WorldWideScience

Sample records for invariant quantum kinetic

  1. The Dynamical Invariant of Open Quantum System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yi, X. X.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical invariant, whose expectation value is constant, is generalized to open quantum system. The evolution equation of dynamical invariant (the dynamical invariant condition) is presented for Markovian dynamics. Different with the dynamical invariant for the closed quantum system, the evolution of the dynamical invariant for the open quantum system is no longer unitary, and the eigenvalues of it are time-dependent. Since any hermitian operator fulfilling dynamical invariant condition ...

  2. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  3. Dynamical topological invariant after a quantum quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Linhu; Chen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    We show how to define a dynamical topological invariant for one-dimensional two-band topological systems after a quantum quench. By analyzing general two-band models of topological insulators, we demonstrate that the reduced momentum-time manifold can be viewed as a series of submanifolds S2, and thus we are able to define a dynamical topological invariant on each of the spheres. We also unveil the intrinsic relation between the dynamical topological invariant and the difference in the topological invariant of the initial and final static Hamiltonian. By considering some concrete examples, we illustrate the calculation of the dynamical topological invariant and its geometrical meaning explicitly.

  4. Quantum Hall Conductivity and Topological Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Andres

    2001-04-01

    A short survey of the theory of the Quantum Hall effect is given emphasizing topological aspects of the quantization of the conductivity and showing how topological invariants can be derived from the hamiltonian. We express these invariants in terms of Chern numbers and show in precise mathematical terms how this relates to the Kubo formula.

  5. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  6. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  7. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  8. Quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents quantum kinetic theory in a comprehensive way. The focus is on density operator methods and on non-equilibrium Green functions. The theory allows to rigorously treat nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Of particular interest are ultrafast processes in plasmas, condensed matter and trapped atoms that are stimulated by rapidly developing experiments with short pulse lasers and free electron lasers. To describe these experiments theoretically, the most powerful approach is given by non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations that are discussed in detail, including computational aspects.

  9. Quantum implications of a scale invariant regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilencea, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    We study scale invariance at the quantum level in a perturbative approach. For a scale-invariant classical theory, the scalar potential is computed at a three-loop level while keeping manifest this symmetry. Spontaneous scale symmetry breaking is transmitted at a quantum level to the visible sector (of ϕ ) by the associated Goldstone mode (dilaton σ ), which enables a scale-invariant regularization and whose vacuum expectation value ⟨σ ⟩ generates the subtraction scale (μ ). While the hidden (σ ) and visible sector (ϕ ) are classically decoupled in d =4 due to an enhanced Poincaré symmetry, they interact through (a series of) evanescent couplings ∝ɛ , dictated by the scale invariance of the action in d =4 -2 ɛ . At the quantum level, these couplings generate new corrections to the potential, as scale-invariant nonpolynomial effective operators ϕ2 n +4/σ2 n. These are comparable in size to "standard" loop corrections and are important for values of ϕ close to ⟨σ ⟩. For n =1 , 2, the beta functions of their coefficient are computed at three loops. In the IR limit, dilaton fluctuations decouple, the effective operators are suppressed by large ⟨σ ⟩, and the effective potential becomes that of a renormalizable theory with explicit scale symmetry breaking by the DR scheme (of μ =constant).

  10. Jet invariant mass in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavelli, L.

    1979-03-01

    We give heuristic argument that a new class of observable related to the invariant mass of jets in e + e - annihilation is infrared finite to all orders of perturbation theory in Quantum Chromodynamics. We calculate the lowest order QCD predictions for the mass distribution as well as for the double differential cross section to produce back to back jets of invariant mass M 1 and M 2 . The resulting cross sections are quite different from that expected in simple hadronic fireball models and should provide experimentally accessible tests of QCD. (orig.) [de

  11. Quantum kinetic Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, R; Cucchietti, F M; Lewenstein, M; Haake, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a quantum generalization of classical kinetic Ising models (KIM), described by a certain class of quantum many-body master equations. Similarly to KIMs with detailed balance that are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian systems, our models reduce to a set of Hamiltonian systems determining the dynamics of the elements of the many-body density matrix. The ground states of these Hamiltonians are well described by the matrix product, or pair entangled projected states. We discuss critical properties of such Hamiltonians, as well as entanglement properties of their low-energy states.

  12. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  13. Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P. T.; Young, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity in wave propagation usually refers to the symmetry of the Green's function under the interchange of the source and the observer coordinates, but this condition is not gauge invariant in quantum mechanics, a problem that is particularly significant in the presence of a vector potential. Several possible alternative criteria are given and analyzed with reference to different examples with nonzero magnetic fields and/or vector potentials, including the case of a multiply connected spatial domain. It is shown that the appropriate reciprocity criterion allows for specific phase factors separable into functions of the source and observer coordinates and that this condition is robust with respect to the addition of any scalar potential. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect, reciprocity beyond monoenergetic experiments holds only because of subsidiary conditions satisfied in actual experiments: the test charge is in units of e and the flux is produced by a condensate of particles with charge 2e.

  14. Demonstration of entanglement assisted invariance on IBM's quantum experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffner, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Quantum entanglement is among the most fundamental, yet from classical intuition also most surprising properties of the fully quantum nature of physical reality. We report several experiments performed on IBM's Quantum Experience demonstrating envariance - entanglement assisted invariance. Envariance is a recently discovered symmetry of composite quantum systems, which is at the foundational origin of physics and a quantum phenomenon of pure states. These very easily reproducible and freely accessible experiments on Quantum Experience provide simple tools to study the properties of envariance, and we illustrate this for several cases with "quantum universes" consisting of up to five qubits.

  15. Conformal invariant quantum field theory and composite field operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.

    1976-01-01

    The present status of conformal invariance in quantum field theory is reviewed from a non group theoretical point of view. Composite field operators dimensions are computed in some simple models and related to conformal symmetry

  16. Kinetics of Interactions of Matter, Antimatter and Radiation Consistent with Antisymmetric (CPT-Invariant Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Klimenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of directional properties of decoherence on kinetics rate equations. The physical reality is understood as a chain of unitary and decoherence events. The former are quantum-deterministic, while the latter introduce uncertainty and increase entropy. For interactions of matter and antimatter, two approaches are considered: symmetric decoherence, which corresponds to conventional symmetric (CP-invariant thermodynamics, and antisymmetric decoherence, which corresponds to antisymmetric (CPT-invariant thermodynamics. Radiation, in its interactions with matter and antimatter, is shown to be decoherence-neutral. The symmetric and antisymmetric assumptions result in different interactions of radiation with matter and antimatter. The theoretical predictions for these differences are testable by comparing absorption (emission of light by thermodynamic systems made of matter and antimatter. Canonical typicality for quantum mixtures is briefly discussed in Appendix A.

  17. Manifestly scale-invariant regularization and quantum effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Scale invariant theories are often used to address the hierarchy problem, however the regularization of their quantum corrections introduces a dimensionful coupling (dimensional regularization) or scale (Pauli-Villars, etc) which break this symmetry explicitly. We show how to avoid this problem and study the implications of a manifestly scale invariant regularization in (classical) scale invariant theories. We use a dilaton-dependent subtraction function $\\mu(\\sigma)$ which after spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry generates the usual DR subtraction scale $\\mu(\\langle\\sigma\\rangle)$. One consequence is that "evanescent" interactions generated by scale invariance of the action in $d=4-2\\epsilon$ (but vanishing in $d=4$), give rise to new, finite quantum corrections. We find a (finite) correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$ to the one-loop scalar potential for $\\phi$ and $\\sigma$, beyond the Coleman-Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ is due to an evanescent correction ($\\propto\\epsilon$) to the field-dependent masses (of...

