimen to model schizophrenia. PET/CT fused imaging offers a highly translatable tool to assess hypo- and hyperfrontality in live animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multimodal imaging based on MRI and PET reveals [{sup 18}F]FLT PET as a specific and early indicator of treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corroyer-Dulmont, Aurelien; Peres, Elodie A.; Gerault, Aurelie N.; Divoux, Didier; Toutain, Jerome; Ibazizene, Meziane; MacKenzie, Eric T.; Barre, Louisa; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige; Valable, Samuel [CNRS, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy and LDM-TEP groups. GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); CEA, DSV/I2BM, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy et LDM-TEP Groups, GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); UNICAEN, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy et LDM-TEP Groups, GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); Normandie Univ., Caen(France); Savina, Ariel; Bouquet, Fanny [Roche SAS, Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-04-15

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the ability of PET and MRI biomarkers to predict treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. MRI (anatomical, diffusion, vasculature and oxygenation) and PET ([{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 18}F]FLT) parameters were obtained 3 days after the end of treatment and compared with late tumour growth and survival. Early after tumour recurrence, no effect of treatment with temozolomide combined with bevacizumab was observed on tumour volume as assessed by T2-W MRI. At later times, the treatment decreased tumour volume and increased survival. Interestingly, at the earlier time, temozolomide + bevacizumab decreased [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake, cerebral blood volume and oedema. [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake, oedema and cerebral blood volume were correlated with overall survival but [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake had the highest specificity and sensitivity for the early prediction of treatment efficacy. The present investigation in a preclinical model of glioblastoma recurrence underscores the importance of multimodal imaging in the assessment of oedema, tumour vascular status and cell proliferation. Finally, [{sup 18}F]FLT holds the greatest promise for the early assessment of treatment efficacy. These findings may translate clinically in that individualized treatment for recurrent glioma could be prescribed for patients selected after PET/MRI examinations. (orig.)

  14. Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of [18F]FE@SUPPY for Cancer PET Imaging: Limitations of a Xenograft Model for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging probes such as PET-tracers have the potential to improve the accuracy of tumor characterization by directly visualizing the biochemical situation. Thus, molecular changes can be detected early before morphological manifestation. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is described to be highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines and human colorectal cancer (CRC, suggesting this receptor as a tumor marker. The aim of this preclinical study was the evaluation of F18FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC using in vitro imaging and in vivo PET imaging. First, affinity and selectivity of FE@SUPPY and its metabolites were determined, proving the favorable binding profile of FE@SUPPY. The human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was characterized regarding its hA3AR expression and was subsequently chosen as tumor graft. Promising results regarding the potential of F18FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC imaging were obtained by autoradiography as ≥2.3-fold higher accumulation of F18FE@SUPPY was found in CRC tissue compared to adjacent healthy colon tissue from the same patient. Nevertheless, first in vivo studies using HT-29 xenografts showed insufficient tumor uptake due to (1 poor conservation of target expression in xenografts and (2 unfavorable pharmacokinetics of F18FE@SUPPY in mice. We therefore conclude that HT-29 xenografts are not adequate to visualize hA3ARs using F18FE@SUPPY.

  15. An Aspartyl Cathepsin Targeted PET Agent: Application in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Jonatan A; Suchy, Mojmir; Bindseil, Geron A; Kovacs, Michael; Chronik, Blaine A; Hudson, Robert H E; Pasternak, Stephen H; Bartha, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is a serious challenge for both diagnosis and clinical trials. The aspartyl protease, Cathepsin D (CatD), is overexpressed in AD and could be a biomarker of disease. We have previously designed a unique contrast agent (CA) for dual-optical and magnetic resonance imaging of the activity of the CatD class of enzymes. To compare the uptake and retention of a novel, more sensitive, and clinically-translatable 68Ga PET tracer targeting CatD activity in 5XFAD mice and non-Tg littermates. The targeted CA consisted of an HIV-1 Tat cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a specialized cleavage sequence targeting aspartyl cathepsins and a DOTA conjugate chelating 68Ga. PET images were acquired using a Siemens Inveon preclinical microPET in female Tg AD mice and non-Tg age matched female littermates (n = 5-8) following intravenous CA administration at 2, 6, and 9 months of age. Additionally, 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging was performed at 10 months to measure glucose uptake. The Tg mice showed significantly higher relative uptake rate of the targeting CA in the forebrain relative to hindbrain at all ages compared to controls, consistent with histology. In contrast, no differences were seen in CA uptake in other organs. Additionally, the Tg mice did not show any differences in relative uptake of FDG at 10 months of age in the forebrain relative to the hindbrain compared to age matched non-Tg controls. Elevated aspartryl cathepsin activity was detected in vivo in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD using a novel targeted PET contrast agent.

  16. Preclinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P as the first fluorinated serotonin 5-HT{sub 6} radioligand for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guillaume [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS INSERM, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Colomb, Julie [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Villeurbanne (France); Sgambato-Faure, Veronique; Tremblay, Leon [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Cognitive Neuroscience Center, Bron (France); Billard, Thierry [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Villeurbanne (France); CERMEP-Imaging Platform, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon (France); Zimmer, Luc [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS INSERM, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); CERMEP-Imaging Platform, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon (France)

    2014-10-21

    Brain serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT{sub 6}) is one of the most recently identified serotonin receptors. It is a potent therapeutic target for psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g. schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Since no specific fluorinated radioligand has yet been successfully used to study this receptor by positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging, the objective of the present study was to study the first 5-HT{sub 6} {sup 18}F-labelled radiotracer. 2FNQ1P, inspired by the quinolone core of a previous radiotracer candidate, GSK215083, was selected according its 5-HT{sub 6} affinity and selectivity and was radiolabelled by {sup 18}F nucleophilic substitution. The cerebral distribution of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P was studied in vivo in rats, cats and macaque monkeys. The chemical and radiochemical purities of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P were >98 %. In rats, in vitro competition with the 5-HT{sub 6} antagonist, SB258585, revealed that the radioligand was displaced dose dependently. Rat microPET studies showed low brain uptake of [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P, reversed by the P-glycoprotein inhibitor, cyclosporin. On the contrary, PET scans in cats showed good brain penetration and specific striatal binding blocked after pretreatment with unlabelled 2FNQ1P. PET scans in macaque monkeys confirmed high specific binding in both cortical and subcortical regions, specifically decreased by pretreatment with the 5-HT{sub 6} receptor antagonist, SB258585. 2FNQ1P was initially selected because of its suitable characteristics for 5-HT{sub 6} receptor probing in vitro in terms of affinity and specificity. Although in vivo imaging in rats cannot be considered as predictive of the clinical characteristics of the radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]2FNQ1P appeared to be a suitable 5-HT{sub 6} PET tracer in feline and primate models. These preclinical results encourage us to pursue the clinical development of this first fluorinated 5-HT{sub 6} PET radiotracer. (orig.)

  17. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  18. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and addiction:Combining preclinical evidence with human Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eTerbeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we deliver an overview of the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 activity and density in pathological anxiety, mood disorders and addiction. Specifically, we will describe mGluR5 studies in humans that employed Positron Emission Tomography (PET and combined the findings with preclinical animal research. This combined view of different methodological approaches — from basic neurobiological approaches to human studies — might give a more comprehensive and clinically relevant view of mGluR5 function in mental health than the view on preclinical data alone. We will also review the current research data on mGluR5 along the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. Firstly, we found evidence of abnormal glutamate activity related to the positive and negative valence systems, which would suggest that antagonistic mGluR5 intervention has prominent anti-addictive, anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Secondly, there is evidence that mGluR5 plays in important role in systems for social functioning and the response to social stress. Finally, mGluR5’s important role in sleep homeostasis suggests that this glutamate receptor may play an important role in RDoC’s arousal and modulatory systems domain. Glutamate was previously mostly investigate in non-human studies, however initial human clinical PET research now also supports the hypothesis that, by mediating brain excitability, neuroplasticity and social cognition, abnormal metabotropic glutamate activity might predispose individuals to a broad range of psychiatric problems.

  19. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18 F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18 F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18 F in the released and intracellular components of 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18 F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18 F was released as the form of 18 F-FDG from 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18 F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18 F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  20. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Camacho, V. M., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com; Ávila-García, M. C., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com; Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ, [{sup 11}C]-RAC, and [{sup 18}F]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  1. High affinity radiopharmaceuticals based upon lansoprazole for PET imaging of aggregated tau in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: synthesis, preclinical evaluation, and lead selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Maria V; Brooks, Allen F; Rodnick, Melissa E; Carpenter, Garrett M; Shao, Xia; Desmond, Timothy J; Sherman, Phillip; Quesada, Carole A; Hockley, Brian G; Kilbourn, Michael R; Albin, Roger L; Frey, Kirk A; Scott, Peter J H

    2014-08-20

    Abnormally aggregated tau is the hallmark pathology of tauopathy neurodegenerative disorders and is a target for development of both diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies across the tauopathy disease spectrum. Development of carbon-11- or fluorine-18-labeled radiotracers with appropriate affinity and specificity for tau would allow noninvasive quantification of tau burden using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We have synthesized [(18)F]lansoprazole, [(11)C]N-methyl lansoprazole, and [(18)F]N-methyl lansoprazole and identified them as high affinity radiotracers for tau with low to subnanomolar binding affinities. Herein, we report radiosyntheses and extensive preclinical evaluation with the aim of selecting a lead radiotracer for translation into human PET imaging trials. We demonstrate that [(18)F]N-methyl lansoprazole, on account of the favorable half-life of fluorine-18 and its rapid brain entry in nonhuman primates, favorable kinetics, low white matter binding, and selectivity for binding to tau over amyloid, is the lead compound for progression into clinical trials.

  2. High Affinity Radiopharmaceuticals Based Upon Lansoprazole for PET Imaging of Aggregated Tau in Alzheimer’s Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Synthesis, Preclinical Evaluation, and Lead Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abnormally aggregated tau is the hallmark pathology of tauopathy neurodegenerative disorders and is a target for development of both diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies across the tauopathy disease spectrum. Development of carbon-11- or fluorine-18-labeled radiotracers with appropriate affinity and specificity for tau would allow noninvasive quantification of tau burden using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We have synthesized [18F]lansoprazole, [11C]N-methyl lansoprazole, and [18F]N-methyl lansoprazole and identified them as high affinity radiotracers for tau with low to subnanomolar binding affinities. Herein, we report radiosyntheses and extensive preclinical evaluation with the aim of selecting a lead radiotracer for translation into human PET imaging trials. We demonstrate that [18F]N-methyl lansoprazole, on account of the favorable half-life of fluorine-18 and its rapid brain entry in nonhuman primates, favorable kinetics, low white matter binding, and selectivity for binding to tau over amyloid, is the lead compound for progression into clinical trials. PMID:24896980

  3. Assessment of [18F]-fluoroacetate PET/CT as a tumor-imaging modality. Preclinical study in healthy volunteers and clinical evaluation in patients with liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kenji; Hatano, Etsuro; Nishii, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Although [ 18 F]-FDG is a useful oncologic PET tracer, FDG uptake is known to be low in a certain type of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). [ 18 F]-fluoroacetate ( 18 F-FACE) is an [ 18 F] fluorinated acetate, which is known to be converted into fatty acids, incorporated in membrane and is expected to be a promising oncologic PET tracer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18 F-FACE as an oncologic PET tracer in preclinical study in healthy volunteers and in patients with liver tumors. Twenty-four healthy volunteers (age 48.2 ± 12.9 years old; 15 male and 9 female) and ten patients with liver tumor (age 72.1 ± 7.0 years old; 6 male and 4 female) were included. We performed whole-body static PET/CT scan using 18 F-FACE (n=34) and 18 F-FDG (n=5 for volunteers, n=8 for patients) on each day, respectively. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of tumors (5 HCCs, 1 cholangiocellular carcinoma, 4 metastatic tumors from colon cancer and P-NET) were performed using SUVmax and tumor-to-normal liver ratio (TNR). In healthy volunteers, 18 F-FACE was metabolically stable in vivo and its biodistribution was almost similar to blood pool, basically uniformly independent of age and gender during PET scan time (up to 3 h). Normal physiological uptake of 18 F-FACE at each organ including liver (SUVmean 1.8 ± 0.2) was lower than that of blood pool (SUVmean 2.3 ± 0.3) at 1 h after injection. Chronic inflammatory uptake around femur of post-operative state of femoral osteotomy and faint uptake of benign hemangioma were observed in a case of healthy volunteer. 18 F-FACE (SUVmax 2.7 ± 0.6, TNR 1.5 ± 0.4) of liver tumors was significantly lower than those of 18 F-FDG uptake (6.5 ± 4.2, 2.6 ± 1.7, respectively). In qualitative analysis, 18 F-FDG was positive in 4 tumors (3 HCCs, 1 CCC) and negative in the other 6 tumors, while 18 F-FACE was also positive in 4 tumors which were the same tumors with positive 18 F-FDG uptake. Biodistribution of 18 F-FACE was

  4. Preclinical FLT-PET and FDG-PET imaging of tumor response to the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinane, Carleen; Waldeck, Kelly L.; Binns, David; Bogatyreva, Ekaterina; Bradley, Daniel P.; Jong, Ron de; McArthur, Grant A.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and have recently been identified as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the utility of 3′-[ 18 F]fluoro-3′-deoxythymidine (FLT) and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) for assessment of tumor response to the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901. Methods: Balb/c nude mice bearing HCT116 colorectal xenografts were treated with up to 30 mg/kg TAK 901 or vehicle intravenously twice daily for two days on a weekly cycle. Tumor growth was monitored by calliper measurements and PET imaging was performed at baseline, day 4, 8, 11 and 15. Tumors were harvested at time points corresponding to days of PET imaging for analysis of ex vivo markers of cell proliferation and metabolism together with markers of Aurora B kinase inhibition including phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) and senescence associated β-galactosidase. Results: Tumor growth was inhibited by 60% on day 12 of 30 mg/kg TAK-901 therapy. FLT uptake was significantly reduced by day 4 of treatment and this corresponded with reduction in bromodeoxyuridine and pHH3 staining by immunohistochemistry. All biomarkers rebounded towards baseline levels by the commencement of the next treatment cycle, consistent with release of Aurora B kinase suppression. TAK-901 therapy had no impact on glucose metabolism as assessed by FDG uptake and GLUT1 staining by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: FLT-PET, but not FDG-PET, is a robust non-invasive imaging biomarker of early HCT116 tumor response to the on-target effects of the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: This is the first report to demonstrate the impact of the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901 on tumor FLT uptake. The findings provide a strong rationale for the evaluation of FLT-PET as an early biomarker of tumor response in the early phase

  5. Preclinical Evaluation of a Potential GSH Ester Based PET/SPECT Imaging Probe DT(GSHMe₂ to Detect Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Over Expressing Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Khurana

    Full Text Available Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT is an important biomarker in malignant cancers. The redox processes ensuing from GGT-mediated metabolism of extracellular GSH are implicated in critical aspects of tumor cell biology. Reportedly, Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHMe is a substrate of GGT, which has been used for its rapid transport over glutathione. Exploring GGT to be an important target, a homobivalent peptide system, DT(GSHMe2 was designed to target GGT-over expressing tumors for diagnostic purposes. DT(GSHMe2 was synthesized, characterized and preclinically evaluated in vitro using toxicity, cell binding assays and time dependent experiments. Stable and defined radiochemistry with 99mTc and 68Ga was optimized for high radiochemical yield. In vivo biodistribution studies were conducted for different time points along with scintigraphic studies of radiolabeled DT(GSHMe2 on xenografted tumor models. For further validation, in silico docking studies were performed on GGT (hGGT1, P19440. Preclinical in vitro evaluations on cell lines suggested minimal toxicity of DT(GSHMe2 at 100 μM concentration. Kinetic analysis revealed transport of 99mTc-DT(GSHMe2 occurs via a saturable high-affinity carrier with Michaelis constant (Km of 2.25 μM and maximal transport rate velocity (Vmax of 0.478 μM/min. Quantitative estimation of GGT expression from western blot experiments showed substantial expression with 41.6 ± 7.07 % IDV for tumor. Small animal micro PET (Positron Emission Tomography/CT(Computed Tomography coregistered images depicted significantly high uptake of DT(GSHMe2 at the BMG-1 tumor site. ROI analysis showed high tumor to contra lateral muscle ratio of 9.33 in PET imaging studies. Avid accumulation of radiotracer was observed at tumor versus inflammation site at 2 h post i.v. injection in an Ehrlich Ascites tumor (EAT mice model, showing evident specificity for tumor. We propose DT(GSHMe2 to be an excellent candidate for prognostication and

  6. A Comparative Study of the Hypoxia PET Tracers [18F]HX4, [18F]FAZA, and [18F]FMISO in a Preclinical Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, Sarah G.J.A.; Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Lieuwes, Natasja G.; Elmpt, Wouter van; Eriksson, Jonas; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several individual clinical and preclinical studies have shown the possibility of evaluating tumor hypoxia by using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET). The current study compared 3 hypoxia PET tracers frequently used in the clinic, [ 18 F]FMISO, [ 18 F]FAZA, and [ 18 F]HX4, in a preclinical tumor model. Tracer uptake was evaluated for the optimal time point for imaging, tumor-to-blood ratios (TBR), spatial reproducibility, and sensitivity to oxygen modification. Methods and Materials: PET/computed tomography (CT) images of rhabdomyosarcoma R1-bearing WAG/Rij rats were acquired at multiple time points post injection (p.i.) with one of the hypoxia tracers. TBR values were calculated, and reproducibility was investigated by voxel-to-voxel analysis, represented as correlation coefficients (R) or Dice similarity coefficient of the high-uptake volume. Tumor oxygen modifications were induced by exposure to either carbogen/nicotinamide treatment or 7% oxygen breathing. Results: TBR was stabilized and maximal at 2 hours p.i. for [ 18 F]FAZA (4.0 ± 0.5) and at 3 hours p.i. for [ 18 F]HX4 (7.2 ± 0.7), whereas [ 18 F]FMISO showed a constant increasing TBR (9.0 ± 0.8 at 6 hours p.i.). High spatial reproducibility was observed by voxel-to-voxel comparisons and Dice similarity coefficient calculations on the 30% highest uptake volume for both [ 18 F]FMISO (R = 0.86; Dice coefficient = 0.76) and [ 18 F]HX4 (R = 0.76; Dice coefficient = 0.70), whereas [ 18 F]FAZA was less reproducible (R = 0.52; Dice coefficient = 0.49). Modifying the hypoxic fraction resulted in enhanced mean standardized uptake values for both [ 18 F]HX4 and [ 18 F]FAZA upon 7% oxygen breathing. Only [ 18 F]FMISO uptake was found to be reversible upon exposure to nicotinamide and carbogen. Conclusions: This study indicates that each tracer has its own strengths and, depending on the question to be answered, a different tracer can be put forward

  7. SPECT and PET imaging of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in pre-clinical models of myocardial ischemia and peripheral vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikx, Geert [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bauwens, Matthias [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Post, Mark J. [Maastricht University, Department of Physiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The extent of neovascularization determines the clinical outcome of coronary artery disease and other occlusive cardiovascular disorders. Monitoring of neovascularization is therefore highly important. This review article will elaborately discuss preclinical studies aimed at validating new nuclear angiogenesis and arteriogenesis tracers. Additionally, we will briefly address possible obstacles that should be considered when designing an arteriogenesis radiotracer. A structured medline search was the base of this review, which gives an overview on different radiopharmaceuticals that have been evaluated in preclinical models. Neovascularization is a collective term used to indicate different processes such as angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. However, while it is assumed that sensitive detection through nuclear imaging will facilitate translation of successful therapeutic interventions in preclinical models to the bedside, we still lack specific tracers for neovascularization imaging. Most nuclear imaging research to date has focused on angiogenesis, leaving nuclear arteriogenesis imaging largely overlooked. Although angiogenesis is the process which is best understood, there is no scarcity in theoretical targets for arteriogenesis imaging. (orig.)

  8. Preclinical Safety Assessment of the 5-HT(2A) Receptor Agonist PET Radioligand [ (11)C]Cimbi-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: [(11)C]Cimbi-36 was recently developed as an agonist radioligand for brain imaging of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT(2A)) with positron emission tomography (PET). This may be used to quantify the high-affinity state of 5-HT(2A) receptors and may have the potential to quantify changes...... in cerebral 5-HT levels in vivo. We here investigated safety aspects related to clinical use of [(11)C]Cimbi-36, including radiation dosimetry and in vivo pharmacology. PROCEDURES: [(11)C]Cimbi-36 was injected in rats or pigs, and radiation dosimetry was examined by ex vivo dissection or with PET scanning......, respectively. Based on animal data, the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment software was used to estimate extrapolated human dosimetry for [(11)C]Cimbi-36. The 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist actions of [(11)C]Cimbi-36 in vivo pharmacological effects in mice elicited by increasing doses of Cimbi-36 were assessed...

  9. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of [11C]PAQ as a PET imaging tracer for VEGFR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samen, Erik; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Lu, Li; Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Holmgren, Lars

    2009-01-01

    R,S-N-(4-Bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)methox y)-4-quinazolinamine (PAQ) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high affinity for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), which plays an important role in tumour angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate in mice the 11 C-labelled analogue as an in vivo tracer for VEGFR-2 expression in solid tumours. [ 11 C]PAQ was synthesized by an N-methylation of desmethyl-PAQ using [ 11 C]methyl iodide. The tracer's pharmacokinetic properties and its distribution in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumour models were evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET). [ 18 F]FDG was used as a reference tracer for tumour growth. PET results were corroborated by ex vivo and in vitro phosphor imaging and immunohistochemical analyses. In vitro assays and PET in healthy animals revealed low tracer metabolism, limited excretion over 60 min and a saturable and irreversible binding. Radiotracer uptake in subcutaneous tumour masses was low, while focal areas of high uptake (up to 8% ID/g) were observed in regions connecting the tumour to the host. Uptake was similarly high but more distributed in tumours growing within the peritoneum. The pattern of radiotracer uptake was generally different from that of the metabolic tracer [ 18 F]FDG and correlated well with variations in VEGFR-2 expression determined ex vivo by immunohistochemical analysis. These results suggest that [ 11 C]PAQ has potential as a noninvasive PET tracer for in vivo imaging of VEGFR-2 expression in angiogenic ''hot spots''. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of [(11)C]PAQ as a PET imaging tracer for VEGFR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samén, Erik; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Lu, Li; Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Holmgren, Lars; Stone-Elander, Sharon

    2009-08-01

    (R,S)-N-(4-Bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)methoxy)-4-quinazolinamine (PAQ) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high affinity for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), which plays an important role in tumour angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate in mice the (11)C-labelled analogue as an in vivo tracer for VEGFR-2 expression in solid tumours. [(11)C]PAQ was synthesized by an N-methylation of desmethyl-PAQ using [(11)C]methyl iodide. The tracer's pharmacokinetic properties and its distribution in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumour models were evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET). [(18)F]FDG was used as a reference tracer for tumour growth. PET results were corroborated by ex vivo and in vitro phosphor imaging and immunohistochemical analyses. In vitro assays and PET in healthy animals revealed low tracer metabolism, limited excretion over 60 min and a saturable and irreversible binding. Radiotracer uptake in subcutaneous tumour masses was low, while focal areas of high uptake (up to 8% ID/g) were observed in regions connecting the tumour to the host. Uptake was similarly high but more distributed in tumours growing within the peritoneum. The pattern of radiotracer uptake was generally different from that of the metabolic tracer [(18)F]FDG and correlated well with variations in VEGFR-2 expression determined ex vivo by immunohistochemical analysis. These results suggest that [(11)C]PAQ has potential as a noninvasive PET tracer for in vivo imaging of VEGFR-2 expression in angiogenic "hot spots".

  11. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of [{sup 11}C]PAQ as a PET imaging tracer for VEGFR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samen, Erik; Stone-Elander, Sharon [Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Neurosciences, Stockholm (Sweden); Thorell, Jan-Olov [Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Lu, Li [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Neurosciences, Stockholm (Sweden); Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Holmgren, Lars [Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Oncology-Pathology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-08-15

    (R,S)-N-(4-Bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)methoxy)-4-quinazolinamine (PAQ) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high affinity for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), which plays an important role in tumour angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate in mice the {sup 11}C-labelled analogue as an in vivo tracer for VEGFR-2 expression in solid tumours. [{sup 11}C]PAQ was synthesized by an N-methylation of desmethyl-PAQ using [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. The tracer's pharmacokinetic properties and its distribution in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumour models were evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET). [{sup 18}F]FDG was used as a reference tracer for tumour growth. PET results were corroborated by ex vivo and in vitro phosphor imaging and immunohistochemical analyses. In vitro assays and PET in healthy animals revealed low tracer metabolism, limited excretion over 60 min and a saturable and irreversible binding. Radiotracer uptake in subcutaneous tumour masses was low, while focal areas of high uptake (up to 8% ID/g) were observed in regions connecting the tumour to the host. Uptake was similarly high but more distributed in tumours growing within the peritoneum. The pattern of radiotracer uptake was generally different from that of the metabolic tracer [{sup 18}F]FDG and correlated well with variations in VEGFR-2 expression determined ex vivo by immunohistochemical analysis. These results suggest that [{sup 11}C]PAQ has potential as a noninvasive PET tracer for in vivo imaging of VEGFR-2 expression in angiogenic ''hot spots''. (orig.)

  12. Development of new folate-based PET radiotracers: preclinical evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-folate conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R.; Wang, Xuejuan; Nicolas, Guillaume; Medina, Christelle; Raynal, Isabelle; Port, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A number of 111 In- and 99m Tc-folate-based tracers have been evaluated as diagnostic agents for imaging folate receptor (FR)-positive tumours. A 68 Ga-folate-based radiopharmaceutical would be of great interest, combining the advantages of PET technology and the availability of 68 Ga from a generator. The aim of the study was to develop a new 68 Ga-folate-based PET radiotracer. Two new DOTA-folate conjugates, named P3026 and P1254, were synthesized using the 1,2-diaminoethane and 3-{2-[2-(3-amino-propoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-propylamine as a spacer, respectively. Both conjugates were labelled with 67/68 Ga. Binding affinity, internalization and externalization studies were performed using the FR-positive KB cell line. Biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies were performed in nude mice, on a folate-deficient diet, bearing KB and HT1080 (FR-negative) tumours, concurrently. The new radiotracers were evaluated comparatively to the reference molecule 111 In-DTPA-folate ( 111 In-P3139). The K d values of 67/68 Ga-P3026 (4.65 ± 0.82 nM) and 67/68 Ga-P1254 (4.27 ± 0.42 nM) showed high affinity for the FR. The internalization rate followed the order 67/68 Ga-P3026 > 67/68 Ga-P1254 > 111 In-P3139, while almost double cellular retention was found for 67/68 Ga-P3026 and 67/68 Ga-P1254, compared to 111 In-P3139. The biodistribution data of 67/68 Ga-DOTA-folates showed high and receptor-mediated uptake on the FR-positive tumours and kidneys, with no significant differences compared to 111 In-P3139. PET/CT images, performed with 68 Ga-P3026, showed high uptake in the kidneys and clear visualization of the FR-positive tumours. The DOTA-folate conjugates can be efficiently labelled with 68 Ga in labelling yields and specific activities which allow clinical application. The characteristics of the 67/68 Ga-DOTA-folates are comparable to 111 In-DTPA-folate, which has already been used in clinical trials, showing that the new conjugates are promising candidates as PET radiotracers

  13. Evaluation of [18F]Mefway biodistribution and dosimetry based on whole-body PET imaging of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Cristian C; Sevrioukov, Evgueni; Garcia, Adriana; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2013-04-01

    [(18)F]Mefway is a novel radiotracer specific to the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor class. In preparation for using this tracer in humans, we have performed whole-body PET studies in mice to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [(18)F]Mefway. Six mice (three females and three males) received IV injections of [(18)F]Mefway and were scanned for 2 h in an Inveon-dedicated PET scanner. Each animal also received a high-resolution CT scan using an Inveon CT. The CT images were used to draw volume of interest on the following organs: the brain, large intestine, stomach, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, bone, spleen, testes, thymus, gallbladder, uterus, and urinary bladder. All organ time-activity curves without decay correction were normalized to the injected activity. The area under the normalized curves was then used to compute the residence times in each organ. Data were analyzed using PMOD and Matlab software. The absorbed doses in mouse organs were computed using the RAdiation Dose Assessment Resource animal models for dose assessment. The residence times in mouse organs were converted to human values using scale factors based on differences between organ and body weights. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was used to compute the absorbed human doses in multiple organs for both female and male phantoms. The highest mouse residence times were found in the liver, urinary bladder, and kidneys. The largest doses in mice were found in the urinary bladder (critical organ), kidney, and liver for both females and males, indicating primary elimination via urinary system. The projected human effective doses were 1.21E - 02 mSv/MBq for the adult female model and 1.13E - 02 mSv/MBq for the adult male model. The estimated human biodistribution of [(18)F]Mefway was similar to that of [(11)C]WAY 100,635, a 5-HT1A tracer for which dosimetry has been evaluated in humans. The elimination of radiotracer was primarily via the kidney and urinary bladder with the urinary

  14. Evaluation of [18F]Nifene biodistribution and dosimetry based on whole-body PET imaging of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Cristian C; Garcia, Adriana; Mirbolooki, M Reza; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2013-02-01

    [(18)F]Nifene is a novel radiotracer specific to the nicotinic acetylcholine α4β2 receptor class. In preparation for using this tracer in humans we have performed whole-body PET studies in mice to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution and dosimetry of [(18)F]Nifene. Seven BALB/c mice (3 males, 4 females) received IV tail injections of [(18)F]Nifene and were scanned for 2 h in an Inveon dedicated PET scanner. Each animal also received a high resolution CT scan using an Inveon CT. The CT images were used to draw volume of interest (VOI) on the following organs: brain, large intestine, small intestine, stomach, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, bone, spleen, testes, thymus, uterus and urinary bladder. All organ time activity curves had the decay correction reversed and were normalized to the injected activity. The area under the normalized curves was then used to compute the residence times in each organ. The absorbed doses in mouse organs were computed using the RAdiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) animal models for dose assessment. The residence times in mouse organs were converted to human values using scale factors based on differences between organ and body weights. OLINDA 1.1 software was used to compute the absorbed human doses in multiple organs for both female and male phantoms. The highest mouse residence times were found in urinary bladder, liver, bone, small intestine and kidneys. The largest doses in mice were found in urinary bladder and kidneys for both females and males. The elimination of radiotracer was primarily via kidney and urinary bladder with the urinary bladder being the limiting organ. The projected human effective doses were 1.51E-02 mSv/MBq for the adult male phantom and 1.65E-02 mSv/MBq for the adult female model phantom. This study indicates that the whole-body mouse imaging can be used as a preclinical tool for initial estimation of the absorbed doses of [(18)F]Nifene in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. In vivo imaging of insulin receptors by PET: preclinical evaluation of iodine-125 and iodine-124 labelled human insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzo, P.; Osman, S.; Glaser, M.; Knickmeier, M.; Ferrannini, E.; Pike, V.W.; Camici, P.G.; Law, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    [A 14 -*I]iodoinsulin was prepared for studies to assess the suitability of labeled iodoinsulin for positron emission tomography (PET). Iodine-125 was used to establish the methods and for preliminary studies in rats. Further studies and PET scanning in rats were carried out using iodine-124. Tissue and plasma radioactivity was measured as the uptake index (UI={cpm·(g tissue) -1 }/{cpm injected·(g body weight) -1 }) at 1 to 40 min after intravenous injection of either [A 14 - 125 I]iodoinsulin or [A 14 - 124 I]iodoinsulin. For both radiotracers, initial clearance of radioactivity from plasma was rapid (T 1/2 ∼ 1 min), reaching a plateau (UI = 2.8) at ∼ 5 min which was maintained for 35 min. Tissue biodistributions of the two radiotracers were comparable; at 10 min after injection, UI for myocardium was 2.4, liver, 4.0, pancreas, 5.4, brain, 0.17, kidney, 22, lung, 2.3, muscle, 0.54 and fat, 0.28. Predosing rats with unlabelled insulin reduced the UI for myocardium (0.95), liver (1.8), pancreas (1.2) and brain (0.08), increased that for kidney (61) but had no effect on that for lung (2.5), muscle (0.50) or fat (0.34). Analysis of radioactivity in plasma demonstrated a decrease of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin associated with the appearance of labeled metabolites; the percentage of plasma radioactivity due to [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was 40% at 5 min and 10% at 10 min. The heart, liver and kidneys were visualized using [ 124 I]iodoinsulin with PET

  16. Preclinical safety assessment of the 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand [ 11C]Cimbi-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettrup, Anders; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Martin; Wasim, Muhammad; Santini, Martin Andreas; Palner, Mikael; Madsen, Jacob; Svarer, Claus; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2013-08-01

    [11C]Cimbi-36 was recently developed as an agonist radioligand for brain imaging of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A) with positron emission tomography (PET). This may be used to quantify the high-affinity state of 5-HT2A receptors and may have the potential to quantify changes in cerebral 5-HT levels in vivo. We here investigated safety aspects related to clinical use of [11C]Cimbi-36, including radiation dosimetry and in vivo pharmacology. [11C]Cimbi-36 was injected in rats or pigs, and radiation dosimetry was examined by ex vivo dissection or with PET scanning, respectively. Based on animal data, the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment software was used to estimate extrapolated human dosimetry for [11C]Cimbi-36. The 5-HT2A receptor agonist actions of [11C]Cimbi-36 in vivo pharmacological effects in mice elicited by increasing doses of Cimbi-36 were assessed with the head-twitch response (HTR). The effective dose as extrapolated from both rat and pig data was low, 7.67 and 4.88 μSv/MBq, respectively. In addition, the estimated absorbed radiation dose to human target organs did not exceed safety levels. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg Cimbi-36 leads to significant HTR compared to saline, whereas 0.05 mg/kg Cimbi-36 (doses much larger than those given in conjunction with a PET scan) did not elicit a significant HTR. Administration of tracer doses of [11C]Cimbi-36 does not seem to be associated with unusual radiation burden or adverse clinical effects.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel {sup 18}F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Hegele-Hartung, Christa [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Wuppertal, Germany, Wuppertal (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel {sup 18}F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The {sup 18}F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 m

  18. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  19. Comparison of methods for evaluating radiolabelled Annexin A5 uptake in pre-clinical PET oncological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafström, Jonas; Stone-Elander, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The uptakes of radiolabel led AnnexinA5 (AnxA5) and a size-matched control protein in experimental tumours were evaluated by kinetic analyses and compared with standard uptake values (SUVs) to investigate whether the method of analysis may impact on the conclusions that can be drawn. Procedures: PET scans of the 11 C-labelled proteins performed in untreated and doxorubicin-treated mice with head and neck carcinoma xenografts were retrospectively analysed. The appropriateness of using the Logan graphical analyses for reversibly binding radiotracers in these models was evaluated and confirmed. Distribution volume ratios (DVRs) of the regions of interest to reference muscle tissue were compared to those based on the image-derived input function from arterial blood. SUVs were calculated in the same individuals. Results: DVRs based on reference muscle tissue gave results similar to those based on the arterial blood and may be preferred since they are simpler to calculate. In the inter-group comparisons of baseline versus chemotherapy treatment or AnxA5 versus control protein, differences in DVR quantifications had a 20- to 40-fold higher statistical significance than differences in SUVs. As quantified using the control protein, the amount of free ligand in the vascular space of tumours may be large due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) contributions at baseline and affected during treatment, which has implications for quantifications of the specifically bound radioligand. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the quantification method as well as the controls used can be important for interpreting the uptake in tumours of the medium-sized protein ligand AnxA5 and its use in monitoring the effects of therapy on cell death in the tumours. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: These results provide additional support for the recognition that more detailed investigations on the effects of the tumour microenvironment on the

  20. Preclinical characterization of {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys, a new amino acid-based PET tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denoyer, Delphine; Kirby, Laura [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapeutics Laboratory, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Translational Research Laboratory, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Waldeck, Kelly [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Translational Research Laboratory, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Roselt, Peter; Neels, Oliver C. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapeutics Laboratory, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bourdier, Thomas [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Shepherd, Rachael; Katsifis, Andrew [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO LifeSciences, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapeutics Laboratory, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Translational Research Laboratory, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-04-15

    The imaging potential of a new {sup 18}F-labelled methionine derivative, S-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-d-homocysteine ({sup 18}F-D-FPHCys), and its selectivity for amino acid transporter subtypes were investigated in vitro and by imaging of human tumour xenografts. Expression of members of the system L (LAT isoforms 1-4 and 4F2hc) and ASCT (ASCT isoforms 1 and 2) amino acid transporter subclasses were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in four human tumour models, including A431 squamous cell carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and Colo 205 and HT-29 colorectal cancer lines. The first investigations for the characterization of {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys were in vitro uptake studies by comparing it with [1-{sup 14}C]-l-methionine ({sup 14}C-MET) and in vivo by PET imaging. In addition, the specific involvement of LAT1 transporters in {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys accumulation was tested by silencing LAT1 mRNA transcription with siRNAs. To determine the proliferative activity in tumour xenografts ex vivo, Ki-67 staining was used as a biomarker. A431 cells showed the highest {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys uptake in vitro and in vivo followed by Colo 205, PC3 and HT-29. A similar pattern of retention was observed with {sup 14}C-MET. {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys retention was strongly correlated with LAT1 expression both in vitro (R {sup 2} = 0.85) and in vivo (R{sup 2} = 0.99). Downregulation of LAT1 by siRNA inhibited {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys uptake, demonstrating a clear dependence on this transporter for tumour uptake. Furthermore, {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys accumulation mirrored cellular proliferation. The favourable properties of {sup 18}F-D-FPHCys make this tracer a promising imaging probe for detection of tumours as well as for the noninvasive evaluation and monitoring of tumour growth. (orig.)