  18. Spin networks, quantum automata and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The spin network simulator model represents a bridge between (generalized) circuit schemes for standard quantum computation and approaches based on notions from Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFT). More precisely, when working with purely discrete unitary gates, the simulator is naturally modelled as families of quantum automata which in turn represent discrete versions of topological quantum computation models. Such a quantum combinatorial scheme, which essentially encodes SU(2) Racah-Wigner algebra and its braided counterpart, is particularly suitable to address problems in topology and group theory and we discuss here a finite states-quantum automaton able to accept the language of braid group in view of applications to the problem of estimating link polynomials in Chern-Simons field theory

  19. On a gauge invariant subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Koeberle, R.

    A momentum-space subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics is proposed which respects gauge invariance, in contrast to ordinary normal product techniques. As a consequence the dependence of Green functions on the ghost mass becomes very simple and formally gauge invariant normal products of degree up to four, when subtracted according to the proposed scheme, are automatically gauge invariant. As an aplication we discuss the proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem. Zero mass limits can be taken for Green function after the integration over intermediate states has been carried out [pt

  20. Lagrangian model of conformal invariant interacting quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.

    1976-01-01

    A Lagrangian model of conformal invariant interacting quantum field theory is presented. The interacting Lagrangian and free Lagrangian are derived replacing the canonical field phi by the field operator PHIsub(d)sup(c) and introducing the conformal-invariant interaction Lagrangian. It is suggested that in the conformal-invariant QFT with the dimensionality αsub(B) obtained from the bootstrep equation, the normalization constant c of the propagator and the coupling parametery do not necessarily need to satisfy the relation xsub(B) = phi 2 c 3

  1. Superfield approach to symmetry invariance in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Nakanishi–Lautrup auxiliary field B is required to .... In the language of the physical terms, the above HC is the assertion that the electric and magnetic fields (that are gauge and BRST invariant quantities) should remain independent of .... the 4D Lagrangian density (2.1) can be captured in the language of the superfield.

  2. Quantum field theory and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Guadagnini, E.; Mintchev, M.; Martellini, M.

    1990-01-01

    A skein relation for the expectation values of Wilson line operators in three-dimensional SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory is derived at first order in the coupling constant. We use a variational method based on the properties of the three-dimensional field theory. The relationship between the above expectation values and the known link invariants is established. (orig.)

  3. Local relativistic invariant flows for quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krahn, R.; Sirugue, M.

    1983-01-01

    For quantum fields with trigonometric interaction in arbitrary space dimension we construct a representation of the Lorentz group by automorphisms on a Banach space generated by the Weyl algebra. (orig.)

  4. Conformal invariance in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grensing, G.

    1978-01-01

    We study the transformation law of interacting fields under the universal covering group of the conformal group. It is defined with respect to the representations of the discrete series. These representations are field representations in the sense that they act on finite component fields defined over Minkowski space. The conflict with Einstein causality is avoided as in the case of free fields with canonical dimension. Furthermore, we determine the conformal invariant two-point function of arbitrary spin. Our result coincides with that obtained by Ruehl. In particular, we investigate the two-point function of symmetric and traceless tensor fields and give the explicit form of the trace terms

  5. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2018-01-23

    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  6. Quantum-statistical kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived

  7. Quantum critical phenomena and conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhe Chang.

    1995-05-01

    We show that the Abelian bosonization of continuum limit of the 1D Hubbard model corresponds to the 2D explicitly conformal invariant Gaussian model at weak coupling limit. A universality argument is used to extend the equivalence to an entire segment of the critical line of the strongly correlated electron system. An integral equation satisfied by the mapping function between critical lines of the 1D Hubbard model and 2D Gaussian model is obtained and then solved in some limiting cases. By making use of the fact that the free Hubbard system reduces to four fermions and each of them is related to a c = 1/2 conformal field theory, we present exactly the partition function of the Hubbard model on a finite 1D lattice. (author). 16 refs

  8. Quantum invariants of knots and 3-manifolds. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaev, Vladimir G.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the strong appeal and wide use of this monograph, it is now available in its second revised edition. The monograph gives a systematic treatment of 3-dimensional topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) based on the work of the author with N. Reshetikhin and O. Viro. This subject was inspired by the discovery of the Jones polynomial of knots and the Witten-Chern-Simons field theory. On the algebraic side, the study of 3-dimensional TQFTs has been influenced by the theory of braided categories and the theory of quantum groups. The book is divided into three parts. Part I presents a construction of 3-dimensional TQFTs and 2-dimensional modular functors from so-called modular categories. This gives a vast class of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants as well as a class of linear representations of the mapping class groups of surfaces. In Part II the technique of 6j-symbols is used to define state sum invariants of 3-manifolds. Their relation to the TQFTs constructed in Part I is established via the theory of shadows. Part III provides constructions of modular categories, based on quantum groups and skein modules of tangles in the 3-space. This fundamental contribution to topological quantum field theory is accessible to graduate students in mathematics and physics with knowledge of basic algebra and topology. It is an indispensable source for everyone who wishes to enter the forefront of this fascinating area at the borderline of mathematics and physics. From the contents: - Invariants of graphs in Euclidean 3-space and of closed 3-manifolds - Foundations of topological quantum field theory - Three-dimensional topological quantum field theory - Two-dimensional modular functors - 6j-symbols - Simplicial state sums on 3-manifolds - Shadows of manifolds and state sums on shadows - Constructions of modular categories. (orig.)

  9. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)

    2017-05-15

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)

  10. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-05-01

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.

  11. Quantum gravity vacuum and invariants of embedded spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikovic, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the path integral for the three-dimensional SU(2) BF theory with a Wilson loop or a spin network function inserted can be understood as the Rovelli-Smolin loop transform of a wavefunction in the Ashtekar connection representation, where the wavefunction satisfies the constraints of quantum general relativity with zero cosmological constant. This wavefunction is given as a product of the delta functions of the SU(2) field strength and therefore it can be naturally associated with a flat connection spacetime. The loop transform can be defined rigorously via the quantum SU(2) group, as a spin foam state sum model, so that one obtains invariants of spin networks embedded in a three-manifold. These invariants define a flat connection vacuum state in the q-deformed spin network basis. We then propose a modification of this construction in order to obtain a vacuum state corresponding to the flat metric spacetime

  12. A combinatorial approach to diffeomorphism invariant quantum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum gauge theory in the connection representation uses functions of holonomies as configuration observables. Physical observables (gauge and diffeomorphism invariant) are represented in the Hilbert space of physical states; physical states are gauge and diffeomorphism invariant distributions on the space of functions of the holonomies of the edges of a certain family of graphs. Then a family of graphs embedded in the space manifold (satisfying certain properties) induces a representation of the algebra of physical observables. We construct a quantum model from the set of piecewise linear graphs on a piecewise linear manifold, and another manifestly combinatorial model from graphs defined on a sequence of increasingly refined simplicial complexes. Even though the two models are different at the kinematical level, they provide unitarily equivalent representations of the algebra of physical observables in separable Hilbert spaces of physical states (their s-knot basis is countable). Hence, the combinatorial framework is compatible with the usual interpretation of quantum field theory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. On conformal invariance in gauge theories. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the present paper another nontrivial model of the conformal quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The main hypothesis is that the electromagnetic potential together with an additional zero scale, dimensional scalar field is transformed by a nonbasic and, consequently, nondecomposable representation of the conformal group. There are found nontrivial conformal covariant two-point functions and an invariant action from which equations of motion are derived. There is considered the covariant procedure of quantization and it is shown that the norm of one-particle physical states is positive definite

  14. Einstein causal quantum fields on lattices with discrete Lorentz invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, H.