  1. MRI compatibility of position-sensitive photomultiplier depth-of-interaction PET detectors modules for in-line multimodality preclinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, J.J., E-mail: juanjose.vaquero@uc3m.es [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Avda. de la Universidad 30 Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Sánchez, J.J. [Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Udías, J.M.; Cal-González, J. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Avda. de la Universidad 30 Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-21

    This work addresses the feasibility of a small-animal, in-line PET/MR system based on Position-Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PS-PMTs). To this end, we measured the effects of static magnetic fields on the PS-PMTs performance in order to explore the minimal tandem separation between the PET and MR subsystems to preserve their respective performances. We concluded that it is possible to achieve minimal degradation of the PET scanner performance (after a system recalibration) if the magnetic field strength influencing the PET detectors is less than 1 mT and if it is oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube. Therefore, we predict that it will be possible to maintain the PET image quality if it is placed outside the 1 mT line.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Hypoxia PET Tracers [{sup 18}F]HX4, [{sup 18}F]FAZA, and [{sup 18}F]FMISO in a Preclinical Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Sarah G.J.A., E-mail: sarah.peeters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Lieuwes, Natasja G.; Elmpt, Wouter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Eriksson, Jonas; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Several individual clinical and preclinical studies have shown the possibility of evaluating tumor hypoxia by using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET). The current study compared 3 hypoxia PET tracers frequently used in the clinic, [{sup 18}F]FMISO, [{sup 18}F]FAZA, and [{sup 18}F]HX4, in a preclinical tumor model. Tracer uptake was evaluated for the optimal time point for imaging, tumor-to-blood ratios (TBR), spatial reproducibility, and sensitivity to oxygen modification. Methods and Materials: PET/computed tomography (CT) images of rhabdomyosarcoma R1-bearing WAG/Rij rats were acquired at multiple time points post injection (p.i.) with one of the hypoxia tracers. TBR values were calculated, and reproducibility was investigated by voxel-to-voxel analysis, represented as correlation coefficients (R) or Dice similarity coefficient of the high-uptake volume. Tumor oxygen modifications were induced by exposure to either carbogen/nicotinamide treatment or 7% oxygen breathing. Results: TBR was stabilized and maximal at 2 hours p.i. for [{sup 18}F]FAZA (4.0 ± 0.5) and at 3 hours p.i. for [{sup 18}F]HX4 (7.2 ± 0.7), whereas [{sup 18}F]FMISO showed a constant increasing TBR (9.0 ± 0.8 at 6 hours p.i.). High spatial reproducibility was observed by voxel-to-voxel comparisons and Dice similarity coefficient calculations on the 30% highest uptake volume for both [{sup 18}F]FMISO (R = 0.86; Dice coefficient = 0.76) and [{sup 18}F]HX4 (R = 0.76; Dice coefficient = 0.70), whereas [{sup 18}F]FAZA was less reproducible (R = 0.52; Dice coefficient = 0.49). Modifying the hypoxic fraction resulted in enhanced mean standardized uptake values for both [{sup 18}F]HX4 and [{sup 18}F]FAZA upon 7% oxygen breathing. Only [{sup 18}F]FMISO uptake was found to be reversible upon exposure to nicotinamide and carbogen. Conclusions: This study indicates that each tracer has its own strengths and, depending on the question to be answered, a different tracer can be put

  3. Prototype pre-clinical PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurements using single-layer crystal array and single-ended readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Sun; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we developed a proof-of-concept prototype PET system using a pair of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detectors based on the proposed DOI-encoding method and digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Our novel cost-effective DOI measurement method is based on a triangular-shaped reflector that requires only a single-layer pixelated crystal and single-ended signal readout. The DOI detector consisted of an 18  ×  18 array of unpolished LYSO crystal (1.47  ×  1.47  ×  15 mm3) wrapped with triangular-shaped reflectors. The DOI information was encoded by depth-dependent light distribution tailored by the reflector geometry and DOI correction was performed using four-step depth calibration data and maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation. The detector pair and the object were placed on two motorized rotation stages to demonstrate 12-block ring PET geometry with 11.15 cm diameter. Spatial resolution was measured and phantom and animal imaging studies were performed to investigate imaging performance. All images were reconstructed with and without the DOI correction to examine the impact of our DOI measurement. The pair of dSiPM-based DOI PET detectors showed good physical performances respectively: 2.82 and 3.09 peak-to-valley ratios, 14.30% and 18.95% energy resolution, and 4.28 and 4.24 mm DOI resolution averaged over all crystals and all depths. A sub-millimeter spatial resolution was achieved at the center of the field of view (FOV). After applying ML-based DOI correction, maximum 36.92% improvement was achieved in the radial spatial resolution and a uniform resolution was observed within 5 cm of transverse PET FOV. We successfully acquired phantom and animal images with improved spatial resolution and contrast by using the DOI measurement. The proposed DOI-encoding method was successfully demonstrated in the system level and exhibited good performance, showing its feasibility for animal PET applications with high spatial

  4. Pre-clinical evaluation of a 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole analogue of [{sup 18}F]FMISO as hypoxia-selective tracer for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejot, Romain, E-mail: romain_bejot@sbic.a-star.edu.s [Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Kersemans, Veerle; Kelly, Catherine [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Carroll, Laurence; King, Robert C. [Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Gouverneur, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.gouverneur@chem.ox.ac.u [Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Hypoxia in solid tumours is associated with the promotion of various metabolic mechanisms and induces resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography by use of selective biomarkers has emerged as valuable tools for the detection of hypoxic areas within tumours so treatment can be modified accordingly. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate [{sup 18}F]3-NTR, a 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole analogue (N{sub 1} substituted) of [{sup 18}F]FMISO as a potential hypoxia selective tracer. 3-NTR and its {sup 18}F-radiolabelled isotopic isomer were synthesised and compared with FMISO in vitro and in vivo. Their physicochemical properties were measured, the enzymatic reduction was evaluated, and the reactivity of their metabolites was investigated. Biodistribution and PET scans were performed on CBA mice bearing hypoxic CaNT tumour cells, using {sup 18}F-labelled versions of the tracers. [{sup 18}F]3-NTR uptake within hypoxic cells was lower than [{sup 18}F]FMISO and [{sup 18}F]3-NTR did not exhibit any better selectivity than FMISO as a PET tracer in vivo. Both {sup 18}F-radiolabelled compounds are relatively evenly distributed within the whole body and the radioactive uptake within hypoxic tumours reaches a maximum at 30 min post injection and decreases thereafter. Xanthine oxidase exhibited a nitroreductase activity toward 3-NTR under anaerobic conditions, but reduced metabolites did not bind covalently. It is confirmed that 3-NTR is an electron acceptor. It is postulated that radiolabelled metabolites and fragments of [{sup 18}F]3-NTR are freely diffusing due to their poor binding capacities. Thus [{sup 18}F]3-NTR cannot be used as a hypoxia selective tracer for PET. The investigation provides insights into the importance of the propensity to form covalent adducts for such biomarkers.

  5. 18FDG-PET predicts pharmacodynamic response to OSI-906, a dual IGF-1R/IR inhibitor, in preclinical mouse models of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Eliot T; Bugaj, Joseph E; Zhao, Ping; Guleryuz, Saffet; Mantis, Christine; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Wild, Robert; Manning, H Charles

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography imaging ((18)FDG-PET) as a predictive, noninvasive, pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker of response following administration of a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor (IGF-1R/IR) inhibitor, OSI-906. In vitro uptake studies of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose following OSI-906 exposure were conducted evaluating correlation of dose with inhibition of IGF-1R/IR as well as markers of downstream pathways and glucose metabolism. Similarly, in vivo PD effects were evaluated in human tumor cell line xenografts propagated in athymic nude mice by (18)FDG-PET at 2, 4, and 24 hours following a single treatment of OSI-906 for the correlation of inhibition of receptor targets and downstream markers. Uptake of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose and (18)FDG was significantly diminished following OSI-906 exposure in sensitive tumor cells and subcutaneous xenografts (NCI-H292) but not in an insensitive model lacking IGF-1R expression (NCI-H441). Diminished PD (18)FDG-PET, collected immediately following the initial treatment agreed with inhibition of pIGF-1R/pIR, reduced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway activity, and predicted tumor growth arrest as measured by high-resolution ultrasound imaging. (18)FDG-PET seems to serve as a rapid, noninvasive PD marker of IGF-1R/IR inhibition following a single dose of OSI-906 and should be explored clinically as a predictive clinical biomarker in patients undergoing IGF-1R/IR-directed cancer therapy. ©2011 AACR.

  6. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]SNAP-7941 – the first PET tracer for the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Cécile; Nics, Lukas; Zeilinger, Markus; Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Mairinger, Severin; Shanab, Karem; Spreitzer, Helmut; Viernstein, Helmut; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to its involvement in a variety of pathologies (obesity, diabetes, gut inflammation and depression), the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a new target for the treatment of these lifestyle diseases. We previously presented the radiosynthesis of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941, the first potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. Methods: We herein present its in vitro and in vivo evaluation, including binding affinity, plasma stability, stability against liver mircrosomes and carboxylesterase, lipohilicity, biodistribution, in vivo metabolism and small-animal PET. Results: [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 evinced high stability against liver microsomes, carboxylesterase and in human plasma. The first small-animal PET experiments revealed a 5 fold increased brain uptake after Pgp/BCRP inhibition. Therefore, it can be assumed that [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 is a Pgp/BCRP substrate. No metabolites were found in brain. Conclusion: On the basis of these experiments with healthy rats, the suitability of [ 11 C]SNAP-7941 for the visualisation of central and peripheral MCHR1 remains speculative

  7. Preclinical Multimodal Molecular Imaging Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in a Phase I Study of a Knee Osteoarthritis in In Vivo Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Menendez DVM, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a multimodal molecular imaging approach to serially assess regional metabolic changes in the knee in an in vivo anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT canine model of osteoarthritis (OA. Five canine underwent ACLT in one knee and the contralateral knee served as uninjured control. Prior, 3, 6, and 12 weeks post-ACLT, the dogs underwent 18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The MRI was coregistered with the PET/CT, and 3-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs were traced manually and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax were evaluated. 18F-fluoro-d-glucose SUVmax in the ACLT knee ROIs was significantly higher compared to the uninjured contralateral knees at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Higher 18F-FDG uptake observed in ACLT knees compared to the uninjured knees reflects greater metabolic changes in the injured knees over time. Knee 18F-FDG uptake in an in vivo ACLT canine model using combined PET/CT and MRI demonstrated to be highly sensitive in the detection of metabolic alterations in osseous and nonosteochondral structures comprising the knee joint. 18F-fluoro-d-glucose appeared to be a capable potential imaging biomarker for early human knee OA diagnosis, prognosis, and management.

  8. Preclinical in vivo and in vitro comparison of the translocator protein PET ligands [{sup 18}F]PBR102 and [{sup 18}F]PBR111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, S.; Wen, L. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of Molecular Imaging (PET and Nuclear Medicine), Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Katsifis, A. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of Molecular Imaging (PET and Nuclear Medicine), Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peyronneau, M.A. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay (France); Henderson, D.; Loc' h, C.; Verschuer, J.; Lam, P.; Mattner, F. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of Molecular Imaging (PET and Nuclear Medicine), Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Greguric, I.; Pham, T. [ANSTO, Radiochemistry and Radiotracers Platform, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mohamed, A. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of Molecular Imaging (PET and Nuclear Medicine), Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fulham, M.J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of Molecular Imaging (PET and Nuclear Medicine), Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the metabolic profiles of the translocator protein ligands PBR102 and PBR111 in rat and human microsomes and compare their in vivo binding and metabolite uptake in the brain of non-human primates (Papio hamadryas) using PET-CT. In vitro metabolic profiles of PBR102 and PBR111 in rat and human liver microsomes were assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. [{sup 18}F]PBR102 and [{sup 18}F]PBR111 were prepared by nucleophilic substitution of their corresponding p-toluenesulfonyl precursors with [{sup 18}F]fluoride. List mode PET-CT brain imaging with arterial blood sampling was performed in non-human primates. Blood plasma measurements and metabolite analysis, using solid-phase extraction, provided the metabolite profile and metabolite-corrected input functions for kinetic model fitting. Blocking and displacement PET-CT scans, using PK11195, were performed. Microsomal analyses identified the O-de-alkylated, hydroxylated and N-de-ethyl derivatives of PBR102 and PBR111 as the main metabolites. The O-de-alkylated compounds were the major metabolites in both species; human liver microsomes were less active than those from rat. Metabolic profiles in vivo in non-human primates and previously published rat experiments were consistent with the microsomal results. PET-CT studies showed that K{sub 1} was similar for baseline and blocking studies for both radiotracers; V{sub T} was reduced during the blocking study, suggesting low non-specific binding and lack of appreciable metabolite uptake in the brain. [{sup 18}F]PBR102 and [{sup 18}F]PBR111 have distinct metabolic profiles in rat and non-human primates. Radiometabolites contributed to non-specific binding and confounded in vivo brain analysis of [{sup 18}F]PBR102 in rodents; the impact in primates was less pronounced. Both [{sup 18}F]PBR102 and [{sup 18}F]PBR111 are suitable for PET imaging of TSPO in vivo. In vitro metabolite studies can be used to predict in vivo radioligand metabolism and

  9. Cerebral uptake of [ethyl-{sup 11}C]vinpocetine and 1-[{sup 11}C]ethanol in cynomolgous monkeys: a comparative preclinical PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyas, Balazs E-mail: balazs.gulyas@neuro.ki.se; Vas, Adam; Halldin, Christer; Sovago, Judit; Sandell, Johan; Olsson, Hans; Fredriksson, Anna; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Farde, Lars

    2002-10-01

    PET provides the potential to quantify the distribution of radiolabelled drugs in the human body. In cases when radiolabelled compounds undergo metabolic transformation after administration in vivo, it is necessary to examine the kinetics and distribution of both the labeled mother compound and labeled metabolites. The objective of this study was to assess the extent by which {sup 11}C-labeled ethanol, the product arising from the de-esterification of the neuroprotective drug vinpocetine (ethyl-apovincaminate), might contribute to the regional cerebral radioactivity measured by PET after the administration of [ethyl-{sup 11}C]vinpocetine. In three cynomolgous monkeys PET measurements were made after intravenous bolus injection of both [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine and 1-[{sup 11}C]ethanol. There was a marked difference between the regional time-activity curves of [{sup 11}C]ethanol and [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine. The distribution pattern obtained with [{sup 11}C]ethanol was similar to that observed with blood flow tracers such as [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 15}O]butanol. The study shows that although [{sup 11}C]ethanol may moderately contribute to the brain radioactivity distribution pattern of [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine, the rapid degradation of [{sup 11}C]ethanol makes it unlikely that the contribution of this metabolite is of importance. The distinct distribution patterns and kinetics of [{sup 11}C]vinpocetine and [{sup 11}C]ethanol also support the view, obtained from our previous observations, that vinpocetine may bind to specific sites in the monkey and human brain, especially in the thalamus.

  10. On the use of {sup 76}Br-labelled monoclonal antibodies for PET : Preclinical evaluation of halogenated antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Johanna

    2002-07-01

    Radioactive substances are used in vivo to localize and characterize malignant tumours, generally by scintigraphic methods. In this context positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may provide a sensitive and specific method for detection of cancer. Individual dose calculations, based on such PET measurements, may be carried out to predict the possible use of mAbs labelled with therapeutic nuclides. The positron emitter {sup 76}Br, with a half-life of 16 h, is a well-suited candidate for radiolabelling and PET imaging. One drawback of radio bromine is that bromide, the ultimate catabolite after degradation of brominated mAb, is only tardily excreted from the body and is evenly distributed throughout the extracellular space, thereby increasing the background radioactivity. The aim of this work was to produce {sup 76}Br-mAb preparations with high accumulation and retention in tumour tissue together with a quick clearance of {sup 76}Br-labelled catabolites. Furthermore, the possibility to use brominated or iodinated mAbs in combination with PET to predict {sup 211}At-mAb dosimetry was evaluated. Monoclonal Abs directed against colorectal cancer were labelled with {sup 76}Br using the direct Chloramine-T-method or indirectly by labelling the precursor molecule N-succinimidyl para-(tri-methylstannyl) benzoate with {sup 76}Br, which was subsequently conjugated to the mAbs. Monoclonal Ab A33 labelled with {sup 76}Br using the two labelling protocols was characterized in vitro and in vivo in a rat tumour xenograft model. The mAb A33 was also labelled with 125I for comparison. In addition, mAb A33 was labelled with {sup 211}At, 125I and {sup 76}Br using the indirect labelling protocol and the mAb pharmacokinetics was studied in normal rats in order to estimate if data from brominated or iodinated mAb could be used for dosimetry of {sup 211}At in healthy organs and tissue. In conclusion, both direct and indirect

  11. Preclinical and first clinical experience with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-antagonist [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 and PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maina, Theodosia; Charalambidis, David; Nock, Berthold A. [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Molecular Radiopharmacy, Athens (Greece); Bergsma, Hendrik; Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik, Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany); Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) represent attractive targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy because of their overexpression in major human cancers. Internalizing GRPR agonists were initially proposed for prolonged lesion retention, but a shift of paradigm to GRPR antagonists has recently been made. Surprisingly, radioantagonists, such as [{sup 99m}Tc]DB1 ({sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 4}'-DPhe{sup 6},Leu-NHEt{sup 13}BBN(6-13)), displayed better pharmacokinetics than radioagonists, in addition to their higher inherent biosafety. We introduce here [{sup 68}Ga]SB3, a [{sup 99m}Tc]DB1 mimic-carrying, instead of the {sup 99m}Tc-binding tetraamine, the chelator DOTA for labeling with the PET radiometal {sup 68}Ga. Competition binding assays of SB3 and [{sup nat}Ga]SB3 were conducted against [{sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4}]BBN in PC-3 cell membranes. Blood samples collected 5 min postinjection (pi) of the [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 surrogate in mice were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for degradation products. Likewise, biodistribution was performed after injection of [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 (37 kBq, 100 μL, 10 pmol peptide) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Eventually, [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 (283 ± 91 MBq, 23 ± 7 nmol) was injected into 17 patients with breast (8) and prostate (9) cancer. All patients had disseminated disease and had received previous therapies. PET/CT fusion images were acquired 60-115 min pi. SB3 and [{sup nat}Ga]SB3 bound to the human GRPR with high affinity (IC{sub 50}: 4.6 ± 0.5 nM and 1.5 ± 0.3 nM, respectively). [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 displayed good in vivo stability (>85 % intact at 5 min pi). [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 showed high, GRPR-specific and prolonged retention in PC-3 xenografts (33.1 ± 3.9%ID/g at 1 h pi - 27.0 ± 0.9%ID/g at 24 h pi), but much faster clearance from the GRPR-rich pancreas (∼160%ID/g at 1 h pi to <17%ID/g at 24 h pi) in mice. In patients, [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 elicited no adverse effects and

  12. Preclinical Evaluation of a P2X7 Receptor-Selective Radiotracer: PET Studies in a Rat Model with Local Overexpression of the Human P2X7 Receptor and in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Dieter; Celen, Sofie; Gijsbers, Rik; Van Den Haute, Chris; Postnov, Andrey; Koole, Michel; Vandeputte, Caroline; Andrés, José-Ignacio; Alcazar, Jesus; De Angelis, Meri; Langlois, Xavier; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Schmidt, Mark; Letavic, Michael A; Vanduffel, Wim; Van Laere, Koen; Verbruggen, Alfons; Debyser, Zeger; Bormans, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) orchestrates neuroinflammation, and this is the basis for an increased interest in the development of antagonists inhibiting P2X7R function in the brain. This study provides the preclinical evaluation of (11)C-JNJ-54173717, a PET tracer for P2X7R in both rats and nonhuman primates. (11)C-JNJ-54173717 is a high-affinity radiotracer for the human P2X7R (hP2X7R). Biodistribution and radiometabolite studies were performed. Viral vectors encoding either enhanced green fluorescent protein-hP2X7R or 3flag-hP2X7R were engineered and validated in cell culture. hP2X7R was regionally overexpressed in the rat striatum after stereotactic injection of viral vectors. Dynamic small-animal PET studies were performed in vector-injected rats and in healthy monkeys using (11)C-JNJ-54173717. The affinity of JNJ-54173717 was 1.6 ± 0.1 nM in a rat cortex P2X7R membrane binding assay. In a functional assay at the recombinant human and rat P2X7R orthologs, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of JNJ-54173717 was 4.2 ± 0.01 nM and 7.6 ± 0.01 nM, respectively. The rat biodistribution study showed that (11)C-JNJ-54173717 crossed the blood-brain barrier and was cleared from plasma mainly via the hepatobiliary pathway. A polar radiometabolite was found in rat plasma. No radiometabolites were detected in rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET showed binding of (11)C-JNJ-54173717 in the striatum expressing hP2X7R, with rapid washout from the noninjected control striatum and other brain regions. Likewise, (11)C-JNJ-54173717 PET signal was blocked by a chemically distinct P2X7R ligand, indicating specific binding to P2X7R in the monkey brain. JNJ-54173717 is a high-affinity P2X7R antagonist. An animal rat model stably expressing hP2X7R was developed and validated, identifying favorable characteristics for (11)C-JNJ-54173717 as a PET radioligand for in vivo visualization of hP2X7R. (11)C-JNJ-54173717 selectively visualized P2X7R in the monkey brain, and this

  13. [{sup 11}C]S.L.(25.1188), a new radioligand to study the monoamine oxidase type B with PET: preclinical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, W.; Valette, H.; Peyronneau, M.A.; Bramoulle, Y.; Coulon, C.; Dolle, F.; Bottlaender, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, IIBM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Curet, O.; George, P. [Sanofi-Aventis, 92 - Bagneux (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction. - Monoamine oxidase (M.A.O.) is a flavin containing enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of various amines and neurotransmitters. Two isoforms exist, M.A.O.-A and M.A.O.-B. Variations in M.A.O. activity may be associated to human disease such as Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Few radiotracers have been developed for M.A.O. PET studies such as [{sup 11}C]deprenyl, an irreversible M.A.O.-B inhibitor. Recently an oxazolidinone derivative, S.L.- 25.1188 ((S)-5-methoxy-methyl-3-[6-(4,4,4-tri-fluoro butoxy)- benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl]-oxazolidin-2-one), belonging to a new generation of selective and reversible M.A.O.-B inhibitors was developed and showed in vitro a high selectivity for M.A.O.B. [1]. The aim of this study was to characterize [{sup 11}C]S.L.- 25.1188 as radioligand for in vivo PET examination of M.A.O.-B. Materials and methods. - PET studies of the brain distribution were carried out in male Papio anubis baboons. Selectivity and reversibility of [{sup 11}C]S.L.-25.1188 binding for M.A.O.-B was assessed by pre-treatment or displacement experiments (30 min before and after tracer injection, respectively) using reference ligands for M.A.O.-B (deprenyl: 2 mg/kg i.v. and lazabemide: 0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or by displacement experiments using unlabelled S.L.-25.1188 (1 mg/kg, i.v., 30 min after tracer injection). Distribution volume (D.V.) was calculated using 2-tissue-compartment model. The saturable binding following pre-treatment with deprenyl was considered as the specific binding. Results. - After injection, [1{sup 1C}]S.L.-25.1188 presents a rapid phase of distribution in blood (about 5 min), followed by a elimination with T1/2 of 75 min. The Blood to plasma concentration ratio was constant during the experimentation (0.9 {+-} .04) consistent with a similar kinetic of [{sup 11}C]S.L.- 25.1188 in both blood and plasma. Metabolism analysis showed that [{sup 11}C]S.L.-25.1188 is stable in vivo. In the brain, uptake in different areas was

  14. Preclinical Evaluation of 18F-Labeled Anti-HER2 Nanobody Conjugates for Imaging HER2 Receptor Expression by Immuno-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Weitzel, Douglas; Osada, Takuya; Lyerly, H Kim; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    The human growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in breast as well as other types of cancer. Immuno-PET, a noninvasive imaging procedure that could assess HER2 status in both primary and metastatic lesions simultaneously, could be a valuable tool for optimizing application of HER2-targeted therapies in individual patients. Herein, we have evaluated the tumor-targeting potential of the 5F7 anti-HER2 Nanobody (single-domain antibody fragment; ∼13 kDa) after (18)F labeling by 2 methods. The 5F7 Nanobody was labeled with (18)F using the novel residualizing label N-succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-(18)F-fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ((18)F-SFBTMGMB; (18)F-RL-I) and also via the most commonly used (18)F protein-labeling prosthetic agent N-succinimidyl 3-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB). For comparison, 5F7 Nanobody was also labeled using the residualizing radioiodination agent N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-(125)I-iodobenzoate ((125)I-SGMIB). Paired-label ((18)F/(125)I) internalization assays and biodistribution studies were performed on HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast carcinoma cells and in mice with BT474M1 subcutaneous xenografts, respectively. Small-animal PET/CT imaging of 5F7 Nanobody labeled using (18)F-RL-I also was performed. Internalization assays indicated that intracellularly retained radioactivity for (18)F-RL-I-5F7 was similar to that for coincubated (125)I-SGMIB-5F7, whereas that for (18)F-SFB-5F7 was lower than coincubated (125)I-SGMIB-5F7 and decreased with time. BT474M1 tumor uptake of (18)F-RL-I-5F7 was 28.97 ± 3.88 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at 1 h and 36.28 ± 14.10 %ID/g at 2 h, reduced by more than 90% on blocking with trastuzumab, indicating HER2 specificity of uptake, and was also 26%-28% higher (P < 0.05) than that of (18)F-SFB-5F7. At 2 h, the tumor-to-blood ratio for (18)F-RL-I-5F7 (47.4 ± 13.1) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for (18)F-SFB-5F7 (25.4 ± 10

  15. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C; Nock, Berthold A; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of (177)Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (68)Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with (177)Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients.

  16. Senior Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Senior Pets Veterinarians Get the Senior Pets client information brochure . ... healthier life for your pet. When does a pet become “old”? It varies, but cats and small ...

  17. [Preclinical AD and Biomarker; from J-ADNI to AMED Preclinical Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazushi

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is most prevalent cause of dementia and no cure has been discovered. Although the framework of AD clinical trials is being established utilizing results of large-scale observational studies such as the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Japanese-ADNI (J-ADNI), the development of disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been achieved. Preclinical AD was recently defined as a new disease stage in which AD is asymptomatic but biomarkers suggest the presence of amyloid pathology. Preclinical AD has been focused as promising therapeutic time window and establishment of reliable biomarkers for preclinical AD is an urgent task. The Japanese Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) preclinical study is a nationwide multicenter observational study carried out by public research funding from AMED as a successor to the J-ADNI study. The goal of this study is to establish a biomarker that can quantitatively evaluate the disease progression of preclinical AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or predict the progression to MCI and dementia in the future. To achieve this goal, the following assessments will be conducted over time for three years: clinical evaluations; cognitive tests; genetic testing; body fluid biomarker tests; and imaging biomarker studies such as MRI, FDG-PET, and amyloid PET. The obtained data will eventually be released to the public database.

  18. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors, metabolism, and volume in preclinical Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, JCH; Maguire, RP; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; van der Duin, LV; Pruim, J; Roos, RAC; Leenders, KL

    2005-01-01

    Among 27 preclinical carriers of the Huntington disease mutation (PMC), the authors found normal striatal values for MRI volumetry in 88% and for fluorodesoxyglucose PET metabolic index in 67%. Raclopride PET binding potential (RAC-BP) was decreased in 50% and correlated with increases in the

  19. Pilot Preclinical and Clinical Evaluation of (4S-4-(3-[18F]Fluoropropyl-L-Glutamate (18F-FSPG for PET/CT Imaging of Intracranial Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S Mittra

    Full Text Available (S-4-(3-[18F]Fluoropropyl-L-glutamic acid (18F-FSPG is a novel radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging. It is a glutamate analogue that can be used to measure xC- transporter activity. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of 18F-FSPG for imaging orthotopic brain tumors in small animals and the translation of this approach in human subjects with intracranial malignancies.For the small animal study, GS9L glioblastoma cells were implanted into brains of Fischer rats and studied with 18F-FSPG, the 18F-labeled glucose derivative 18F-FDG and with the 18F-labeled amino acid derivative 18F-FET. For the human study, five subjects with either primary or metastatic brain cancer were recruited (mean age 50.4 years. After injection of 300 MBq of 18F-FSPG, 3 whole-body PET/Computed Tomography (CT scans were obtained and safety parameters were measured. The three subjects with brain metastases also had an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of the scans was performed to assess kinetics, biodistribution, and relative efficacy of the tracers.In the small animals, the orthotopic brain tumors were visualized well with 18F-FSPG. The high tumor uptake of 18F-FSPG in the GS9L model and the absence of background signal led to good tumor visualization with high contrast (tumor/brain ratio: 32.7. 18F-FDG and 18F-FET showed T/B ratios of 1.7 and 2.8, respectively. In the human pilot study, 18F-FSPG was well tolerated and there was similar distribution in all patients. All malignant lesions were positive with 18F-FSPG except for one low-grade primary brain tumor. In the 18F-FSPG-PET-positive tumors a similar T/B ratio was observed as in the animal model.18F-FSPG is a novel PET radiopharmaceutical that demonstrates good uptake in both small animal and human studies of intracranial malignancies. Future studies on larger numbers of subjects and a wider array of brain tumors are planned.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  20. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pets can add fun, companionship and a feeling of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for ... is each family member looking for in a pet? Who will take care of it? Does anyone ...

  2. 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in comparison to 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in pre-clinical investigation. Is 44Sc a potential radionuclide for PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumarianou, E.; Loktionova, N.S.; Fellner, M.; Roesch, F.; Thews, O.; Pawlak, D.; Archimandritis, S.C.; Mikolajczak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In the present study we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo comparison of the 44 Sc and 68 Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 . 44 Sc is a positron emitter with a half life of 3.92 h. Hence it could be used for PET imaging with ligands requiring longer observation time than in the case of 68 Ga. Methods: The binding affinity of nat Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 and nat Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 to GRP receptors was studied in competition to [ 125 I-Tyr 4 ]-Bombesin in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. A preliminary biodistribution in normal rats was performed, while first microPET images were assessed in male Copenhagen rats bearing the androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancer tumor. Results: The affinity to GRP receptors in the PC-3 cell line was higher for nat Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 (IC 50 (nM)=0.85±0.06) than that of nat Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 (IC 50 (nM)=6.49±0.13). The internalization rate of 68 Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 was slower than that of 44 Sc, but their final internalization percents were comparable. 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 was externalized faster than 44 Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 . The biodistribution of 44 Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 and 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 in normal rats revealed a higher uptake in target organs and tissues of the first one while both excreted mainly through urinary tract. In microPET images both tracers were accumulated in the tumor with similar uptake patterns. Conclusions: Despite the differences in the receptor affinity both the 68 Ga- and the 44 Sc-labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 tracers showed comparable distribution and similar time constants of uptake and elimination. Moreover no differences in tumor accumulation (neither in the overall uptake nor in the dynamics) were observed from the microPet imaging. From that perspective the use of either 44 Sc or 68 Ga for detecting tumors with GRP receptors is equivalent. - Highlights: ► In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 44 Sc- and 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 in reference to published

  3. Neuropsychiatric symptoms predict hypometabolism in preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok Pin; Pascoal, Tharick A; Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Chung, Chang-Oh; Benedet, Andréa L; Shin, Monica; Kang, Min Su; Li, Xiaofeng; Ba, Maowen; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Gauthier, Serge

    2017-05-09

    To identify regional brain metabolic dysfunctions associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). We stratified 115 cognitively normal individuals into preclinical AD (both amyloid and tau pathologies present), asymptomatic at risk for AD (either amyloid or tau pathology present), or healthy controls (no amyloid or tau pathology present) using [ 18 F]florbetapir PET and CSF phosphorylated tau biomarkers. Regression and voxel-based regression models evaluated the relationships between baseline NPS measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and baseline and 2-year change in metabolism measured by [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Individuals with preclinical AD with higher NPI scores had higher [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right anterior insula at baseline. High NPI scores predicted subsequent hypometabolism in the PCC over 2 years only in individuals with preclinical AD. Sleep/nighttime behavior disorders and irritability and lability were the components of the NPI that drove this metabolic dysfunction. The magnitude of NPS in preclinical cases, driven by sleep behavior and irritability domains, is linked to transitory metabolic dysfunctions within limbic networks vulnerable to the AD process and predicts subsequent PCC hypometabolism. These findings support an emerging conceptual framework in which NPS constitute an early clinical manifestation of AD pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect in dependence of the attenuation correction of a state-of-the-art small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Judenhofer, Martin S; Schmid, Andreas; Pichler, Bernd J; Tillmanns, Julia; Stiller, Detlef; Sossi, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE) of the Siemens Inveon PET scanner were evaluated. The influence of transmission source activities (40 and 160 MBq) on the quantification accuracy and the PVE were determined. Dynamic range, object size and PVE for different sphere sizes, contrast ratios and positions in the field of view (FOV) were evaluated. The acquired data were reconstructed using different algorithms and correction methods. The activity level of the transmission source and the total emission activity in the FOV strongly influenced the attenuation maps. Reconstruction algorithms, correction methods, object size and location within the FOV had a strong influence on the PVE in all configurations. All evaluated parameters potentially influence the quantification accuracy. Hence, all protocols should be kept constant during a study to allow a comparison between different scans. (paper)

  5. PET/CT surveillance in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission is associated with low positive predictive value and high costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Mylam, Karen Juul; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    recurrence, a routine PET/CT was the primary tool for the diagnosis of relapse. Extranodal disease, interim PET positive lesions and PET activity at response evaluation were all associated with a PET/CT diagnosed preclinical relapse. The true positive rates of routine PET/CT vs. clinically indicated PET....../CT were 5 and 13%, respectively (p=0.02). The overall positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT was 28% and 100%, respectively. The estimated cost per routine PET/CT diagnosed relapse was 50.778 USD. Conclusions. A negative PET/CT reliably rules out a relapse. The high false...

  6. Preclinical Alzheimer disease and risk of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Susan L; Roe, Catherine M; Grant, Elizabeth A; Hollingsworth, Holly; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Buckles, Virginia D; Morris, John C

    2013-07-30

    We determined the rate of falls among cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults, some of whom had presumptive preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) as detected by in vivo imaging of fibrillar amyloid plaques using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and PET and/or by assays of CSF to identify Aβ₄₂, tau, and phosphorylated tau. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study to examine the cumulative incidence of falls. Participants were evaluated clinically and underwent PiB PET imaging and lumbar puncture. Falls were reported monthly using an individualized calendar journal returned by mail. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to test whether time to first fall was associated with each biomarker and the ratio of CSF tau/Aβ₄₂ and CSF phosphorylated tau/Aβ₄₂, after adjustment for common fall risk factors. The sample (n = 125) was predominately female (62.4%) and white (96%) with a mean age of 74.4 years. When controlled for ability to perform activities of daily living, higher levels of PiB retention (hazard ratio = 2.95 [95% confidence interval 1.01-6.45], p = 0.05) and of CSF biomarker ratios (p fall. Presumptive preclinical AD is a risk factor for falls in older adults. This study suggests that subtle noncognitive changes that predispose older adults to falls are associated with AD and may precede detectable cognitive changes.

  7. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of a new class of high-affinity {sup 18}F-labeled PSMA ligands for detection of prostate cancer by PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James; Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Williams, Clarence; Ponnala, Shashikanth [Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Nikolopoulou, Anastasia [Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, New York, NY (United States); Kim, Dohyun [Weill Cornell Medicine, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, New York, NY (United States); Babich, John W. [Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and Molecular Imaging Innovations Institute, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Current clinical imaging of PSMA-positive prostate cancer by positron emission tomography (PET) mainly features {sup 68}Ga-labeled tracers, notably [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. The longer half-life of fluorine-18 offers significant advantages over Ga-68, clinically and logistically. We aimed to develop high-affinity PSMA inhibitors labeled with fluorine-18 as alternative tracers for prostate cancer. Six triazolylphenyl ureas and their alkyne precursors were synthesized from the Glu-urea-Lys PSMA binding moiety. PSMA affinity was determined in a competitive binding assay using LNCaP cells. The [{sup 18}F]triazoles were isolated following a Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction between the alkynes and [{sup 18}F]fluoroethylazide. The {sup 18}F-labeled compounds were evaluated in nude mice bearing LNCaP tumors and compared to [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC and [{sup 18}F]DCFPyL. Biodistribution studies of the two tracers with the highest imaged-derived tumor uptake and highest PSMA affinity were undertaken at 1 h, 2 h and 4 h post-injection (p.i.), and co-administration of PMPA was used to determine whether uptake was PSMA-specific. F-18-labeled triazolylphenyl ureas were prepared with a decay-corrected RCY of 20-40 %, >98 % radiochemical and chemical purity, and specific activity of up to 391 GBq/μmol. PSMA binding (IC{sub 50}) ranged from 3-36 nM. The position of the triazole influenced tumor uptake (3 > 4 > 2), and direct conjugation of the triazole with the phenylurea moiety was preferred to insertion of a spacer group. Image-derived tumor uptake ranged from 6-14 %ID/g at 2 h p.i., the time of maximum tumor uptake; uptake of [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC and [{sup 18}F]DCFPyL was 5-6 %ID/g at 1-3 h p.i., the time of maximum tumor uptake. Biodistribution studies of the two most promising compounds gave maximum tumor uptakes of 10.9 ± 1.0 % and 14.3 ± 2.5 %ID/g, respectively, as compared to 6.27 ± 1.44 %ID/g for [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. Six [{sup 18}F

  8. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Imaging in Biomedicine: Gene Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, M.; Peñuelas, I.

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy constitutes a promising option for efficient and targeted treatment of several inherited disorders. Imaging techniques using ionizing radiation as PET or SPECT are used for non-invasive monitoring of the distribution and kinetics of vector-mediated gene expression. In this review the main reporter gene/reporter probe strategies are summarized, as well as the contribution of preclinical models to the development of this new imaging modality previously to its application in clinical arena. [es

  9. Pet Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an allergic reaction to proteins found in an animal's skin cells, saliva or urine. Signs of pet allergy ... Allergens from cats and dogs are found in skin cells the animals shed (dander), as well as in their saliva, ...

  10. PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The PET detects signals from the tracer. A computer changes the signals into 3D pictures. The images ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  14. Evaluation of a BGO-Based PET System for Single-Cell Tracking Performance by Simulation and Phantom Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ouyang PhD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent method based on positron emission was reported for tracking moving point sources using the Inveon PET system. However, the effect of scanner background noise was not further explored. Here, we evaluate tracking with the Genisys4, a bismuth germanate-based PET system, which has no significant intrinsic background and may be better suited to tracking lower and/or faster activity sources. Position-dependent sensitivity of the Genisys4 was simulated in Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE using a static 18F point source. Trajectories of helically moving point sources with varying activity and rotation speed were reconstructed from list-mode data as described previously. Simulations showed that the Inveon’s ability to track sources within 2 mm of localization error is limited to objects with a velocity-to-activity ratio < 0.13 mm/decay, compared to < 0.29 mm/decay for the Genisys4. Tracking with the Genisys4 was then validated using a physical phantom of helically moving [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-in-oil droplets (< 0.24 mm diameter, 139-296 Bq, yielding < 1 mm localization error under the tested conditions, with good agreement between simulated sensitivity and measured activity (Pearson correlation R = .64, P << .05 in a representative example. We have investigated the tracking performance with the Genisys4, and results suggest the feasibility of tracking low activity, point source-like objects with this system.

  15. [11C]NS8880, a promising PET radiotracer targeting the norepinephrine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Karina Højrup; Peters, Dan; Nielsen, Elsebeth Ø

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is still hindered by the availability of useful PET imaging probes. The present study describes the radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of a new compound, exo-3-(6-methoxypyridin-2-yloxy)-8-H-8...

  16. Silicon Photomultipliers and Monolithic Scintillators for Time-of-Flight PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, S.