    1986-01-01

    Results on rigorous construction of quantum fields on the hypercubic lattice Z 4 considered as a lattice in the Minkowski space R 4 are presented. Two associated fields are constructed: The first one having on the lattice points of Z 4 is causal and Poincare invariant in the discrete sense. The second one is an interpolating field over R 4 which is pointlike, translationally covariant and spectral in such a manner that the 'real' lattices field is the restriction of the interpolating field to Z 4 . Furthermore, results on a rigorous perturbation theory of such fields are mentioned

  15. Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.

  16. Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: laura.castello@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.

  17. Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Martín-Benito, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations

  18. Axiomatics of Galileo-invariant quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashev, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct the axiomatics of Galileo-invariant quantum field theory. The importance of this problem is demonstrated from various points of view: general properties that the fields and observables must satisfy are considered; S-matrix nontriviality of one such model is proved; and the differences from the relativistic case are discussed. The proposed system of axioms is in many respects analogous to Wightman axiomatics, but is less general. The main result is contained in theorems which describe the admissible set of initial fields and total Hamiltonians, i.e., precisely the two entities that completely determine interacting fields. The author considers fields that prove the independence of some axioms

  19. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  20. Estimating Turaev-Viro three-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagic, Gorjan; Reichardt, Ben W.; Jordan, Stephen P.; Koenig, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem efficiently decidable by a quantum computer. Thus approximating certain Turaev-Viro invariants of manifolds presented by Heegaard splittings is a universal problem for quantum computation. This establishes a relation between the task of distinguishing nonhomeomorphic 3-manifolds and the power of a general quantum computer.

  1. High efficiency transfer of quantum information and multiparticle entanglement generation in translation-invariant quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, Martin B; Semiao, Fernando L

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that a translation-invariant chain of interacting quantum systems can be used for high efficiency transfer of quantum entanglement and the generation of multiparticle entanglement over large distances and between arbitrary sites without the requirement of precise spatial or temporal control. The scheme is largely insensitive to disorder and random coupling strengths in the chain. We discuss harmonic oscillator systems both in the case of arbitrary Gaussian states and in situations when at most one excitation is in the system. The latter case, which we prove to be equivalent to an xy-spin chain, may be used to generate genuine multiparticle entanglement. Such a 'quantum data bus' may prove useful in future solid state architectures for quantum information processing

  2. Explicit Minkowski invariance and differential calculus in the quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhan.

    1991-11-01

    In terms of the R-circumflex matrix of the quantum group SL q (2), the explicit Minkowski coordinate commutation relations in the four-dimensional quantum space-time are given, and the invariance of the Minkowski metric is shown. The differential calculus in this quantum space-time is discussed and the corresponding commutation relations are proposed. (author). 17 refs

  3. Scale invariance in chaotic time series: Classical and quantum examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Emmanuel; Morales, Irving O.; Stránský, Pavel; Fossion, Rubén; Velázquez, Victor; López Vieyra, J. C.; Frank, Alejandro

    Important aspects of chaotic behavior appear in systems of low dimension, as illustrated by the Map Module 1. It is indeed a remarkable fact that all systems tha make a transition from order to disorder display common properties, irrespective of their exacta functional form. We discuss evidence for 1/f power spectra in the chaotic time series associated in classical and quantum examples, the one-dimensional map module 1 and the spectrum of 48Ca. A Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method is applied to investigate the scaling properties of the energy fluctuations in the spectrum of 48Ca obtained with a large realistic shell model calculation (ANTOINE code) and with a random shell model (TBRE) calculation also in the time series obtained with the map mod 1. We compare the scale invariant properties of the 48Ca nuclear spectrum sith similar analyses applied to the RMT ensambles GOE and GDE. A comparison with the corresponding power spectra is made in both cases. The possible consequences of the results are discussed.

  4. Point group invariants in the Uqp(u(2)) quantum algebra picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1993-07-01

    Some consequences of a qp-quantization of a point group invariant developed in the enveloping algebra of SU(2) are examined. A set of open problems concerning such invariants in the U qp (u(2)) quantum algebra picture is briefly discussed. (author) 18 refs

  5. Inhomogeneous Quantum Invariance Group of Multi-Dimensional Multi-parameter Deformed Boson Algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas Azmi Ali; Arik Metin; Arikan Ali Serdar; Dil Emre

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the inhomogeneous invariance quantum group of the d-dimensional d-parameter deformed boson algebra. It is found that the homogeneous part of this quantum group is given by the d-parameter deformed general linear group. We construct the R-matrix which collects all information about the non-commuting structure of the quantum group for the two-dimensional case. (general)

  6. Geometrical aspects of operator ordering terms in gauge invariant quantum models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite-dimensional quantum models with both boson and fermion degrees of freedom, and which have a gauge invariance, are studied here as simple versions of gauge invariant quantum field theories. The configuration space of these finite-dimensional models has the structure of a principal fibre bundle and has defined on it a metric which is invariant under the action of the bundle or gauge group. When the gauge-dependent degrees of freedom are removed, thereby defining the quantum models on the base of the principal fibre bundle, extra operator ordering terms arise. By making use of dimensional reduction methods in removing the gauge dependence, expressions are obtained here for the operator ordering terms which show clearly their dependence on the geometry of the principal fibre bundle structure. (author)

  7. On the kinetic theory of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkoen, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this thesis which deals with transport phenomena of specific gases, plasmas and fluids, can be separated into two distinct parts. In the first part a statistical way is suggested to estimate the neutrino mass. Herefore use is made of the fact that massive neutrinos possess a non-zero volume viscosity in contrast with massless neutrinos. The second part deals with kinetic theory of strongly condensed quantum systems of which examples in nature are: liquid Helium, heavy nuclei, electrons in a metal and the interior of stars. In degenerate systems fermions in general interact strongly so that ordinary kinetic theory is not directly applicable. For such cases Landau-Fermi-liquid theory, in which the strongly interacting particles are replaced by much weaker interacting quasiparticles, proved to be very useful. A method is developed in this theory to calculate transport coefficients. Applications of this method on liquid 3 Helium yield surprisingly good agreement with experimental results for thermal conductivities. (Auth.)

  8. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  9. Parton densities in quantum chromodynamics. Gauge invariance, path-dependence, and Wilson lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednikov, Igor O.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a systematic pedagogical exposition of the quantitative analysis of Wilson lines and gauge-invariant correlation functions in quantum chromodynamics. Using techniques from the previous volume (Wilson Lines in Quantum Field Theory, 2014), an ab initio methodology is developed and practical tools for its implementation are presented. Emphasis is put on the implications of gauge invariance and path-dependence properties of transverse-momentum dependent parton density functions. The latter are associated with the QCD factorization approach to semi-inclusive hadronic processes, studied at currently operating and planned experimental facilities.

  10. Parton densities in quantum chromodynamics. Gauge invariance, path-dependence, and Wilson lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednikov, Igor O. [Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Dept. Fysica; Veken, Frederik F. van der [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a systematic pedagogical exposition of the quantitative analysis of Wilson lines and gauge-invariant correlation functions in quantum chromodynamics. Using techniques from the previous volume (Wilson Lines in Quantum Field Theory, 2014), an ab initio methodology is developed and practical tools for its implementation are presented. Emphasis is put on the implications of gauge invariance and path-dependence properties of transverse-momentum dependent parton density functions. The latter are associated with the QCD factorization approach to semi-inclusive hadronic processes, studied at currently operating and planned experimental facilities.