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging modality. Its aim is to visualize the 3-dimensional distribution of a radiopharmaceutical (also called the tracer) within a patient (clinical PET) or test-animal (in case of preclinical investigations). The information that can be

  17. An update on the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiewvan, Benjapa [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahidol University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Torigian, Drew A.; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Salavati, Ali; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This review article summarizes the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer. With regard to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the presence of FDG uptake within the ovary of a postmenopausal woman raises the concern for ovarian cancer. Multiple studies show that FDG PET/CT can detect lymph node and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer with high accuracy and may, therefore, alter the management to obtain better clinical outcomes. Although PET/CT staging is superior for N and M staging of ovarian cancer, its role is limited for T staging. Additionally, FDG PET/CT is of great benefit in evaluating treatment response and has prognostic value in patients with ovarian cancer. FDG PET/CT also has value to detect recurrent disease, particularly in patients with elevated serum CA-125 levels and negative or inconclusive conventional imaging test results. PET/MRI may beneficial for tumor staging because MRI has higher soft tissue contrast and no ionizing radiation exposure compared to CT. Some non-FDG PET radiotracers such as {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) or {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) have been studied in preclinical and clinical studies as well and may play a role in the evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  18. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges. PMID:26643024

  19. Performance evaluation of the small-animal PET scanner ClairvivoPET using NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Shidahara, M.; Watabe, H.; Watanuki, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Arakawa, Y.; Nai, YH; Furumoto, S.; Tashiro, M.; Shoji, T.; Yanai, K.; Gonda, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ClairvivoPET using NEMA NU4 standards. The ClairvivoPET incorporates a LYSO dual depth-of-interaction detector system with 151 mm axial field of view (FOV). Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality were evaluated using NEMA NU4-2008 standards. Normal mouse imaging was also performed for 10min after intravenous injection of 18F(-)-NaF. Data were compared with 19 other preclinical PET scanners. Spatial resolution measured using full width at half maximum on FBP-ramp reconstructed images was 2.16 mm at radial offset 5 mm of the axial centre FOV. The maximum absolute sensitivity for a point source at the FOV centre was 8.72%. Peak noise equivalent counting rate (NECR) was 415kcps at 14.6MBq ml-1. The uniformity with the image-quality phantom was 4.62%. Spillover ratios in the images of air and water filled chambers were 0.19 and 0.06, respectively. Our results were comparable with the 19 other preclinical PET scanners based on NEMA NU4 standards, with excellent sensitivity because of the large FOV. The ClairvivoPET with iterative reconstruction algorithm also provided sufficient visualization of the mouse spine. The high sensitivity and resolution of the ClairvivoPET scanner provided high quality images for preclinical studies.

  20. Preclinical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodniewicz, Teresa; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Life sciences provide reasonably sound prognosis for a number and nature of therapeutic targets on which drug design could be based, and search for new chemical entities--future new drugs, is now more than ever based on scientific principles. Nevertheless, current very long and incredibly costly drug discovery and development process is very inefficient, with attrition rate spanning from many thousands of new chemical structures, through a handful of validated drug leads, to single successful new drug launches, achieved in average after 13 years, with compounded cost estimates from hundreds of thousands to over one billion US dollars. Since radical pharmaceutical innovation is critically needed, number of new research projects concerning this area is steeply rising outside of big pharma industry--both in academic environment and in small private companies. Their prospective success will critically depend on project management, which requires combined knowledge of scientific, technical and legal matters, comprising regulations concerning admission of new drug candidates to be subjects of clinical studies. This paper attempts to explain basic rules and requirements of drug development within preclinical study period, in case of new chemical entities of natural or synthetic origin, which belong to low molecular weight category.

  1. PKU-PET-II: A novel SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaoheng; Li, Suying; Zhou, Kun; Vuletic, Ivan; Meng, Xiangxi; Zhu, Sihao; Xu, Huan; Yang, Kun; Xu, Baixuan; Zhang, Jinming; Ren, Qiushi

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce, describe, and validate the performance of a novel preclinical silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based PET system (PKU-PET-II). Briefly, the detector assembly consisted of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals, with dimensions of 2 ×2 ×15 mm3, that offered a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and 32 mm axial FOV, respectively. The compact front-end electronics readout and digital controller implemented architecture in the FPGA were noteworthy improvements in PKU-PET-II over its predecessor (PKU-PET-I). Based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 04-2008 standards, the design of the PKU-PET-II system was validated by a phantom experiment. The results presented spatial resolution (evaluated as full width at half maximum) with a system range from 1.68 ±0.07 to 2.31 ±0.03 mm at the FOV center and from 1.43 ±0.02 to 2.10 ±0.10 mm at the 1/4th axial FOV, respectively. The system's absolute sensitivity at the center position was 1.35% with the coincidence window of 6 ns and energy window of 300-700 keV. In addition, the NEMA image quality phantom and an animal study results validated the system imaging performance in preclinical imaging application. In conclusion, this SiPM-based, small-animal PET system (PKU-PET-II) provided higher-resolution, adequate sensitivity, and excellent image quality and has potential as a useful tool for real-time imaging of disease progression and development in vivo.

  2. SU-F-I-57: Evaluate and Optimize PET Acquisition Overlap in 18F-FDG Oncology Wholebody PET/CT: Can We Scan PET Faster?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Natwa, M; Hall, NC; Knopp, MV; Knopp, MU; Zhang, B; Tung, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The longer patient has to remain on the table during PET imaging, the higher the likelihood of motion artifacts due to patient discomfort. This study was to investigate and optimize PET acquisition overlap in 18F-FDG oncology wholebody PET/CT to speed up PET acquisition and improve patient comfort. Methods: Wholebody 18F-FDG PET/CT of phantoms, 8 pre-clinical patients (beagles) and 5 clinical oncology patients were performed in 90s/bed on a time-of-flight Gemini TF 64 system. Imaging of phantoms and beagles was acquired with reduced PET overlaps (40%, 33%, 27%, 20%, 13% and no overlap) in addition to the system default (53%). In human studies, 1 or 2 reduced overlaps from the listed options were used to acquire PET/CT sweeps right after the default standard of care imaging. Image quality was blindly reviewed using visual scoring criteria and quantitative SUV assessment. NEMA PET sensitivity was performed under different overlaps. Results: All PET exams demonstrated no significant impact on the visual grades for overlaps >20%. Blinded reviews assigned the best visual scores to PET using overlaps 53%–27%. Reducing overlap to 27% for oncology patients (12-bed) saved an average of ∼40% acquisition time (11min) compared to using the default overlap (18min). No significant SUV variances were found when reducing overlap to half of default for cerebellum, lung, heart, aorta, liver, fat, muscle, bone marrow, thighs and target lesions (p>0.05), except expected variability in urinary system. Conclusion: This study demonstrated by combined phantom, pre-clinical and clinical PET/CT scans that PET acquisition overlap in axial of today’s systems can be reduced and optimized. It showed that a reduction of PET acquisition overlap to 27% (half of system default) can be implemented to reduce table time by ∼40% to improve patient comfort and minimize potential motion artifacts, without prominently degrading image quality or compromising PET quantification.

  3. NCI Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has awarded grants to five research teams to participate in its Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium, which is intended to help to prioritize which agents to pursue in pediatric clinical trials.

  4. High contrast pet imaging of GRPR expression in prostate cancer using cobalt-labeled bombesin antagonist RM26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitran, Bogdan; Thisgaard, Helge; Rosenström, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    ) and 1000 (24 h pi).The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG2-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using55Co) and SPECT/CT (using57Co) images of PC-3 xenografts.The initial biological results suggest that55Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization...

  5. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  6. Perfusion imaging using rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) PET in rats with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Andreas Ettrup; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul

    2017-01-01

    Assessing myocardial perfusion using 82Rb-PET is emerging as a valuable clinical tool.1,2 The rapid decay (T½ = 76 s) allows for absolute quantification of both rest and stress perfusion within 30 minutes. In addition to evaluation of epicardial disease with perfusion defects, also evaluation...... of balanced coronary and small vessel disease is possible. For further evaluation of how 82Rb-PET can be used clinically, pre-clinical application of the method would be valuable. However, so far no data on the use of 82Rb-PET in small animals have been published nor has the use of 82Rb-PET, to the best...

  7. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  8. PET imaging of neuroinflammation in a rat traumatic brain injury model with radiolabeled TSPO ligand DPA-714

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu [Medical School of Southeast University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China); National Institutes of Health - NIH, Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine - LOMIN, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering - NIBIB, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yue, Xuyi; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health - NIH, Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine - LOMIN, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering - NIBIB, Bethesda, MD (United States); Teng, Gaojun [Medical School of Southeast University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2014-07-15

    The inflammatory response in injured brain parenchyma after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is crucial in the pathological process. In order to follow microglia activation and neuroinflammation after TBI, we performed PET imaging in a rat model of TBI using {sup 18}F-labeled DPA-714, a ligand of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TBI was induced in male SD rats by a controlled cortical impact. The success of the TBI model was confirmed by MRI. [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 was synthesized using a slightly modified TRACERLab FX-FN module and an automated procedure. In vivo PET imaging was performed at different time points after surgery using an Inveon small-animal PET scanner. The specificity of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 was confirmed by a displacement study with an unlabeled competitive TSPO ligand, PK11195. Ex vivo autoradiography as well as immunofluorescence staining was carried out to confirm the in vivo PET results. Both in vivo T{sub 2}-weighted MR images and ex vivo TTC staining results revealed successful establishment of the TBI model. Compared with the sham-treated group, [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 uptake was significantly higher in the injured brain area on PET images. Increased lesion-to-normal ratios of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 were observed in the brain of TBI rats on day 2 after surgery. Ratios peaked around day 6 (2.65 ± 0.36) and then decreased gradually to nearly normal levels on day 28. The displacement study using PK11195 confirmed the specific binding of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 to TSPO. The results of ex vivo autoradiography were consistent with in vivo PET results. Immunofluorescence staining showed the time course of TSPO expression after TBI and the temporal and the spatial distribution of microglia in the damaged brain area. TSPO-targeted PET using [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 as the imaging probe can be used to dynamically monitor the inflammatory response after TBI in a noninvasive manner. This method will not only facilitate a better understanding of the inflammatory process

  9. Preclinical models in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, Jenna; Tofilon, Philip J; Camphausen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    As the incidence of cancer continues to rise, the use of radiotherapy has emerged as a leading treatment modality. Preclinical models in radiation oncology are essential tools for cancer research and therapeutics. Various model systems have been used to test radiation therapy, including in vitro cell culture assays as well as in vivo ectopic and orthotopic xenograft models. This review aims to describe such models, their advantages and disadvantages, particularly as they have been employed in the discovery of molecular targets for tumor radiosensitization. Ultimately, any model system must be judged by its utility in developing more effective cancer therapies, which is in turn dependent on its ability to simulate the biology of tumors as they exist in situ. Although every model has its limitations, each has played a significant role in preclinical testing. Continued advances in preclinical models will allow for the identification and application of targets for radiation in the clinic

  10. Antibody Drug Conjugates: Preclinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Gadi G

    2015-05-01

    The development path for antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) is more complex and challenging than for unmodified antibodies. While many of the preclinical considerations for both unmodified and antibody drug conjugates are shared, special considerations must be taken into account when developing an ADC. Unlike unmodified antibodies, an ADC must preferentially bind to tumor cells, internalize, and traffic to the appropriate intracellular compartment to release the payload. Parameters that can impact the pharmacological properties of this class of therapeutics include the selection of the payload, the type of linker, and the methodology for payload drug conjugation. Despite a plethora of in vitro assays and in vivo models to screen and evaluate ADCs, the challenge remains to develop improved preclinical tools that will be more predictive of clinical outcome. This review will focus on preclinical considerations for clinically validated small molecule ADCs. In addition, the lessons learned from Mylotarg®, the first in class FDA-approved ADC, are highlighted.

  11. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M; Miyaoka, R; Shao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality and quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications

  12. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  13. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment

  14. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonincontri, Guido, E-mail: gb396@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-21

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.

  15. Leptospirosis and Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch (BSPB) BSPB Laboratory Submissions Pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Leptospirosis is ... that can affect human and animals, including your pets. All animals can potentially become infected with Leptospirosis. ...

  16. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  17. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-04-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  18. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  19. CT, PET and MR-Imaging in experimental baromedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper

    Introduction: While pressurisation and decompression may provoke detrimental physiologic effects in humans and animals, many underlying physiological phenomena remain unknown. Most studies on e.g. decompression sickness are conducted following pressurisation and decompression, in part because...... it is intrinsically difficult to study humans or animals inside a pressure chamber. We have developed a preclinical pressure chamber system compatible with CT, PET and MR-imaging during pressurisation up to 1.013 mPa, which allows for anatomical visualisations and measurements of certain physiological processes......Pa pressurisation, and repeatedly after 500 kPa/min decompression. After MRI, venous bubble development was monitored using ultrasound. Second, preclinical μCT, PET/MRI, and high-field 9.4 T MR-Imaging systems evaluated changes in cerebral standard uptake value (SUV) of F-FDG, changes in cerebral blood flow (delta...

  20. PET in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, Stefan (ed.) [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-07-01

    In the management of oncologic diseases, modern imaging modalities contribute heavily to the decision of which form of treatment - local or systemic, surgical or interdisciplinary - will be most efficient. The addition of functional image information to conventional staging procedures helps improve the diagnostic pathway. The information needed for therapeutic management and for follow-up can be provided by correlative imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) or PET/CT. This book is a comprehensive compilation of the accumulated knowledge on PET and PET/CT in oncology, covering the entire spectrum from solidly documented indications, such as staging and monitoring of lung and colorectal cancer, to the application of PET/CT in head and neck surgery, gynecology, radiation therapy, urology, pediatrics etc. It is aimed at nuclear medicine and radiology specialists as well as physicians interested in the possibilities and limitations of PET and PET/CT in oncology. (orig.)

  1. TU-H-206-02: Novel Linearly-Filled Derenzo PET Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, S; Cox, B; Valdovinos, H; Jeffery, J; Eliceiri, K; Barnhart, T; Nickles, R; Farhoud, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To design a linearly-filled Derenzo positron emission tomography (PET) phantom, eliminating the extraneous radioisotope volumes in a conventional reservoir-type design. This activity reduction combined with the elimination of bubbles in smaller phantom channels would significantly reduce personnel dose, radioisotope cost, and would improve image quality by reducing out-of-slice activity scatter. Methods: A computer-aided design (CAD) was created of a modular Derenzo phantom consisting of three phantom layers with gaskets between the layers. The central piece contains the active pattern volume and channels connecting adjacent rods in a serpentine pattern. The two end-pieces contained an inlet and an outlet for filling purposes. Phantom prototypes were 3D printed on a Viper Si2 stereolithography machine. The two gaskets were fabricated from silicon sheets using a PLS 6.75 laser cutter. Phantoms were held together by pass-through glass-filled nylon bolts and nuts. Phantoms were filled with 52 Mn, 64 Cu, 74 Br, and 124 I for testing, and were imaged on a Siemens Inveon MicroPET scanner. Results: Four phantom prototypes were constructed using male Leur Lock fittings for inlet/outlet ports. 3D printed layers were sanded to ensure proper coupling to the silicon gaskets. The filling volume for each prototype was approximately 2.4 mL. The filling process was found to be rapid, leak-tight, and with minimal back-pressure. PET images were reconstructed by OSEM3D, and axial slices along the phantom pattern length were averaged to provide final images. Image distortion was isotope dependent with 52 Mn and 64 Cu having the least distortion and 124 I having the most distortion. Conclusion: These results indicate that the linearlyfilled Derenzo design improves on conventional reservoir-type designs by eliminating potential bubbles in small channels and by reducing activity level, radioisotope volume, radioisotope cost, personnel dose, filling time, and out

  2. Mouse models of neurodegenerative disease: preclinical imaging and neurovascular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Sandra; Greco, Adelaide; Auletta, Luigi; Mancini, Marcello

    2017-10-26

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent great challenges for basic science and clinical medicine because of their prevalence, pathologies, lack of mechanism-based treatments, and impacts on individuals. Translational research might contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The mouse has become a key model for studying disease mechanisms that might recapitulate in part some aspects of the corresponding human diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders are very complicated and multifactorial. This has to be taken in account when testing drugs. Most of the drugs screening in mice are very difficult to be interpretated and often useless. Mouse models could be condiderated a 'pathway models', rather than as models for the whole complicated construct that makes a human disease. Non-invasive in vivo imaging in mice has gained increasing interest in preclinical research in the last years thanks to the availability of high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), high field Magnetic resonance, Optical Imaging scanners and of highly specific contrast agents. Behavioral test are useful tool to characterize different animal models of neurodegenerative pathology. Furthermore, many authors have observed vascular pathological features associated to the different neurodegenerative disorders. Aim of this review is to focus on the different existing animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, describe behavioral tests and preclinical imaging techniques used for diagnose and describe the vascular pathological features associated to these diseases.

  3. Metabolic network abnormalities in early Huntington's disease : An [F-18]FDG PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigin, A; Leenders, KL; Moeller, [No Value; Missimer, J; Kuenig, G; Spetsieris, P; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2001-01-01

    The identification of discrete patterns of altered functional brain circuitry in preclinical Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers is important to understanding the pathophysiology of this disorder and could be useful as a biologic disease marker. The purpose of this study was to use PET imaging

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis of Carbon-11 Labelled alpha-Amino Acids for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popkov, Alexander; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For PET applications in oncological and neurological diagnostics, amino acids have been studied both clinically and pre-clinically during the last 35 years. Nowadays two applications of labelled amino acids for visualisation of tumours attract the main attention: [C-11] or [F-18]amino acids as

  5. Evaluation of a silicon photomultiplier PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Guen Bae; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Son, Jeong-Whan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Sun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyung-Jun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung, E-mail: jaes@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors present a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based positron emission tomography (PET) insert dedicated to small animal imaging with high system performance and robustness to temperature change. Methods: The insert consists of 64 LYSO-SiPM detector blocks arranged in 4 rings of 16 detector blocks to yield a ring diameter of 64 mm and axial field of view of 55 mm. Each detector block consists of a 9 × 9 array of LYSO crystals (1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3}) and a monolithic 4 × 4 SiPM array. The temperature of each monolithic SiPM is monitored, and the proper bias voltage is applied according to the temperature reading in real time to maintain uniform performance. The performance of this PET insert was characterized using National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 4-2008 standards, and its feasibility was evaluated through in vivo mouse imaging studies. Results: The PET insert had a peak sensitivity of 3.4% and volumetric spatial resolutions of 1.92 (filtered back projection) and 0.53 (ordered subset expectation maximization) mm{sup 3} at center. The peak noise equivalent count rate and scatter fraction were 42.4 kcps at 15.08 MBq and 16.5%, respectively. By applying the real-time bias voltage adjustment, an energy resolution of 14.2% ± 0.3% was maintained and the count rate varied ≤1.2%, despite severe temperature changes (10–30 °C). The mouse imaging studies demonstrate that this PET insert can produce high-quality images useful for imaging studies on the small animals. Conclusions: The developed MR-compatible PET insert is designed for insertion into a narrow-bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner, and it provides excellent imaging performance for PET/MR preclinical studies.

  6. Measuring cardiac efficiency using PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Grand; Aparici, Carina Mari; Brooks, Gabriel; Liu, Jing; Guccione, Julius; Saloner, David; Seo, Adam Youngho; Ordovas, Karen Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that is projected by the American Heart Association to cost $160 billion by 2030. In HF, significant metabolic changes and structural remodeling lead to reduced cardiac efficiency. A normal heart is approximately 20-25% efficient measured by the ratio of work to oxygen utilization (1 ml oxygen = 21 joules). The heart requires rapid production of ATP where there is complete turnover of ATP every 10 seconds with 90% of ATP produced by mitochondrial oxidative metabolism requiring substrates of approximately 30% glucose and 65% fatty acids. In our preclinical PET/MRI studies in normal rats, we showed a negative correlation between work and the influx rate constant for 18FDG, confirming that glucose is not the preferred substrate at rest. However, even though fatty acid provides 9 kcal/gram compared to 4 kcal/gram for glucose, in HF the preferred energy source is glucose. PET/MRI offers the potential to study this maladapted mechanism of metabolism by measuring work in a region of myocardial tissue simultaneously with the measure of oxygen utilization, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism and to study cardiac efficiency in the etiology of and therapies for HF. MRI is used to measure strain and a finite element mechanical model using pressure measurements is used to estimate myofiber stress. The integral of strain times stress provides a measure of work which divided by energy utilization, estimated by the production of 11CO2 from intravenous injection of 11C-acetate, provides a measure of cardiac efficiency. Our project involves translating our preclinical research to the clinical application of measuring cardiac efficiency in patients. Using PET/MRI to develop technologies for studying myocardial efficiency in patients, provides an opportunity to relate cardiac work of specific tissue regions to metabolic substrates, and measure the heterogeneity of LV efficiency.

  7. Measuring cardiac efficiency using PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grand [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Aparici, Carina Mari; Brooks, Gabriel [University of California San Francisco (United States); Liu, Jing; Guccione, Julius; Saloner, David; Seo, Adam Youngho; Ordovas, Karen Gomes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that is projected by the American Heart Association to cost $160 billion by 2030. In HF, significant metabolic changes and structural remodeling lead to reduced cardiac efficiency. A normal heart is approximately 20-25% efficient measured by the ratio of work to oxygen utilization (1 ml oxygen = 21 joules). The heart requires rapid production of ATP where there is complete turnover of ATP every 10 seconds with 90% of ATP produced by mitochondrial oxidative metabolism requiring substrates of approximately 30% glucose and 65% fatty acids. In our preclinical PET/MRI studies in normal rats, we showed a negative correlation between work and the influx rate constant for 18FDG, confirming that glucose is not the preferred substrate at rest. However, even though fatty acid provides 9 kcal/gram compared to 4 kcal/gram for glucose, in HF the preferred energy source is glucose. PET/MRI offers the potential to study this maladapted mechanism of metabolism by measuring work in a region of myocardial tissue simultaneously with the measure of oxygen utilization, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism and to study cardiac efficiency in the etiology of and therapies for HF. MRI is used to measure strain and a finite element mechanical model using pressure measurements is used to estimate myofiber stress. The integral of strain times stress provides a measure of work which divided by energy utilization, estimated by the production of 11CO2 from intravenous injection of 11C-acetate, provides a measure of cardiac efficiency. Our project involves translating our preclinical research to the clinical application of measuring cardiac efficiency in patients. Using PET/MRI to develop technologies for studying myocardial efficiency in patients, provides an opportunity to relate cardiac work of specific tissue regions to metabolic substrates, and measure the heterogeneity of LV efficiency.

  8. Designing a tissue-engineered tracheal scaffold for preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cameron A; Pepper, Victoria K; Ohst, Devan; Bodnyk, Kyle; Heuer, Eric; Onwuka, Ekene A; King, Nakesha; Strouse, Robert; Grischkan, Jonathan; Breuer, Christopher K; Johnson, Jed; Chiang, Tendy

    2018-01-01

    Recent efforts to tissue engineer long-segment tracheal grafts have been complicated by stenosis and malacia. It has been proposed that both the mechanical characteristics and cell seeding capacity of TETG scaffolds are integral to graft performance. Our aim was to design a tracheal construct that approximates the biomechanical properties of native sheep trachea and optimizes seeding with bone marrow derived mononuclear cells prior to preclinical evaluation in an ovine model. A solution of 8% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 3% polyurethane (PU) was prepared at a ratio of either 8:2 or 2:8 and electrospun onto a custom stainless steel mandrel designed to match the dimensional measurements of the juvenile sheep trachea. 3D-printed porous or solid polycarbonate C-shaped rings were embedded within the scaffolds during electrospinning. The scaffolds underwent compression testing in the anterior-posterior and lateral-medial axes and the biomechanical profiles compared to that of a juvenile ovine trachea. The most biomimetic constructs then underwent vacuum seeding with ovine bone marrow derived mononuclear cells. Fluorometric DNA assay was used to quantify scaffold seeding. Both porous and solid rings approximated the biomechanics of the native ovine trachea, but the porous rings were most biomimetic. The load-displacement curve of scaffolds fabricated from a ratio of 2:8 PET:PU most closely mimicked that of native trachea in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Solid C-ringed scaffolds had a greater cell seeding efficiency when compared to porous ringed scaffolds (Solid: 19 × 10 4 vs. Porous: 9.6 × 10 4  cells/mm 3 , p = 0.0098). A long segment tracheal graft composed of 2:8 PET:PU with solid C-rings approximates the biomechanics of the native ovine trachea and demonstrates superior cell seeding capacity of the two prototypes tested. Further preclinical studies using this graft design in vivo would inform the rational design of an optimal TETG

  9. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Performance of a PET Insert for High-Resolution Small-Animal PET/MRI at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortz, Greg; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Bishop, Daryl; Khan, Muhammad Salman; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Schellenberg, Graham; Shams, Ehsan; Zhang, Xuezhu; Thompson, Christopher J; Goertzen, Andrew L; Sossi, Vesna

    2018-03-01

    We characterize a compact MR-compatible PET insert for simultaneous preclinical PET/MRI. Although specifically designed with the strict size constraint to fit inside the 114-mm inner diameter of the BGA-12S gradient coil used in the BioSpec 70/20 and 94/20 series of small-animal MRI systems, the insert can easily be installed in any appropriate MRI scanner or used as a stand-alone PET system. Methods: The insert consists of a ring of 16 detector-blocks each made from depth-of-interaction-capable dual-layer-offset arrays of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystals read out by silicon photomultiplier arrays. Scintillator crystal arrays are made from 22 × 10 and 21 × 9 crystals in the bottom and top layers, respectively, with respective layer thicknesses of 6 and 4 mm, arranged with a 1.27-mm pitch, resulting in a useable field of view 28 mm long and about 55 mm wide. Results: Spatial resolution ranged from 1.17 to 1.86 mm full width at half maximum in the radial direction from a radial offset of 0-15 mm. With a 300- to 800-keV energy window, peak sensitivity was 2.2% and noise-equivalent count rate from a mouse-sized phantom at 3.7 MBq was 11.1 kcps and peaked at 20.8 kcps at 14.5 MBq. Phantom imaging showed that features as small as 0.7 mm could be resolved. 18 F-FDG PET/MR images of mouse and rat brains showed no signs of intermodality interference and could excellently resolve substructures within the brain. Conclusion: Because of excellent spatial resolvability and lack of intermodality interference, this PET insert will serve as a useful tool for preclinical PET/MR. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Song W.; Choi, Chang W.; Yang, Seong Dae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    PET gives various methabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 250 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 180,000,000 won. 50,000,000 won was deposited for the 1998 PET clinical research. Second year PET clinical research should be managed under unified project. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18}FDG in a day purchase of HPLC pump and {sup 68}Ga pin source which was delayed due to economic crisis, should be done early in 1998. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Preclinical incorporation dosimetry of (+)-[18F) flubatine in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, B.; Patt, M.; Sabri, O.; Kranz, M.; Donat, C.K.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Fischer, S.; Brust, P.; Sattler, T.; Smits, R.; Hoepping, A.; Steinbach, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: (+)-[ 18 F] flubatine is the mirror image isomer of (-)-[ 18 F] flubatine, which is successfully used for neuroimaging of alpha4beta2 nAChRs with PET. To assess the radiation risk by this new radiotracer, biodistribution, organ doses (OD) and the effective dose (ED) were investigated in a preclinical trials using piglets. Method: whole body dosimetry of (+)-[ 18 F] flubatine was performed in 3 female piglets (age: 43 ± 1.2 days, weight: 14 ± 1.0 kg). The animals were narcotized using 20 mg/kg Ketamine, 2 mg/kg Azaperone; 1.5% Isoflurane in 70% N 2 O/30% O 2 and sequentially PET-imaged up to 5 hours post i.v. injection of 183.5 ± 9.0 MBq on a SIEMENS Biograph16 PET/CT-system on 7 bed positions (BP) per frame, 1.5 to 6 min/BP, CT-attenuation correction (AC) and iterative reconstruction. All relevant organs were defined by volumes of interest. Exponential curves were fitted to the time-activity-data (%ID/g, and %ID/organ). Time- and mass-scales were adapted to the human order of magnitude. The ODs were calculated using the adult male model with OLINDA. The ED was calculated using tissue weighting factors as published in the ICRP103. Results: The highest OD was received by the urinary bladder (71.7 ± 26.3 μSv/MBq), the kidneys (45.1 ± 6.5 μSv/MBq) and the brain (32.3 ± 3.24 μSv/MBq). The highest contribution to the ED was by the urinary bladder (2.9 ± 1.1 μSv/MBq), the lungs (1.7 ± 0.02 μSv/MBq) and the red marrow (1.4 ± 0.1μSv/MBq). According to this data, the ED to humans is 14.3 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq. Conclusion: considering 40% underestimation of the ED to humans by preclinical dosimetry [1] the expected ED to humans after 300 MBq i.v. is 7.2 mSv, which is about the ED by (-)-[ 18 F]flubatine (6.8 mSv/300 MBq) and well within the range of what other 18 F-labeled compounds cause to humans. This risk assessment encourages to transfer (+)-[F 18 ] flubatine from preclinical to clinical study phases and to further develop

  13. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of PET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Yu, E-mail: guyu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Dai, Tiantian, E-mail: maxinedtt@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  14. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.; Herraiz, Joaquin L. [Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moore, Stephen C.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Park, Mi-Ae [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Udías, Jose M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vaquero, Juan J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Biomédica e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés 28911 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  15. Household Hazards to Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visitors can pose a special challenge to your pets. Discourage well- meaning guests from spoiling pets with extra treats and scraps from the dinner ... other soft bones can splinter and damage your pet’s mouth or esophagus. While trick or treating is ...

  16. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animals. This is how cats get the toxoplasmosis parasite. Keep your pets away from wild animals or stray pets (which may be unvaccinated or sick). Things to consider Reptiles (such as lizards, snakes, and turtles) carry bacteria (germs) that can make ...

  17. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  18. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  19. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  20. Microfluidics: A Groundbreaking Technology for PET Tracer Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wängler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  1. Microfluidics: a groundbreaking technology for PET tracer production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Christian; Jackson, Alexander; Lindner, Simon; Salvamoser, Ruben; Samper, Victor; Riese, Stefan; Bartenstein, Peter; Wängler, Carmen; Wängler, Björn

    2013-07-05

    Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  2. PET performance evaluation of MADPET4: a small animal PET insert for a 7 T MRI scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Negar; Cabello, Jorge; Topping, Geoffrey; Schneider, Florian R.; Paul, Stephan; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2017-11-01

    MADPET4 is the first small animal PET insert with two layers of individually read out crystals in combination with silicon photomultiplier technology. It has a novel detector arrangement, in which all crystals face the center of field of view transaxially. In this work, the PET performance of MADPET4 was evaluated and compared to other preclinical PET scanners using the NEMA NU 4 measurements, followed by imaging a mouse-size hot-rod resolution phantom and two in vivo simultaneous PET/MRI scans in a 7 T MRI scanner. The insert had a peak sensitivity of 0.49%, using an energy threshold of 350 keV. A uniform transaxial resolution was obtained up to 15 mm radial offset from the axial center, using filtered back-projection with single-slice rebinning. The measured average radial and tangential resolutions (FWHM) were 1.38 mm and 1.39 mm, respectively. The 1.2 mm rods were separable in the hot-rod phantom using an iterative image reconstruction algorithm. The scatter fraction was 7.3% and peak noise equivalent count rate was 15.5 kcps at 65.1 MBq of activity. The FDG uptake in a mouse heart and brain were visible in the two in vivo simultaneous PET/MRI scans without applying image corrections. In conclusion, the insert demonstrated a good overall performance and can be used for small animal multi-modal research applications.

  3. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  4. Preclinical models for obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Barrett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene–environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity.

  5. Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Dutta

    Full Text Available Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET, which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM.NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch.To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches.The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high

  6. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Demir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET component of PET/computed tomography (CT with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR of the same vendor. Methods: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated aspects were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, image quality, count loss and random events correction accuracy. Results: The findings of this study demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 4 folds of PET scanner in PET/MR compared to PET/CT system. Image quality test exhibited higher contrast in PET/MR (~ 9% compared with PET/CT. The scatter fraction of PET/MR was 43.4% at noise equivalent count rate (NECR peak of 218 kcps and the corresponding activity concentration was 17.7 kBq/cc. Whereas the scatter fraction of PET/CT was found as 39.2% at NECR peak of 72 kcps and activity concentration of 24.3 kBq/cc. The percentage error of the random event correction accuracy was 3.4% and 3.1% in PET/MR and PET/CT, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that PET/MR system is about 4 times more sensitive than PET/CT, and the contrast of hot lesions in PET/MR was ~ 9% higher than PET/CT. These outcomes also emphasize the possibility to achieve excellent clinical PET images with low administered dose and/or a short acquisition time in PET/MR.

  7. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of O-[11C]methyl-L-tyrosine for tumor imaging by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Tsukada, Hideo; Kubota, Kazuo; Nariai, Tadashi; Harada, Norihiro; Kawamura, Kazunori; Kimura, Yuichi; Oda, Keiichi; Iwata, Ren; Ishii, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    We performed preclinical and clinical studies of O-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tyrosine, a potential tracer for imaging amino acid transport of tumors by positron emission tomography (PET). Examinations of the radiation-absorbed dose by O-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tyrosine and the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of O-methyl-L-tyrosine showed suitability of the tracer for clinical use. The whole-body imaging of monkeys and healthy humans by PET showed low uptake of O-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tyrosine in all normal organs except for the urinary track and bladder, suggesting that the O-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tyrosine PET has the potential for tumor imaging in the whole-body. Finally, the brain tumor imaging was preliminarily demonstrated

  8. Preclinical studies on [{sup 11}C]MPDX for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Oda, Keiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan). Positron Medical Center; Nariai, Tadashi; Wakabayashi, Shinichi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimada, Junichi [Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Inst.

    2002-09-01

    In previous in vivo studies with mice, rats and cats, we have demonstrated that [{sup 11}C]MPDX ([1-methyl-{sup 11}C]8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine) is a potential radioligand for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors of the brain by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we performed a preclinical study. The radiation absorbed-dose by [{sup 11}C]MPDX in humans estimated from the tissue distribution in mice was low enough for clinical use, and the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of MPDX were not found. The monkey brain was clearly visualized by PET with [{sup 11}C]MPDX. We have concluded that [{sup 11}C]MPDX is suitable for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in the human brain by PET. (author)

  9. Functional network integrity presages cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Rachel F; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Papp, Kathryn V; Hanseeuw, Bernard J; Marshall, Gad; Sepulcre, Jorge; Smith, Emily E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2017-07-04

    To examine the utility of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) measurements of network integrity as a predictor of future cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 237 clinically normal older adults (aged 63-90 years, Clinical Dementia Rating 0) underwent baseline β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging with Pittsburgh compound B PET and structural and rs-fcMRI. We identified 7 networks for analysis, including 4 cognitive networks (default, salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control) and 3 noncognitive networks (primary visual, extrastriate visual, motor). Using linear and curvilinear mixed models, we used baseline connectivity in these networks to predict longitudinal changes in preclinical Alzheimer cognitive composite (PACC) performance, both alone and interacting with Aβ burden. Median neuropsychological follow-up was 3 years. Baseline connectivity in the default, salience, and control networks predicted longitudinal PACC decline, unlike connectivity in the dorsal attention and all noncognitive networks. Default, salience, and control network connectivity was also synergistic with Aβ burden in predicting decline, with combined higher Aβ and lower connectivity predicting the steepest curvilinear decline in PACC performance. In clinically normal older adults, lower functional connectivity predicted more rapid decline in PACC scores over time, particularly when coupled with increased Aβ burden. Among examined networks, default, salience, and control networks were the strongest predictors of rate of change in PACC scores, with the inflection point of greatest decline beyond the fourth year of follow-up. These results suggest that rs-fcMRI may be a useful predictor of early, AD-related cognitive decline in clinical research settings. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Leukotrienes as Modifiers of Preclinical Atherosclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Riccioni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical atherosclerosis represents a crucial period associated with several pathophysiological reactions in the vascular wall. Failure to diagnose preclinical atherosclerosis at this stage misses a major opportunity to prevent the long-term consequences of this disease. Surrogate biological and structural vascular markers are available to determine the presence and the extension of preclinical vascular injury in the general population. Examples of surrogate markers are carotid intima media thickness and biomarkers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, cell adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases, and leukotrienes. Recently, leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators, biomarkers, and possible therapeutic targets in the context of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this short paper is to focus on the relation between preclinical atherosclerosis and leukotrienes, with particular attention to the recent development on the use of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. Preclinical imaging: an essential ally in modern biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Lídia; Horvath, Ildiko; Ferreira, Sara; Lemos, Joana; Costa, Pedro; Vieira, Domingos; Veres, Dániel S; Szigeti, Krisztián; Summavielle, Teresa; Máthé, Domokos; Metello, Luís F

    2014-04-01

    Translational research is changing the practice of modern medicine and the way in which health problems are approached and solved. The use of small-animal models in basic and preclinical sciences is a major keystone for these kinds of research and development strategies, representing a bridge between discoveries at the molecular level and clinical implementation in diagnostics and/or therapeutics. The development of high-resolution in vivo imaging technologies provides a unique opportunity for studying disease in real time, in a quantitative way, at the molecular level, along with the ability to repeatedly and non-invasively monitor disease progression or response to treatment. The greatest advantages of preclinical imaging techniques include the reduction of biological variability and the opportunity to acquire, in continuity, an impressive amount of unique information (without interfering with the biological process under study) in distinct forms, repeated or modulated as needed, along with the substantial reduction in the number of animals required for a particular study, fully complying with 3R (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) policies. The most suitable modalities for small-animal in vivo imaging applications are based on nuclear medicine techniques (essentially, positron emission tomography [PET] and single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]), optical imaging (OI), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI), and ultrasound. Each modality has intrinsic advantages and limitations. More recently, aiming to overcome the inherent limitations of each imaging modality, multimodality devices designed to provide complementary information upon the pathophysiological process under study have gained popularity. The combination of high-resolution modalities, like micro-CT or micro-MRI, with highly sensitive techniques providing functional information, such as micro-PET or micro-SPECT, will

  12. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people to get sick from diseases shared between animals and people (also known as zoonotic diseases or zoonoses). CDC ... valuable source of information on diseases shared between animals and people. Keep Your Pet Healthy Whether you have a ...

  13. Extracellular domain shedding influences specific tumor uptake and organ distribution of the EGFR PET tracer 89Zr-imgatuzumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Martin; Kol, Arjan; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Gerdes, Christian A; de Jong, Steven; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G T

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a mismatch between in vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and EGFR antibody tracer tumor uptake. Shed EGFR ectodomain (sEGFR), which is present in cancer patient sera, can potentially bind tracer and therefore

  14. [C-11]raclopride-PET studies of the Huntington's disease rate of progression : Relevance of the trinucleotide repeat length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonini, A; Leenders, KL; Eidelberg, D

    We used [C-11]raclopride and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relationship between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding, trinucleotide repeat number (GAG), and subject age in 10 asymptomatic and 8 symptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation. In both preclinical

  15. PET and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Sevencan; Songul A. Vaizoglu

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water,...