  11. Renormalization of modular invariant Coulomb gas and Sine-Gordon theories, and quantum Hall flow diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, David

    1998-01-01

    Using the renormalisation group (RG) we study two dimensional electromagnetic coulomb gas and extended Sine-Gordon theories invariant under the modular group SL(2,Z). The flow diagram is established from the scaling equations, and we derive the critical behaviour at the various transition points of the diagram. Following proposal for a SL(2,Z) duality between different quantum Hall fluids, we discuss the analogy between this flow and the global quantum Hall phase diagram.

  12. Magnetism of iron and nickel from rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, A. S.; Leonov, I.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2013-03-01

    We present a rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in which the spin rotational invariance of Hund's exchange is approximated by averaging over all possible directions of the spin quantization axis. We employ this technique to perform benchmark calculations for the two- and three-band Hubbard models on the infinite-dimensional Bethe lattice. Our results agree quantitatively well with those obtained using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with rotationally invariant Coulomb interaction. The proposed approach is employed to compute the electronic and magnetic properties of paramagnetic α iron and nickel. The obtained Curie temperatures agree well with experiment. Our results indicate that the magnetic transition temperature is significantly overestimated by using the density-density type of Coulomb interaction.

  13. Chern-Simons invariants on hyperbolic manifolds and topological quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA/ISAS), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bytsenko, A.A.; Goncalves, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Londrina-Parana (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    We derive formulas for the classical Chern-Simons invariant of irreducible SU(n)-flat connections on negatively curved locally symmetric three-manifolds. We determine the condition for which the theory remains consistent (with basic physical principles). We show that a connection between holomorphic values of Selberg-type functions at point zero, associated with R-torsion of the flat bundle, and twisted Dirac operators acting on negatively curved manifolds, can be interpreted by means of the Chern-Simons invariant. On the basis of the Labastida-Marino-Ooguri-Vafa conjecture we analyze a representation of the Chern-Simons quantum partition function (as a generating series of quantum group invariants) in the form of an infinite product weighted by S-functions and Selberg-type functions. We consider the case of links and a knot and use the Rogers approach to discover certain symmetry and modular form identities. (orig.)

  14. Integral relations for invariants constructed from three Riemann tensors and their applications in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; Wu, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The lowest order quantum corrections to pure gravitation are finite because there exists an integral relation between products of two Riemann tensors (the Gauss--Bonnet theorem). In this article several algebraic and integral relations are determined between products of three Riemann tensors in four- and six-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, one is left with only one invariant when R/sub μ//sub ν/=0, viz., ∫ (-g) 1 / 2 (R/sub b//sub β//sub μ//sub ν/R/sup μ//sup ν//sup rho//sup sigma/R/sub rho//sub sigma/ /sup α//sup β/).It is explicitly shown that this invariant does not vanish, even when R/sub μ//sub ν/=0. Consequently, the two-loop quantum corrections to pure gravitation will only be finite if, due to miraculous cancellation, the coefficient of this invariant vanishes

  15. An introduction to conformal invariance in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Naon, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of conformal invariance provides an extraordinarly successful and productive symbiosis between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The main goal of this paper, which is tailored to a wide audience, is to give an introduction to such vast subject (C.P.)

  16. Modular invariance, universality and crossover in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    1999-01-01

    An analytic form for the conductivity tensor in crossover between two quantum Hall plateaux is derived, which appears to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. The derivation relies on an assumed symmetry between quantum Hall states, a generalisation of the law of corresponding states from rational filling factors to complex conductivity, which has a mathematical expression in terms of an action of the modular group on the upper-half complex conductivity plane. This symmetry implies universality in quantum Hall crossovers. The assumption that the β-function for the complex conductivity is a complex analytic function, together with some experimental constraints, results in an analytic expression for the crossover, as a function of the external magnetic field

  17. Quantum osp-invariant non-linear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1985-04-01

    The generalizations of the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NS) associated with the orthosymplectic superalgebras are formulated. The simplest osp(1/2)-NS model is solved by the quantum inverse scattering method on a finite interval under periodic boundary conditions as well as on the wholeline in the case of a finite number of excitations. (author)

  18. Invariants and the evolution of nonstationary quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a detailed review of some new results in quantum mechanics and statistics obtained during the last decade and a half. The main point of principle on which the studies in the paper are based is the concept of time-dependent integrals of motion of a quantum system (in the Schroedinger picture). This concepts is significant for the problem of supersensitive measurements, e.g., for gravitational wave experiments.A new concept of correlated coherent states of a harmonic oscillator is introduced in connection with the generalized version of this relation. One paper is devoted mainly to a detailed investigation of this concept, as well as its contact with so-called squeezed states. The concepts of new classes of states of physical quantized fields (correlated light and sound) are also discussed

  19. Multi-scale kinetic description of granular clusters: invariance, balance, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriz, Gianfranco; Mariano, Paolo Maria

    2017-12-01

    We discuss a multi-scale continuum representation of bodies made of several mass particles flowing independently each other. From an invariance procedure and a nonstandard balance of inertial actions, we derive the balance equations introduced in earlier work directly in pointwise form, essentially on the basis of physical plausibility. In this way, we analyze their foundations. Then, we propose a Boltzmann-type equation for the distribution of kinetic energies within control volumes in space and indicate how such a distribution allows us to propose a definition of (granular) temperature along processes far from equilibrium.

  20. Using linear time-invariant system theory to estimate kinetic parameters directly from projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    It is common practice to estimate kinetic parameters from dynamically acquired tomographic data by first reconstructing a dynamic sequence of three-dimensional reconstructions and then fitting the parameters to time activity curves generated from the time-varying reconstructed images. However, in SPECT, the pharmaceutical distribution can change during the acquisition of a complete tomographic data set, which can bias the estimated kinetic parameters. It is hypothesized that more accurate estimates of the kinetic parameters can be obtained by fitting to the projection measurements instead of the reconstructed time sequence. Estimation from projections requires the knowledge of their relationship between the tissue regions of interest or voxels with particular kinetic parameters and the project measurements, which results in a complicated nonlinear estimation problem with a series of exponential factors with multiplicative coefficients. A technique is presented in this paper where the exponential decay parameters are estimated separately using linear time-invariant system theory. Once the exponential factors are known, the coefficients of the exponentials can be estimated using linear estimation techniques. Computer simulations demonstrate that estimation of the kinetic parameters directly from the projections is more accurate than the estimation from the reconstructed images

  1. Asymptotics of the quantum invariants for surgeries on the figure 8 knot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Hansen, Søren Kold

    2006-01-01

    a formula for the leading asymptotics of the invariants in the limit of large quantum level. We analyze this expression using the saddle point method. We construct a certain surjection from the set of stationary points for the relevant phase functions onto the space of conjugacy classes of nonabelian SL(2......, ℂ)-representations of the fundamental group of M and prove that the values of these phase functions at the relevant stationary points equals the classical Chern–Simons invariants of the corresponding flat SU(2)-connections. Our findings are in agreement with the asymptotic expansion conjecture...

  2. Spectral and scattering theory for translation invariant models in quantum field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    This thesis is concerned with a large class of massive translation invariant models in quantum field theory, including the Nelson model and the Fröhlich polaron. The models in the class describe a matter particle, e.g. a nucleon or an electron, linearly coupled to a second quantised massive scalar...... by the physically relevant choices. The translation invariance implies that the Hamiltonian may be decomposed into a direct integral over the space of total momentum where the fixed momentum fiber Hamiltonians are given by , where denotes total momentum and is the Segal field operator. The fiber Hamiltonians...