  16. Monitoring of anti-cancer treatment with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging of solid tumors with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an evolving field with continuous development of new PET tracers and discovery of new applications for already implemented PET tracers. During treatment of cancer patients, a general challenge is to measure...... treatment effect early in a treatment course and by that to stratify patients into responders and non-responders. With 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine((18)F-FLT) two of the cancer hallmarks, altered energy metabolism and increased cell proliferation, can...... be visualized and quantified non-invasively by PET. With (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT PET changes in energy metabolism and cell proliferation can thereby be determined after initiation of cancer treatment in both clinical and pre-clinical studies in order to predict, at an early time-point, treatment response...

  17. Direct Parametric Image Reconstruction in Reduced Parameter Space for Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhoulei; Liu, Zhen; Navab, Nassir; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Keller, Ulrich; Ziegler, Sibylle; Shi, Kuangyu

    2015-02-12

    The separation of multiple PET tracers within an overlapping scan based on intrinsic differences of tracer pharmacokinetics is challenging, due to limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PET measurements and high complexity of fitting models. In this study, we developed a direct parametric image reconstruction (DPIR) method for estimating kinetic parameters and recovering single tracer information from rapid multi-tracer PET measurements. This is achieved by integrating a multi-tracer model in a reduced parameter space (RPS) into dynamic image reconstruction. This new RPS model is reformulated from an existing multi-tracer model and contains fewer parameters for kinetic fitting. Ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) was employed to approximate log-likelihood function with respect to kinetic parameters. To incorporate the multi-tracer model, an iterative weighted nonlinear least square (WNLS) method was employed. The proposed multi-tracer DPIR (MTDPIR) algorithm was evaluated on dual-tracer PET simulations ([18F]FDG and [11C]MET) as well as on preclinical PET measurements ([18F]FLT and [18F]FDG). The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to the indirect parameter estimation method with the original dual-tracer model. The respective contributions of the RPS technique and the DPIR method to the performance of the new algorithm were analyzed in detail. For the preclinical evaluation, the tracer separation results were compared with single [18F]FDG scans of the same subjects measured 2 days before the dual-tracer scan. The results of the simulation and preclinical studies demonstrate that the proposed MT-DPIR method can improve the separation of multiple tracers for PET image quantification and kinetic parameter estimations.

  18. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...... is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small...

  19. Experimental validation of gallium production and isotope-dependent positron range correction in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile, L.M., E-mail: lmfraile@ucm.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L.; Udías, J.M.; Cal-González, J.; Corzo, P.M.G.; España, S.; Herranz, E.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Picado, E.; Vicente, E. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Muñoz-Martín, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-01

    Positron range (PR) is one of the important factors that limit the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) preclinical images. Its blurring effect can be corrected to a large extent if the appropriate method is used during the image reconstruction. Nevertheless, this correction requires an accurate modelling of the PR for the particular radionuclide and materials in the sample under study. In this work we investigate PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga radioisotopes, which have a large PR and are being used in many preclinical and clinical PET studies. We produced a {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga phantom on a natural zinc target through (p,n) reactions using the 9-MeV proton beam delivered by the 5-MV CMAM tandetron accelerator. The phantom was imaged in an ARGUS small animal PET/CT scanner and reconstructed with a fully 3D iterative algorithm, with and without PR corrections. The reconstructed images at different time frames show significant improvement in spatial resolution when the appropriate PR is applied for each frame, by taking into account the relative amount of each isotope in the sample. With these results we validate our previously proposed PR correction method for isotopes with large PR. Additionally, we explore the feasibility of PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga radioisotopes in proton therapy.

  20. Experimental validation of gallium production and isotope-dependent positron range correction in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, L. M.; Herraiz, J. L.; Udías, J. M.; Cal-González, J.; Corzo, P. M. G.; España, S.; Herranz, E.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Picado, E.; Vicente, E.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Vaquero, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Positron range (PR) is one of the important factors that limit the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) preclinical images. Its blurring effect can be corrected to a large extent if the appropriate method is used during the image reconstruction. Nevertheless, this correction requires an accurate modelling of the PR for the particular radionuclide and materials in the sample under study. In this work we investigate PET imaging with 68Ga and 66Ga radioisotopes, which have a large PR and are being used in many preclinical and clinical PET studies. We produced a 68Ga and 66Ga phantom on a natural zinc target through (p,n) reactions using the 9-MeV proton beam delivered by the 5-MV CMAM tandetron accelerator. The phantom was imaged in an ARGUS small animal PET/CT scanner and reconstructed with a fully 3D iterative algorithm, with and without PR corrections. The reconstructed images at different time frames show significant improvement in spatial resolution when the appropriate PR is applied for each frame, by taking into account the relative amount of each isotope in the sample. With these results we validate our previously proposed PR correction method for isotopes with large PR. Additionally, we explore the feasibility of PET imaging with 68Ga and 66Ga radioisotopes in proton therapy.

  1. Lymphoma: current status of clinical and preclinical imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Christopher G.; Rui, Lixin; Cai, Weibo

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification. Currently, there are two common biomarkers for molecular imaging of lymphoma, CD20 and CD30, both of which have been considered for investigation in preclinical imaging studies. In this review, we examine the current status of both preclinical and clinical imaging of lymphoma using radiolabeled antibodies. Additionally, we briefly investigate the role of radiolabeled antibodies in lymphoma therapy. As radiolabeled antibodies play critical roles in both imaging and therapy of lymphoma, the development of novel antibodies and the discovery of new biomarkers may greatly affect lymphoma imaging and therapy in the future. (orig.)

  2. Lymphoma: current status of clinical and preclinical imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Christopher G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Rui, Lixin [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification. Currently, there are two common biomarkers for molecular imaging of lymphoma, CD20 and CD30, both of which have been considered for investigation in preclinical imaging studies. In this review, we examine the current status of both preclinical and clinical imaging of lymphoma using radiolabeled antibodies. Additionally, we briefly investigate the role of radiolabeled antibodies in lymphoma therapy. As radiolabeled antibodies play critical roles in both imaging and therapy of lymphoma, the development of novel antibodies and the discovery of new biomarkers may greatly affect lymphoma imaging and therapy in the future. (orig.)

  3. Clinically different stages of Alzheimer's disease associated by amyloid deposition with [11C]-PIB PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita, Shizuo; Yamasaki, Hidetomo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether [11C]-PIB PET detects underlying amyloid deposition at clinically different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and preclinical dementia. The Japanese cohort of 214 subjects underwent cognitive testing and 60-min dynamic [11C]-PIB PET. [11C]-PIB data were acquired from 35-60 min after injection. Regions of interest were defined on co-registered MRI. Distribution volume ratios (DVR) of PIB retention were determined using Logan graphical analysis. All 56 patients with AD showed a robust increase in PIB retention in cortical areas (typical PIB AD-pattern). A mean DVR value in 11 patients with moderate AD (CDR: 2.1 ± 0.4) showed significantly higher PIB retention (2.38 ± 0.42, p PIB PET imaging. Further, the cortical amyloid deposition could be detected at preclinical stage of AD.

  4. PET applications in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulkin, B. L. [Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Medical Center (United States). Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Section

    1997-12-01

    This article summarizes the major PET studies which have been performed in pediatric patients to elucidate and characterize diseases and normal development. Issues special for the application of the technique in children, such as dosimetry, patient preparation, and image acquisition are discussed. Studies of central nervous system (CNS) development and pathology, including epilepsy, intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, tumors, and effects on the CNS from treatment of other tumors are reviewed. These have contributed information fundamental to their understanding of CNS development and pathology. PET investigations into the pathophysiology of congenital heart disease have begun and hold great promise to aid their understanding of these conditions. The second major area in which PET has been applied is the study of non CNS neoplasms. Neuroblastoma has been investigated with tracers which explore basic biochemical features which characterize this tumor, as well as with tracers which explore biochemical events relatively specific for this malignancy. Other common and uncommon tumors of childhood are discussed. The PET technique has been shown useful for answering questions of clinical relevance for the management of these uncommon neoplasms. PET is likely to continue to aid their understanding of many pediatric diseases and may gain more widespread clinical acceptance as the technology continues to disseminate rapidly.

  5. Medical application of PET technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [ 18 F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals

  6. PET in neuro-oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Leenders, K.L.

    This article reviews possible clinical applications of positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumor patients. PET allows quantitative assessment of brain tumor pathophysiology and biochemistry. It therefore provides different information about tumors when compared to histological or

  7. Take Care with Pet Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Take Care with Pet Reptiles and Amphibians Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... pets and disease risks Safe Handling Tips for Reptiles and Amphibians Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  8. Medical application of PET technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  9. PET imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common place and often chronic. Most inflammatory cells have increased uptake of glucose which is enhanced in the presence of local cytokines. Therefore, imaging glucose metabolism by the means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) holds significant promise in imaging focal inflammation. Most of the work published involved small series of patients with either vasculitis, sarcoid or rheumatoid arthritis. It would appear that FDG PET is a simple and effective technique to identify inflammatory tissue in these conditions. There is even some work to suggest that by comparing baseline and early post therapy scans clinical outcome can be predicted. This would appear to be true with vasculitis as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis. The number of patients in each study is small but the evidence is compelling enough to recommend FDG PET imaging in the routine care of these patients.

  10. PET imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Copray, Sjef; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; de Vries, Erik

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive technique for quantitative imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in animals and humans. PET uses probes labeled with a radioactive isotope, called PET tracers, which can bind to or be converted by a specific biological target and thus

  11. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard P Freedman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible-in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures.

  12. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  13. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H. G.; Hong, S. J.; Ko, G. B.; Yoon, H. S.; Song, I. C.; Rhee, J. T.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by -0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B0 and B1 field homogeneity without PET, with `PET OFF', and with `PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation.

  14. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.G.; Hong, S.J.; Ko, G.B.; Yoon, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Song, I.C.; Rhee, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by −0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm 3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm 3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B 0 and B 1 field homogeneity without PET, with 'PET OFF', and with 'PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B 0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B 1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation

  15. Innovative complexation strategies for the introduction of short-lived PET isotopes into radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    A number of TRAP (Triazacyclononane-triphosphinate) chelators were evaluated for labelling with Gallium-68. Based on the obtained data, a novel bifunctional chelator NOPO was designed, synthesised and employed for preparation of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Several 68 Ga-labelled NOPO peptidic conjugates showed promising results in preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies using the mice models. Moreover, NOPO was found also suitable for labelling with Copper-64.

  16. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  17. Rise of the machines : cyclotrons and radiopharmaceuticals in the PET-CT-MR golden age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Full text: One particularly inspiring narrative in the evolution of medical imaging over 35 years begins with the introduction of quassi-routine production of 18F, enabled by advances in reliability of (medical) cyclotrons; invention of the 'molecule of the century' [18F]FOG and its robust synthesis; comprehending betrayal of major tumour-cell types by their glucose avidity; astounding advances in PET scanners (recently, time-of-flight); and marriage of anatomic with functional 3-D imaging as PET/CT or (recently) PET/MR. Though the explosion in PET is identified historically with diagnostic oncology plus quantitation of nuclear medicine, plus the collateral leverage of advances in CT and MR, other potentially transformative opportunities (pre-diagnosis or quantifying treatment response) are emerging in dementia and diabetes-as exemplars of PET-addressable mass afflictions-driven by advances in specificity/sensitivity of targeting molecules. PET delivers femto-M functional sensitivity (e.g.; receptor-targeting)-several magnitude-orders of narrow-context superiority over MR or CT-exemplified by the rapid rise of solid-targetry metallo-PET (64Cu, 89Zr), and concomitantly, preclinical radioimmuno micro-PET/CT/SPECT imaging. Though [11 C ] PET has elucidated brain, prostate and other cell +/- tumour mechanisms, realistic clinical rollout demands longer halflife [18F]-labelling. [18F] innovations beyond [18F]FDG elucidate numerous metabolisms, including choline, hypoxia, apoptosis and amino-acid, and notably will soon provide a routine-clinical [18F]-alternative to [11 C] based beta-amyloid dementia diagnosis. Frontier PET is constrained by cost/dose, shackled to 'twentieth century' technologies-cyclotron, hotcell and synthesis unit. Example is [18F] bone scintigraphy; acknowledged as clinically superior to [99mTc]MOP, its widespread implementation awaits cheaper isotope, accessible PET/CT scanners, and maybe 'true' shortage of [99mTc]. Generator-sourced 68 Ga-PET is

  18. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Samuel; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Keereman, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel

    2014-07-01

    A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm3. Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm3 optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq-1 and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated. In conclusion, a compact PET

  19. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    España, Samuel; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Keereman, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm 3 . Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm 3  optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18 F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18 F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq −1  and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated

  20. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  1. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...

  2. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B

    2018-01-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants...

  3. Control of pet animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T F

    1976-06-26

    Pet animals play an important and valuable role in human society, but irresponsible ownership has created problems of surplus animals, threats to health, pollution, nuisance, cruelty and neglect. Urgent and drastic action is required to deal with the situation, and the measures proposed include the appointment of dog wardens, limitation of numbers, enclosure and leash laws, and subsidised spay clinics.

  4. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma; PET y PET/CT en melanoma maligno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  5. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  6. PET for gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Momose, Toshimitsu

    1999-01-01

    CT and MRI imaging, which essentially provide the physical status of tissue, give important information on the histopathology and extent of gliomas. On the contrary, PET is a biochemical and physiologic technology and is beginning to give more precise information about gliomas, which allows the distinction between gliomas and normal brains, the supply of histopathologic and prognostic information, and the assessment of the response to the therapy. To date, fluorine-18fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) and 11C-methionine (MET) are widely used PET tracers for gliomas. Recent studies have demonstrated that the degree of the increase in the glycolytic rate in gliomas, as measured with FDG, is correlated with the histologic grade and prognosis. However, MET is superior to FDG in delineation of the boundaries of gliomas, because MET sometimes shows the lesion invaded by gliomas, which is usually wider than that detected by CT or MRI imaging. Finally, we discussed about 11C-Choline PET, in which T/N ratio of gliomas was remarkably high, and residual tumors were easily distinguished from surrounding normal tissues after surgery. In conclusion, it is important to know the advantage of individual PET tracers and combine a couple of tracers to obtain accurate information about gliomas. (author)

  7. PET CT and lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about Tc and lymphomas. Classification and clinical cases of various cancer such as gastro duodenal or ulcer, mama, medullary, lymph and neck, leukemia, nodular sclerosis. Metabolic information, anatomical nature of lymphoma and its clinical presentation determine the extent that PET should be used in the patient.

  8. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in preclinical Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Sijens, Paul E.; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2007-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a hereditary brain disease, causing progressive deterioration after a preclinical phase. The pathophysiology of early brain abnormalities around disease onset is largely unknown. Some preclinical mutation carriers (PMC) show structural or metabolic changes on brain imaging

  9. WE-H-206-00: Advances in Preclinical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    to biomedical research during the past decade. The initial development was an extension of clinical PET/CT and SPECT/CT from human to small animals and combine the unique functional information obtained from PET and SPECT with anatomical information provided by the CT in registered multi-modality images. The requirements to image a mouse whose size is an order of magnitude smaller than that of a human have spurred advances in new radiation detector technologies, novel imaging system designs and special image reconstruction and processing techniques. Examples are new detector materials and designs with high intrinsic resolution, multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator design for much improved resolution and detection efficiency compared to the conventional collimator designs in SPECT, 3D high-resolution and artifact-free MPH and sparse-view image reconstruction techniques, and iterative image reconstruction methods with system response modeling for resolution recovery and image noise reduction for much improved image quality. The spatial resolution of PET and SPECT has improved from ∼6–12 mm to ∼1 mm a few years ago to sub-millimeter today. A recent commercial small animal SPECT system has achieved a resolution of ∼0.25 mm which surpasses that of a state-of-art PET system whose resolution is limited by the positron range. More recently, multimodality SA PET/MRI and SPECT/MRI systems have been developed in research laboratories. Also, multi-modality SA imaging systems that include other imaging modalities such as optical and ultrasound are being actively pursued. In this presentation, we will provide a review of the development, recent advances and future outlook of multi-modality molecular imaging of small animals. Learning Objectives: To learn about the two major multi-modality molecular imaging techniques of small animals. To learn about the spatial resolution achievable by the molecular imaging systems for small animal today. To learn about the new multi

  10. WE-H-206-00: Advances in Preclinical Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    to biomedical research during the past decade. The initial development was an extension of clinical PET/CT and SPECT/CT from human to small animals and combine the unique functional information obtained from PET and SPECT with anatomical information provided by the CT in registered multi-modality images. The requirements to image a mouse whose size is an order of magnitude smaller than that of a human have spurred advances in new radiation detector technologies, novel imaging system designs and special image reconstruction and processing techniques. Examples are new detector materials and designs with high intrinsic resolution, multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator design for much improved resolution and detection efficiency compared to the conventional collimator designs in SPECT, 3D high-resolution and artifact-free MPH and sparse-view image reconstruction techniques, and iterative image reconstruction methods with system response modeling for resolution recovery and image noise reduction for much improved image quality. The spatial resolution of PET and SPECT has improved from ∼6–12 mm to ∼1 mm a few years ago to sub-millimeter today. A recent commercial small animal SPECT system has achieved a resolution of ∼0.25 mm which surpasses that of a state-of-art PET system whose resolution is limited by the positron range. More recently, multimodality SA PET/MRI and SPECT/MRI systems have been developed in research laboratories. Also, multi-modality SA imaging systems that include other imaging modalities such as optical and ultrasound are being actively pursued. In this presentation, we will provide a review of the development, recent advances and future outlook of multi-modality molecular imaging of small animals. Learning Objectives: To learn about the two major multi-modality molecular imaging techniques of small animals. To learn about the spatial resolution achievable by the molecular imaging systems for small animal today. To learn about the new multi

  11. Dual tracer imaging of SPECT and PET probes in living mice using a sequential protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sarah E; Diener, Justin M; Sasser, Todd A; Correcher, Carlos; González, Antonio J; Avermaete, Tony Van; Leevy, W Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, multimodal imaging strategies have motivated the fusion of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scans with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image to provide anatomical information, as well as a framework with which molecular and functional images may be co-registered. Recently, pre-clinical nuclear imaging technology has evolved to capture multiple SPECT or multiple PET tracers to further enhance the information content gathered within an imaging experiment. However, the use of SPECT and PET probes together, in the same animal, has remained a challenge. Here we describe a straightforward method using an integrated trimodal imaging system and a sequential dosing/acquisition protocol to achieve dual tracer imaging with (99m)Tc and (18)F isotopes, along with anatomical CT, on an individual specimen. Dosing and imaging is completed so that minimal animal manipulations are required, full trimodal fusion is conserved, and tracer crosstalk including down-scatter of the PET tracer in SPECT mode is avoided. This technique will enhance the ability of preclinical researchers to detect multiple disease targets and perform functional, molecular, and anatomical imaging on individual specimens to increase the information content gathered within longitudinal in vivo studies.

  12. uPAR-targeted optical near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and PET for image-guided surgery in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Juhl, Karina; Persson, Morten

    2017-01-01

    the feasibility of combining two uPARtargeted probes in a preclinical head and neck cancer model. The PET modality provided preoperative non-invasive tumor imaging and the optical modality allowed for real-time fluorescence-guided tumor detection and resection. Clinical translation of this platform seems...

  13. Calibration and stability of a SiPM-based simultaneous PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, Christoph W., E-mail: christoph.lerche@philips.com [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mackewn, Jane [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Goldschmidt, Benjamin [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany); Salomon, Andre; Gebbhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Ayres, Richard [Philips Research, Europe Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kings College London (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Schulz, Volkmar [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    On behalf of the HYPER Image project, a Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based preclinical PET insert for a commercial human 3 T MRI scanner was built. In this contribution we report on the stability of imaging performance of the PET scanner and MR hardness and compatibility. From data sets that were acquired during the last 7 months we extracted SiPM gain values and their annual drift, the mean energy resolution and the energy resolution drift, spatial resolution and spatial resolution drift, and photo peak position and their annual drift. Further, a point source and a hot rod phantom was imaged fully simultaneously with the MRI scanner and the PET scanner. No interference between either modality was observed.

  14. THE PETS:Game Introduction of Pets in Two Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducing environment is important for children. Included in this environment is the life of living beings such as humans, animals, and plants. The role of parents is needed in introducing the living creatures. One of the living creatures that endeared children are animals, especially the pets. Therefore made educational game The Pets. With the game "The Pets" is expected to help parents to teach the children in learning about pets based on place of living and food. In this paper describes how to design and create introducing pet game based on the type of food and its habitat in two different languages . "The Pets" has the Android platform with a minimum API Level 14 is created using the game engine Construct 2. Using two dimensional model and image with interesting coloring for children, and using the application CorelDraw X4. From results of the survey, "The Pets" can provide new knowledge and can assist children in learning about pets based on place of living and food. Children who previously could not mention animals vocabulary in English, after playing "The Pets" can name them into English.

  15. Resina pet para recipientes

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Ricardo Sá Peixoto; Monteiro Filha, Dulce Corrêa; Pan, Simon Shi Koo

    1996-01-01

    O mercado potencial de resina PET para recipientes é grande, com ampla expectativa de expansão. A nível mundial, esta ocorrendo um ciclo de expansão que deverá levar a uma sobrecapacidade, pressionando os preços para baixo. No Brasil, a escassez de resina PET tem retardado sua maior utilização em recipientes, notadamente de bebidas carbonatadas e em mercados em desenvolvimento, como o de óleo comestível e água mineral. Com a entrada em operação da fábrica da Nitrocarbono e da expansão da Rhod...

  16. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some...... of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... of different MRI techniques, such as DWI-MR (diffusion weighted imaging MR), DCE-MR (dynamic contrast enhanced MR), MRS (MR spectroscopy) and MR for attenuation correction of PET. All MR techniques presented in this paper have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with solid tumors and could...

  17. PET in lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R. E. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation.

  18. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  19. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of O-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tyrosine for tumor imaging by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan)]. E-mail: ishiwata@pet.tmig.or.jp; Tsukada, Hideo [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamakita 434-8601 (Japan); Kubota, Kazuo [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, International Medical Center of Japan, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Nariai, Tadashi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Harada, Norihiro [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, International Medical Center of Japan, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Kawamura, Kazunori [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Kimura, Yuichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Iwata, Ren [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    We performed preclinical and clinical studies of O-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tyrosine, a potential tracer for imaging amino acid transport of tumors by positron emission tomography (PET). Examinations of the radiation-absorbed dose by O-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tyrosine and the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of O-methyl-L-tyrosine showed suitability of the tracer for clinical use. The whole-body imaging of monkeys and healthy humans by PET showed low uptake of O-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tyrosine in all normal organs except for the urinary track and bladder, suggesting that the O-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tyrosine PET has the potential for tumor imaging in the whole-body. Finally, the brain tumor imaging was preliminarily demonstrated.

  20. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ebru Tayyar; Sevcan Üstün

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bot...

  1. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  2. Imaging biomarkers predict response to anti-HER2 (ErbB2) therapy in preclinical models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirayu; Miller, Todd W; Wyatt, Shelby K; McKinley, Eliot T; Olivares, Maria Graciela; Sanchez, Violeta; Nolting, Donald D; Buck, Jason R; Zhao, Ping; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Gore, John C; Schiff, Rachel; Arteaga, Carlos L; Manning, H Charles

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate noninvasive imaging methods as predictive biomarkers of response to trastuzumab in mouse models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The correlation between tumor regression and molecular imaging of apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and cellular proliferation was evaluated longitudinally in responding and nonresponding tumor-bearing cohorts. Mammary tumors from MMTV/HER2 transgenic female mice were transplanted into syngeneic female mice. BT474 human breast carcinoma cell line xenografts were grown in athymic nude mice. Tumor cell apoptosis (NIR700-Annexin V accumulation), glucose metabolism [2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET)], and proliferation [3'-[18F]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine-PET ([18F]FLT-PET)] were evaluated throughout a biweekly trastuzumab regimen. Imaging metrics were validated by direct measurement of tumor size and immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3, phosphorylated AKT, and Ki67. NIR700-Annexin V accumulated significantly in trastuzumab-treated MMTV/HER2 and BT474 tumors that ultimately regressed but not in nonresponding or vehicle-treated tumors. Uptake of [18F]FDG was not affected by trastuzumab treatment in MMTV/HER2 or BT474 tumors. [18F]FLT-PET imaging predicted trastuzumab response in BT474 tumors but not in MMTV/HER2 tumors, which exhibited modest uptake of [18F]FLT. Close agreement was observed between imaging metrics and immunohistochemical analysis. Molecular imaging of apoptosis accurately predicts trastuzumab-induced regression of HER2+ tumors and may warrant clinical exploration to predict early response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab. Trastuzumab does not seem to alter glucose metabolism substantially enough to afford [18F]FDG-PET significant predictive value in this setting. Although promising in one preclinical model, further studies are required to determine the overall value of [18F]FLT-PET as a biomarker of response to trastuzumab in HER2+ breast cancer.

  3. Preclinical Evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-Minigastrin for the Detection of Cholecystokinin-2/Gastrin Receptor-Positive Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Brom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, gastrin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-minigastrin (MG0 showed added value in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether the 68Ga-labeled gastrin analogue DOTA-MG0 is suited for positron emission tomography (PET, which could improve image quality. Targeting of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumor cells with DOTA-MG0 labeled with either 111In or 68Ga in vitro was investigated using the AR42J rat tumor cell line. Biodistribution was examined in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous AR42J tumor. In vivo PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET-computed tomographic scanner. DOTA-MG0 showed high receptor affinity in vitro. Biodistribution studies revealed high tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0: 4.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 1 hour postinjection. Coadministration of an excess unlabeled peptide blocked the tumor uptake (0.7 ± 0.1 %ID/g, indicating CCK2/gastrin receptor-mediated uptake (p = .0005. The biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 was similar to that of 111In-DOTA-MG0. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging with 5 MBq 68Ga-DOTA-MG0. 111In- and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-MG0 specifically accumulate in CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive AR42J tumors with similar biodistribution apart from the kidneys. AR42J tumors were clearly visualized by microPET. Therefore, 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 is a promising tracer for PET imaging of CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumors in humans.

  4. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  5. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  6. Pet Overpopulation: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Coate; Brian Knight

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  7. PET kinetic analysis. Compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoko; Shidahara, Miho; Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) enables not only visualization of the distribution of radiotracer, but also has ability to quantify several biomedical functions. Compartmental model is a basic idea to analyze dynamic PET data. This review describes the principle of the compartmental model and categorizes the techniques and approaches for the compartmental model according to various aspects: model design, experimental design, invasiveness, and mathematical solution. We also discussed advanced applications of the compartmental analysis with PET. (author)

  8. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  9. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  10. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  11. PET and PET/CT - clinical value in lung cancer; PET und PET/CT - Stellenwert beim Lungenkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinert, H.C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nukearmedizin, Dept. Medizinische Radiologie, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    Preoperative staging of lung cancer is essential for prognosis and management. The aim of this overview is to present the synergistic effects of FDG-PET and CT. For planning surgery and planning radiation treatment the precise definition of the tumor extend is essential. Integrated PET/CT scanning enables the exact localization of tumor infiltration into surrounding tissue and of small metastases. In this overview the applications of PET and PET/CT in non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma are presented. (orig.)

  12. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  13. A combined positron emission tomography (PET)- electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) system: initial evaluation of a prototype scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark; Stolin, Alexander V; Guggilapu, Priyaankadevi; Bobko, Andrey A; Khramtsov, Valery V; Tseytlin, Oxana; Raylman, Raymond R

    2018-04-20

    The advent of hybrid scanners, combining complementary modalities, has revolutionized imaging; enhancing clinical practice and biomedical research. In this project, we investigated the melding of two complementary, functional imaging methods: positron emission tomography (PET) and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI). The PET radiotracers can provide important information about cellular parameters, such as glucose metabolism. While EPR probes can provide assessment of tissue microenvironment, measuring parameters such as oxygenation and pH, for example. A combined PET/EPRI scanner has the promise to provide new insights not attainable with current imagers by simultaneous acquisition of multiple components of tissue microenvironments. In this investigation, a prototype system was created by combing two existing scanners, modified for simultaneous imaging. Specifically, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based PET scanner ring designed as a portable scanner was combined with an EPRI scanner designed for the imaging of small animals. The ability of the system to obtain simultaneous images was assessed with a small phantom consisting of four cylinders containing both PET and EPR tracers. The resulting images demonstrated the ability to obtain contemporaneous PET and ERP images without cross-modality interference. The next step in this project is the construction of pre-clinical PET/EPRI scanner for multi-parametric assessment of physiologically important parameters of tissue microenvironments. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  14. A method for comparing intra-tumoural radioactivity uptake heterogeneity in preclinical positron emission tomography studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafström, Jonas; Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, Sharon [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); PET Radiochemistry, Neuroradiology Department, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-08

    Non-uniformity influences the interpretation of nuclear medicine based images and consequently their use in treatment planning and monitoring. However, no standardised method for evaluating and ranking heterogeneity exists. Here, we have developed a general algorithm that provides a ranking and a visualisation of the heterogeneity in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) images. The code of the algorithm was written using the Matrix Laboratory software (MATLAB). Parameters known to influence the heterogeneity (distances between deviating peaks, gradients and size compensations) were incorporated into the algorithm. All data matrices were mathematically constructed in the same format with the aim of maintaining overview and control. Histograms visualising the spread and frequency of contributions to the heterogeneity were also generated. The construction of the algorithm was tested using mathematically generated matrices and by varying post-processing parameters. It was subsequently applied in comparisons of radiotracer uptake in preclinical images in human head and neck carcinoma and endothelial and ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Using the developed algorithm, entire tissue volumes could be assessed and gradients could be handled in an indirect manner. Similar-sized volumes could be compared without modifying the algorithm. Analyses of the distribution of different tracers gave results that were generally in accordance with single plane preclinical images, indicating that it could appropriately handle comparisons of targeting vs. non-targeting tracers and also for different target levels. Altering the reconstruction algorithm, pixel size, tumour ROI volumes and lower cut-off limits affected the calculated heterogeneity factors in expected directions but did not reverse conclusions about which tumour was more or less heterogeneous. The algorithm constructed is an objective and potentially user-friendly tool for one-to-one comparisons of heterogeneity in

  15. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D{sub 1} receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [{sup 11}C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. [{sup 11}C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D{sub 2} receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D{sub 2} occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D{sub 2} receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D{sub 2}, dopamine D{sub 1} receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors have been studied with [{sup 11}C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [{sup 11}C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly

  16. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D 2 receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D 1 receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D 2 receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [ 11 C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [ 11 C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D 2 receptors. [ 11 C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D 2 receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D 2 occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D 2 receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D 2 , dopamine D 1 receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors have been studied with [ 11 C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT 1A receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [ 11 C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly been developed, and serotonin transporters have recently begun to be

  17. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update

  18. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  19. Pet Ownership: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Data from a 1968 national sample of older people (N=3,996) indicated that pet ownership was more frequent in owner-occupied residences in smaller communities where other family, including children were present. No association was found between pet ownership and psychological well-being or health. (Author)

  20. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because you can buy a pet from the pet store doesn't mean it's safe for homes with kids. Animals that may not be child-safe include: reptiles (turtles, snakes, lizards, iguanas) rodents (hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, chinchillas, hedgehogs, prairie ...

  1. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Easy fast PET chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.

    1989-01-01

    PET radiopharmaceutical chemists are continually stressed by the dichotomy between the ever increasing complexity of radiopharmaceuticals demanded of them vs. the unrelenting physical constraints of short half-life and high annihilation gamma energy inherent in these positron emitting isotopes. This paper is dedicated to those who have approached this challenge with cleverness, innovation and a smile. Areas to be discussed will include development and uses of precursors, radiochemistry with very short-lived isotopes (T1/2 ≤ 2 min) and physical/mechanical approaches to meeting synthetic demands

  3. Influence of Co-57 and CT Transmission Measurements on the Quantification Accuracy and Partial Volume Effect of a Small Animal PET Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Schmid, Andreas M; Pichler, Bernd J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) provides high detection sensitivity in the nano- to picomolar range and in addition to other advantages, the possibility to absolutely quantify the acquired data. The present study focuses on the comparison of transmission data acquired with an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner or a Co-57 source for the Inveon small animal PET scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, TN, USA), as well as determines their influences on the quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE). A special focus included the impact of the performed calibration on the quantification accuracy. Phantom measurements were carried out to determine the quantification accuracy, the influence of the object size on the quantification, and the PVE for different sphere sizes, along the field of view and for different contrast ratios. An influence of the emission activity on the Co-57 transmission measurements was discovered (deviations up to 24.06 % measured to true activity), whereas no influence of the emission activity on the CT attenuation correction was identified (deviations influenced by the applied calibration factor and by the object size. The PVE demonstrated a dependency on the sphere size, the position within the field of view, the reconstruction and correction algorithms and the count statistics. Depending on the reconstruction algorithm, only ∼30-40 % of the true activity within a small sphere could be resolved. The iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms uncovered substantially increased recovery values compared to the analytical and 2D iterative reconstruction algorithms (up to 70.46 % and 80.82 % recovery for the smallest and largest sphere using iterative 3D reconstruction algorithms). The transmission measurement (CT or Co-57 source) to correct for attenuation did not severely influence the PVE. The analysis of the quantification accuracy and the PVE revealed an influence of the object size, the reconstruction

  4. Preclinical MRI experience in imaging angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, M

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a range of non-invasive measures for visualization of tumor angiogenesis in the clinic as well as in experimental tumor models. MRI methods were developed for assessment of spatial and temporal changes in perfusion, blood volume fraction, vascular permeability, vascular function, vascular maturation, vessel diameter and tortuosity. Molecular targeted contrast agents were used for mapping specific markers of neovasculature. These approaches were applied for analysis of a number of regulatory mechanisms controlling tumor angiogenesis and for preclinical evaluation of tumor response to antiangiogenic agents.

  5. Recent Developments in Preclinical DNA Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Okuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of genetic immunization of the new vaccine using plasmid DNAs are multifold. For example, it is easy to generate plasmid DNAs, increase their dose during the manufacturing process, and sterilize them. Furthermore, they can be stored for a long period of time upon stabilization, and their protein encoding sequences can be easily modified by employing various DNA-manipulation techniques. Although DNA vaccinations strongly increase Th1-mediated immune responses in animals, several problems persist. One is about their weak immunogenicity in humans. To overcome this problem, various genetic adjuvants, electroporation, and prime-boost methods have been developed preclinically, which are reviewed here.

  6. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S.

    1994-01-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the 18 F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4'-( 18 F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T 1/2β = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of 18 F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10 -3 % injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of 18 F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina and Norke Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the {sup 18}F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4{prime}-({sup 18}F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T{sub 1/2{beta}} = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 18}F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10{sup -3}% injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of {sup 18}F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Correlation of PET and AMS analyses for early kinetics of 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo, E-mail: ryogom@yokohama-cu.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan); Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji [Institute of Accelerator Analysis (IAA) Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan); Theeraladanon, Chumpol; Oka, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan); Matsui, Takao [Institute of Accelerator Analysis (IAA) Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The draft of the guidelines for microdosing in clinical trials was published in Japan in 2008 following the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It recommends utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and positron emission tomography (PET) for monitoring drug metabolites in preclinical studies. In this study, we clarified the correlation in measuring result between PET and AMS. The AMS measurement was undergone by using AMS system of Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA, Kawasaki, Japan). First the back ground {sup 14}C level of blood in mice was measured by AMS. Second, we clarified the relationship between AMS and PET by using 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). The correlation coefficient (r) of the measurements using PET ({sup 18}F-FDG) and AMS ({sup 14}C-FDG) were quite high at 0.97 (Y = 7.54E - 05X + 0.02, p < 0.001). The blood clearance profile of {sup 18}F-FDG was nearly identical with that of {sup 14}C-FDG. These results indicate that the AMS analysis has excellent correlation with the PET method.

  9. High Dose MicroCT Does Not Contribute Toward Improved MicroPET/CT Image Quantitative Accuracy and Can Limit Longitudinal Scanning of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. McDougald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining accurate quantitative measurements in preclinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT imaging is of paramount importance in biomedical research and helps supporting efficient translation of preclinical results to the clinic. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the effects of different CT acquisition protocols on PET/CT image quality and data quantification; and (2 to evaluate the absorbed dose associated with varying CT parameters.Methods: An air/water quality control CT phantom, tissue equivalent material phantom, an in-house 3D printed phantom and an image quality PET/CT phantom were imaged using a Mediso nanoPET/CT scanner. Collected data was analyzed using PMOD software, VivoQuant software and National Electric Manufactures Association (NEMA software implemented by Mediso. Measured Hounsfield Unit (HU in collected CT images were compared to the known HU values and image noise was quantified. PET recovery coefficients (RC, uniformity and quantitative bias were also measured.Results: Only less than 2 and 1% of CT acquisition protocols yielded water HU values < −80 and air HU values < −840, respectively. Four out of 11 CT protocols resulted in more than 100 mGy absorbed dose. Different CT protocols did not impact PET uniformity and RC, and resulted in <4% overall bias relative to expected radioactive concentration.Conclusion: Preclinical CT protocols with increased exposure times can result in high absorbed doses to the small animals. These should be avoided, as they do not contributed toward improved microPET/CT image quantitative accuracy and could limit longitudinal scanning of small animals.

  10. Non FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, C., E-mail: cristina.nanni@aosp.bo.i [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fantini, L.; Nicolini, S.; Fanti, S. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    2- [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the radiopharmaceutical most frequently used for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). However, FDG cannot be used for many oncological, cardiological, or neurological conditions, either because the abnormal tissue does not concentrate it, or because the tissues under investigation demonstrate high physiological glucose uptake. Consequently, alternative PET tracers have been produced and introduced into clinical practice. The most important compounds in routine practice are {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-choline, mainly for the evaluation of prostate cancer; {sup 1}C-methionine for brain tumours; {sup 118}F-DOPA ({sup 18}F- deoxiphenilalanine) for neuroendocrine tumours and movement disorders; {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC (tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid-[1-Nal3]-octreotide) and other somatostatin analogues for neuroendocrine tumours; 11C-acetate for prostate cancer and hepatic masses and 18F-FLT (3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine) for a number of malignant tumours. Another impetus for the development of new tracers is to enable the investigation of biological processes in tumours other than glucose metabolism. This is especially important in the field of response assessment, where there are new agents that are targeted more specifically at angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis and other processes.

  11. Neuropsychiatry: PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana F, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow) changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms) and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial epilepsy because both rCBF and brain metabolism are compromised at the epileptogenic focus. During the seizure, rCBF dramatically increases locally. Using SPECT it is possible to locate such foci with 97% accuracy. In drug addiction, particularly with cocaine, functional imaging has proven to be very sensitive to detect brain flow and metabolism derangement early in the course of this condition. These findings are important in many ways: prognostic value, they are used as a powerful reinforcement tool and to monitor functional recovery with rehabilitation. There are many other conditions in which functional brain imaging is of importance such as acute stroke treatment assessment, trauma rehabilitation and in psychiatric and abnormal movement diseases specially with the development of receptor imaging (au)

  12. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  13. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their vaccinations...

  14. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Medicine & PET at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen we installed an integrated PET/MRI in December 2011. Here, we describe our first clinical PET/MR cases and discuss some of the areas within oncology where we envision promising future application of integrated PET/MR imaging in clinical routine. Cases...

  15. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  16. Whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M C; Sersar, Rachida; Saabye, J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: In combined PET/MRI standard PET attenuation correction (AC) is based on tissue segmentation following dedicated MR sequencing and, typically, bone tissue is not represented. We evaluate PET quantification in whole-body (WB)-PET/MRI following MR-AC without considering bone attenuation...

  17. Pet food recalls and pet food contaminants in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2012-03-01

    Most pet foods are safe, but incidents of chemical contamination occur and lead to illness and recalls. There were 11 major pet food recalls in the United States between 1996 and 2010 that were due to chemical contaminants or misformulations: 3 aflatoxin, 3 excess vitamin D3, 1 excess methionine, 3 inadequate thiamine, and 1 adulteration with melamine and related compounds and an additional 2 warnings concerning a Fanconilike renal syndrome in dogs after ingesting large amounts of chicken jerky treat products. This article describes clinical findings and treatment of animals exposed to the most common pet food contaminants.

  18. Preclinical Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of Acute Hyperoxia Therapy of Chronic Hypoxia during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zheleznyak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the efficacy of the positron emission tomography (PET tracers 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG and 64Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone ([64Cu]ATSM and in monitoring placental and fetal functional response to acute hyperoxia in late-term pregnant mice subjected to experimentally induced chronic hypoxia. E15 mice were maintained at 12% inspired oxygen for 72 hours and then imaged during oxygen inhalation with either [18F]FDG to monitor nutrient transport or 64Cu-ATSM to establish the presence of hypoxia. Computed tomography (CT with contrast allowed clear visualization of both placentas and fetuses. The average ratio of fetal to placental [18F]FDG uptake was 0.45 ± 0.1 for the hypoxic animals and 0.55 ± 0.1 for the normoxic animals, demonstrating a significant decrease (p = .0002 in placental function in dams exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic placentas and fetuses retained more 64Cu-ATSM compared to normoxic placentas and fetuses. Herein we report first-in-mouse PET imaging of fetuses employing both tracers [18F]FDG (metabolism and 64Cu-ATSM (hypoxia. [18F]FDG PET/CT imaging allowed clear visualization of placental-fetal structures and supported quantification of tracer uptake, making this a sensitive tool for monitoring placental function in preclinical rodent models. These measurements illustrate the potentially irreversible damage generated by chronic exposure to hypoxia, which cannot be corrected by acute exposure to hyperoxia.

  19. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  20. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernsen, Monique R.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vaissier, Pieter E.B. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds, ELIS Department, MEDISIP, Ghent (Belgium); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beekman, Freek J. [Delft University of Technology, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs B.V., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. (orig.)

  1. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, Nikos [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Charalampos, Tsoumpas [Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  2. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimiou, Nikos; Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Charalampos, Tsoumpas; Loudos, George

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  3. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  4. PET/TAC in Oncology; PET/TAC en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy.

  5. Does posterior cingulate hypometabolism result from disconnection or local pathology across preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Stefan [University of Rostock, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rostock (Germany); DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States); Grothe, Michel J. [DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) hypometabolism as measured by FDG PET is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prodromal stages, such as in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and has been found to be closely associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD dementia.We studied the effects of local and remote atrophy and of local amyloid load on the PCC metabolic signal in patients with different preclinical and clinical stages of AD. We determined the volume of the hippocampus and PCC grey matter based on volumetric MRI scans, PCC amyloid load based on AV45 PET, and PCC metabolism based on FDG PET in 667 subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative spanning the range from cognitively normal ageing through prodromal AD to AD dementia. In cognitively normal individuals and those with early MCI, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively associated with hippocampus atrophy, whereas in subjects with late MCI it was associated with both local and remote effects of atrophy as well as local amyloid load. In subjects with AD dementia, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively related to local atrophy. Our findings suggest that the effects of remote pathology on PCC hypometabolism decrease and the effects of local pathology increase from preclinical to clinical stages of AD, consistent with a progressive disconnection of the PCC from downstream cortical and subcortical brain regions. (orig.)

  6. Does posterior cingulate hypometabolism result from disconnection or local pathology across preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teipel, Stefan; Grothe, Michel J.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) hypometabolism as measured by FDG PET is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prodromal stages, such as in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and has been found to be closely associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD dementia.We studied the effects of local and remote atrophy and of local amyloid load on the PCC metabolic signal in patients with different preclinical and clinical stages of AD. We determined the volume of the hippocampus and PCC grey matter based on volumetric MRI scans, PCC amyloid load based on AV45 PET, and PCC metabolism based on FDG PET in 667 subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative spanning the range from cognitively normal ageing through prodromal AD to AD dementia. In cognitively normal individuals and those with early MCI, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively associated with hippocampus atrophy, whereas in subjects with late MCI it was associated with both local and remote effects of atrophy as well as local amyloid load. In subjects with AD dementia, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively related to local atrophy. Our findings suggest that the effects of remote pathology on PCC hypometabolism decrease and the effects of local pathology increase from preclinical to clinical stages of AD, consistent with a progressive disconnection of the PCC from downstream cortical and subcortical brain regions. (orig.)

  7. Veterinarians' role for pet owners facing pet loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mehler, P.; Gloor, P.; Sager, E.; Lewis, F. I.; Glaus, T. M

    2013-01-01

    Owners' satisfaction with, and expectations from, their veterinarians around euthanasia, including questions on disposal of pet remains subject to animal species, clients' gender, age, family conditions, area of living and type of veterinary clinic visited were evaluated by questionnaire. Questionnaires were to be filled out by clients consecutively visiting the individual practices and hospitals for any kind of consultations. Of 2350 questionnaires distributed, 2008 were returned and available for analysis. Owner satisfaction concerning the procedure of euthanasia was high (92 per cent, 1173/1272). After the event of euthanasia, 14 per cent (170/1250) had changed their veterinarian, even though 75 per cent of these 170 had been satisfied with the procedure. Most owners (88 per cent) expected veterinarians to talk about their pet's final destination, and 38 per cent expected this to happen early in the pet's life. For 81 per cent clients, the veterinarian was the primary informant about the possibilities concerning the disposal of pet remains, and 33 per cent indicated their veterinarian as the contact person to talk about pet loss. Area of living, or veterinary specialisation, only marginally influenced the answers. Veterinarians play an important role to inform their clients concerning questions around euthanasia and the care of pet remains, and to support them during the process of mourning. PMID:23492929

  8. Veterinarians' role for pet owners facing pet loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mehler, P; Gloor, P; Sager, E; Lewis, F I; Glaus, T M

    2013-05-25

    Owners' satisfaction with, and expectations from, their veterinarians around euthanasia, including questions on disposal of pet remains subject to animal species, clients' gender, age, family conditions, area of living and type of veterinary clinic visited were evaluated by questionnaire. Questionnaires were to be filled out by clients consecutively visiting the individual practices and hospitals for any kind of consultations. Of 2350 questionnaires distributed, 2008 were returned and available for analysis. Owner satisfaction concerning the procedure of euthanasia was high (92 per cent, 1173/1272). After the event of euthanasia, 14 per cent (170/1250) had changed their veterinarian, even though 75 per cent of these 170 had been satisfied with the procedure. Most owners (88 per cent) expected veterinarians to talk about their pet's final destination, and 38 per cent expected this to happen early in the pet's life. For 81 per cent clients, the veterinarian was the primary informant about the possibilities concerning the disposal of pet remains, and 33 per cent indicated their veterinarian as the contact person to talk about pet loss. Area of living, or veterinary specialisation, only marginally influenced the answers. Veterinarians play an important role to inform their clients concerning questions around euthanasia and the care of pet remains, and to support them during the process of mourning.

  9. Preclinical and clinical safety studies on DNA vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, Johanna A C; Mooi, Frits R; Berbers, Guy A M; Aerts, Leon A G J M van; Ovelgönne, Hans; Kimman, Tjeerd G

    2007-01-01

    DNA vaccines are based on the transfer of genetic material, encoding an antigen, to the cells of the vaccine recipient. Despite high expectations of DNA vaccines as a result of promising preclinical data their clinical utility remains unproven. However, much data is gathered in preclinical and

  10. Pets and the immunocompromised person

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can get infections, such as toxoplasmosis, by eating wild animals. DO NOT let your pet drink from the ... bird's cage. Other important tips: DO NOT adopt wild or exotic animals. These animals are more likely to bite. They ...

  11. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep a leash and/or carrier nearby the exit. Ensure proper equipment for pets to ride in ... also carry a variety of diseases (Lyme disease, West Nile virus) harmful to both humans and animals. ...

  12. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  13. Preclinical study design for rAAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Mueller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The process of moving a novel drug such as an adeno-associated viral vector from the bench top to bedside is an arduous process requiring coordination and skill from multiple laboratories and regulatory agencies. Proceeding to a phase I safety trial in humans after most of the proof-of-concept data have been acquired may take several years. During this time, agencies including the FDA, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), and Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) along with the investigator's team will develop a series of preclinical toxicology and biodistribution studies in order to develop a safety profile for the intended novel drug. In this chapter, key features of the pharm-tox study design and conduct will be discussed. Highlighted features include choosing a sufficient animal number and species to use in testing, dose determination, typical toxicological assays performed, the use of Standard Operating Procedures in respect to good laboratory practices compliancy, and role of the Quality Assurance Unit.

  14. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra; Zeng, Xuemei; Lykins, David; Roberts, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia. PMID:26580600

  15. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Founds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia.

  16. Preclinical antitoxic properties of Spirulina (Arthrospira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Perez-Juarez, Angélica; Fabila-Castillo, Luis; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Chamorro, German

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) exerts a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities which are mainly attributed to its antioxidant effect. However, Spirulina has also been reported (both in preclinical and in clinical scenarios) to exhibit other bioactive effects, including an antitoxic potential. We performed a systematic review of the literature, conducted in TOXNET, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Science Direct-Scopus; all available years were included. Searching criteria included the effects of Spirulina on experimental poisonings from arsenic, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, deltamethrin, fluoride, hexachlorocyclohexane, iron, lead, lindane, and mercury. In all cases, it was established that the blue-green alga, and its isolated compounds, effectively counteracted these pollutants toxic effects on the exposed organisms. Some molecular mechanisms are proposed, although they have not been fully elucidated yet. Spirulina could be a useful coadjuvant agent within clinical practice for treatment of these or other pollutants poisonings.

  17. Radiation monitoring of PET staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trang, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming a common diagnostic tool in hospitals, often located in and employing staff from the Nuclear Medicine or Radiology departments. Although similar in some ways, staff in PET departments are commonly found to have the highest radiation doses in the hospital environment due to unique challenges which PET tracers present in administration as well as production. The establishment of a PET centre with a dedicated cyclotron has raised concerns of radiation protection to the staff at the WA PET Centre and the Radiopharmaceutical Production and Development (RAPID) team. Since every PET centre has differing designs and practices, it was considered important to closely monitor the radiation dose to our staff so that improvements to practices and design could be made to reduce radiation dose. Electronic dosimeters (MGP DMC 2000XB), which have a facility to log time and dose at 10 second intervals, were provided to three PET technologists and three PET nurses. These were worn in the top pocket of their lab coats throughout a whole day. Each staff member was then asked to note down their duties throughout the day and also note the time they performed each duty. The duties would then correlate with the dose with which the electronic monitor recorded and an estimate of radiation dose per duty could be given. Also an estimate of the dose per day to each staff member could be made. PET nurses averaged approximately 20 μ8v per day getting their largest dose from caring for occasional problematic patients. Smaller doses of a 1-2 μ8v were recorded for injections and removing cannulas. PET technologists averaged approximately 15 μ8v per day getting their largest dose of 1-5μ8v mainly from positioning of patients and sometimes larger doses due to problematic patients. Smaller doses of 1-2 μ5v were again recorded for injections and removal of cannulas. Following a presentation given to staff, all WA PET Centre and RAPID staff

  18. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  19. PET imaging in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulkin, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    High-quality PET imaging of pediatric patients is challenging and requires attention to issues commonly encountered in the practice of pediatric nuclear medicine, but uncommon to the imaging of adult patients. These include intravenous access, fasting, sedation, consent, and clearance of activity from the urinary tract. This paper discusses some technical differences involved in pediatric PET to enhance the quality of scans and assure the safety and comfort of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  20. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  1. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  2. Are Pets in the Bedroom a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Lois E; Tovar, M Diane; Miller, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pets in the bedroom can alter the sleep environment in ways that could affect sleep. Data were collected by questionnaire and interview from 150 consecutive patients seen at the Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Arizona. Seventy-four people (49%) reported having pets, with 31 (41% of pet owners) having multiple pets. More than half of pet owners (56%) allowed their pets to sleep in the bedroom. Fifteen pet owners (20%) described their pets as disruptive, whereas 31 (41%) perceived their pets as unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep. Health care professionals working with patients with sleep concerns should inquire about the presence of companion animals in the sleep environment to help them find solutions and optimize their sleep. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical applications of PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Ha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evolution of PET, PET/CT focusing on the technical aspects, PET radiopharmaceutical developments and current clinical applications as well. The newest technologic advances have been reviewed, including improved crystal design, acquisition modes, reconstruction algorithms, etc. These advancements will continue to improve contrast, decrease noise, and increase resolution. Combined PET/CT system provides faster attenuation correction and useful anatomic correlation to PET functional information. A number of new radiopharmaceuticals used for PET imaging have been developed, however, FDG have been considered as the principal PET radiotracer. The current clinical applications of PET and PET/CT are widespread and include oncology, cardiology and neurology. (author)

  4. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz; Leiner, Tim; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  5. PET and SPECT imaging of melanoma: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Weijun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai (China); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Ehlerding, Emily B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Lan, Xiaoli [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Luo, Quanyong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai (China); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Melanoma represents the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and its incidence continues to rise worldwide. {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging has transformed diagnostic nuclear medicine and has become an essential component in the management of melanoma, but still has its drawbacks. With the rapid growth in the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, a variety of promising probes that enable early diagnosis and detection of melanoma have been developed. The substantial preclinical success of melanin- and peptide-based probes has recently resulted in the translation of several radiotracers to clinical settings for noninvasive imaging and treatment of melanoma in humans. In this review, we focus on the latest developments in radiolabeled molecular imaging probes for melanoma in preclinical and clinical settings, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for future development. (orig.)

  6. Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, R J; Carlsen, K C L; Granum, B; Carlsen, K-H; Håland, G; Devulapalli, C S; Munthe-Kaas, M C; Mowinckel, P; Løvik, M

    2010-06-01

    Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping.

  7. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully consider the risks of feeding a raw pet food to their pets. Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information ... why. Knowing the Risk to Your Pet Raw pet food consists primarily of meat, bones, and organs that ...

  8. What do we measure in oncology PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the practice of oncology. It is known that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is more sensitive for the assessment of treatment response than conventional imaging. In addition, PET has an advantage in the use of quantitative analysis of the study. Nowadays, various PET parameters are adopted in clinical settings. In addition, a wide range of factors has been known to be associated with FDG uptake. Therefore, there has been a need for standardization and harmonization of protocols and PET parameters. We will introduce PET parameters and discuss major issues in this review.

  9. Diagnosis of preclinical Alzheimer's disease in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, P J; Verhey, F R; Ponds, R W; Jolles, J

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be diagnosed in a clinical setting. To this end we investigated whether subjects with preclinical AD could be differentiated from subjects with nonprogressive mild cognitive impairment and from subjects with very mild AD-type dementia. Twenty-three subjects with preclinical AD, 44 subjects with nonprogressive mild cognitive impairment, and 25 subjects with very mild AD-type dementia were selected from a memory clinic population. Variables that were used to differentiate the groups were demographic variables, the Mini-Mental State Examination score, performance on cognitive tests, measures of functional impairment, and measures of noncognitive symptomatology. Age and the scores for the delayed recall task could best discriminate between subjects with preclinical AD and subjects with nonprogressive mild cognitive impairment. The overall accuracy was 87%. The score on the Global Deterioration Scale and a measure of intelligence could best discriminate between subjects with preclinical AD and subjects with very mild AD-type dementia. The overall accuracy was 85%. Subjects with preclinical AD can be distinguished from subjects with nonprogressive mild cognitive impairment and from subjects with very mild AD-type dementia. This means that preclinical AD is a diagnostic entity for which clinical criteria should be developed.

  10. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  11. Parasites in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka

    2011-05-30

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  12. Comparison of PET/CT with Sequential PET/MRI Using an MR-Compatible Mobile PET System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakamoto, Yuji; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Kido, Aki; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-05-01

    The current study tested a newly developed flexible PET (fxPET) scanner prototype. This fxPET system involves dual arc-shaped detectors based on silicon photomultipliers that are designed to fit existing MRI devices, allowing us to obtain fused PET and MR images by sequential PET and MR scanning. This prospective study sought to evaluate the image quality, lesion detection rate, and quantitative values of fxPET in comparison with conventional whole-body (WB) PET and to assess the accuracy of registration. Methods: Seventeen patients with suspected or known malignant tumors were analyzed. Approximately 1 h after intravenous injection of 18 F-FDG, WB PET/CT was performed, followed by fxPET and MRI. For reconstruction of fxPET images, MRI-based attenuation correction was applied. The quality of fxPET images was visually assessed, and the number of detected lesions was compared between the 2 imaging methods. SUV max and maximum average SUV within a 1 cm 3 spheric volume (SUV peak ) of lesions were also compared. In addition, the magnitude of misregistration between fxPET and MR images was evaluated. Results: The image quality of fxPET was acceptable for diagnosis of malignant tumors. There was no significant difference in detectability of malignant lesions between fxPET and WB PET ( P > 0.05). However, the fxPET system did not exhibit superior performance to the WB PET system. There were strong positive correlations between the 2 imaging modalities in SUV max (ρ = 0.88) and SUV peak (ρ = 0.81). SUV max and SUV peak measured with fxPET were approximately 1.1-fold greater than measured with WB PET. The average misregistration between fxPET and MR images was 5.5 ± 3.4 mm. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that running an fxPET scanner near an existing MRI system provides visually and quantitatively acceptable fused PET/MR images for diagnosis of malignant lesions. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. The system of the designing for PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zongliang

    2006-01-01

    PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, a new nuclear medicine imaging device. PET detector is the key of PET. This paper introduces a system of the designing for PET detector. The system can be used to design various PET detector. A PET detector BLOCK with 8 x 8 crystals has been designed and built by this system. (authors)

  14. Story of rubidium-82 and advantages for myocardial perfusion PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois eChatal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow, clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in 3 meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were respectively 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with 99mTc-SPECT, 82Rb-PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with BMI (Body Mass Index ≥30 kg/m2 (85% versus 67% with SPECT and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of 82Rb-PET is its capacity to accurately quantify myocardial blood flow. Quite importantly it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners.There is still some debate on the relative advantages of 82Rb-PET with regard to 99mTc-SPECT. For the last ten years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of 82Rb/PET. Currently the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify myocardial blood flow and to deliver a low radiation exposure.

  15. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with (99m)Tc-SPECT, (82)Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of (82)Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of (82)Rb PET with regard to (99m)Tc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of (82)Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure.

  16. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Byrnes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mild TBI (mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR or computed tomography (CT imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET, have the ability to detect changes after mild TBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with MRI, and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mild TBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mild TBI research and clinical practice.

  17. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Radiolabeled Kinase Inhibitors for PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bernard-Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, intensive investigation and multiple clinical successes targeting protein kinases, mostly for cancer treatment, have identified small molecule kinase inhibitors as a prominent therapeutic class. In the course of those investigations, radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for positron emission tomography (PET imaging have been synthesized and evaluated as diagnostic imaging probes for cancer characterization. Given that inhibitor coverage of the kinome is continuously expanding, in vivo PET imaging will likely find increasing applications for therapy monitoring and receptor density studies both in- and outside of oncological conditions. Early investigated radiolabeled inhibitors, which are mostly based on clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI isotopologues, have now entered clinical trials. Novel radioligands for cancer and PET neuroimaging originating from novel but relevant target kinases are currently being explored in preclinical studies. This article reviews the literature involving radiotracer design, radiochemistry approaches, biological tracer evaluation and nuclear imaging results of radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for PET reported between 2010 and mid-2015. Aspects regarding the usefulness of pursuing selective vs. promiscuous inhibitor scaffolds and the inherent challenges associated with intracellular enzyme imaging will be discussed.

  18. Detection of Cancer with PET and PET/CT in Asymptomatic Volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ji In; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Yoon Ho; Cho, Han Byoul; Shim, Jae Yong

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer detection in asymptomatic health-check examinees. This study consisted of 5091 PET or PET/CT conducted as part of annual health examination at one hospital from March 1998 to February 2008. To find the incidence of cancers, medical records of the subjects were thoroughly reviewed for a follow-up period of one year. The patterns of formal readings of PET and PET/CT were analyzed to assess the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. The histopathology and stage of the cancers were evaluated in relation to the results of PET. Eighty-six cancers (1.7%) were diagnosed within one year after PET or PET/CT. When PET and PET/CT results were combined, the sensitivity was 48.8% and specificity was 81.1% for cancer detection. PET only had a sensitivity of 46.2% and a specificity of 81.4%, and PET/CT only had a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 78.5% respectively. There were no significant differences in cancer site, stage and histopathology between PET positive and PET negative cancers. In 19.3% of formal readings of PET and PET/CT, further evaluation to exclude malignancy or significant disease was recommended. Head and neck area and upper gastrointestinal tract were commonly recommended sites for further evaluation. PET and PET/CT showed moderate performance for detecting cancers in asymptomatic adults in this study. More experience and further investigation are needed to overcome limitations of PET and PET/CT for cancer screening

  19. Preclinical Mouse Cancer Models: A Maze of Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Chi-Ping; Merlino, Glenn; Van Dyke, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in developing novel therapeutics for cancer treatment, and targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of some cancers. Despite the promise, only about five percent of new cancer drugs are approved, and most fail due to lack of efficacy. The indication is that current preclinical methods are limited in predicting successful outcomes. Such failure exacts enormous cost, both financial and in the quality of human life. This primer explores the current status, promise and challenges of preclinical evaluation in advanced mouse cancer models and briefly addresses emerging models for early-stage preclinical development. PMID:26406370

  20. PET and PET/CT in oncology: the key of diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.; Spaepen, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. This lecture is divided to the following parts: (1) Assessment of treatment response; (2) Treatment monitoring by PET: clinical examples; (3) PET for early response assessment; (4) Use of PET in Radiotherapy planning

  1. Effect of Attenuation Correction on Regional Quantification Between PET/MR and PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Johansson, Jarkko; Linden, Jani

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A spatial bias in brain PET/MR exists compared with PET/CT, because of MR-based attenuation correction. We performed an evaluation among 4 institutions, 3 PET/MR systems, and 4 PET/CT systems using an anthropomorphic brain phantom, hypothesizing that the spatial bias would be minimize...

  2. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  3. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... Medicine & PET at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen we installed an integrated PET/MRI in December 2011. Here, we describe our first clinical PET/MR cases and discuss some of the areas within oncology where we envision promising future application of integrated PET/MR imaging in clinical routine. Cases...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...

  4. Quetiapine: recent developments in preclinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QTP is an atypical antipsychotic labelled for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania and bipolar depression. Nevertheless, QTP has been tried across multiple diagnosis categories and seems to be used, among other atypical antipsychotics, in clinical practice for an expanding range of disorders such as major depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders, and borderline personality disorders. The present review focuses on papers which investigated the molecular mechanism(s of QTP antidepressant effect. In particular, preclinical studies performed by coupling the chronic mild stress, an animal model of human depression with Affymetrix microarray technology, revealed that chronic QTP administration prevented the stress-induced up- or down-regulation of 42 genes involved in the central nervous system development or having a crucial role for viability of neural cells, like regulation of signal transduction, inorganic ion transport, membrane organisation, and neurite morphogenesis. Among these, Ptgs2, Hes5, Plcb1, Senp2, Gad1, and Marcks are presumably the effectors of the QTP clinical efficacy.

  5. Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans. PMID:21272009

  6. Magnetic Resonance-based Motion Correction for Quantitative PET in Simultaneous PET-MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2017-07-01

    Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validating PET segmentation of thoracic lesions-is 4D PET necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. S.; Carl, J.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory-induced motions are prone to degrade the positron emission tomography (PET) signal with the consequent loss of image information and unreliable segmentations. This phantom study aims to assess the discrepancies relative to stationary PET segmentations, of widely used semiautomatic PET...... segmented using three SUV threshold methods (Max40%, SUV40% and 2.5SUV) and a gradient based method (GradientSeg). Segmentations in static 3D-PET scans (PETsta) specified the reference conditions for the individual segmentation methods, target lesions and tracer concentrations. The motion included PET...... images followed a 4D-PET (PET4D) and a 3D-PET (PETmot) scan protocol. Moreover, motion-corrected PET images (PETdeb) were derived from the PETmot images. Segmentations in PET4D, PETmot and PETdeb were compared to the PETsta segmentations according to volume changes (Delta Vol) and an error estimate (low...

  8. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  9. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  10. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  11. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Croteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose, proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication–-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  12. 36 CFR 13.1106 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.1106 Section 13.1106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... Provisions § 13.1106 Pets. Pets are prohibited except— (a) On the Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock; (b) On the...

  13. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be brought...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1234 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.1234 Section 13.1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... § 13.1234 Pets. Possessing a pet in the BCDA is prohibited. ...

  15. 7 CFR 500.10 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 500.10 Section 500.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.10 Pets. Pets brought upon USNA...

  16. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... (fda) § 13.978 Pets. Possessing a pet is prohibited— (a) In the FDA, except in public parking areas, on...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.1310 Section 13.1310... SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General Provisions § 13.1310 Pets. (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the...

  18. Pet therapy: dogs de-stress students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S

    2012-01-01

    Research supports the efficacy of the human-animal bond and pet therapy in a variety of settings. At nursing students' request at one school, the author began offering pet therapy prior to examinations. Anecdotal evidence of a study with the author's Golden Retriever, Goldilocks, demonstrates that pet therapy can reduce test anxiety and improve nursing student performance.

  19. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...... that such areas include combined molecular and functional imaging, multimodality radiomics, and hyperPET....

  20. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EEC PET INSTRUMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAANS, AMJ

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a Guide-Questionnaire distributed among all European PET centers an inventory of the European PET instrumentation has become available in a data base. An overview and analysis of the European PET equipment, cyclotrons, scanners and software, together with some global information on

  1. Comparison and Prediction of Preclinical Students' Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    four preclinical students who took the. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Stage I Examination in Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology,. Social and Preventive Medicine, and Pharmacology between December1997 and May ...

  2. The role of radiolabelled compounds in preclinical drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The role of radiolabelled compounds in the development of new drugs is discussed, with particular reference to their use in toxicological, metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies for the pre-clinical safety evaluation of new drugs. (U.K.)

  3. Comparison and Prediction of Preclinical Students' Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four preclinical students who took the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Stage I Examination in Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Social and Preventive Medicine, and Pharmacology between December1997 and May ...

  4. PET-scanninger af hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Aanerud, Joel Fredrik Astrup

    2017-01-01

    PET-skanninger bruges i stigende grad til at diagnosticere hjernetumorer og neurodegenerative lidelser hos mennesker. Nogle af disse metoder vil potentelt også kunne finde veterinær anvendelse i de kommende år til diagnostik af hjernelidelser hos hos kæledyr.......PET-skanninger bruges i stigende grad til at diagnosticere hjernetumorer og neurodegenerative lidelser hos mennesker. Nogle af disse metoder vil potentelt også kunne finde veterinær anvendelse i de kommende år til diagnostik af hjernelidelser hos hos kæledyr....

  5. Challenges for Preclinical Investigations of Human Biofield Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Bengston, William; Yount, Garret

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical models for studying the effects of the human biofield have great potential to advance our understanding of human biofield modalities, which include external qigong, Johrei, Reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch, polarity therapy, pranic healing, and other practices. A short history of Western biofield studies using preclinical models is presented and demonstrates numerous and consistent examples of human biofields significantly affecting biological systems both in vitro and in v...

  6. Murine-specific Internal Dosimetry for Preclinical Investigations of Imaging and Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Grudzinski, Joseph; Marsh, Ian; Besemer, Abby; Baiu, Dana; Weichert, Jamey; Otto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing need to estimate the absorbed dose to small animals from preclinical investigations involving diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This paper introduces a Monte Carlo-based dosimetry platform called RAPID, which is capable of calculating murine-specific three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions. A comparison is performed between absorbed doses calculated with RAPID and absorbed doses calculated in a commonly used reference mouse phantom called MOBY. Four test mice containing different xenografts underwent serial PET/CT imaging using a novel diagnostic therapy (theranostic) agent NM404, which can be labeled with I for imaging or I for therapy. Using the PET/CT data, 3D dose distributions from I-NM404 were calculated in the mice using RAPID. Mean organ doses in these four test mice were compared to mean organ doses derived by using two previously published I S-values datasets in MOBY. In addition, mean tumor doses calculated in RAPID were compared to mean organ doses derived from unit density spheres. Large differences were identified between mean organ doses calculated in the test mice using RAPID and those derived in the MOBY phantom. Mean absorbed dose percent errors in organs ranged between 0.3% and 333%. Overall, mass scaling improved agreement between MOBY phantom calculations and RAPID, where percent errors were all less than 26%, with the exception of the lung in which percent errors reached values of 48%. Percent errors in mean tumor doses in the test mice and unit density spheres were less pronounced but still ranged between 8% and 23%. This work demonstrates the limitations of using pre-computed S-values in computational phantoms to predict organ doses in small animals from theranostic procedures. RAPID can generate accurate 3D dose distributions in small animals and in turn offer much greater insight on the ability of a given theranostic agent to image and treat diseases.

  7. Pre-clinical Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction Algorithm Effect on Cu-64 ATSM Lesion Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Sanghera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Application of distinct positron emission tomography (PET scan reconstruction algorithms can lead to statistically significant differences in measuring lesion functional properties. We looked at the influence of two-dimensional filtered back projection (2D FBP, two-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization (2D OSEM, three-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization (3D OSEM without 3D maximum a posteriori and with (3D OSEM MAP on lesion hypoxia tracer uptake using a pre-clinical PET scanner. Methods: Reconstructed images of a rodent tumor model bearing P22 carcinosarcoma injected with hypoxia tracer Copper- 64-Diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone (i.e. Cu-64 ATSM were analyzed at 10 minute intervals till 60 minute post injection. Lesion maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmax/background SUVmean (T/B were recorded and investigated after application of multiple algorithm and reconstruction parameters to assess their influence on Cu-64 ATSM measurements and associated trends over time. Results: SUVmax exhibited convergence for OSEM reconstructions while ANOVA results showed a significant difference in SUVmax or T/B between 2D FBP, 2D OSEM, 3D OSEM and 3D OSEM MAP reconstructions across all time frames. SUVmax and T/B were greatest in magnitude for 2D OSEM followed by 3D OSEM MAP, 3D OSEM and then 2D FBP at all time frames respectively. Similarly SUVmax and T/B standard deviations (SD were lowest for 2D OSEM in comparison with other algorithms. Conclusion: Significantly higher magnitude lesion SUVmax and T/B combined with lower SD were observed using 2D OSEM reconstruction in comparison with 2D FBP, 3D OSEM and 3D OSEM MAP algorithms at all time frames. Results are consistent with other published studies however more specimens are required for full validation.

  8. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  9. Noninvasive 89Zr-Transferrin PET Shows Improved Tumor Targeting Compared with 18F-FDG PET in MYC-Overexpressing Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kelly E; Dilling, Thomas R; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Edwards, Kimberly J; Evans, Michael J; Lewis, Jason S

    2018-01-01

    The current standard for breast PET imaging is 18 F-FDG. The heterogeneity of 18 F-FDG uptake in breast cancer limits its utility, varying greatly among receptor status, histopathologic subtypes, and proliferation markers. 18 F-FDG PET often exhibits nonspecific internalization and low specificity and sensitivity, especially with tumors smaller than 1 cm 3 MYC is a protein involved in oncogenesis and is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increased surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is a downstream event of MYC upregulation and has been validated as a clinically relevant target for molecular imaging. Transferrin labeled with 89 Zr has successfully identified MYC status in many cancer subtypes preclinically and been shown to predict response and changes in oncogene status via treatment with small-molecule inhibitors that target MYC and PI3K signaling pathways. We hypothesized that 89 Zr-transferrin PET will noninvasively detect MYC and TfR and improve upon the current standard of 18 F-FDG PET for MYC-overexpressing TNBC. Methods: In this study, 89 Zr-transferrin and 18 F-FDG imaging were compared in preclinical models of TNBC. TNBC cells (MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T) were treated with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors JQ1 and OTX015 (0.5-1 μM). Cell proliferation, gene expression, and protein expression were assayed to explore the effects of these inhibitors on MYC and TfR. Results: Head-to-head comparison showed that 89 Zr-transferrin targets TNBC tumors significantly better ( P Myc and TfR gene expression was decreased upon treatment with BRD4 inhibitors and c-MYC small interfering RNA ( P MYC and TfR protein expression, along with receptor-mediated internalization of transferrin, was also significantly decreased upon drug treatment in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 cells ( P MYC via TfR-targeted PET imaging in TNBC. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Epilepsy and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    The glucose metabolism of interictal epileptic foci in human brains were analyzed by positron emission tomography. The seizure patterns of 29 epileptic patients were as follows; complex partial 13 cases, elementary partial 9 cases, and generalized 7 cases. 11 C was produced by a JSW medical cyclotron BC105 and was randomly tagged to glucose prepared by photosynthesis. Data sampling by PET was started 15 minutes after peroral administration of 11 C-glucose to the patients. Three slices with 1.75 cm distance were obtained by a single scanning. In temporal lobe epilepsy, three slices were selected as 2.0 cm, 3.75 cm and 5.5 cm above orbitomeatal line. The basal ganglia were scanned 4.5 -- 5.0 cm and the motor and sensory strips were 5.0 -- 9.0 cm above OML. The glucose metabolic rate was expressed with color scales and qualitatively estimated. The results disclosed an obvious hypometabolic zone around a focus area in 22 cases (76%) out of the 29 subjects. This hypometabolic zone was observed in 12 cases (92%) of 13 complex partial, 9 cases (78%) of 9 elementary partial, and 3 cases (43%) of 7 generalized seizure patterns. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the location of the hypometabolic zone was different according to the clinical symptoms. The patients with automatism, pseudoabsence, autonomic, and emotional symptoms had its foci in the mesial portion of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the patients with psychical seizure revealed its low metabolic area in the lateral temporal cortex. In the elementary partial epilepsy, the hypoactive zones were observed in the motor, sensory, and visual cortical area in accordance with the clinical symptoms. Very interestingly, an explicit cortical focus was discovered in two cases of the generalized epilepsy. In these cases the mechanism of secondary generalization was supposed to proceed in the expression of their clinical symptoms. In one Lennox-Gastaut case, a unilateral temporal lobe was involved as the seizure focus. (J.P.N.)

  11. Palliative care and compound in household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    Palliative care is not a term solely used for humans when discussing health care; the term is also used when discussing veterinary patients. Pets are considered part of the family by pet owners, and they have a special relationship that only another pet owner can fully understand. This article discusses some of the healthcare problems that affect pets (and their owners), statistics on the most commonly used medications for veterinary patients, quality of life, and discussions on the veterinary pharmacist-owner-palliative pet relationship and how compounding pharmacists can prepare patient-specific medications.

  12. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Hansen, Anders E

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can...... be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET...... analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia....

  13. The MiniPET: a didactic PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, R.; Silva, J.; Gurriana, L.; Silva, J. M.; Maio, A.; Soares Augusto, J.

    2013-03-01

    The MiniPET project aims to design and build a small PET system. It consists of two 4 × 4 matrices of 16 LYSO scintillator crystals and two PMTs with 16 channels resulting in a low cost system with the essential functionality of a clinical PET instrument. It is designed to illustrate the physics of the PET technique and to provide a didactic platform for the training of students and nuclear imaging professionals as well as for scientific outreach. The PET modules can be configured to test for the coincidence of 511 keV gamma rays. The model has a flexible mechanical setup [1] and can simulate 14 diferent ring geometries, from a configuration with as few as 18 detectors per ring (ring radius phi=51 mm), up to a geometry with 70 detectors per ring (phi=200 mm). A second version of the electronic system [2] allowed measurement and recording of the energy deposited in 4 detector channels by photons from a 137Cs radioactive source and by photons resulting of the annihilation of positrons from a 22Na radioactive source. These energy spectra are used for detector performance studies, as well as angular dependency studies. In this paper, the mechanical setup, the front-end high-speed analog electronics, the digital acquisition and control electronics implemented in a FPGA, as well as the data-transfer interface between the FPGA board and a host PC are described. Recent preliminary results obtained with the 4 active channels in the prototype are also presented.

  14. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  15. Blood-Based Biomarker Candidates of Cerebral Amyloid Using PiB PET in Non-Demented Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sarah; Leoni, Emanuela; Hye, Abdul; Lynham, Steven; Khondoker, Mizanur R.; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Kiddle, Steven J.; Baird, Alison L.; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Leung, Rufina; Graf, John; Hehir, Cristina Tan; Baker, David; Cereda, Cristina; Bazenet, Chantal; Ward, Malcolm; Thambisetty, Madhav; Lovestone, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are being conducted earlier in the disease phase and with biomarker confirmation using in vivo amyloid PET imaging or CSF tau and Aβ measures to quantify pathology. However, making such a pre-clinical AD diagnosis is relatively costly and the screening failure rate is likely to be high. Having a blood-based marker that would reduce such costs and accelerate clinical trials through identifying potential participants with likely pre-clinical AD would be a substantial advance. In order to seek such a candidate biomarker, discovery phase proteomic analyses using 2DGE and gel-free LC-MS/MS for high and low molecular weight analytes were conducted on longitudinal plasma samples collected over a 12-year period from non-demented older individuals who exhibited a range of 11C-PiB PET measures of amyloid load. We then sought to extend our discovery findings by investigating whether our candidate biomarkers were also associated with brain amyloid burden in disease, in an independent cohort. Seven plasma proteins, including A2M, Apo-A1, and multiple complement proteins, were identified as pre-clinical biomarkers of amyloid burden and were consistent across three time points (p biomarker signature indicative of AD pathology at a stage long before the onset of clinical disease manifestation. As in previous studies, acute phase reactants and inflammatory markers dominate this signature. PMID:27031486

  16. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  17. Diseases Transmitted by Less Common House Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Beside dogs and cats, the most common pets worldwide, an increasing number of pocket pets and exotic pets are making their way to more and more households, especially in North America and Europe. Although many of these animals make appropriate pets, they also can be a source of many zoonotic diseases, especially in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Some of these diseases can be life threatening, such as rabies, rat bite fever, and plague. Some others are quite common, because of the frequency of the pathogens harbored by these species, such as salmonellosis in reptiles and amphibians. Appropriate knowledge of the zoonotic agents carried by these "new" pet species is strongly recommended prior to acquiring pocket or exotic pets. Furthermore, adopting wildlife as pets is strongly discouraged, because it is always a risky action that can lead to major health issues.