  3. Implications of conformal invariance for quantum field theories in d>2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently obtained results for two and three point functions for quasi-primary operators in conformally invariant theories in arbitrary dimensions d are described. As a consequence the three point function for the energy momentum tensor has three linearly independent forms for general d compatible with conformal invariance. The corresponding coefficients may be regarded as possible generalisations of the Virasoro central charge to d larger than 2. Ward identities which link two linear combinations of the coefficients to terms appearing in the energy momentum tensor trace anomaly on curved space are discussed. The requirement of positivity for expectation values of the energy density is also shown to lead to positivity conditions which are simple for a particular choice of the three coefficients. Renormalisation group like equations which express the constraints of broken conformal invariance for quantum field theories away from critical points are postulated and applied to two point functions. (orig.)

  4. Radiative Transfer Reconsidered as a Quantum Kinetic Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radiative transfer—quantum kinetic theory—anomalous dispersion. 1. ... able for the elaboration of transport codes (e.g. based on the Monte-Carlo technique ... this function is not a true probability density function but rather a quasiprobability.

  5. Invariant class operators in the decoherent histories analysis of timeless quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J. J.; Wallden, P.

    2006-01-01

    The decoherent histories approach to quantum theory is applied to a class of reparametrization-invariant models whose state is an energy eigenstate. A key step in this approach is the construction of class operators characterizing the questions of physical interest, such as the probability of the system entering a given region of configuration space without regard to time. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics these class operators are given by time-ordered products of projection operators. But in reparametrization-invariant models, where there is no time, the construction of the class operators is more complicated, the main difficulty being to find operators which commute with the Hamiltonian constraint (and so respect the invariance of the theory). Here, inspired by classical considerations, we put forward a proposal for the construction of such class operators for a class of reparametrization-invariant systems. They consist of continuous infinite temporal products of Heisenberg picture projection operators. We investigate the consequences of this proposal in a number of simple models and also compare with the evolving constants method. The formalism developed here is ultimately aimed at cosmological models described by a Wheeler-DeWitt equation, but the specific features of such models are left to future papers

  6. Towards Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory: New invariants for 3-manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zois, I.P.

    2016-01-01

    We present some ideas for a possible Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory (NCTQFT for short) and Noncommutative Floer Homology (NCFH for short). Our motivation is two-fold and it comes both from physics and mathematics: On the one hand we argue that NCTQFT is the correct mathematical framework for a quantum field theory of all known interactions in nature (including gravity). On the other hand we hope that a possible NCFH will apply to practically every 3-manifold (and not only to homology 3-spheres as ordinary Floer Homology currently does). The two motivations are closely related since, at least in the commutative case, Floer Homology Groups constitute the space of quantum observables of (3+1)-dim Topological Quantum Field Theory. Towards this goal we define some new invariants for 3-manifolds using the space of taut codim-1 foliations modulo coarse isotopy along with various techniques from noncommutative geometry. (paper)

  7. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  8. Lorentz invariance from classical particle paths in quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Zwanziger, D.

    1979-01-01

    We establish the Lorentz invariance of the quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge. This is a priori implausible because the theory is the second-quantized version of a classical field theory which is inconsistent if the minimally coupled charged fields are smooth functions. For our proof we express the generating functional for the gauge-invariant Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics: with or without magnetic charge: as a path integral over the trajectories of classical charged point particles. The electric-electric and electric-magnetic interactions contribute factors exp(JDJ) and exp(JD'K), where J and K are the electric and magnetic currents of classical point particles and D is the usual photon propagator. The propagator D' involves the Dirac string but exp(JD'K) depends on it only through a topological integer linking string and classical particle trajectories. The charge quantization condition e/sub i/g/sub j/ - g/sub i/e/sub j/ = integer then suffices to make the gauge-invariant Green's functions string independent. By implication our formulation shows that if the Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics are expressed as usual as functional integrals over classical charged fields, the smooth field configurations have measure zero and all the support of the Feynman measure lies on the trajectories of classical point particles

  9. Non-Markovianity Measure Based on Brukner-Zeilinger Invariant Information for Unital Quantum Dynamical Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Zhu, Lie-Qiang; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    A non-Markovianity measure based on Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information to characterize non-Markovian effect of open systems undergoing unital dynamical maps is proposed. The method takes advantage of non-increasing property of the Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information under completely positive and trace-preserving unital maps. The simplicity of computing the Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information is the advantage of the proposed measure because of mainly depending on the purity of quantum state. The measure effectively captures the characteristics of non-Markovianity of unital dynamical maps. As some concrete application, we consider two typical non-Markovian noise channels, i.e., the phase damping channel and the random unitary channel to show the sensitivity of the proposed measure. By investigation, we find that the conditions of detecting the non-Markovianity for the phase damping channel are consistent with the results of existing measures for non-Markovianity, i.e., information flow, divisibility and quantum mutual information. However, for the random unitary channel non-Markovian conditions are same to that of the information flow, but is different from that of the divisibility and quantum mutual information. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61505053, the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province under Grant No. 2015JJ3092, the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hunan Province, China under Grant No. 16B177, the School Foundation from the Hunan University of Arts and Science under Grant No. 14ZD01

  10. Non-Markovianity Measure Based on Brukner–Zeilinger Invariant Information for Unital Quantum Dynamical Maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhi; Zhu Lie-Qiang; Li Li

    2017-01-01

    A non-Markovianity measure based on Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information to characterize non-Markovian effect of open systems undergoing unital dynamical maps is proposed. The method takes advantage of non-increasing property of the Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information under completely positive and trace-preserving unital maps. The simplicity of computing the Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information is the advantage of the proposed measure because of mainly depending on the purity of quantum state. The measure effectively captures the characteristics of non-Markovianity of unital dynamical maps. As some concrete application, we consider two typical non-Markovian noise channels, i.e., the phase damping channel and the random unitary channel to show the sensitivity of the proposed measure. By investigation, we find that the conditions of detecting the non-Markovianity for the phase damping channel are consistent with the results of existing measures for non-Markovianity, i.e., information flow, divisibility and quantum mutual information. However, for the random unitary channel non-Markovian conditions are same to that of the information flow, but is different from that of the divisibility and quantum mutual information. (paper)

  11. On kinetic description of electromagnetic processes in a quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Kompaneets, R.

    2011-01-01

    A nonlinear kinetic equation for nonrelativistic quantum plasma with electromagnetic interaction of particles is obtained in the Hartree's mean-field approximation. It is cast in a convenient form of Vlasov-Boltzmann-type equation with ''quantum interference integral'', which allows for relatively straightforward modification of existing classical Vlasov codes to incorporate quantum effects (quantum statistics and quantum interference of overlapping particles wave functions), without changing the bulk of the codes. Such modification (upgrade) of existing Vlasov codes may provide a direct and effective path to numerical simulations of nonlinear electrostatic and electromagnetic phenomena in quantum plasmas, especially of processes where kinetic effects are important (e.g., modulational interactions and stimulated scattering phenomena involving plasma modes at short wavelengths or high-order kinetic modes, dynamical screening and interaction of charges in quantum plasma, etc.) Moreover, numerical approaches involving such modified Vlasov codes would provide a useful basis for theoretical analyses of quantum plasmas, as quantum and classical effects can be easily separated there.

  12. Modern quantum kinetic theory and spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchick, L.

    1991-01-01

    The modern quantum kinetic theory of spectral line shapes is outlined and a typical calculation of a Raman scattered line shape described. The distinguishing feature of this calculation is that it was completely ab initio and therefore constituted a test of modern quantum kinetic theory, the state of the art in computing molecular-scattering cross sections, and novel methods of solving kinetic equations. The computation employed a large assortment of tools: group theory, finite-element methods, classic methods of solving coupled sets of ordinary differential equations, graph methods of combining angular momenta, and matrix methods of solving integral equations. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. 13 refs

  13. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Adiabatic Invariants for Time-Dependent Superconducting Qubit-Oscillators and Resonators in Quantum Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ryeol Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.