  18. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  19. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroy, R.; Boisgard, R.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F.; Trebossen, R.; Tavitian, B.; Frouin, V.; Cathier, P.; Duchesnay, E.; D; Nielsen, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together with physiological movements (heart beating, breathing, and bladder filling). The method was resistant to spillover and physiological movements, while other methods failed to obtain a correct segmentation. The radioactivity concentrations calculated with this method also showed an excellent correlation with the manual delineation of organs in a large set of preclinical images. In addition, it was faster, detected more organs, and extracted organs' mean time activity curves with a better confidence on the measure than manual delineation. (authors)

  20. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  1. Innovations in PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Klausen, T; Høgild Keller, S; Vinter Olesen, O

    2012-01-01

    especially as spatial resolution improves. Software based image fusion remains a complex issue outside the brain. State of the art image quality in a modern PET/CT system includes incorporation of point spread function (PSF) and time-of-flight (TOF) information into the reconstruction leading to the high...

  2. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  3. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  4. Particle Accelerators for PET radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost-effectively achie......The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost...... different manufacturers will be discussed the light of what is actually needed for a given PET site operation. Alternatives to the conventional cyclotron have been proposed and tested but have at present very limited use. These alternatives will be discussed, as well as the future possibilities of supplying...... point of demand tracer production with very small cyclotrons of energy well below 10 MeV. The authors best advice at present for new PET sites is to negotiate for conventional cyclotron solutions from experienced manufacturers. It is the combined performance of cyclotron and target in terms of available...

  5. Diagnostic imaging of exotic pets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are important diagnostic modalities in exotic pets. The use of appropriate radiographic equipment, film-screen combinations, and radiographic projections enhances the information obtained from radiographs. Both normal findings and common radiographic abnormalities are discussed. The use of ultrasonography and CT scanning for exotic small mammals and reptiles is described

  6. PET-guided breast biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinyak, Judith E; Schilling, Kathy; Berg, Wendie A; Narayanan, Deepa; Mayberry, Jennifer P; Rai, Rajesh; Dupree, Elizabeth B; Shusterman, Denise K; Gittleman, Mark A; Luo, Weidong; Matthews, Chris G

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging, using positron emission tomography (PET), has become an integral step in the evaluation of many patients with malignancy. However, its use in patients with breast cancer has been limited by the lower levels of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in some breast malignancies compared to other cancers, the small size of many breast cancers, and the need for biopsy under PET guidance. High-resolution breast PET, or positron emission mammography (PEM), with biopsy guidance software, now addresses these issues. We report a prospective, multicenter study designed to test the efficacy and safety of PEM biopsy guidance software in women with FDG-avid breast lesions worrisome for malignancy. The intervention chosen was vacuum-assisted core biopsy. Nineteen subjects underwent a total of 24 PEM-guided biopsies. All lesions were successfully targeted and sampled as determined by post-biopsy image scan evaluation, specimen imaging, and pathologic concordance. Invasive cancer was identified in 13 of 24 lesions (54%), while four (17%) were high-risk lesions and three of these were upgraded to malignancy at excision. No serious adverse events occurred and all patients found the procedure to cause only minimal to mild discomfort. High-resolution PEM-guided breast biopsy is both safe and effective for the sampling of PET-depicted breast lesions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Recommendations for the use of PET and PET-CT for radiotherapy planning in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, E J; Pike, L C; Marsden, P K

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) for disease staging, follow-up and therapy monitoring in a number of oncological indications there is growing interest in the use of PET and PET-CT for radiation treatment planning. In order to create a strong clinical evidence base for this, it is important to ensure that research data are clinically relevant and of a high quality. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute PET Research Network make these recommendations to assist investigators in the development of radiotherapy clinical trials involving the use of PET and PET-CT. These recommendations provide an overview of the current literature in this rapidly evolving field, including standards for PET in clinical trials, disease staging, volume delineation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and PET-augmented planning techniques, and are targeted at a general audience. We conclude with specific recommendations for the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in research projects.

  8. A dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner: Evaluation of basic performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Van Kampen, Will; Stolin, Alexander V; Gong, Wenbo; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar; Martone, Peter F; Smith, Mark F; Sarment, David; Clinthorne, Neal H; Perna, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Application of advanced imaging techniques, such as PET and x ray CT, can potentially improve detection of breast cancer. Unfortunately, both modalities have challenges in the detection of some lesions. The combination of the two techniques, however, could potentially lead to an overall improvement in diagnostic breast imaging. The purpose of this investigation is to test the basic performance of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT. The PET component consists of a rotating pair of detectors. Its performance was evaluated using the NEMA NU4-2008 protocols. The CT component utilizes a pulsed x ray source and flat panel detector mounted on the same gantry as the PET scanner. Its performance was assessed using specialized phantoms. The radiation dose to a breast during CT imaging was explored by the measurement of free-in-air kerma and air kerma measured at the center of a 16 cm-diameter PMMA cylinder. Finally, the combined capabilities of the system were demonstrated by imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom. Overall, performance of the PET component is comparable to many pre-clinical and other dedicated breast-PET scanners. Its spatial resolution is 2.2 mm, 5 mm from the center of the scanner using images created with the single-sliced-filtered-backprojection algorithm. Peak NECR is 24.6 kcps; peak sensitivity is 1.36%; the scatter fraction is 27%. Spatial resolution of the CT scanner is 1.1 lp/mm at 10% MTF. The free-in-air kerma is 2.33 mGy, while the PMMA-air kerma is 1.24 mGy. Finally, combined imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom illustrated the potential utility of the dual-modality images produced by the system. The basic performance characteristics of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner are good, demonstrating that its performance is similar to current dedicated PET and CT scanners. The potential value of this system is the capability to produce combined duality-modality images that could improve detection of breast disease. The next stage in development of this system

  9. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  10. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose PET in adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsano, Ettore; Marotta, Giorgio; Manfredi, Valentina; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Farina, Laura; Savoiardo, Mario; Pareyson, Davide; Benti, Riccardo; Uziel, Graziella

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the cerebral glucose metabolism in subjects with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) by using brain [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET). Cross-sectional study in which 12 adults with various forms of X-ALD underwent clinical evaluation and brain MRI, followed by brain FDG-PET, neuropsychological assessment, and personality and psychopathology evaluation using the Symptom Checkist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). When compared to healthy control subjects (n = 27) by using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software, the patients with X-ALD-with or without brain MRI changes-showed a pattern of increased glucose metabolism in frontal lobes and reduced glucose metabolism in cerebellum and temporal lobe areas. On single case analysis by Scenium software, we found a similar pattern, with significant (p < 0.02) correlation between the degree of hypermetabolism in the frontal lobes of each patient and the corresponding X-ALD clinical scores. With respect to personality, we found that patients with X-ALD usually present with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder on the MCMI-III, with significant (p < 0.05) correlation between glucose uptake in ventral striatum and severity of score on the obsessive-compulsive subscale. We examined cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a cohort of patients with X-ALD and provided definite evidence that in X-ALD the analysis of brain glucose metabolism reveals abnormalities independent from morphologic and signal changes detected by MRI and related to clinical severity. Brain FDG-PET may be a useful neuroimaging technique for the characterization of X-ALD and possibly other leukodystrophies. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  12. Automated analysis of small animal PET studies through deformable registration to an atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Daniel F.; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    reliable, robust and suitable for fast quantification of preclinical PET data in large serial studies. (orig.)

  13. Production, Purification and Radiolabelling of Zirconium-89 for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhari Kasbollah; Azahari Kasbollah; Eu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium-89 ( 89 Zr), a radionuclide with a half-life of 78.4 hours, is suitable for imaging tumours using positron emission tomography (PET) when labelled with monoclonal antibodies. 89 Zr can be produced from Yttrium-89 ( 89 Y) by a process of cyclotron bombardment with 89 Y(p, n) 89 Zr reaction. Purification and radiolabelling processes must be developed before 89 Zr can be used for monoclonal antibody PET imaging. The main aim of this study was to produce 89 Zr using 89 Y solid targets through irradiation in a 12 MeV medical cyclotron at low currents using the 89 Y(p, n) 89 Zr reaction for PET imaging in a preclinical condition. Gamma spectrum analyses determined energy peaks of 511 keV and 909 keV indicating that 89 Zr radionuclide had been successfully produced. 89 Zr was then purified through a hydroxamate resin column and radiolabelled to a monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab). Experiments on biodistribution together with PET imaging of female balb/c nude mice having the HER2 positive LS174T colorectal tumour was undertaken to validate the successful radiolabelling procedure between 89 Zr and trastuzumab. PET images at 24 hours showed a selective accumulation of 89 Zr-Df-Trastuzumab in tumour-bearing mice with good tumour tracer uptake in the right flank, as well as cardiac uptake, a significant presence of HER2 receptor expression on the heart, demonstrated that the conjugated Df-Trastuzumab was successfully labelled with 89 Zr. (author)

  14. Copper-64 Dichloride as Theranostic Agent for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival time less than one year. To date, there are only a limited number of effective agents available for GBM therapy and this does not seem to add much survival advantage over the conventional approach based on surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to GBM is essential and those based on radionuclide therapy could be of significant clinical impact. Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that cancer cells have a particularly high fractional content of copper inside the nucleus compared to normal cells. This behavior can be conveniently exploited both for diagnosis and for delivering therapeutic payloads (theranostic of the radionuclide copper-64 into the nucleus of cancerous cells by intravenous administration of its simplest chemical form as dichloride salt [64Cu]CuCl2. To evaluate the potential theranostic role of [64Cu]CuCl2 in GBM, the present work reports results from a preclinical study carried out in a xenografted GBM tumor mouse model. Biodistribution data of this new agent were collected using a small-animal PET tomograph. Subsequently, groups of tumor implanted nude mice were treated with [64Cu]CuCl2 to simulate single- and multiple-dose therapy protocols, and results were analyzed to estimate therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Early detection of Alzheimer’s disease using PiB and FDG PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ann D.; Klunk, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Use of biomarkers in the detection of early and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become of central importance following publication of the NIA-Alzheimer’s Association revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and preclinical AD. The use of in vivo amyloid imaging agents, such a Pittsburgh Compound-B and markers of neurodegeneration, such as fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) are able to detect early AD pathological processes and subsequent neurodegeneration. Imaging with PiB and FDG thus has many potential clinical benefits: early or perhaps preclinical detection of disease and accurately distinguishing AD from dementias of other etiologies in patients presenting with mild or atypical symptoms or confounding comorbidities in which the diagnostic distinction is difficult to make clinically. From a research perspective, this allows us to study relationships between amyloid pathology and changes in cognition, brain structure, and function across the continuum from normal aging to MCI to AD. The present review focuses on use of PiB and FDG-PET and their relationship to one another. PMID:24825318

  16. Pet Ownership by Elderly People: Two New Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined two issues of pet ownership in mail questionnaire and interview survey of 1,595 older adults over age 60, 377 of whom had a pet. Found evidence that pets were important determinant of housing choice. Many elderly pet owners had made no arrangements for pet if they predecease it or become unable to care for it. (Author/NB)

  17. Challenges for Preclinical Investigations of Human Biofield Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Bengston, William; Yount, Garret

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical models for studying the effects of the human biofield have great potential to advance our understanding of human biofield modalities, which include external qigong, Johrei, Reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch, polarity therapy, pranic healing, and other practices. A short history of Western biofield studies using preclinical models is presented and demonstrates numerous and consistent examples of human biofields significantly affecting biological systems both in vitro and in vivo. Methodological issues arising from these studies and practical solutions in experimental design are presented. Important questions still left unanswered with preclinical models include variable reproducibility, dosing, intentionality of the practitioner, best preclinical systems, and mechanisms. Input from the biofield practitioners in the experimental design is critical to improving experimental outcomes; however, the development of standard criteria for uniformity of practice and for inclusion of multiple practitioners is needed. Research in human biofield studies involving preclinical models promises a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of biofield therapies and will be important in guiding clinical protocols and integrating treatments with conventional medical therapies.

  18. Challenges for Preclinical Investigations of Human Biofield Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Bengston, William

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical models for studying the effects of the human biofield have great potential to advance our understanding of human biofield modalities, which include external qigong, Johrei, Reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch, polarity therapy, pranic healing, and other practices. A short history of Western biofield studies using preclinical models is presented and demonstrates numerous and consistent examples of human biofields significantly affecting biological systems both in vitro and in vivo. Methodological issues arising from these studies and practical solutions in experimental design are presented. Important questions still left unanswered with preclinical models include variable reproducibility, dosing, intentionality of the practitioner, best preclinical systems, and mechanisms. Input from the biofield practitioners in the experimental design is critical to improving experimental outcomes; however, the development of standard criteria for uniformity of practice and for inclusion of multiple practitioners is needed. Research in human biofield studies involving preclinical models promises a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of biofield therapies and will be important in guiding clinical protocols and integrating treatments with conventional medical therapies. PMID:26665042

  19. Pets and the development of allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan

    2005-05-01

    Sensitization to pets remains a risk factor for asthma and rhinitis, and can occur in people who have never lived with a pet. Several reports have indicated that living with a pet reduces the risk for becoming sensitized to that pet. Having a pet in the home gives exposure to more than just allergens. In areas with high frequency of pet ownership, community exposure to pet allergens is almost certainly sufficient to induce sensitization among non-pet owners. In this review, we examine the results of recent studies that have investigated the relationship between pet ownership, specific sensitization to that pet, and allergic sensitization in general. For cat ownership, the results are inconsistent between studies of similar design, with some studies suggesting an increase in risk and others a decrease among cat owners. For dogs, results are more consistent, generally suggesting that owning a dog has no effect or indeed may be protective against the development of specific sensitization to dog and allergic sensitization in general.

  20. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  1. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  2. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood. PMID:28481256

  3. PET/MRI and PET/CT in advanced gynaecological tumours: initial experience and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A.; Schulthess, Gustav von; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Freiwald-Chilla, Bianka [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Hauser, Nik [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Gynaecology, Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI and PET/CT for staging and re-staging advanced gynaecological cancer patients as well as identify the potential benefits of each method in such a population. Twenty-six patients with suspicious or proven advanced gynaecological cancer (12 ovarian, seven cervical, one vulvar and four endometrial tumours, one uterine metastasis, and one primary peritoneal cancer) underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. Images were analysed regarding primary tumour detection and delineation, loco-regional lymph node staging, and abdominal/extra-abdominal distant metastasis detection (last only by PET/CT). Eighteen (69.2 %) patients underwent PET/MRI for primary staging and eight patients (30.8 %) for re-staging their gynaecological malignancies. For primary tumour delineation, PET/MRI accuracy was statistically superior to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Among the different types of cancer, PET/MRI presented better tumour delineation mainly for cervical (6/7) and endometrial (2/3) cancers. PET/MRI for local evaluation as well as PET/CT for extra-abdominal metastases had therapeutic consequences in three and one patients, respectively. PET/CT detected 12 extra-abdominal distant metastases in 26 patients. PET/MRI is superior to PET/CT for primary tumour delineation. No differences were found in detection of regional lymph node involvement and abdominal metastases detection. (orig.)

  4. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Image in Biomedicine; Aplicaciones de la imagen Molecular Preclínica en Biomedicina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Bascuñana, P.; Fernández de la Rosa, R.; De Cristobal, J.; García-García, L.; Pozo, M.A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is a broad platform, which provides valuable information about physiological and pathophysiological changes in living organisms by non-invasive methods. Depending on the used technique: anatomical, functional metabolic or molecular data could be assessed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provides with functional and molecular data, and combined with Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MRI) with the multimodality equipment, it can be exponentially improved. Metabolic pathways and changes on the molecular and cellular level are target in molecular imaging cancer research. Tumour microenvironment, stroma and new vessels can be assessed by PET imaging. Additionally the visualization of functions and monitoring data of provided therapies could be obtained. The aim of the current review is to summarize principles and novel findings in molecular imaging specifically in PET and its application in preclinical cancer research. The theoretical background of techniques and main applications will be highlighted [Spanish] La imagen molecular aporta información muy valiosa, mediante métodos no invasivos, acerca de la fisiología de organismos vivos y sus cambios debidos a patologías. Dependiendo de la técnica utilizada se pueden obtener datos anatómicos, funcionales, metabólicos o moleculares. La Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET) aporta datos metabólicos y moleculares con una alta sensibilidad, y en asociación con la Tomografía Computarizada (TC) o con Resonancia Magnética (RM), con la aparición de los nuevos equipos multimodalidad, las posibilidades de diagnóstico se incrementan exponencialmente. La imagen molecular en investigación oncológica presenta como objetivos principales identificar las diferentes vías metabólicas tumorales y sus cambios a nivel molecular y celular, el comportamiento del microentorno tumoral, aparición de nuevos vasos, estroma, etc. Además, es posible el análisis y cuantificación del

  5. A pretargeting system for tumor PET imaging and radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Frampas, Eric; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Rauscher, Aurore; Sharkey, Robert M; Goldenberg, David M; Chatal, Jean-François; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Labeled antibodies, as well as their fragments and antibody-derived recombinant constructs, have long been proposed as general vectors to target radionuclides to tumor lesions for imaging and therapy. They have indeed shown promise in both imaging and therapeutic applications, but they have not fulfilled the original expectations of achieving sufficient image contrast for tumor detection or sufficient radiation dose delivered to tumors for therapy. Pretargeting was originally developed for tumor immunoscintigraphy. It was assumed that directly-radiolabled antibodies could be replaced by an unlabeled immunoconjugate capable of binding both a tumor-specific antigen and a small molecular weight molecule. The small molecular weight molecule would carry the radioactive payload and would be injected after the bispecific immunoconjugate. It has been demonstrated that this approach does allow for both antibody-specific recognition and fast clearance of the radioactive molecule, thus resulting in improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios. It was subsequently shown that pretargeting also held promise for tumor therapy, translating improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios into more specific delivery of absorbed radiation doses. Many technical approaches have been proposed to implement pretargeting, and two have been extensively documented. One is based on the avidin-biotin system, and the other on bispecific antibodies binding a tumor-specific antigen and a hapten. Both have been studied in preclinical models, as well as in several clinical studies, and have shown improved targeting efficiency. This article reviews the historical and recent preclinical and clinical advances in the use of bispecific-antibody-based pretargeting for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of cancer. The results of recent evaluation of pretargeting in PET imaging also are discussed.

  6. A pretargeting system for tumor PET imaging and radioimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eKraeber-Bodéré

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Labeled antibodies, as well as their fragments and antibody-derived recombinant constructs, have long been proposed as general vectors to target radionuclides to tumor lesions for imaging and therapy. They have indeed shown promise in both imaging and therapeutic applications, but they have not fulfilled the original expectations of achieving sufficient image contrast for tumor detection or sufficient radiation dose delivered to tumors for therapy. Pretargeting was originally developed for tumor immunoscintigraphy. It was assumed that directly-radiolabled antibodies could be replaced by an unlabeled immunoconjugate capable of binding both a tumor-specific antigen and a small molecular weight molecule. The small molecular weight molecule would carry the radioactive payload and would be injected after the bispecific immunoconjugate. It has been demonstrated that this approach does allow for both antibody-specific recognition and fast clearance of the radioactive molecule, thus resulting in improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios. It was subsequently shown that pretargeting also held promise for tumor therapy, translating improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios into more specific delivery of absorbed radiation doses. Many technical approaches have been proposed to implement pretargeting, and two have been extensively documented. One is based on the avidin-biotin system, and the other on bispecific antibodies binding a tumor-specific antigen and a hapten. Both have been studied in preclinical models, as well as in several clinical studies, and have shown improved targeting efficiency. This article reviews the historical and recent preclinical and clinical advances in the use of bispecific-antibody-based pretargeting for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of cancer. The results of recent evaluation of pretargeting in PET imaging also are discussed.

  7. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of 18F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131 ...

  8. PET/CT with intravenous contrast can be used for PET attenuation correction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, A K; Holm, S; Loft, A

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: If the CT scan of a combined PET/CT study is performed as a full diagnostic quality CT scan including intravenous (IV) contrast agent, the quality of the joint PET/CT procedure is improved and a separate diagnostic CT scan can be avoided. CT with IV contrast can be used for PET attenuation...... correction, but this may result in a bias in the attenuation factors. The clinical significance of this bias has not been established. Our aim was to perform a prospective clinical study where each patient had CT performed with and without IV contrast agent to establish whether PET/CT with IV contrast can...... be used for PET attenuation without reducing the clinical value of the PET scan. METHODS: A uniform phantom study was used to document that the PET acquisition itself is not significantly influenced by the presence of IV contrast medium. Then, 19 patients referred to PET/CT with IV contrast underwent CT...

  9. Characterization of novel preclinical dose distributions for micro irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodra, J.; Miles, D.; Yoon, S. W.; Kirsch, D. G.; Oldham, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work explores and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing new 3D printing techniques to implement advanced micro radiation therapy for pre-clinical small animal studies. 3D printed blocks and compensators were designed and printed from a strong x-ray attenuating material at sub-millimeter resolution. These techniques enable a powerful range of new preclinical treatment capabilities including grid therapy, lattice therapy, and IMRT treatment. At small scales, verification of these treatments is exceptionally challenging, and high resolution 3D dosimetry (0.5mm3) is an essential capability to characterize and verify these capabilities, Here, investigate the 2D and 3D dosimetry of several novel pre-clinical treatments using a combination of EBT film and Presage/optical-CT 3D dosimetry in rodent-morphic dosimeters.

  10. Pre-clinical biocompatibility testing of peritoneal dialysis solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C J

    2000-01-01

    Pre-clinical biocompatibility testing of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions has become an integral part of new solution development. The construction of a pre-clinical screening program for solution biocompatibility should take a hierarchical approach, starting with in vitro cell viability and function assays. The selection of cell types and assay systems for the in vitro studies should be broad enough to permit a balanced interpretation. Whenever possible, animal models are recommended for the next hierarchical level of testing, followed by human ex vivo study designs. Designs of the latter sort provide evidence that a new solution formulation is exerting an altered biological response in vivo; the response is not purely an in vitro artifact or restricted to a given animal species. This article discusses the various approaches available for biocompatibility testing during the pre-clinical phase of solution development, with an emphasis on the advantages and drawbacks of each method.

  11. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boellaard, Ronald; O'Doherty, Mike J; Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomogr......-computed tomography (PET/CT) and is provided to help the physician and physicist to assist to carrying out,interpret, and document quantitative FDG PET/CT examinations,but will concentrate on the optimisation of diagnostic quality and quantitative information....

  12. The impact of weakly bound 89Zr on preclinical studies: Non-specific accumulation in solid tumors and aspergillus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, Gregory W.; Jørgensen, Jesper T.; Wiehr, Stefan; Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hansen, Anders E.; Maurer, Andreas; Hasenberg, Mike; Pichler, Bernd; Kjær, Andreas; Jensen, Andreas I.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies involving 89 Zr often report significant bone accumulation, which is associated with dissociation of the radiometal from the tracer. However, experiments determining the uptake of unbound 89 Zr in disease models are not performed as routine controls. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of free or weakly bound 89 Zr on PET quantifications in disease models, in order to determine if such control experiments are warranted. Methods: Chemical studies were carried out to find a 89 Zr compound that would solubilize the 89 Zr as a weak chelate, thus mimicking free or weakly bound 89 Zr released in circulation. 89 Zr oxalate had the desired characteristics, and was injected into mice bearing FaDu and HT29 solid tumor xenografts, and mice infected in the lungs with the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, as well as in healthy controls (naïve). PET/CT or PET/MR imaging followed to quantify the distribution of the radionuclide in the disease models. Results: 89 Zr oxalate was found to have a plasma half-life of 5.1 ± 2.3 h, accumulating mainly in the bones of all animals. Both tumor types accumulated 89 Zr on the order of 2‐4 %ID/cm 3 , which is comparable to EPR-mediated accumulation of certain species. In the aspergillosis model, the concentration of 89 Zr in lung tissue of the naïve animals was 6.0 ± 1.1 %ID/g. This was significantly different from that of the animals with advanced disease, showing 11.6 ± 1.8 %ID/g. Conclusions: Given the high levels of 89 Zr accumulation in the disease sites in the present study, we recommend control experiments mapping the biodistribution of free 89 Zr in any preclinical study employing 89 Zr where bone uptake is observed. Aqueous 89 Zr oxalate appears to be a suitable compound for such studies. This is especially relevant in studies where the tracer accumulation is based upon passive targeting, such as EPR

  13. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W; de Jong, Marion

    2011-05-01

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  14. Screening for pre-clinical disability in different residential settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newstead Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing disability and offering effective interventions to older people during early decline in function is most likely to be effective if those most at risk of progressive disablement are able to be identified. Similarly the ability to easily identify a group with similar functional profile from disparate sectors of the community is of significant benefit to researchers. This study aimed to (1 describe the use of a pre-clinical disability screening tool to select a functionally comparable group of older men and women with early functional limitation from different settings, and (2 explore factors associated with function and disability. Methods Self-reported function and disability measured with the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument along with a range of physical performance measurements were compared across residential settings and gender in a sample of 471 trial participants identified as pre-clinically disabled after being screened with the Fried pre-clinical disability tool. Factors that might lie on the pathway to progressive disablement were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We found that a sample population, screened for pre-clinical disability, had a functional status and disability profile reflecting early functional limitation, regardless of residential setting or gender. Statistical models identified a range of factors associated with function and disability which explained a greater degree of the variation in function, than disability. Conclusions We selected a group of people with a comparable function and disability profile, consistent with the pre-clinical stage of disability, from a sample of older Australian men and women from different residential settings using the Fried pre-clinical disability screening tool. The results suggest that the screening tool can be used with greater confidence for research, clinical and population health purposes. Further research is

  15. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Jong, Marion de

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  16. Imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in early preclinical Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassenko, Andrei G.; McCue, Lena; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Su, Yi; Gordon, Brian A.; Xiong, Chengjie; Holtzman, David M; Benzinger, Tammie LS; Morris, John C; Fagan, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Deposition of Aβ-containing plaques as evidenced by amyloid imaging and CSF Aβ42 is an early indicator of preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). To better understand their relationship during the earliest preclinical stages, we investigated baseline CSF markers in cognitively normal individuals at different stages of amyloid deposition defined by longitudinal amyloid imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB): 1) PIB-negative at baseline and follow-up (PIB−, normal); 2) PIB− at baseline but PIB-positive at follow-up (PIB converters, early preclinical AD); and 3) PIB-positive at baseline and follow-up (PIB+, preclinical AD). Methods Cognitively normal individuals (n=164) who had undergone baseline PIB scan and CSF collection within one year of each other and at least one additional PIB follow-up were included. Amyloid status was defined dichotomously using an a priori mean cortical cut-off. Results PIB converters (n=20) at baseline exhibited significantly lower CSF Aβ42 compared to those who remained PIB− (n=123), but higher compared to PIB+ group (n=21). A robust negative correlation (r=−0.879, p=0.0001) between CSF Aβ42 and absolute (but sub-threshold) PIB binding was observed during this early preclinical stage. The negative correlation was not as strong once individuals were PIB+ (r=−0.456, p=0.038), and there was no correlation in the stable PIB− group (p=0.905) or in the group (n=10) with early symptomatic AD (p=0.537). Interpretation CSF Ab42 levels are tightly coupled with cortical amyloid load in the earliest stages of preclinical AD, and began to decrease dramatically prior to the point when an abnormal threshold of cortical accumulation is detected with amyloid imaging. PMID:27398953

  17. Utility of PET in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon

    2002-01-01

    Clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly increasing for the detection and staging of cancer at whole-body studies performed with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Although many cancers can be detected by FDG-PET, there has been limited clinical experience with FDG-PET for the detection of gynecological cancers including malignancies in uterus and ovary. FDG-PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can aid in the characterization of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Most gynecological cancers need to surgical management. FDG-PET can improve the selection of patients for surgical treatment and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery. FDG-PET is also useful for the early detection of recurrence and the monitoring of therapeutic effect. In this review, I discuss the clinical feasibility and imitations of this imaging modality in patients with gynecological cancers

  18. Combined PET/MR imaging in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Beyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on a transaxial T1w-MR image traversing the central basal ganglia. We report the relative difference (%) of the mean ROI values for (A)-(C) in reference to PET/CT (D). In a separate phantom experiment a 2L plastic bottle was layered with approximately 12mm of Gypsum plaster to mimic skull bone. The phantom......AIM: Combined PET/MR systems have now become available for clinical use. Given the lack of integrated standard transmission (TX) sources in these systems, attenuation and scatter correction (AC) must be performed using the available MR-images. Since bone tissue cannot easily be accounted for during...... MR-AC, PET quantification can be biased, in particular, in the vicinity of the skull. Here, we assess PET quantification in PET/MR imaging of patients using phantoms and patient data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients referred to our clinic for a PET/CT exam as part of the diagnostic...

  19. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations....

  20. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for carrying out PET research can vary widely depending on the type of basic research being carried out and the extent of a clinical program at a particular center. The type of accelerator and laboratory facilities will, of course, depend on the exact mix. These centers have been divided into four categories. 1. Clinical PET with no radionuclide production facilities, 2. clinical PET with some radionuclide production facilities, 3. clinical PET with research support, and 4. a PET research facility developing new tracers and exploring clinical applications. Guidelines for the choice of an accelerator based on these categories and the practical yields of the common nuclear reactions for production of PET isotopes have been developed and are detailed. Guidelines as to the size and physical layout of the laboratory space necessary for the synthesis of various radiopharmaceuticals have also been developed and are presented. Important utility and air flow considerations are explored

  1. Pet Store Loyalty in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yuen Yee

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty is open studied topic within the retailing and marketing discipline. A strong and profitable base of loyal customers is an asset to any organization, and is one of the epitomes of success for a company. The flourishing of large, specialty niche retailers like Starbucks, Victoria Secret and Barnes & Noble are stellar success stories that thrive on their troop of staunch followers. Pet retailing is a niche market which has its own interesting market characteristics. The emergence of ...

  2. Child vs. Pet: The Effect of Abortion Legalization on the Demand for Pets

    OpenAIRE

    Youjin Hahn; Liang Choon Wang; Hee-Seung Yang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether abortion legalization led to increased demand for pets in the United States. We compare women living in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the early 1970s, to women in other states and cohorts and estimate their likelihood of pet ownership and time spent on pets after their peak childbearing years were over. We find the probability of owning any pet is approximately 9.6 percentage points higher for women affected by abortion legaliza...

  3. Analgesia in Amphibians: Preclinical Studies and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Preclinical studies of analgesia in amphibians or recommendations for clinical use of analgesics in amphibian species are extremely limited. This article briefly reviews the issues surrounding the use of analgesics in amphibians starting with common definitions of pain and analgesia when applied to non-human animals. Nociceptive and endogenous opioid systems in amphibians are reviewed and results of preclinical research on opioid and non-opioid analgesics summarized. Recommended opioid and non-opioid analgesics are summarized and practical recommendations made for their clinical use. PMID:21074701

  4. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spack Edward G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonisation. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s. Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot

  5. Performance analysis of different PSF shapes for the quad-HIDAC PET submillimetre resolution recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Maynez, Leticia, E-mail: lortega@uacj.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Eectrica y Computacion , Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Avenida del Charro 450 Norte, C.P. 32310 Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dominguez de Jesus Ochoa, Humberto; Villegas Osiris Vergara, Osslan; Gordillo, Nelly; Guadalupe Cruz Sanchez, Vianey; Gutierrez Casas, Efren David [Departamento de Ingenieria Eectrica y Computacion, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Avenida del Charro 450 Norte, C.P. 32310 Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2011-10-01

    In pre-clinical applications, it is quite important to preserve the image resolution because it is necessary to show the details of structures of small animals. Therefore, small animal PET scanners require high spatial resolution and good sensitivity. For the quad-HIDAC PET scanner, which has virtually continuous spatial sampling; improvements in resolution, noise and contrast are obtained as a result of avoiding artifacts introduced by binning the data into sampled projections used during the reconstruction process. In order to reconstruct high-resolution images in 3D-PET, background correction and resolution recovery are included within the Maximum Likelihood list-mode Expectation Maximization reconstruction model. This paper, introduces the performance analysis of the Gaussian, Laplacian and Triangular kernels. The Full-Width Half-Maximum used for each kernel was varied from 0.8 to 1.6 mm. For each quality compartment within the phantom, transaxial middle slices from the 3D reconstructed images are shown. Results show that, according to the quantitative measures, the triangular kernel has the best performance.

  6. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  7. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosi...

  8. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has, since its inception, established itself as the imaging modality of choice for the in vivo quantitative assessment of molecular targets in a wide range of biochemical processes underlying tumour physiology. PET image quantification enables to ascertain a direct link between the time-varying activity concentration in organs/tissues and the fundamental parameters portraying the biological processes at the cellular level being assessed. However, the quantitative potential of PET may be affected by a number of factors related to physical effects, hardware and software system specifications, tracer kinetics, motion, scan protocol design and limitations in current image-derived PET metrics. Given the relatively large number of PET metrics reported in the literature, the selection of the best metric for fulfilling a specific task in a particular application is still a matter of debate. Quantitative PET has advanced elegantly during the last two decades and is now reaching the maturity required for clinical exploitation, particularly in oncology where it has the capability to open many avenues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment and therapy planning. Therefore, the preservation and further enhancement of the quantitative features of PET imaging is crucial to ensure that the full clinical value of PET imaging modality is utilized in clinical oncology. Recent advancements in PET technology and methodology have paved the way for faster PET acquisitions of enhanced sensitivity to support the clinical translation of highly quantitative four-dimensional (4D) parametric imaging methods in clinical oncology. In this report, we provide an overview of recent advances and future trends in quantitative PET imaging in the context of clinical oncology. The pros/cons of the various image-derived PET metrics will be discussed and the promise of novel methodologies will be highlighted.

  9. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  10. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-09-28

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  11. F-18-FLT PET for visualization of laryngeal cancer : Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; van der Laan, BFAM; Maas, B; Vaalburg, W; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ; Jager, PL; Elsinga, PH

    The feasibility of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine PET (FLT PET) for detecting laryngeal cancer was investigated and compared with F-18-FDG PET. Methods: Eleven patients diagnosed with or strongly suspected of having recurrent laryngeal cancer and 10 patients with histologically proven primary

  12. The AX-PET project Demonstration of a high resolution axial 3D PET

    CERN Document Server

    Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Cochran, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, G; Fanti, V; Honscheid, K; Huh, S; Johnson, I; Joram, C; Kagan, H; Lustermann, W; Meddi, F; Nappi, E; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Oliver, J F; Pauss, P; Rafecas, M; Renker, D; Rudge, A; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Smith, S; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P

    2010-01-01

    The AX-PET is a new geometrical concept for a high resolution 3D PET scanner, based on matrices of axially oriented LYSO crystals interleaved by stacks of WLS, both individually read out by G-APDs. A PET demonstrator, based on two detector modules used in coincidence, is currently under construction.

  13. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The objective of the present study was basic understanding of the formation of thin film morphology by spin coating using reorganized polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers in PET. A study of the correlation between physical properties of the PET films and its ...

  14. {sup 18}FDG PET and acetazolamide-enhanced {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Schomburg, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Badali, A. [Dept. of Dermatology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Ruhlmann, J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Pavics, L. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin

    1995-09-01

    In this report, we present the case of a 70-year-old female patient, suffering from SLE without symptoms of CNS involvement. In addition to a SPET study using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) and a PET scan with fluorine-18 deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), a SPET study after acetazolamide injection was performed in order to assess the cerebral perfusion reserve. While the PET scan showed no major abnormalities, and the baseline SPET study revealed only minor changes, the acetazolamide-enhanced SPET study revealed a marked reduction of the cortical perfusion reserve, particularly in both frontal lobes. It is concluded that ``preclinical`` CNS involvement, mainly caused by pathological mechanisms involving the cerebral blood vessels, can be considered to exist in this patient with SLE. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  15. Radiology for PET/CT reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Fanti, Stefano; Zanoni, Lucia [Univ. Hospital Sant Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-01

    Offers rapid access to slice by slice CT descriptions of anatomical structures from PET/CT studies. Presents images and descriptions of CT findings that may be detected while reviewing PET/CT scans. Includes principal MRI findings in diseases susceptible to PET/CT evaluation. Reading PET/CT scans is sometimes challenging. Not infrequently, abnormal findings on CT images are functionally silent and therefore difficult for nuclear medicine practitioners to interpret. Furthermore, in general only a low-dose CT scan is produced as part of the combined PET/CT study, and the resulting CT images may prove suboptimal for image interpretation. This atlas is designed to enable nuclear medicine practitioners who routinely read PET/CT scans to recognize the most common CT abnormalities. Slice-by-slice descriptions are provided of anatomical structures as visualized on CT scans obtained in PET/CT studies. The CT findings that may be detected while reviewing PET/CT scans of various body regions and conditions are then illustrated and fully described. The concluding section of the book is devoted to the principal MRI findings in diseases which cannot be evaluated using PETs/CTs.

  16. Progress of PET imaging in Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Gao Shuo

    2011-01-01

    PET is an important functional neuroimaging technique that can be used to assessment of cerebral metabolic activity and blood flow and identifies the distribution of important neurotransmitters in the human brain. Compared with other conventional imaging techniques, PET enables regional cerebral glucose metabolism, blood flow, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor function to be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In recent years, PET increasingly being used greatly to advance our understanding of the neurobiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review focuses on the use of PET tracers in identifying regional brain abnormalities and regions associated with cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. (authors)

  17. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  18. Investigation progress of PET reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging for gene therapy and gene expression has been more and more attractive, while the use of gene therapy has been widely investigated and intense research have allowed it to the clinical setting in the last two-decade years. In vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) by combination of appropriate PET reporter gene and PET reporter probe could provide qualitative and quantitative information for gene therapy. PET imaging could also obtain some valuable parameters not available by other techniques. This technology is useful to understand the process and development of gene therapy and how to apply it into clinical practice in the future. (authors)

  19. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, C.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Sabri, O.; Kluge, R.; Schober, O.

    2008-01-01

    The high negative predictive value of FDG-PET in therapy control of Hodgkin lymphoma is proven by the data acquired up to now. Thus, the analysis of the HD15 trial has shown that consolidation radiotherapy might be omitted in PET negative patients after effective chemotherapy. Further response adapted therapy guided by PET seems to be a promising approach in reducing the toxicity for patients undergoing chemotherapy. The criteria used for the PET interpretation have been standardized by the German study groups for Hodgkin lymphoma patients and will be reevaluated in the current studies. (orig.)