  14. Relativistic quantum kinetic analysis of a pion--nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A relativistic plasma of nucleons interacting through pions via the usual isospin-invariant Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the framework of the covariant Wigner function technique. The method is manifestly covariant and the temperature effects are considered. The relativistic quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the pion--nucleon system is derived. By generalizing the Bogolioubov analysis of the classical BBGKY hierarchy a non-perturbative renormalizable method is elaborated which allows the solution of the kinetic problem in form of power series of two cluster parameters which measure the importance of correlations. In the lowest order of the cluster expansion (Hartree approximation of zero-order approximation) the quasi-nucleon Fock space is introduced, the fermion Wigner function in the thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained and the vacuum effects are renormalized. In this approximation the plasma behaves as a perfect Fermi gas of nucleons and antinucleons, but there exists an abnormal configuration with a uniform pion condensate which is unstable. In the next approximation (quadratic in the small parameters) the quasi-pion dispersion relation is obtained and the vacuum polarization tensor is renormalized. The quasi-pion rest-mass spectra (''plasma frequency'') and the effective-coupling behaviour as functions of the thermodynamic state are given. By estimating the size of the cluster parameters the self-consistency of the approximation scheme is proved. The quasi-pion Fock space is introduced and the quasi-pion equilibrium Wigner function is obtained. From these results the problem of the higher-order corrections to the Hartree thermodynamics is outlined

  15. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  16. Precursors, gauge invariance, and quantum error correction in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Jefferson, Robert A.; Kabir, Laurens [ITFA and GRAPPA, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-19

    A puzzling aspect of the AdS/CFT correspondence is that a single bulk operator can be mapped to multiple different boundary operators, or precursors. By improving upon a recent model of Mintun, Polchinski, and Rosenhaus, we demonstrate explicitly how this ambiguity arises in a simple model of the field theory. In particular, we show how gauge invariance in the boundary theory manifests as a freedom in the smearing function used in the bulk-boundary mapping, and explicitly show how this freedom can be used to localize the precursor in different spatial regions. We also show how the ambiguity can be understood in terms of quantum error correction, by appealing to the entanglement present in the CFT. The concordance of these two approaches suggests that gauge invariance and entanglement in the boundary field theory are intimately connected to the reconstruction of local operators in the dual spacetime.

  17. Invariant measure of the one-loop quantum gravitational backreaction on inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, S. P.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

    2017-06-01

    We use dimensional regularization in pure quantum gravity on a de Sitter background to evaluate the one-loop expectation value of an invariant operator which gives the local expansion rate. We show that the renormalization of this nonlocal composite operator can be accomplished using the counterterms of a simple local theory of gravity plus matter, at least at one-loop order. This renormalization completely absorbs the one-loop correction, which accords with the prediction that the lowest secular backreaction should be a two-loop effect.

  18. Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.

  19. Entanglement in SU(2)-invariant quantum systems: The positive partial transpose criterion and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schliemann, John

    2005-01-01

    We study entanglement in mixed bipartite quantum states which are invariant under simultaneous SU(2) transformations in both subsystems. Previous results on the behavior of such states under partial transposition are substantially extended. The spectrum of the partial transpose of a given SU(2)-invariant density matrix ρ is entirely determined by the diagonal elements of ρ in a basis of tensor-product states of both spins with respect to a common quantization axis. We construct a set of operators which act as entanglement witnesses on SU(2)-invariant states. A sufficient criterion for ρ having a negative partial transpose is derived in terms of a simple spin correlator. The same condition is a necessary criterion for the partial transpose to have the maximum number of negative eigenvalues. Moreover, we derive a series of sum rules which uniquely determine the eigenvalues of the partial transpose in terms of a system of linear equations. Finally we compare our findings with other entanglement criteria including the reduction criterion, the majorization criterion, and the recently proposed local uncertainty relations

  20. Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.

    2016-11-29

    Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a higgs-like scalar $\\phi$ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton ($\\sigma$). Its vev $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$ generates the DR subtraction scale ($\\mu\\sim\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where $\\mu$=fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking ($\\mu$=fixed scale). These operators have the form: $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$, $\\phi^8/\\sigma^4$, etc, which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle\\gg \\langle\\phi\\rangle$, where such hierarchy is arranged by {\\it one} initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum...

  1. Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.

    1980-08-01

    A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A 0 = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube

  2. Non-linear entropy functionals and a characteristic invariant of symmetry group actions on infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    We review the development of the non-Abelian generalization of the Kolmogorov-Sinai(KS) entropy invariant, as initated by Connes and Stormer and completed by Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring only recently. As an introduction and motivation, the classical KS theory is reformulated in terms of Abelian W * -algebras. Finally, we describe simple physical applications of the developed characteristic invariant to space-time symmetry group actions on infinite quantum systems. 42 refs. (Author)

  3. Current algebras, measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphism groups, and infinite quantum systems with accumulation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Takao

    The approach to quantum physics via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group is established. This thesis studies possible infinite Bose gas systems using this approach. Systems of locally finite configurations and systems of configurations with accumulation points are considered, with the main emphasis on the latter. In Chapter 2, canonical quantization, quantization via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group are reviewed. In Chapter 3, a new definition of the space of configurations is proposed and an axiom for general configuration spaces is abstracted. Various subsets of the configuration space, including those specifying the number of points in a Borel set and those specifying the number of accumulation points in a Borel set are proved to be measurable using this axiom. In Chapter 4, known results on the space of locally finite configurations and Poisson measure are reviewed in the light of the approach developed in Chapter 3, including the approach to current algebra in the Poisson space by Albeverio, Kondratiev, and Rockner. Goldin and Moschella considered unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of the line based on self-similar random processes, which may describe infinite quantum gas systems with clusters. In Chapter 5, the Goldin-Moschella theory is developed further. Their construction of measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphisms is reviewed, and a rigorous proof of their conjectures is given. It is proved that their measures with distinct correlation parameters are mutually singular. A quasi-invariant measure constructed by Ismagilov on the space of configurations with accumulation points on the circle is proved to be singular with respect to the Goldin-Moschella measures. Finally a generalization of the Goldin-Moschella measures to the higher-dimensional case is studied, where the notion of covariance matrix and the notion of condition number play important roles. A

  4. Quantum kinetic theory of metal clusters in an intense electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Bonitz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum kinetic theory for weakly inhomogeneous charged particle systems is derived within the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions. The results are of relevance for valence electrons of metal clusters as well as for confined Coulomb systems, such as electrons in quantum dots or ultracold ions in traps and similar systems. To be specific, here we concentrate on the application to metal clusters, but the results are straightforwardly generalized. Therefore, we first give an introduction to the physics of correlated valence electrons of metal clusters in strong electromagnetic fields. After a brief overview on the jellium model and the standard density functional approach to the ground state properties, we focus on the extension of the theory to nonequilibrium. To this end a general gauge-invariant kinetic theory is developed. The results include the equations of motion of the two-time correlation functions, the equation for the Wigner function and an analysis of the spectral function. Here, the concept of an effective quantum potential is introduced which retains the convenient local form of the propagators. This allows us to derive explicit results for the spectral function of electrons in a combined strong electromagnetic field and a weakly inhomogeneous confinement potential.

  5. On Galilei invariance in quantum mechanics and the Bargmann superselection rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giulini, D.

    1996-01-01

    We reinvestigate Bargmann close-quote s superselection rule for the overall mass of n particles in ordinary quantum mechanics with Galilei invariant interaction potential. We point out that in order for mass to define a superselection rule it should be considered as a dynamical variable. We present a minimal extension of the original dynamics in which mass it treated as dynamical variable. Here the classical symmetry group turns out to be given by an R-extension of the Galilei group. Unlike before, there is now no obstruction to implement an action of the classical symmetry group on Hilbert space. We include some comments of a general nature on formal derivations of superselection rules without dynamical context. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  6. Axiomatic field theory and quantum electrodynamics: the massive case. [Gauge invariance, Maxwell equations, high momentum behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, O [Bielefeld Univ. (F.R. Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1975-01-01

    Massive quantum electrodynamics of the electron is formulated as an LSZ theory of the electromagnetic field F(..mu nu..) and the electron-positron fields PSI. The interaction is introduced with the help of mathematically well defined subsidiary conditions. These are: 1) gauge invariance of the first kind, assumed to be generated by a conserved current j(..mu..); 2) the homogeneous Maxwell equations and a massive version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations; 3) a minimality condition concerning the high momentum behaviour of the theory. The inhomogeneous Maxwell equation is a linear differential equation connecting Fsub(..mu nu..) with the current Jsub(..mu..). No Lagrangian, no non-linear field equations, and no explicit expression of Jsub(..mu..) in terms of PSI, anti-PSI are needed. It is shown in perturbation theory that the proposed conditions fix the physically relevant (i.e. observable) quantities of the theory uniquely.

  7. High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-01-01

    High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.

  8. Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.

    2012-01-01

    For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into “unperturbed” and “perturbed” terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double δ-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: ► A new basis set expansion method is proposed. ► Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. ► Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. ► Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.

  9. Infrared asymptotic behavior of gauge-invariant propagator in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of gauge-invariant fields is introduced. The Dyson-Schwinger equations are obtained for the gauge-invariant generalization of the spinor propagator. On the basis of these equations, and also by means of functional methods, it is shown that the gauge-invariant spinor propagator has a singularity in the form of a simple pole in the infrared region

  10. Infrared asymptotics of a gauge-invariant propagator in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Solovtsov, I.l.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of gauge-invariant fields is introduced. For the gauge-invariant propagator of a spinor field the analogue of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is derived. With the help of these equations as well as the functional integration method it is shown that the gauge-invariant spinor propagator has a simple pole singularity in the infrared region

  11. Infrared asymptotics of a gauge-invariant propagator in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A new class of the gauge-invariant field is introduced. For the gauge-invariant propagator of a spinor field the analog of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is derived. By using these equations as well as the functional integration method it is shown that the gauge-invariant spinor propagator has a simple pole singularity in the infrared region

  12. Gravity, two times, tractors, Weyl invariance, and six-dimensional quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fefferman and Graham showed some time ago that four-dimensional conformal geometries could be analyzed in terms of six-dimensional, ambient, Riemannian geometries admitting a closed homothety. Recently, it was shown how conformal geometry provides a description of physics manifestly invariant under local choices of unit systems. Strikingly, Einstein's equations are then equivalent to the existence of a parallel scale tractor (a six-component vector subject to a certain first order covariant constancy condition at every point in four-dimensional spacetime). These results suggest a six-dimensional description of four-dimensional physics, a viewpoint promulgated by the 2 times physics program of Bars. The Fefferman-Graham construction relies on a triplet of operators corresponding, respectively, to a curved six-dimensional light cone, the dilation generator and the Laplacian. These form an sp(2) algebra which Bars employs as a first class algebra of constraints in a six-dimensional gauge theory. In this article four-dimensional gravity is recast in terms of six-dimensional quantum mechanics by melding the 2 times and tractor approaches. This parent formulation of gravity is built from an infinite set of six-dimensional fields. Successively integrating out these fields yields various novel descriptions of gravity including a new four-dimensional one built from a scalar doublet, a tractor-vector multiplet and a conformal class of metrics.

  13. Explicit construction of quasiconserved local operator of translationally invariant nonintegrable quantum spin chain in prethermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically construct translationally invariant quasiconserved operators with maximum range M , which best commute with a nonintegrable quantum spin chain Hamiltonian, up to M =12 . In the large coupling limit, we find that the residual norm of the commutator of the quasiconserved operator decays exponentially with its maximum range M at small M , and turns into a slower decay at larger M . This quasiconserved operator can be understood as a dressed total "spin-z " operator, by comparing with the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff construction developed to high order reaching essentially the same maximum range. We also examine the operator inverse participation ratio of the operator, which suggests its localization in the operator Hilbert space. The operator also shows an almost exponentially decaying profile at short distance, while the long-distance behavior is not clear due to limitations of our numerical calculation. Further dynamical simulation confirms that the prethermalization-equilibrated values are described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble that includes such quasiconserved operator.

  14. Quantum Kinetic Theory and Applications Electrons, Photons, Phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Vasko, Fedir T

    2006-01-01

    This lecture-style monograph is addressed to several categories of readers. First, it will be useful for graduate students studying theory. Second, the topics covered should be interesting for postgraduate students of various specializations. Third, the researchers who want to understand the background of modern theoretical issues in more detail can find a number of useful results here. The phenomena covered involve kinetics of electron, phonon, and photon systems in solids. The dynamical properties and interactions of electrons, phonons, and photons are briefly described in Chapter 1. Further, in Chapters 2-8, the authors present the main theoretical methods: linear response theory, various kinetic equations for the quasiparticles under consideration, and diagram technique. The presentation of the key approaches is always accompanied by solutions of concrete problems to illustrate ways to apply the theory. The remaining chapters are devoted to various manifestations of quantum transport in solids. The choice...

  15. The quasi-invariant limit for a kinetic model of sociological collective behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Salvarani , Francesco

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The paper is devoted to the study of the asymptotic behaviour of a kinetic model proposed to forecast the phenomenon of opinion formation, with both effect of self-thinking and compromise between individuals. By supposing that the effects of self-thinking and compromise are very weak, we deduce, asymptotically, some simpler models who lose the kinetic structure. We explicitly characterize the asymptotic state of the limiting equation and study the speed of convergence ...

  16. On the development of non-commutative translation-invariant quantum gauge field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedmik, R.I.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to understand the most fundamental principles of nature one has to approach the highest possible energy scales corresponding to the smallest possible distances - the Planck scale. Historically, three different theoretical fields have been developed to treat the problems appearing in this endeavor: string theory, quantum gravity, and non-commutative (NC) quantum field theory (QFT). The latter was originally motivated by the conjecture that the introduction of uncertainty relations between space-time coordinates introduces a natural energy cutoff, which should render the resulting computations well defined and finite. Despite failing to fulfill this expectation, NC physics is a challenging field of research, which has proved to be a fruitful source for new ideas and methods. Mathematically, non-commutativity is implemented by the so called Weyl quantization, giving rise to a modified product - the Groenewold-Moyal product. It realizes an operator ordering, and allows to work within the well established framework of QFT on non-commutative spaces. The main obstacle of NCQFT is the appearance of singularities being shifted from high to low energies. This effect, being referred to as 'uV/IR mixing', is a direct consequence of the deformation of the product, and inhibits or complicates the direct application of well approved renormalization schemes. In order to remedy this problem, several approaches have been worked out during the past decade which, unfortunately, all have shortcomings such as the breaking of translation invariance or an inappropriate alternation of degrees of freedom. Thence, the resulting theories are either being rendered 'unphysical', or considered a priori to be toy models. Nonetheless, these efforts have helped to analyze the mechanisms leading to uV/IR mixing and finally led to the insight that renormalizability can only be achieved by respecting the inherent connection of long and short distances (scales) of NCQFT in the construction of

  17. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  18. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-06-16

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle's ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1-1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (≳ 100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system.