  1. Pet food safety: the roles of government, manufacturers, and veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura; Cowell, Christopher; Thompson, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is of concern for both human and companion animal health. Government agencies, pet food manufacturers, and veterinarians play crucial roles in ensuring the safety of pet food and safeguarding pets and their owners. Recent legislation will increase the governmental role in regulating pet food and will affect many manufacturers. Veterinarians continue to play a vital role by recognizing and reporting pet food safety issues and by educating clients on matters related to pet food safety.

  2. Additional value of PET-CT in the staging of lung cancer: comparison with CT alone, PET alone and visual correlation of PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, W. de; Marchal, G.; Bogaert, J.; Verschakelen, J.A.; Ceyssens, S.; Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) is a new imaging modality offering anatomic and metabolic information. The purpose was to evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of integrated PET-CT in the staging of a suggestive lung lesion, comparing this with the accuracy of CT alone, PET alone and visually correlated PET-CT. Fifty patients undergoing integrated PET-CT for staging of a suggestive lung lesion were studied. Their tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) statuses were determined with CT, PET, visually correlated PET-CT and integrated PET-CT. These TNM stages were compared with the surgical TNM status. Integrated PET-CT was the most accurate imaging technique in the assessment of the TNM status. Integrated PET-CT predicted correctly the T status, N status, M status and TNM status in, respectively, 86%, 80%, 98%, 70% versus 68%, 66%,88%, 46% with CT, 46%, 70%, 96%, 30% with PET and 72%, 68%, 96%, 54% with visually correlated PET-CT. T status and N status were overstaged, respectively, in 8% and 16% with integrated PET-CT, in 20% and 28% with CT, in 16% and 20% with PET, in 12% and 20% with visually correlated PET-CT and understaged in 6% and 4% with integrated PET-CT, versus 12% and 6% with CT, 38% and 10% with PET and 12% with visually correlated PET-CT. Integrated PET-CT improves the staging of lung cancer through a better anatomic localization and characterization of lesions and is superior to CT alone and PET alone. If this technique is not available, visual correlation of PET and CT can be a valuable alternative. (orig.)

  3. In situ study of the impact of inter- and intra-reader variability on region of interest (ROI) analysis in preclinical molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Frezghi; Budhiraja, Shradha; Keren, Shay; Doyle, Timothy C; Levin, Craig S; Paik, David S

    2013-01-01

    We estimated reader-dependent variability of region of interest (ROI) analysis and evaluated its impact on preclinical quantitative molecular imaging. To estimate reader variability, we used five independent image datasets acquired each using microPET and multispectral fluorescence imaging (MSFI). We also selected ten experienced researchers who utilize molecular imaging in the same environment that they typically perform their own studies. Nine investigators blinded to the data type completed the ROI analysis by drawing ROIs manually that delineate the tumor regions to the best of their knowledge and repeated the measurements three times, non-consecutively. Extracted mean intensities of voxels within each ROI are used to compute the coefficient of variation (CV) and characterize the inter- and intra-reader variability. The impact of variability was assessed through random samples iterated from normal distributions for control and experimental groups on hypothesis testing and computing statistical power by varying subject size, measured difference between groups and CV. The results indicate that inter-reader variability was 22.5% for microPET and 72.2% for MSFI. Additionally, mean intra-reader variability was 10.1% for microPET and 26.4% for MSFI. Repeated statistical testing showed that a total variability of CV variability has been observed mainly due to differences in the ROI placement and geometry drawn between readers, which may adversely affect statistical power and erroneously lead to negative study outcomes.

  4. Deep Inspiration Breath Hold [(18)F]FDG PET-CT on 4-rings scanners in evaluating lung lesions: evidences from a phantom and a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Puta, Erinda; Kaiser, Stefano Ren; Massetti, Valentina; Andreoli, Michela; Mostarda, Angelica; Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical feasibility of a Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) (18)F-FDG PET-CT acquisition in apnea and compare the results obtained between these acts of acquisition in apnea and in Free Breathing in the evaluation of lung lesions. A pre-clinical phantom study was performed to evaluate the shortest simulated DIBH time according to the minimum detectable lesion that can be detected by our ultrasound scanner. This study was conducted by changing acquisition time and sphere-to-background activity ratio values and by using radioactivity densities similar to those generally found in clinical examinations. In the clinical study, 25 patients with pulmonary lesions underwent a standard whole body (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan in free breathing followed by a 20s single thorax acquisition PET/CT in DIBH acquisition. The phantom study indicated that a 20-s acquisition time provides an accurate evaluation of smallest sphere shaped lesions. In the clinical study, PET-CT scans obtained in DIBH studies showed a significant reduction of misalignment between the PET and CT scan images and an increase of SUVmax compared to free breathing acquisitions. A correlation between the %BH-index and lesion displacement between PET and CT images in FB acquisition was demonstrated, significantly higher for lesions with a displacement>8mm. The single 20s acquisition of DIBH PET-CT is a feasible technique for lung lesion detection in the clinical setting. It only requires a minor increase in examination time without special patient training. 20s DIBH scan provided a more precise measurement of SUVmax, especially for lesions in the lower lung lobes which usually show greater displacement between PET and CT scan images in FB acquisition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanis, Dimitrios; Durski, Jolanta M.; Lowe, Val J.; Nathan, Mark A.; Mullan, Brian P.; Georgiou, Evangelos; Johnston, Patrick B.; Wiseman, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of 18 F fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: All Burkitt's lymphoma patients referred for FDG PET or FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) exams at our institution from June 2003 to June 2006 were included. Selected patients were followed and clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Results from FDG PET-PET/CT, as blindly reviewed by a consensus of two experienced readers, were compared with the status of the disease as determined by other laboratory, clinical and imaging exams and clinical follow-up. FDG PET-PET/CT results were classified as true positive or negative and false positive or negative. The degree of FDG uptake in the positive lesions was semiquantified as maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results: Fifty-seven FDG PET-PET/CT exams were done in 15 patients. Seven exams were done for initial staging, 8 during and 14 after the completion of therapy, and 28 for disease surveillance. For nodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 8, true negative in 47 and false positive in 2 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%). For extranodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 6, true negative in 48 and false positive in 3 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%). The mean SUVmax for the positive nodal lesions was 15.7 (range 6.9-21.7, median 18.5) and for extranodal lesions was 14.2 (range 6.2-24.3, median 12.4). Conclusions: FDG PET-PET/CT is sensitive for the detection of viable disease in Burkitt's lymphoma. Affected areas demonstrated high degree of uptake that was reversible upon successful implementation of treatment.

  6. Standardised uptake values from PET/CT images: comparison with conventional attenuation-corrected PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souvatzoglou, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Martinez, M.J.; Dzewas, G.; Schwaiger, M.; Bengel, F.; Busch, R.

    2007-01-01

    In PET/CT, CT-derived attenuation factors may influence standardised uptake values (SUVs) in tumour lesions and organs when compared with stand-alone PET. Therefore, we compared PET/CT-derived SUVs intra-individually in various organs and tumour lesions with stand-alone PET-derived SUVs. Thirty-five patients with known or suspected cancer were prospectively included. Sixteen patients underwent FDG PET using an ECAT HR+scanner, and subsequently a second scan using a Biograph Sensation 16PET/CT scanner. Nineteen patients were scanned in the reverse order. All images were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Suspected lesions were grouped as paradiaphragmatic versus distant from the diaphragm. Mean and maximum SUVs were also calculated for brain, lung, liver, spleen and vertebral bone. The attenuation coefficients (μ values) used for correction of emission data (bone, soft tissue, lung) in the two data sets were determined. A body phantom containing six hot spheres and one cold cylinder was measured using the same protocol as in patients. Forty-six lesions were identified. There was a significant correlation of maximum and mean SUVs derived from PET and PET/CT for 14 paradiaphragmatic lesions (r=0.97 respectively; p<0.001 respectively) and for 32 lesions located distant from the diaphragm (r=0.87 and r=0.89 respectively; p<0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in the SUVs calculated with PET and PET/CT in the lesions or in the organs. In the phantom, radioactivity concentration in spheres calculated from PET and from PET/CT correlated significantly (r=0.99; p<0.001). SUVs of cancer lesions and normal organs were comparable between PET and PET/CT, supporting the usefulness of PET/CT-derived SUVs for quantification of tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  7. A modular labeling strategy for in vivo PET and near-infrared fluorescence imaging of nanoparticle tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Zhang, Yachao; Longo, Valerie A; Irwin, Chrisopher P; Binderup, Tina; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Fayad, Zahi A; Lewis, Jason S; Mulder, Willem J M; Reiner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Advances in preclinical molecular imaging have generated new opportunities to noninvasively visualize the biodistribution and tumor targeting of nanoparticle therapeutics. Capitalizing on recent achievements in this area, we sought to develop an (89)Zr-based labeling strategy for liposomal nanoparticles that accumulate in tumors via passive targeting mechanisms. (89)Zr-labeled liposomes were prepared using 2 different approaches: click labeling and surface chelation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies, as well as PET/CT imaging of the radiolabeled nanoparticles, were performed on a mouse model of breast cancer. In addition, a dual PET/optical probe was prepared by incorporation of a near-infrared fluorophore and tested in vivo by PET and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The surface chelation approach proved to be superior in terms of radiochemical yield and stability, as well as in vivo performance. Accumulation of these liposomes in tumor peaked at 24 h after injection and was measured to be 13.7 ± 1.8 percentage injected dose per gram. The in vivo performance of this probe was not essentially perturbed by the incorporation of a near-infrared fluorophore. We have developed a highly modular and efficient strategy for the labeling of liposomal nanoparticles with (89)Zr. In xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrated that the biodistribution of these nanoparticles can be visualized by PET imaging. In combination with a near-infrared dye, these liposomal nanoparticles can serve as bimodal PET/optical imaging agents. The liposomes target malignant growth, and their bimodal features may be useful for simultaneous PET and intraoperative imaging. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. A multi-atlas based method for automated anatomical rat brain MRI segmentation and extraction of PET activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Sophie; Roche, Roxane; Slimen, Afifa; Bouillot, Caroline; Levigoureux, Elise; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Zimmer, Luc; Costes, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical in vivo imaging requires precise and reproducible delineation of brain structures. Manual segmentation is time consuming and operator dependent. Automated segmentation as usually performed via single atlas registration fails to account for anatomo-physiological variability. We present, evaluate, and make available a multi-atlas approach for automatically segmenting rat brain MRI and extracting PET activies. High-resolution 7T 2DT2 MR images of 12 Sprague-Dawley rat brains were manually segmented into 27-VOI label volumes using detailed protocols. Automated methods were developed with 7/12 atlas datasets, i.e. the MRIs and their associated label volumes. MRIs were registered to a common space, where an MRI template and a maximum probability atlas were created. Three automated methods were tested: 1/registering individual MRIs to the template, and using a single atlas (SA), 2/using the maximum probability atlas (MP), and 3/registering the MRIs from the multi-atlas dataset to an individual MRI, propagating the label volumes and fusing them in individual MRI space (propagation & fusion, PF). Evaluation was performed on the five remaining rats which additionally underwent [18F]FDG PET. Automated and manual segmentations were compared for morphometric performance (assessed by comparing volume bias and Dice overlap index) and functional performance (evaluated by comparing extracted PET measures). Only the SA method showed volume bias. Dice indices were significantly different between methods (PF>MP>SA). PET regional measures were more accurate with multi-atlas methods than with SA method. Multi-atlas methods outperform SA for automated anatomical brain segmentation and PET measure's extraction. They perform comparably to manual segmentation for FDG-PET quantification. Multi-atlas methods are suitable for rapid reproducible VOI analyses.

  9. Fast GPU-based computation of the sensitivity matrix for a PET list-mode OSEM algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassiri, Moulay Ali; Carrier, Jean-Francois [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. de Radio-Oncologie; Hissoiny, Sami [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. de Genie Informatique et Genie Logiciel; Despres, Philippe [Quebec Univ. (Canada). Dept. de Radio-Oncologie

    2011-07-01

    One of the obstacle in introducing a list-mode PET reconstruction algorithm for routine clinical use is the long computation time required for the sensitivity matrix calculation. This matrix must be computed for each study because it depends on the object attenuation map. During the last decade, studies have shown that 3D list-mode OSEM reconstruction algorithms could be effectively performed and considerably accelerated by GPU devices. However, most of that preliminary work (1) was done for pre-clinical PET systems in which the number of LORs is small compared to modern human PET systems and (2) supposed that the sensitivity matrix is pre-calculated. The time required to compute this matrix can however be longer than the reconstruction time itself. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of sensitivity matrix calculations in terms of computation time with modern GPUs, for clinical fully 3D LM-OSEM for modern PET scanners. For this purpose, sensitivity matrix calculations and full list-mode OSEM reconstruction for human PET systems were implemented on GPUs using the CUDA framework. The system matrices were built on-the-fly by using the multi-ray Siddon algorithm. The time to compute the sensitivity matrix for 288 x 288 x 57 arrays using 3 tangential LORs was 29 seconds. The 3D LM-OSEM algorithm, including the sensitivity matrix calculation, was performed for the same LORs in 71 seconds for 62 millions events, 6 frames and 1 iterations. This work let envision fast reconstructions for advanced PET application such as dynamic studies and parametric image reconstruction. (orig.)

  10. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, R.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Weber, W.A.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Stroobants, S.G.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Kotzerke, J.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Pruim, J.; Marsden, P.K.; Tatsch, K.; Hoekstra, C.J.; Visser, E.P.; Arends, B.; Verzijlbergen, F.J.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Comans, E.F.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Paans, A.M.; Willemsen, A.T.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Delbeke, D.; Baum, R.P.; Chiti, A.; Krause, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed

  11. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  12. A preclinical mouse model of invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornebal, Chris W.; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M.; Klijn, Christiaan N.; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Hollmann, Markus W.; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths, but the development of effective antimetastatic agents has been hampered by the paucity of clinically relevant preclinical models of human metastatic disease. Here, we report the development of a mouse model of spontaneous

  13. Pattern of premenstrual symptoms among pre-clinical medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a recognized entity which causes much distress to women at some stage during the reproductive period of their lives. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of premenstrual symptoms among pre-clinical female medical students at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Methodology: ...

  14. Nanotechnology and nuclear medicine; research and preclinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Majid; Afrasiabi, Kolsoom; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The birth of nanotechnology in human society was around 2000 years ago and soon found applications in various fields. In this article, we highlight the current status of research and preclinical applications and also future prospects of nanotechnology in medicine and in nuclear medicine. The most important field is cancer. A regular nanotechnology training program for nuclear medicine physicians may be welcome.

  15. Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Saadeddin, Zein; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Aridi, Hussam

    2016-02-01

    It is acknowledged that physicians do not seek the same expert aid for themselves as they would offer their patients. In their preclinical years, medical students appear to espouse comparable behavior. To many, medicine is described as a never-ending path that places the student under heavy stress and burnout from the beginning, leaving him/her vulnerable and with insufficient coping methods. Hence, the objective of this study is to 1) explore the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students, and 2) propose solutions to decrease stress and burnout and improve medical education in the preclinical years. A detailed scholarly research strategy using Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, MEDLINE and PubMed was implemented to highlight key themes that are relevant to preclinical medical students' stress and burnout. Stress varied among different samples of medical students and ranged between 20.9% and 90%. Conversely, burnout ranged between 27% and 75%. Methods that help in reducing the incidence of stress and burnout by promoting strategies that focus on personal engagement, extracurricular activities, positive reinterpretation and expression of emotion, student-led mentorship programs, evaluation systems, career counseling and life coaching should be adopted.

  16. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Neumann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group, additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain.

  17. Image-guided drug delivery : Preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, G; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy.

  18. USHERING IN THE STUDY AND TREATMENT OF PRECLINICAL ALZHEIMER DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Lopera, Francisco; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Caselli, Richard J.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have begun to characterize the subtle biological and cognitive processes that precede the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), and to set the stage for accelerated evaluation of experimental treatments to delay the onset, reduce the risk of or completely prevent clinical decline. Here, we provide an overview of the experimental strategies, and brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures that are used in early detection and tracking of AD, highlighting at-risk individuals who could be suitable for preclinical monitoring. We discuss how these advances have contributed to reconceptualization of AD as a sequence of biological changes that occur during progression from preclinical AD, to mild cognitive impairment and finally dementia, and we review recently proposed research criteria for preclinical AD. Advances in the study of preclinical AD have driven the recognition that efficacy of at least some AD therapies may depend on initiation of treatment before clinical manifestation of disease, leading to a new era of AD prevention research. PMID:23752908

  19. Preclinical efficacy and safety of herbal formulation for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most herbal products developed by local herbalists and sold to the public are not standardized and lack efficacy and safety data to support use. Objective: To formulate from two Ugandan medicinal plants a herbal product for wound management and test its preclinical safety and efficacy using rat models. Methods: Thirty ...

  20. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical Medical Students. ... ABSTRACT: Problem based learning curriculum is widely recognized as a progressive, learner-centered, active learning approach and is currently used in the entire medical curriculum in over 10% of medical schools worldwide.

  1. Image-guided drug delivery: preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy.

  2. Head and neck imaging with PET and PET/CT: artefacts from dental metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, Gerhard W.; Hany, Thomas F.; Kamel, Ehab; Schulthess von, Gustav K.; Buck, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Germanium-68 based attenuation correction (PET Ge68 ) is performed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for quantitative measurements. With the recent introduction of combined in-line PET/CT scanners, CT data can be used for attenuation correction. Since dental implants can cause artefacts in CT images, CT-based attenuation correction (PET CT ) may induce artefacts in PET images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental metallic artwork on the quality of PET images by comparing non-corrected images and images attenuation corrected by PET Ge68 and PET CT . Imaging was performed on a novel in-line PET/CT system using a 40-mAs scan for PET CT in 41 consecutive patients with high suspicion of malignant or inflammatory disease. In 17 patients, additional PET Ge68 images were acquired in the same imaging session. Visual analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in several regions of the head and neck was scored on a 4-point scale in comparison with normal grey matter of the brain in the corresponding PET images. In addition, artefacts adjacent to dental metallic artwork were evaluated. A significant difference in image quality scoring was found only for the lips and the tip of the nose, which appeared darker on non-corrected than on corrected PET images. In 33 patients, artefacts were seen on CT, and in 28 of these patients, artefacts were also seen on PET imaging. In eight patients without implants, artefacts were seen neither on CT nor on PET images. Direct comparison of PET Ge68 and PET CT images showed a different appearance of artefacts in 3 of 17 patients. Malignant lesions were equally well visible using both transmission correction methods. Dental implants, non-removable bridgework etc. can cause artefacts in attenuation-corrected images using either a conventional 68 Ge transmission source or the CT scan obtained with a combined PET/CT camera. We recommend that the non-attenuation-corrected PET images also be

  3. Pet allergy: how important for Turkey where there is a low pet ownership rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Dilşad; Celik, Gülfem; Bavbek, Sevim; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2003-01-01

    Exposure and sensitization to allergens derived from cats/dogs have been shown to represent an important risk factor for allergic respiratory diseases. So far, there has not been any study exploring cat/dog sensitization and related factors in our geographic location. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitization to cats/dogs in a group of patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and to evaluate the relationship between current and childhood exposure and sensitivity to pets. Three hundred twelve consecutive subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were included in the study and were asked to reply a questionnaire concerning past and current pet ownership and presence of pet-related respiratory symptoms. After performing skin-prick tests, subjects were allocated into three groups: group 1 (n = 103), subjects with nonatopic asthma; group 2 (n = 54), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients with pet allergy; group 3 (n = 155), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients without pet allergy. Pet hypersensitivity was detected in 54 of 209 atopic subjects (25.8%). There was no difference in the rates of past pet ownership among subjects with (29.6%) and without (23.8%) pet allergy. However, the ratio of current pet ownership was higher in atopic patients with pet allergy (16.6%) than in nonatopic subjects (2.9%; p = 0.02). The prevalence of sensitization to pets in current owners (42.8%) was higher than prevalence of sensitization in patients who never had a pet (22.6%; p = 0.002; odds ratio, 2.67) and who owned a pet at childhood (28.2%; p = 0.038; odds ratio, 1.9). Thirteen subjects (13/54; 24%) described respiratory symptoms when exposed to cats and/or dogs. Rate of past pet ownership was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with pet allergy (30.7% versus 29.2%; p > 0.05). Rate of current per ownership was higher in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic subjects with pet sensitivity (38.4% versus 9.5%; p pet allergens have the potential to become an

  4. A proposal of an open PET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Minohara, Shinichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inadama, Naoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Shibuya, Kengo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Lam, Chih Fung [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-02-07

    The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 deg. opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by

  5. Comparison of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake between PET from a simultaneously acquiring whole-body PET/MR hybrid scanner and PET from PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmueller, Marco; Schmidt, Daniela; Beck, Michael; Kuwert, Torsten; Gall, Carl C. von; Quick, Harald H.; Navalpakkam, Bharath; Lell, Michael M.; Uder, Michael; Ritt, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    PET/MR hybrid scanners have recently been introduced, but not yet validated. The aim of this study was to compare the PET components of a PET/CT hybrid system and of a simultaneous whole-body PET/MR hybrid system with regard to reproducibility of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake. A total of 46 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT scan 1 h after injection and an average of 88 min later a second scan using a hybrid PET/MR system. The radioactive tracers used were 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG), 18 F-ethylcholine (FEC) and 68 Ga-DOTATATE (Ga-DOTATATE). The PET images from PET/CT (PET CT ) and from PET/MR (PET MR ) were analysed for tracer-positive lesions. Regional tracer uptake in these foci was quantified using volumes of interest, and maximal and average standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV avg , respectively) were calculated. Of the 46 patients, 43 were eligible for comparison and statistical analysis. All lesions except one identified by PET CT were identified by PET MR (99.2 %). In 38 patients (88.4 %), the same number of foci were identified by PET CT and by PET MR . In four patients, more lesions were identified by PET MR than by PET CT , in one patient PET CT revealed an additional focus compared to PET MR . The mean SUV max and SUV avg of all lesions determined by PET MR were by 21 % and 11 % lower, respectively, than the values determined by PET CT (p CT and PET MR were minor, but statistically significant. Nevertheless, a more detailed study of the quantitative accuracy of PET MR and the factors governing it is needed to ultimately assess its accuracy in measuring tissue tracer concentrations. (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 71194 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy... Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products,'' dated November... Evaluation (CBER), Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this...

  7. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal

  8. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of prolonged febrile states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaruskova, M.; Belohlavek, O. [Na Homolce Hospital, PET Center, Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2006-08-15

    The role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients whose main symptom is prolonged fever has not yet been defined. We addressed this topic in a retrospective study. A total of 124 patients (referred between May 2001 and December 2004) with fever of unknown origin or prolonged fever due to a suspected infection of a joint or vascular prosthesis were included in the study. The patients underwent either FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT scanning. Sixty-seven patients had a negative focal FDG-PET finding; in this group the method was regarded as unhelpful in determining a diagnosis, and no further investigation was pursued. We tried to obtain clinical confirmation for all patients with positive PET findings. Fifty-seven (46%) patients had positive FDG-PET findings. In six of them no further clinical information was available. Fifty-one patients with positive PET findings and 118 patients in total were subsequently evaluated. Systemic connective tissue disease was confirmed in 17 patients, lymphoma in three patients, inflammatory bowel disease in two patients, vascular prosthesis infection in seven patients, infection of a hip or knee replacement in seven patients, mycotic aneurysm in two patients, abscess in four patients and AIDS in one patient. In eight (16%) patients the finding was falsely positive. FDG-PET or PET/CT contributed to establishing a final diagnosis in 84% of the 51 patients with positive PET findings and in 36% of all 118 evaluated patients with prolonged fever. (orig.)

  9. Human health implications of Salmonella-contaminated natural pet treats and raw pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Reid-Smith, Richard; Weese, J Scott

    2006-03-01

    Human salmonellosis occurs mainly as a result of handling or consuming contaminated food products, with a small percentage of cases being related to other, less well-defined exposures, such as contact with companion animals and natural pet treats. The increasing popularity of raw food diets for companion animals is another potential pet-associated source of Salmonella organisms; however, no confirmed cases of human salmonellosis have been associated with these diets. Pets that consume contaminated pet treats and raw food diets can be colonized with Salmonella organisms without exhibiting clinical signs, making them a possible hidden source of contamination in the household. Pet owners can reduce their risk of acquiring Salmonella organisms by not feeding natural pet treats and raw food diets to their pets, whereas individuals who investigate cases of salmonellosis or interpret surveillance data should be aware of these possible sources of Salmonella organisms.

  10. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Flame Retardant PET Fiber with Microencapsulated CMSs/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIU Mei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The core-shell carbon microspheres(CMSs/polyethylene terephthalate(PET capsule (PCMSs by in situ polymerization was selected as flame retardant. The flame-retardant PCMSs/PET functional fiber was prepared by melt spinning method. The structure and properties of PET fiber with different mass fractions of flame retardant were characterized by SEM, sound velocimeter, tensile tester and limit oxygen index apparatus. The results show that PCMSs has a good compatibility and dispersion within PET matrix, and the excellent moisture absorption and flame retardant properties of functional PET fiber with smooth surface is obtained when the mass fraction of PCMSs is 0.6%, but the mechanical property of PCMSs/PET fiber with 0.6% PCMSs is a little lower than the PCMSs/PET fiber with 0.2% PCMSs.

  12. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  13. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastis, George A., E-mail: gkastis@academyofathens.gr; Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra [Research Center of Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Athens 11527 (Greece); Gaitanis, Anastasios [Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens (BRFAA), Athens 11527 (Greece); Fernández, Yolanda [Centre d’Imatge Molecular Experimental (CIME), CETIR-ERESA, Barcelona 08950 (Spain); Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Fokas, Athanasios S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of “custom made” cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real

  14. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be brought...

  15. Welfare of non-traditional pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D; Bacon, H J

    2014-04-01

    The keeping of non-traditional or 'exotic' pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives. The keeping of non-traditional pets also raises ethical concerns about whether the animal poses any danger to others (e.g. transmission of zoonotic diseases) and whether the animal might cause environmental damage (e.g. invading non-native habitats when released). The authors used these considerations to create a checklist, which identifies and organises the various concerns that may arise over keeping non-traditional species as pets. An inability to address these concerns raises questions about how to mitigate them or even whether or not certain species should be kept as pets at all. Thus, the authors propose five categories, which range from relatively unproblematic pet species to species whose keeping poses unacceptable risks to the animals, to humans, or to the environment. This approach to the evaluation and categorisation of species could provide a constructive basis for advocacy and regulatory actions.

  16. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...... through data and arguments that support increased use of PET/MR imaging in atherosclerotic imaging....

  17. Evaluating College Student Interest in Pet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamle, Kathleen N.; Riley, Tracy A.; Carlson, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college can be extremely stressful, especially for students residing on campus. Objective: The authors obtained information from college freshmen about their relationships with pets and investigated interest in a pet therapy program as social support for transient stressful periods. Participants: As part of a university…

  18. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually impaired persons or hearing ear dogs accompanying hearing-impaired persons. (2) Failing to crate, cage, restrain on a leash which shall not exceed six feet in length, or otherwise physically confine a pet at all...

  19. Developing simplified Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) estimation method was developed to estimate the potential evapotranspiration (reference evapotranspiration) over Abbay Basin as a function of basin maximum and minimum temperature, and modulated by site specific elevation data. The method is intended to estimate PET in ...

  20. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  1. PET-container collection systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, T.; Groot, J.L.B. de; Rink, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a TNO study of the present situation in Europe with regard to PET-bottle recycling. The overview concentrates on the main PET-bottles consuming countries in Europe i.e.: France, Italy, Spain and the UK. In addition the system in Belgium is presented. Applying a

  2. Pet Ownership and Health Status during Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated impact of pet ownership on the health status of recently widowed urban middle-class women. Findings suggest pet ownership may have a salutary effect on the adjustment of recently widowed women in terms of symptom experiences and proneness to utilization of medication. (Author/KS)

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly used PET radionuclides include fluorine-18, carbon-11, nitrogen- 13 and oxygen-15, which are commonly found in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Undoubtedly the ... In parathyroid adenoma, FDG PET appears useful in cases where conventional nuclear medicine imaging is negative. For adrenal masses ...

  4. Radiation Protection in PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The presentation is based on the following areas: radiological monitoring installations in the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals, personal dose, dosage advertising, nuclear medicine, PET, radiation protection of patients, requirements for medical practice, regulatory aspects, dose calculation, shields, quantities, center Cudim, cyclotron and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of radiation protection practices.

  5. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  6. PET scan as a functional diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Ogawa, Shoichi; Amano, Maki

    2007-01-01

    Morphological diagnostic imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone rapid development of hardware and imaging technique. However, these imaging modalities have some limitations in determining whether lymph node swelling is malignant or benign. It is difficult for the radiologist and physician to differentiate malignant lesion from benign lesion based solely on lymph node size. Mass media has sensationalized the efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET) scan. PET scans have now become a well-known medical examination among the general public. The ministry of health, labor and welfare approved F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a commercially available isotope in 2005 and PET centers have rapidly spread in Japan. PET scan is considered a breakthrough in cancer detection, as a functional diagnostic tool. This article discusses simple methods and isotopes for PET scan and the diseases for which FDG-PET scan is covered by the medical insurance system. The preparation and workflow of FDG-PET examination are also discussed. Finally, I describe the usefulness of FDG-PET scan using an illustrative case presentation. (author)

  7. Application of PET and PET/CT imaging for cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenkung; Hu Fenglan; Shen Yehyou; Liao, A.C.; Hung, T.Z.; Su, Chentau; Chen Liangkuang

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: The subjects consisted of 3631 physical check up examinees (1947 men, 1684 women; mean age ±SD, 52.1±8.2 y) with non-specific medical histories. Whole-body FDG PET (or PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers were performed on all patients. Focal hypermetabolic areas with intensities equal to or exceeding the level of FDG uptake in the brain and bladder were considered abnormal and interpreted as neoplasia. Follow-up periods were longer than one year. Results: Among the 3631 FDG PET (including 1687 PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers examinations, malignant tumors were discovered in 47 examinees (1.29%). PET findings were true-positive in 38 of the 47 cancers (80.9%). In addition, 32 of the 47 cancers were performed with the PET-CT scan. PET detected cancer lesions in 28 of the 32 examinees. However, the CT detected cancer lesions in only 15 of 32 examinees. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of a wide variety of cancers is high. Most cancer can be detected with FDG PET in a resectable stage. CT of the PET/CT for localization and characteristics of the lesion shows an increased specificity of the PET scan. Using ultrasound and tumor markers may complement the PET scan in cancer screening for hepatic and urologic neoplasms. (authors)

  8. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  9. PET-CT in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parysow, O.; Jager, V.; Racioppi, S.; Mollerach, A.M.; Collaud, C.; Arma, I.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT scans have reached an important place in the evaluation of endocrine tumors. The metabolic marker 18F-FDG is the most widespread over the world, and, for the time being, it is the only one available in our country. The limitations of this technique in Endocrinology include high differentiation and low aggressiveness of most endocrine tumors, and low detection rate for low cellularity and/or small lesions. Indications for PET/CT scan in these tumors should be precise, due to the fact that not all of these lesions are significantly glucose-avid and to extract the maximum diagnostic efficacy of this modality to achieve the optimum diagnostic accuracy. The most important indication is DTC with high Tg levels and negative 131-Iodine scans. It is advisable to indicate a PET/CT scan in patients with Tg > 10 ng/ml and stimulated TSH (endogenous or exogenous). The aim is to locate recurrences and metastases in order to remove them, either surgically or by any other therapy alternative to 131 I. Due to higher uptake in more aggressive lesions, this study has a high prognostic value. In patients with high Tg levels, negative 131 I scan, and abnormal FDG uptake, the practitioner must act more aggressively in order to remove the pathologic foci, while with a negative FDG -PET scan, the conduct can be expectant, with periodic follow-up. The introduction of other positron-emitting tracers like 124-Iodine, is likely to yield superior quality images and provide better diagnoses. FDG has a limited efficiency in neuroendocrine tumors, unless they show a significant level of dedifferentiation. The scan is indicated in MTC, when calcitonin levels are above 1000 pg/ml, in order to locate the tumor sites. With the introduction of more specific positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-DOPA, 68Ga DOTA, 11C methomidate, 11C-hydroxytryptophan and others, it will be possible to study the metabolic-molecular behavior of these tumors with a more accurate approach. (author) [es

  10. PET scan and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, F.; Lahmi, A.; Rousseau, A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was the optimization of the radiation protection during examinations with 18 F-FDG, The immediate validation by the D.G.S.N.R., the results of dosimetry (h.p.10 = 12 μ sievert (average value/ technician / day for 6 patients) demonstrate the efficiency of the implemented means. From the very beginning, the installation of a PET-scanner requires a multidisciplinary conception. This essential thought contributes to an optimal radiation protection of the entire personnel of the service. (N.C.)

  11. PET after use. From problem to opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiacchio, G.; Malinconico, M.; Santacesaria, E.; Di Sero, M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to collection, separation and legislation problems, the only type of PET suitable for recycling, is, at moment, the polymer employed in liquid containers or, more precisely, PET from drink bottles. The paper refer to the most up-to-date strategies to overcomes typical problems occurring during physical recycling of PET (hydrolytic and thermal degradation). Among others, a recent procedure is cited, that utilizes p-hydroxybenzoic acid and titanium tetraisopropylate. As far as chemical recycling is concerned, alternative methodologies to PET glycolysis (normally employing ethyleneglycol to obtain monomers) using unsaturated diols to obtain polyesters suitable for production of thermosetting resins, are reported. Finally, chemical recycling of PET to produce alkyl-phthalates (well know plasticizers for thermoplastic polymers) is described [it

  12. FDG PET/CT in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Region of Southern Denmark (RSD), covering 1.2 of Denmark's 5.6 million inhabitants, established a task force to (1) retrieve literature evidence for the clinical use of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and provide consequent recommendations and further to (2) compare the actual...... use of PET/CT in the RSD with these recommendations. This article summarizes the results. METHODS: A Work Group appointed a professional Subgroup which made Clinician Groups conduct literature reviews on six selected cancers responsible for 5,768 (62.6 %) of 9,213 PET/CT scans in the RSD in 2012...... and rated with regard to strength and evidence level. Consequent recommendations for applications of PET/CT were established. The actual use of PET/CT was compared with these, where grades A and B indicated "established" and "useful" and grades C and D "potentially useful" and "non...

  13. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has, since its inception, established itself as the imaging modality of choice for the in vivo quantitative assessment of molecular targets in a wide range of biochemical processes underlying tumour physiology. PET image quantification enables to ascertain...... a direct link between the time-varying activity concentration in organs/tissues and the fundamental parameters portraying the biological processes at the cellular level being assessed. However, the quantitative potential of PET may be affected by a number of factors related to physical effects, hardware...... and software system specifications, tracer kinetics, motion, scan protocol design and limitations in current image-derived PET metrics. Given the relatively large number of PET metrics reported in the literature, the selection of the best metric for fulfilling a specific task in a particular application...

  14. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  15. Preclinical in vivo imaging for fat tissue identification, quantification and functional characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquina Marzola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Localization, differentiation and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed which are widely used in pharmaceutical research. The assessment of candidate drugs in animal models requires non-invasive methods for longitudinal assessment of efficacy, the main outcome being the amount of body fat. Fat tissues can be either quantified in the entire animal or localized and measured in selected organs/regions of the body. Fat tissues are characterized by peculiar contrast in several imaging modalities as for example Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI that can distinguish between fat and water protons thank to their different magnetic resonance properties. Since fat tissues have higher carbon/hydrogen content than other soft tissues and bones, they can be easily assessed by Computed Tomography (CT as well. Interestingly, MRI also discriminates between white and brown adipose tissue; the latter has long been regarded as a potential target for anti-obesity drugs because of its ability to enhance energy consumption through increased thermogenesis. Positron Emission Tomography (PET performed with 18F-FDG as glucose analogue radiotracer reflects well the metabolic rate in body tissues and consequently is the technique of choice for studies of BAT metabolism. This review will focus on the main, non-invasive imaging techniques (MRI, CT and PET that are fundamental for the assessment, quantification and functional characterization of fat deposits in small laboratory animals. The contribution of optical techniques, which are currently regarded

  16. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  17. Development of a PET Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Imaging Agent: Preclinical Translation for Future Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    day   test.  Before  submission  of   the   IND   three   full   18F-­AH-­TG97  syntheses   were  completed  and  the  quality  tests  were   applied ...batch solution will be sent to Quest Laboratories (or suitable microbiological laboratory) for culture and identification. W81XWH-­14-­1-­0603  year  2...FDA  and  the  IND  was  removed  from  clinical  hold  on  August  5,   2016.  See  FDA   letter  in  appendix.   Quality Control Test and

  18. Preclinical evaluation and validation of [18F]HX4, a promising hypoxia marker for PET imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.J.; Lieuwes, N.G.; Janssen, M.H.; Peeters, W.J.M.; Windhorst, A.D.; Walsh, J.C.; Kolb, H.C.; Ollers, M.C.; Bussink, J.; Dongen, G.A. van; Kogel, A.J. van der; Lambin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be an important microenvironmental parameter influencing tumor progression and treatment efficacy. Patient guidance for hypoxia-targeted therapy requires evaluation of tumor oxygenation, preferably in a noninvasive manner. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate

  19. Microfluidic technology for PET radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, J.M.; Prenant, C.; Chimon, G.N.; Smethurst, G.J.; Dekker, B.A.; Zweit, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of a microfabricated reaction system to positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry. We have applied microfluidic technology to synthesise PET radiopharmaceuticals using 18 F and 124 I as labels for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and Annexin-V, respectively. These reactions involved established methods of nucleophilic substitution on a mannose triflate precursor and direct iodination of the protein using iodogen as an oxidant. This has demonstrated a proof of principle of using microfluidic technology to radiochemical reactions involving low and high molecular weight compounds. Using microfluidic reactions, [ 18 F]FDG was synthesised with a 50% incorporation of the available F-18 radioactivity in a very short time of 4 s. The radiolabelling efficiency of 124 I Annexin-V was 40% after 1 min reaction time. Chromatographic analysis showed that such reaction yields are comparable to conventional methods, but in a much shorter time. The yields can be further improved with more optimisation of the microfluidic device itself and its fluid mixing profiles. This demonstrates the potential for this technology to have an impact on rapid and simpler radiopharmaceutical synthesis using short and medium half-life radionuclides

  20. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Clegg, Tracy A; Collins, Daniel M; McGrath, Guy; More, Simon J

    2011-06-10

    There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  1. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care. PMID:21663606

  2. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) ... Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT)? What is Positron Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Scanning? Positron emission tomography, ...

  4. Preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Prevention or prediction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nitrini

    Full Text Available Abstract The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD for cases with dementia may be too late to allow effective treatment. Criteria for diagnosis of preclinical AD suggested by the Alzheimer's Association include the use of molecular and structural biomarkers. Preclinical diagnosis will enable testing of new drugs and forms of treatment toward achieving successful preventive treatment. But what are the advantages for the individual? To know that someone who is cognitively normal is probably going to develop AD's dementia when there is no effective preventive treatment is definitely not good news. A research method whereby volunteers are assigned to receive treatment or placebo without knowing whether they are in the control or at-risk arm of a trial would overcome this potential problem. If these new criteria are used wisely they may represent a relevant milestone in the search for a definitive treatment for AD.

  5. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halpern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. We review the preclinical and clinical data on cannabinoids and four neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Huntington’s disease (HD, Parkinson’s disease (PD and vascular dementia (VD. Numerous studies have demonstrated an involvement of the cannabinoid system in neurotransmission, neuropathology and neurobiology of dementias. In addition, several candidate compounds have demonstrated efficacy in vitro. However, some of the substances produced inconclusive results in vivo. Therefore, only few trials have aimed to replicate the effects seen in animal studies in patients. Indeed, the literature on cannabinoid administration in patients is scarce. While preclinical findings suggest causal treatment strategies involving cannabinoids, clinical trials have only assessed the suitability of cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists and cannabidiol for the symptomatic treatment of dementia. Further research is needed, including in vivo models of dementia and human studies.

  7. PET in management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Full text: PET provides useful information about tumor metabolism enabling accurate visualization of malignant lesions. Approximately 60-80% suspicious lesions on mammography have benign histology and about 10% of breast cancers with palpable mass are not identified in mammography. The key roles of PET technology in breast cancer are in: primary diagnosis, staging, recurrent diseases monitoring and prediction of therapy response. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of breast cancer has been reported to be 68-100% and 83-100%, respectively. Considering the increasing number of small breast tumors detected by mammography and false negative results, the clinical relevance of FDG-PET for the primary diagnosis is limited. In selected patients, however, for example with dense breasts, breasts implants, augmented breast or after breast surgery, which can affect the accuracy of mammography, and in cases with equivocal mammography, FDG-PET can provide clinically relevant information. PET accurately determines the extent of disease, including the loco-regional lymph node status. Furthermore, whole-body PET imaging promises a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting recurrent or metastatic breast carcinoma with a high positive predictive value. We studied the usefulness of the FDG-PET in 42 preoperative patients with suspected breast cancer in differentiation of lesions. The diagnostic value of FDG-PET in terms of sensitivity and specificity was 95% and 77% respectively in primary mass while it was 73% and 100% for axillary lymph nodes. PET is much more accurate than other conventional modalities. The sensitivity of FDG-PET for correct staging of axillary nodal status is 84-100%. It has the potential to replace conventional procedures for the staging of distant metastases. We observed the sensitivity and the specificity of FDG-PET to be 96% and 85% to detect distant metastases. FDG-PET may become the method of choice for the early assessment of

  8. Postapplication Fipronil Exposure Following Use on Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R C; Yu, Liu; Krieger, R I; Ross, J H

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a pyrazole acaricide and insecticide that may be used for insect, tick, lice, and mite control on pets. Residents' short-term and long-term postapplication exposures to fipronil, including secondary environmental exposures, were estimated using data from chemical-specific studies. Estimations of acute (24-h) absorbed doses for residents were based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 2012 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for postapplication exposure. Chronic exposures were not estimated for residential use, as continuous, long-term application activities were unlikely to occur. Estimated acute postapplication absorbed doses were as high as 0.56 μg/kg-d for toddlers (1-2 yr) in households with treated pets based on current U.S. EPA SOPs. Acute toddler exposures estimated here were fivefold larger in comparison to adults. Secondary exposure from the household environment in which a treated pet lives that is not from contacting the pet, but from contacting the house interior to which pet residues were transferred, was estimated based on monitoring socks worn by pet owners. These secondary exposures were more than an order of magnitude lower than those estimated from contacting the pet and thus may be considered negligible.

  9. Compensation for photon attenuation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Xiaolin Yu.

    1992-01-01

    CT/MR and PET images usually are not in registration spatially because of differences in the imaging setup. CT, MR and PET imaging parameters that are used regularly for brain studies in their institution are compared, in addition, because the patient orientations in CT/MR and PET scanners are not the same, slice centers are positioned differently relative to the patients anatomy. For application of the new idea of using structural information from CT or MR images in PET image reconstruction for attenuation correction, image registration is required as a first step so that one can obtain a corresponding anatomic map for any selected PET image plane. The authors chose to use the surface-matching technique developed in their laboratories for image registration because this method is retrospective and accurate. After the PET and CT/MR scans are registered, they reslice the CT/MR images along the planes of the PET images. The differences in slice thickness and slice separation, as well as in image resolution between various image modalities are to be considered

  10. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Patrick L [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rannou, Fernando R [Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3659, Santiago (Chile); Chatziioannou, Arion F [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-04-21

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET (registered) Focus{sup TM} for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT{sup TM} II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  11. Data gaps limit the translational potential of preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Robin J; Ehlers, Michael D

    2016-01-06

    The absence of mouse pharmacokinetic reference data hinders translation. An analysis of recent literature highlights a systematic lack of discussion regarding rationale for the selection of dosing paradigms in preclinical studies, and in particular for neuroscience studies in which the lack of brain penetration can limit target-organ exposure. We propose solutions to improve study design. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Multimodal imaging of bone metastases: From preclinical to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ellmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skeletal system are commonly observed in cancer patients, highly affecting the patients' quality of life. Imaging plays a major role in detection, follow-up, and molecular characterisation of metastatic disease. Thus, imaging techniques have been optimised and combined in a multimodal and multiparametric manner for assessment of complementary aspects in osseous metastases. This review summarises both application of the most relevant imaging techniques for bone metastasis in preclinical models and the clinical setting.

  13. Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Jawad; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Saadeddin, Zein; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Aridi, Hussam

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged that physicians do not seek the same expert aid for themselves as they would offer their patients. In their preclinical years, medical students appear to espouse comparable behavior. To many, medicine is described as a never-ending path that places the student under heavy stress and burnout from the beginning, leaving him/her vulnerable and with insufficient coping methods. Hence, the objective of this study is to 1) explore the prevalence of stress and burnout among precli...

  14. Faculty and medical student attitudes about preclinical classroom attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulia, Allyson R; Goldhoff, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have diminished reliance on classroom attendance for mastering preclinical medical school course content, but nonattendance may have unintended consequence on the learning environment. Perceptions among educators and students regarding the value of attendance and implications of nonattendance have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in medical student and faculty attitudes regarding preclinical classroom attendance and the impact of nonattendance on educators and the learning environment. Using Internet-based surveys, we assessed attitudes about preclinical classroom attendance among medical students and teaching faculty at Washington University School of Medicine. Our primary hypothesis was that students would be less likely than faculty to place societal value on attendance and relate it to professionalism. A total of 382 (79%) of 484 eligible students and 248 (64%) of 387 eligible faculty completed the survey. Both groups recognized a negative impact of poor attendance on faculty enthusiasm for teaching (students 83%, faculty 75%), but faculty were significantly more likely to endorse a negative impact on effectiveness of lectures (75% vs. 42%, pattendance and professionalism (88% vs. 68%, pStudents were significantly more likely to support free choice among learning opportunities (90% vs. 41%, pattendance (70% vs. 15%, pstudents tended to view class-going primarily as a tool for learning factual material, whereas many faculty viewed it as serving important functions in the professional socialization process. In this single-center cohort, medical student and teaching faculty attitudes differed regarding the importance of classroom attendance and its relationship to professionalism, findings that were at least partially explained by differing expectations of the purpose of the preclinical classroom experience.

  15. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose

  16. Pharmacokinetic Analysis of 64Cu-ATSM Dynamic PET in Human Xenograft Tumors in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Madsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    with 64Cu-ATSM and CT scans with contrast. Irreversible and reversible two-tissue compartment models were fitted to time activity curves (TACs) obtained from whole tumor volumes and compared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Based on voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis, parametric maps...... of model rate constants k₁, k₃ and Ki were generated and compared to 64Cu-ATSM uptake.RESULTS: Based on the AIC, an irreversible two-tissue compartment model was selected for voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis. Of the extracted parameters, k₁ (~perfusion) showed a strong correlation with early tracer...... relevant parameters from voxel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis to be used for preclinical validation of 64Cu-ATSM as a hypoxia-specific PET tracer....

  17. Shine-Through in PET/MR Imaging: Effects of the Magnetic Field on Positron Range and Subsequent Image Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Armin; Sauter, Alexander W; Eriksson, Lars; Vandenbrouke, Arne; Liu, Chih C; Levin, Craig; Pichler, Bernd J; Rafecas, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous PET/MR imaging is an emerging hybrid modality for clinical and preclinical imaging. The static magnetic field of the MR imaging device affects the trajectory of the positrons emitted by the PET radioisotopes. This effect translates into an improvement of the spatial resolution in transaxial images. However, because of the elongation of the positron range distribution along the magnetic field, the axial resolution worsens and shine-through artifacts may appear. These artifacts can lead to misinterpretation and overstaging. The aim of this work was to study the relevance of this effect. Measurements were performed in a 3-tesla PET/MR scanner. A 1-cm(2) piece of paper, soaked with a radioisotope and placed in air, was scanned, and the magnitude of the shine-through was quantified from the PET images for various radioisotopes. Additionally, PET/MR and PET/CT images of the lungs and the larynx with trachea of a deceased swine were obtained after injecting a mixture of NiSO4 and (68)Ga to simulate hot tumor lesions. For the radioactive paper, shine-through artifacts appeared in the location of the acrylic glass backplane, located 3 cm from the source in the axial direction. The ratio between the activity of the shine-through and the activity reconstructed in the original location ranged from 0.9 ((18)F) to 5.7 ((68)Ga). For the larynx-with-trachea images, the magnitude of the artifacts depended on the organ orientation with respect to the magnetic field. The shine-through activity could reach 46% of the reconstructed activity (larynx lesion). The lesion within the trachea produced 2 artifacts, symmetrically aligned with the magnetic field and characterized by artifact-to-lesion volume-of-interest ratios ranging from 21% to 30%. In simultaneous PET/MR imaging, the effect of the magnetic field on positrons may cause severe artifacts in the PET image when the lesions are close to air cavities and high-energy radioisotopes are used. For accurate staging and

  18. Characterization of a preclinical model of chronic ischemic wound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sashwati; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Khanna, Savita; Gordillo, Gayle; Bergdall, Valerie; Green, Jeanne; Marsh, Clay B.; Gould, Lisa J.; Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ischemic wounds presenting at wound clinics are heterogeneous with respect to etiology, age of the wound, and other factors complicating wound healing. In addition, there are ethical challenges associated with collecting repeated biopsies from a patient to develop an understanding of the temporal dynamics of the mechanisms underlying chronic wounds. The need for a preclinical model of ischemic wound is therefore compelling. The porcine model is widely accepted as an excellent preclinical model for human wounds. A full-thickness bipedicle flap approach was adopted to cause skin ischemia. Closure of excisional wounds placed on ischemic tissue was severely impaired resulting in chronic wounds. Histologically, ischemic wounds suffered from impaired re-epithelialization, delayed macrophage recruitment and poorer endothelial cell abundance and organization. Compared with the pair-matched nonischemic wound, unique aspects of the ischemic wound biology were examined on days 3, 7, 14, and 28 by systematic screening of the wound tissue transcriptome using high-density porcine GeneChips. Ischemia markedly potentiated the expression of arginase-1, a cytosolic enzyme that metabolizes the precursor of nitric oxide l-arginine. Ischemia also induced the SOD2 in the wound tissue perhaps as survival response of the challenged tissue. Human chronic wounds also demonstrated elevated expression of SOD2 and arginase-1. This study provides a thorough database that may serve as a valuable reference tool to develop novel hypotheses aiming to elucidate the biology of ischemic chronic wounds in a preclinical setting. PMID:19293328

  19. Identification of new treatments for epilepsy: issues in preclinical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Buckmaster, Paul S.; Staley, Kevin J.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Perucca, Emilio; Engel, Jerome; Löscher, Wolfgang; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Pitkänen, Asla; Stables, James; White, Steve H.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Simonato, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preclinical research has facilitated the discovery of valuable drugs for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. Yet, despite these therapies, seizures are not adequately controlled in a third of all affected individuals, and comorbidities still impose a major burden on quality of life. The introduction of multiple new therapies into clinical use over the past two decades has done little to change this. There is an urgent demand to address the unmet clinical needs for: (a) new symptomatic anti-seizure treatments for drug-resistant seizures with improved efficacy/tolerability profiles, (b) disease modifying treatments that prevent or ameliorate the epileptogenic state, and (c) treatments for the common comorbidities that contribute to disability in people with epilepsy. New therapies also need to address the special needs of certain subpopulations, i.e. age- or gender-specific treatments. Preclinical development in these treatment areas is complex due to heterogeneity in presentation and etiology, and may need to be formulated with a specific seizure, epilepsy syndrome or comorbidity in mind. The aim of this report is to provide a framework that will help define future guidelines that improve and standardize the design, reporting, and validation of data across preclinical anti-epilepsy therapy development studies targeting drug-resistant seizures, epileptogenesis and comorbidities. PMID:22292566

  20. A cost-effective simulation curriculum for preclinical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Roberta; Glickman, Gerald N

    2004-02-01

    A challenge in contemporary dental education is to achieve a smooth transition from preclinical teaching environments to patient-care clinics in a cost-effective manner. The preclinical endodontic courses at The University of Texas, Dental Branch at Houston provide a unique learning environment that enables the student to perform endodontic treatment on extracted teeth in a typodont, and be involved in diagnosis and treatment-planning discussions. The specially designed stone typodont used has built-in radiographic capability, and is mounted at each chair in the clinic. During each preclinical session, students are assigned clinical cubicles and proper aseptic protocol is followed. Students are required to wear gloves, masks and eyewear, and place a rubber dam during treatment. Written self-assessment evaluations based upon prescribed criteria are utilised; feedback is given by faculty composed of both full-time endodontists and graduate students who periodically rotate and are calibrated on a regular basis. In the lecture phase, clinical case scenarios are presented to reinforce concepts of diagnosis and emergency care and to help integrate endodontics with other disciplines; a Socratic-like teaching style is established by the faculty facilitator to create an environment for developing critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. The overall feedback from graduating students has been very positive. Advantages of this format are an easier transition to patient management, a more keen interest in specialsation and a perceived increase in levels of confidence.

  1. Elbow joint biomechanics for preclinical evaluation of total elbow prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Brian L; An, Kai-Nan

    2013-09-27

    Total elbow arthroplasty is a clinically successful procedure, yet long-term implant survival rates have historically lagged behind those reported for total hips and knees. Clinical complications associated with implant wear, osteolysis, stem loosening and device fracture have been implicated as reasons for limited long-term survivorship. Unfortunately, there is little published information on the biomechanics and method(s) for preclinical evaluation of total elbow prostheses that could provide insight into the mechanisms of failure. Additionally, there are no consensus testing standards or summaries of loading profiles of the humero-ulnar joint associated with a range of activities of daily living. Such data would facilitate the standardized preclinical assessment of total elbow devices such is commonplace for other large joints. The objective of the work here is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of elbow joint biomechanics as it relates to preclinical evaluation of total elbow implants. This summary includes a review of elbow joint forces, kinematics, the types and frequency of humero-ulnar joint motions associated with activities of daily living and clinical outcomes, as well as proposing a methodology for deriving humero-ulnar joint reaction force magnitudes and vector orientations as a function of a known mass/force at the hand. From these data, a scalable, bi-axial loading profile is proposed as a foundation for the development of clinically relevant, laboratory simulations for assessment of total elbow prostheses performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving selective androgen receptor modulator discovery and preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy Orion

    2009-09-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a new class of pharmaceuticals that may find wide clinical use. However, selectivity is not understood at the molecular level, which has made the discovery and preclinical evaluation of SARMs difficult. We review the current state of SARM discovery and preclinical evaluation, as well as our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AR selectivity. We then discuss how increasing our molecular knowledge of AR selectivity will help create better discovery and evaluation methods and lead to a wider array of safer SARMs. The SARM field has advanced rapidly, but without a solid foundation of molecular knowledge to inform discovery and preclinical evaluation methods. The field has also taken a narrow view of selectivity, disregarding many androgen-responsive tissues, which could lead to unforeseen and detrimental side effects with chronic administration of SARMs. An investment in basic research could accelerate the discovery of a new generation of more selective and safer SARMs that could be used to treat an expanded range of clinical conditions.

  3. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  4. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Children are not just small adults-they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use...... and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments......, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine....

  5. Evaluating pet foods: how confident are you when you recommend a commercial pet food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicker, Steven C

    2008-08-01

    The safety, adequacy, and efficacy of pet foods are important considerations for veterinarians and consumers. Manufacturers of pet foods in the United States are required to comply with multiple regulations from a variety of governmental and state agencies to market foods in the public sector. However, consumers and veterinarians may not be aware of the multiple systems in place that help ensure the safety and adequacy of foods for their pets. Since the veterinarian occupies a key role to make recommendations to consumers regarding pet foods, it is the purpose of this article to review the processes of pet food manufacturing, as well as the processes that have been developed to help ensure safety and adequacy of pet foods in the United States.

  6. How much can a negative FDG-PET be trusted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: False-negative FDG-PET constituted 22.7% of all clinically identified negative PET in a ten year retrospective review about FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumour. Uncovering possible influencing factors of false-negative FDG-PET may have significant value. Material and methods: 10 patients with a first negative and then a second positive PET during very short time separation and 6 patients with surgically confirmed false-negative PET were traced. Histological type, irradiation parameter, steroids effect were discussed. To define temporary irradiation effect on FDG uptake, interval between radiation treatment to PET examination of these two groups were compared with 24 surgically confirmed true-positive PET, 5 surgically confirmed true-negative PET Results: 80% negative-positive PET transformation happened within 31 weeks. No statistically significant difference with regard to time from irradiation could be found between groups. Steroids medication closely before PET examination was about the same before the first negative and second positive PET scan. 5/6 surgically confirmed false-negative PET patients did not take steroids before PET examination. Conclusion: Tumour histology type, temporary irradiation effect and steroids medication did not constitute the reasons for false negative PET in our patient series. PET could not identify tumour relapse in the very early stage. Therefore, if clinically indicated, second FDG-PET might be a better selection to pick up tumour relapse instead of exploratory surgery or biopsy. In that case, the suitable time point for the second PET could be within 31 weeks after the first PET examination. Keywords: false-negative, FDG-PET, influencing factor, irradiation effect, steroids. (author)

  7. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Rohrbaugh; Kelsey Bogue; Melissa G. Hunt

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done ...

  8. Recent Developments in Instrumentation for Pre-Clinical Imaging Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recent advances in imaging instrumentation have led to a variety of tomograph designs for dedicated pre clinical imaging of laboratory animals. These advances make it possible to image and quantify the kinetics of radiolabelled pharmaceuticals in a wide range of animal models from rodents to non-human primates. Applications include evaluation of promising new radiopharmaceuticals, study of the molecular origins of human disease and evaluation of new forms of therapy. These applications and advances in instrumentation are equally applicable to positron emitters and single photon emitters. This paper provides an overview of recent advances which have led to the current state-of-the-art in pre clinical imaging. The common inorganic scintillators that have been used for SPECT and PET, including some of the promising materials recently studied. The current crystal of choice for SPECT imaging is NaI(Tl) because of its high light output and density which make it well suited to imaging photons in the 100-200 keV range. However, NaI(Tl) has the disadvantage that it must be hermetically sealed to prevent absorption of moisture from the environment. Therefore, investigators have explored a number of alternative inorganic crystals, including CsI(Tl) and cerium-doped yttrium aluminium perovskite (YAP), as well as solid state detectors such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Many of the crystals used in SPECT have also been tried for PET, including NaI(Tl) and YAP. However these crystals have lower stopping power than BGO and NaI(Tl) is also relatively slow. A very promising scintillator for PET is cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) (1) which has similar stopping power to BGO and relatively high light output and fast decay. The first PET scanner to use LSO was the UCLA animal scanner, microPET, which also makes use of a number of other new technologies and unique design features. Recently, improvements in multi-anode and crossed wire position sensitive

  9. The heritage of radiotracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology. 54 refs

  10. Uncertainces in tumor target definition using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: PET entered into the clinics for radiation therapy as a means of displaying the metabolically active part of the tumor. However this advantage, PET has a number of shortcomings that prevent its use for precise determination of the tumor boundaries. What you will learn: The aim of the lecture is to present: the requirements for the accuracy of the determination of tumor boundaries in radiation therapy; the main phenomena which bring uncertainty using PET and a brief overview of methods for segmentation of tumors and their problems

  11. Properties of tribology for Si implanted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Xu; Liu Andong; Xie Mengxia; Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified with Si ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). After implantation, the surface structure has been greatly changed. The experimental results of infrared absorption indicated that the particles are referred to rich carbon and SiC particles. The PET has been strengthened by these dispersed particles. The measurement results using nanometer hardness tester reveal that both surface hardness and modulus increase obviously. Therefore the surface wear resistance improved extremely. Finally the modification mechanism of Si implanted PET was discussed

  12. The Heritage of Radiotracers for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J. S.; Wolf, A. P.

    1988-05-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology.

  13. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Martin J.; Clegg, Tracy A.; Collins, Daniel M.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This...

  14. PET/CT and PET/MRI in head and neck malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszko, T A; Cook, G J R

    2018-01-01

    Combined 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has an established role in the staging of difficult cases of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), looking for an unknown primary, assessing response post-chemotherapy at 3-6 months, and differentiating relapse from treatment effects in patients suspected to have tumour recurrence. The PET NECK trial, comparing PET/CT surveillance versus neck dissection in advanced head and neck cancer showed survival was similar among patients who underwent PET/CT-guided surveillance and those who underwent planned neck dissection, but surveillance was more cost-effective. There is growing interest in the use of hypoxia PET tracers, especially in targeting radiotherapy, where the radiotherapy dose can be boosted in regions of hypoxia; the use of 68 Ga peptide tracers in neuroendocrine malignancy and also in the growing field of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PET/MRI has the advantage of increased anatomical detail and radiation dose reduction combined with the molecular and metabolic data from PET, although PET/CT has the advantage in better sensitivity for imaging lung metastases. Thus far, there is good agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI with high correlation between semi-quantitative measurements in primary, nodal, osseous, and soft-tissue lesions imaging. PET/MRI may indeed provide greater accuracy than the currently available imaging procedures in the staging and later treatment response evaluation in HNSCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. PET and PET-CT. State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanti, Stefano; Franchi, Roberto; Battista, Giuseppe; Monetti, Nino; Canini, Romeo

    2005-01-01

    Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) enables the in vivo study of tissue metabolism, and thus is able to identify malignant tumours as hypermetabolic lesions by an increase in tracer uptake. Many papers have demonstrated both the relevant impact of FDG PET on staging of many cancers and the superior accuracy of the technique compared with conventional diagnostic methods for pre-treatment evaluation, therapy response evaluation and relapse identification. In particular PET was found useful in identifying lymph nodal and metastatic spread. thus altering patient management in more than 30% of cases. PET images, however, provide limited anatomical data, which in regions such as the head and neck, mediastinum and pelvic cavity is a significant drawback. The exact localization of lesions may also be difficult in some cases, on the basis of PET images alone. The introduction of combined PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners enables the almost simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission images, thus obtaining optimal fusion images in a very short time. PET-CT fusion images enable lesions to be located, reducing false positive studies and increasing accuracy; the overall duration of examination may also be reduced. On the basis of both literature data and our experience we established the clinical indications when PET-CT may be particularly useful, in comparison with PET alone. It should also be underlined that the use of PET-CT is almost mandatory for new traces such as C-choline and C-methionine; these new tracers may be applied for studying tumours not assessable with FDG, such as prostate cancer. In conclusion PET-CT is at present the most advanced method for metabolic imaging, and is capable of precisely localizing and assessing tumours; fusion images reduce false positive and inconclusive studies, thus increasing diagnostic accuracy [it

  16. Human biodistribution and dosimetry of [18F]nifene, an α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betthauser, Tobey J; Hillmer, Ansel T; Lao, Patrick J; Ehlerding, Emily; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Stone, Charles K; Christian, Bradley T

    2017-12-01

    The α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system is implicated in many neuropsychiatric pathologies. [ 18 F]Nifene is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that has shown promise for in vivo imaging of the α4β2* nAChR system in preclinical models and humans. This work establishes the radiation burden associated with [ 18 F]nifene PET scans in humans. Four human subjects (2M, 2F) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to determine the human biodistribution of [ 18 F]nifene. Source organs were identified and time-activity-curves (TACs) were extracted from the PET time-series. Dose estimates were calculated for each subject using OLINDA/EXM v1.1. [ 18 F]Nifene was well tolerated by all subjects with no adverse events reported. The mean whole-body effective dose was 28.4±3.8 mSv/MBq without bladder voiding, and 22.6±1.9 mSv/MBq with hourly micturition. The urinary bladder radiation dose limited the maximum injected dose for a single scan to 278 MBq without urinary bladder voiding, and 519 MBq with hourly voiding. [ 18 F]Nifene is a safe PET radioligand for imaging the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. This works presents human internal dosimetry for [ 18 F]nifene in humans for the first time. These results facilitate safe development of future [ 18 F]nifene studies to image the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  18. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng

    2015-01-01

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  19. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of an Al18F radiofluorinated GLU-UREA-LYS(AHX)-HBED-CC PSMA ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, Stefano; Lodi, Filippo; Fanti, Stefano; Lee, Jason T.; Beykan, Seval; Eberlein, Uta; Buck, Andreas K.; Lassmann, Michael; Slavik, Roger; Wei, Liu; Spick, Claudio; Czernin, Johannes; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Herrmann, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and preclinically evaluate an 18 F-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) specificity, biodistribution, and dosimetry in healthy and tumor-bearing mice were determined. Several conditions for the labeling of 18 F-PSMA-11 via 18 F-AlF-complexation were screened to study the influence of reaction temperature, peptide amount, ethanol volume, and reaction time. After synthesis optimization, biodistribution and dosimetry studies were performed in C57BL6 mice. For proof of PSMA-specificity, mice were implanted with PSMA-negative (PC3) and PSMA-positive (LNCaP) tumors in contralateral flanks. Static and dynamic microPET/computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed. Quantitative labeling yields could be achieved with >97 % radiochemical purity. The 18 F-PSMA-11 uptake was more than 24-fold higher in PSMA-high LNCaP than in PSMA-low PC3 tumors (18.4 ± 3.3 %ID/g and 0.795 ± 0.260 %ID/g, respectively; p < 4.2e-5). Results were confirmed by ex vivo gamma counter analysis of tissues after the last imaging time point. The highest absorbed dose was reported for the kidneys. The maximum effective dose for an administered activity of 200 MBq was 1.72 mSv. 18 F-PSMA-11 using direct labeling of chelate-attached peptide with aluminum-fluoride detected PSMA-expressing tumors with high tumor-to-liver ratios. The kidneys were the dose-limiting organs. Even by applying the most stringent dosimetric calculations, injected activities of up to 0.56 GBq are feasible. (orig.)

  20. The preclinical data forum network: A new ECNP initiative to improve data quality and robustness for (preclinical) neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Thomas; Brose, Katja; Haas, Magali; Kas, Martien J; Koustova, Elena; Bespalov, Anton

    2015-10-01

    Current limitations impeding on data reproducibility are often poor statistical design, underpowered studies, lack of robust data, lack of methodological detail, biased reporting and lack of open data sharing, coupled with wrong research incentives. To improve data reproducibility, robustness and quality for brain disease research, a Preclinical Data Forum Network was formed under the umbrella of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP). The goal of this network, members of which met for the first time in October 2014, is to establish a forum to collaborate in precompetitive space, to exchange and develop best practices, and to bring together the members from academia, pharmaceutical industry, publishers, journal editors, funding organizations, public/private partnerships and non-profit advocacy organizations. To address the most pertinent issues identified by the Network, it was decided to establish a data sharing platform that allows open exchange of information in the area of preclinical neuroscience and to develop an educational scientific program. It is also planned to reach out to other organizations to align initiatives to enhance efficiency, and to initiate activities to improve the clinical relevance of preclinical data. Those Network activities should contribute to scientific rigor and lead to robust and relevant translational data. Here we provide a synopsis of the proceedings from the inaugural meeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel optically transparent RF shielding for fully integrated PET/MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parl, C.; Kolb, A.; Schmid, A. M.; Wehrl, H. F.; Disselhorst, J. A.; Soubiran, P. D.; Stricker-Shaver, D.; Pichler, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical imaging benefits from simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution anatomical and molecular data. Additionally, PET/MRI systems can provide functional PET and functional MRI data. To optimize PET sensitivity, we propose a system design that fully integrates the MRI coil into the PET system. This allows positioning the scintillators near the object but requires an optimized design of the MRI coil and PET detector. It further requires a new approach in realizing the radiofrequency (RF) shielding. Thus, we propose the use of an optically transparent RF shielding material between the PET scintillator and the light sensor, suppressing the interference between both systems. We evaluated two conductive foils (ITO, 9900) and a wire mesh. The PET performance was tested on a dual-layer scintillator consisting of 12  ×  12 LSO matrices, shifted by half a pitch. The pixel size was 0.9  ×  0.9 mm2 the lengths were 10.0 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. For a light sensor, we used a 4  ×  4 SiPM array. The RF attenuation was measured from 320 kHz to 420 MHz using two pick-up coils. MRI-compatibility and shielding effect of the materials were evaluated with an MRI system. The average FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV of all 144 crystals of the layer next to the SiPM was deteriorated from 15.73  ±  0.24% to 16.32  ±  0.13%, 16.60  ±  0.25%, and 19.16  ±  0.21% by the ITO foil, 9900 foil, mesh material, respectively. The average peak-to-valley ratio of the PET detector changed from 5.77  ±  0.29 to 4.50  ±  0.39, 4.78  ±  0.48, 3.62  ±  0.16, respectively. The ITO, 9900, mesh attenuated the scintillation light by 11.3  ±  1.6%, 11.0  ±  1.8%, 54.3  ±  0.4%, respectively. To attenuate the RF from 20 MHz to 200 MHz, mesh performed better than copper. The results show that an RF shielding material that is sufficiently transparent for

  2. [Business administration of PET facilities: a nationwide survey for prices of PET screening and a cost analysis of three facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Naohiro; Fujii, Ryo; Oku, Shinya; Furui, Yuji; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the business administration of PET facilities based on the survey of the price of PET cancer screening and cost analysis of PET examination. The questionnaire survey of the price of PET cancer screening was implemented for all PET facilities in Japan. Cost data of PET examination, including fixed costs and variable costs, were obtained from three different medical institutions. The marked price of the PET cancer screening was 111,499 yen in average, and the most popular range of prices was between 80,000 yen and 90,000 yen. Costs of PET per examination were accounted for 110,675 yen, 79,158 yen and Y11,644 yen in facility A, B and C, respectively. The results suggested that facilities with two or more PET/CT per a cyclotron could only secure profits. In Japan, the boom in PET facility construction could not continue in accordance with increasing number of PET facilities. It would become more essential to analyze the appropriate distribution of PET facilities and the adequate amount of PET procedures from the perspective of efficient utilization of the PET equipments and supply of PET-related healthcare.

  3. Therapy assessment in multiple myeloma with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina [Medicina Nucleare Metropolitana di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zamagni, Elena [Bologna University School of Medicine, Seragnoli Institute of Hematology, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia producing bone lytic lesions. In recent years, a wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches are available to treat the disease: an accurate therapy assessment has, therefore, become of utmost importance. In this field, imaging is becoming a cornerstone, especially in association with clinical parameters. Among imaging procedures, FDG PET/CT is recognized to provide reliable information, achieved in a very safe and fast procedure. The literature has produced very concordant results from different groups assessing the value of FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in general and in therapy assessment, but some issues remain regarding a standardization of image interpretation especially in borderline cases. So far, no data regarding nor other imaging compounds and the use of hybrid tomographs PET/MR are available to define therapy assessment in PET. (orig.)

  4. Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewertsen, Caitlin M; French, Emma D; Teramoto, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of social and mental afflictions that are difficult to treat. Due to a lack of established treatments for ASD, alternative therapies have been the primary form of intervention. One of these alternatives is pet therapy, a field that has experienced growing interest and has recently accumulated studies that investigate its efficacy. This article reviews and summarizes that effectiveness as well as the findings and limitations associated with pet therapy for ASD. The majority of research on ASD and pet therapy has examined children and has primarily used dogs and horses for therapy. Studies have shown positive effects for the therapy, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families. Major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes. Future research should incorporate better study designs and large samples to validate pet therapy as an appropriate treatment for ASD.

  5. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  6. Don't Just Pet Your Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)

  7. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  8. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  9. PET and PET/CT imaging for the earliest detection and treatment of colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Carter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 150,000 new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed each year with the life time risk of developing colon caner in developed nations being 4.6% in men and 3.2% in women. Screening patients is essential early detection of colon carcinoma to aid in complete resection. Unfortunately current screening methods carry with them poor patient compliance. PET and PET/CT may be a significant part of this screening solution. The authors reviewed and analyzed the English language articles and case reports identified on Medline during the last 10 years. PET and PET/CT results for colorectal carcinoma were tabulated and presented for the fifth Scientific Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Biosciences. Though most studies have been retrospective analysis in using PET for staging for other malignant processes the cases that have identified additional uptake in the colon are important. The accuracy when utilizing PET and PET/CT in this screening method has a sensitivity between 65 and 90% with a specificity of 84 to 90% and a positive predictive value 71 to 78%. Early stages of malignancies and pre-cancerous polyps avidly accumulates F-18 Deoxyflouro glucose allowing us to conclude that whole body PET and PET/CT is an essential component in the work up, staging or treatment monitoring in colon carcinoma. We have to continue to accumulate data for possible introduction for whole body PET and PET/CT scanning for colon carcinoma and precancerous polyps.Aproximadamente, 150 000 novos casos de câncer coloretal são diagnosticados, anualmente, em países em desenvolvimento. Destes, 4,6% em homens e 3,2% em mulheres. A triagem de pacientes é essencial na detecção precoce do carcinoma de colon para ajudar na completa ressecção. Infelizmente, os métodos de exame atualmente disponíveis contam com uma baixa adesão dos pacientes. Parte significativa da solução desse problema pode estar no uso de PET e PET/CT. Os autores revisaram e

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals in PET, Progress and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. P.; Fowler, J. S.

    1988-11-01

    It is the intention of this presentation to focus on the current state of radiopharmaceuticals for PET and where this is leading us. PET radiopharmaceuticals can be broken down into perhaps seven categories at present with each being applicable to a different aspect of human biochemistry. These are: metabolic probes, neurochemical probes, enzyme probes, ion channel blockers, blood flow agents, ethical drugs and other positron emitters.

  11. PET/MRI. Methodology and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrio, Ignasi [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona, Hospital Sant Pau (Spain). Dept. Medicina Nuclear; Ros, Pablo (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Case, Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Provides detailed information on the methodology and equipment of MRI-PET. Covers a wide range of clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Written by an international group of experts in MRI and PET. PET/MRI is an exciting novel diagnostic imaging modality that combines the precise anatomic and physiologic information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the molecular data obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). PET/MRI offers the promise of a simplified work flow, reduced radiation, whole-body imaging with superior soft tissue contrast, and time of flight physiologic information. It has been described as the pathway to molecular imaging in medicine. In compiling this textbook, the editors have brought together a truly international group of experts in MRI and PET. The book is divided into two parts. The first part covers methodology and equipment and comprises chapters on basic molecular medicine, development of specific contrast agents, MR attenuation and validation, quantitative MRI and PET motion correction, and technical implications for both MRI and PET. The second part of the book focuses on clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Imaging of major neoplasms, including lymphomas and tumors of the breast, prostate, and head and neck, is covered in individual chapters. Further chapters address functional and metabolic cardiovascular examinations and major central nervous system applications such as brain tumors and dementias. Risks, safety aspects, and healthcare costs and impacts are also discussed. This book will be of interest to all radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians who wish to learn more about the latest developments in this important emerging imaging modality and its applications.

  12. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of...

  13. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  14. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  15. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  16. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  17. CA 125, PET alone, PET-CT, CT and MRI in diagnosing recurrent ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Ping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: anita.gu.ping@gmail.com; Pan Lingling; Wu Shuqi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Sun Li [Departments of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Huang Gang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail: huang2802@163.com

    2009-07-15

    Background and purpose: Ovarian cancer is the commonest tumor in female patients with a propensity for recurrence even after primary chemotherapy in early stage. The accuracy of CA 125, PET alone, PET-CT, CT and MRI in diagnosing the recurrent ovarian carcinoma has never been systematically assessed, and present systematic review was aimed at this issue. Methods: We searched for articles published from January 1995 to November 2007, inclusion criteria including: articles were reported in English or Chinese; CA 125, PET whether interpreted with or without the use of CT, CT or MRI was used to detect recurrent ovarian carcinoma; Histopathologic analysis and/or close clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 6 months. We extracted data to calculate sensitivity, specificity, SROC curves and AUC and to test for heterogeneity. Result: In 34 included studies, CA 125 had the highest pooled specificity, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.95); PET-CT had highest pooled sensitivity, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88-0.94). The AUC of CA 125, PET alone, PET-CT, CT and MRI were 0.9219, 0.9297, 0.9555, 0.8845 and 0.7955, respectively. Results of pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated AUC of PET, whether interpreted with or without the use of CT, was higher than that of CT or MR, p < 0.05. The pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity and AUC showed no statistical significance between PET alone and PET-CT. There was heterogeneity among studies and evidence of publication bias. Conclusion: PET-CT might be a useful supplement to current surveillance techniques, particularly for those patients with an increasing CA 125 level and negative CT or MR imaging. However, regarding to diagnostic accuracy, interpreted CT images may have limited additional value on PET in detecting recurrent ovarian cancer.

  18. FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT for therapy monitoring and restaging in malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghy, F.M.; Krause, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET allows to assess residual masses in patients with malignant lymphoma differentiating vital tumor from scar tissue. This approach is not applicable with conventional imaging methods (CDM) such as CT or MRI. On the other hand circumscribed results often cannot be definitely allocated in PET, therefore the combined morphological-biochemical approach using the now available PET/CT systems promises to be a pathbreaking technical progress. There is no doubt that stand alone PET is superior to CDM differentiating residual scar tissue from vital tumor as has been shown in 15 recently published studies. The median sensitivity for detecting active disease with FDG PET across the studies was 91%; the corresponding specificity was 89%. As a result FDG PET had a high negative predictive value of 94%. In contrast, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of CDM in the 9 studies were a direct comparison was available were low (31% and 46%, one study 82%). PET positive residual masses were associated with a progression-free survival of 0 - 55%. Only a few studies have included FDG-PET in therapy response monitoring studies, however also these results are promising. At the moment FDG-PET seems to be the best possibility to characterize and qualitatively visualize vitality of tumor masses and also hold promises for efficient therapy response monitoring in patients with malignant lymphoma. Therefore it should be included in standard diagnostic protocols in lymphoma patients. The combined PET/CT has to be ranked superior to conventional PET studies as in many cases the combined structural and functional imaging brings a clearer diagnostic statement. (orig.) [de

  19. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  20. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)