  19. Form factors in quantum integrable models with GL(3)-invariant R-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakuliak, S., E-mail: pakuliak@theor.jinr.ru [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ragoucy, E., E-mail: eric.ragoucy@lapth.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique LAPTH, CNRS and Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Slavnov, N.A., E-mail: nslavnov@mi.ras.ru [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing GL(3)-invariant R-matrix. We obtain determinant representations for form factors of off-diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. These representations can be used for the calculation of form factors and correlation functions of the XXX SU(3)-invariant Heisenberg chain.

  20. On the simplest scale invariant tree-tensor-states preserving the quantum symmetries of the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2018-03-01

    For the line of critical antiferromagnetic XXZ chains with coupling J  >  0 and anisotropy 0<Δ ≤slant 1 , we describe how the block-spin renormalization procedure preserving the SU q (2) symmetry introduced by Martin-Delgado and Sierra (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1146) can be reformulated as the translation-invariant scale-invariant tree-tensor-state of the smallest dimension that is compatible with the quantum symmetries of the model. The properties of this tree-tensor-state are studied in detail via the ground-state energy, the magnetizations and the staggered magnetizations, as well as the Shannon-Renyi entropies characterizing the multifractality of the components of the wave function.

  1. High resolution kinetic beam schemes in generalized coordinates for ideal quantum gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yu-Hsin; Huang, J.C.; Yang, J.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A class of high resolution kinetic beam schemes in multiple space dimensions in general coordinates system for the ideal quantum gas is presented for the computation of quantum gas dynamical flows. The kinetic Boltzmann equation approach is adopted and the local equilibrium quantum statistics distribution is assumed. High-order accurate methods using essentially non-oscillatory interpolation concept are constructed. Computations of shock wave diffraction by a circular cylinder in an ideal quantum gas are conducted to illustrate the present method. The present method provides a viable means to explore various practical ideal quantum gas flows

  2. On the construction of translationally invariant deformed wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, R.

    1975-01-01

    Translationally invariant nuclear wave functions are constructed from deformed harmonic oscillator shell-model wave functions, with an exact projection of angular momentum quantum numbers. It is shown that the computation of matrix elements with the translationally invariant wave functions is as simple as the standard calculation, and formulae are obtained for (i) the potential energy, (ii) the kinetic energy and rms radius, and (iii) the charge form factor. (Auth.)

  3. On the algebra of local unitary invariants of pure and mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We study the structure of the inverse limit of the graded algebras of local unitary invariant polynomials using its Hilbert series. For k subsystems, we show that the inverse limit is a free algebra and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree 2m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k - 1 generators. Similarly, we show that the inverse limit in the case of k-partite mixed state invariants is free and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k generators. The two statements are shown to be equivalent. To illustrate the equivalence, using the representation theory of the unitary groups, we obtain all invariants in the m = 2 graded parts and express them in a simple form both in the case of mixed and pure states. The transformation between the two forms is also derived. Analogous invariants of higher degree are also introduced.

  4. Quantum gravity in the chronometrically invariant formalism of Zel'manov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, M.D.

    1990-03-01

    The Einstein-Hilbert lagrangian function R is expressed in terms of the chronometrically invariant quantities introduced by Zel'manov, for an arbitrary four-dimensional metric g ij . The chronometrically invariant three-space is the physical space γ αβ =g αβ -g0 α g0 β /g00, whose determinant is γ. The momentum canonically conjugate to γ αβ is π αβ =-√γ(K αβ -γ αβ K), where K αβ =1/2δ t γ αβ and δ t =|g00| -1/2 δ 0 is the chronometrically invariant derivative with respect to time. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function Ψ is derived. For a stationary space-time, such as the Kerr metric, π αβ vanishes, implying that there is then no dynamics, as expected. The formalism coincides with that of Arnowitt, Deser and Misner when the space-time cross-terms g0α are absent. (author). 11 refs

  5. Classification of irreps and invariants of the N-extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Rojas, Moises; Toppan, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    We present an algorithmic classification of the irreps of the N-extended one-dimensional supersymmetry algebra linearly realized on a finite number of fields. Our work is based on the 1-to-1 correspondence between Weyl-type Clifford algebras (whose irreps are fully classified) and classes of irreps of the N-extended 1D supersymmetry. The complete classification of irreps is presented up to N ≤ 10. The fields of an irrep are accommodated in l different spin states. N = 10 is the minimal value admitting length l>4 irreps. The classification of length-4 irreps of the N = 12 and real N = 11 extended supersymmetries is also explicitly presented. Tensoring irreps allows us to systematically construct manifestly (N-extended) supersymmetric multi-linear invariants without introducing a superspace formalism. Multi-linear invariants can be constructed both for unconstrained and multi-linearly constrained fields. A whole class of off-shell invariant actions are produced in association with each irreducible representation. The explicit example of the N = 8 off-shell action of the (1,8,7) multiplet is presented. Tensoring zero-energy irreps leads us to the notion of the fusion algebra of the 1D N-extended supersymmetric vacua

  6. On the existence of pointlike localized fields in conformally invariant quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerss, M.

    1992-11-01

    In quantum field theory the existence of pointlike localizable objects called 'fields' is a preassumption. Since charged fields are in general not observable this situation is unsatisfying from a quantum physics point of view. Indeed in any quantum theory the existence of fields should follow from deeper physical concepts and more natural first principles like stability, locality, causality and symmetry. In the framework of algebraic quantum field theory with Haag-Kastler nets of local observables this is presented for the case of conformal symmetry in 1+1 dimensions. Conformal fields are explicitly constructed as limits of observables localized in finite regions of space-time. These fields then allow to derive a geometric identification of modular operators, Haag duality in the vacuum sector, the PCT-theorem and an equivalence theorem for fields and algebras. (orig.)

  7. Engineering colloidal quantum dot solids within and beyond the mobility-invariant regime

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Levina, Larissa; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kemp, Kyle W.; Ip, Alexander H.; Thon, Susanna M.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Colloidal quantum dots are attractive materials for efficient, low-cost and facile implementation of solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Despite impressive mobilities (1-30 cm2V-1 s-1) reported for new

  8. Parton densities in quantum chromodynamics gauge invariance, path-dependence and Wilson lines

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednikov, Igor O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a systematic pedagogical exposition of the quantitative analysis of Wilson lines and loops in quantum chromodynamics. Using techniques from the previous volume (Wilson Lines in Quantum Field Theory, 2014), ab initio techniques are developed and practical tools for their implementation presented. An emphasis is put on their renormalization and on implications on processes observable at experimental facilities.

  9. Kinetic approach to the initial value problem in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chi Yong; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1989-06-01

    Time-dependente projection techniques developed to derive kinetic equations in the context of the quantum many-body problem are applied to φ 4 field theory. The approach is illustrated by working out the 0+1 dimensional case explicitly, including numerical solutions of the kinetic equations. Extension to higher dimensions is briefly discussed. (author) [pt

  10. Perturbative method for the derivation of quantum kinetic theory based on closed-time-path formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Jun

    2002-01-01

    Within the closed-time-path formalism, a perturbative method is presented, which reduces the microscopic field theory to the quantum kinetic theory. In order to make this reduction, the expectation value of a physical quantity must be calculated under the condition that the Wigner distribution function is fixed, because it is the independent dynamical variable in the quantum kinetic theory. It is shown that when a nonequilibrium Green function in the form of the generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz is utilized, this condition appears as a cancellation of a certain part of contributions in the diagrammatic expression of the expectation value. Together with the quantum kinetic equation, which can be derived in the closed-time-path formalism, this method provides a basis for the kinetic-theoretical description

  11. Quantum properties of double kicked systems with classical translational invariance in momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Itzhack

    2015-01-01

    Double kicked rotors (DKRs) appear to be the simplest nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems featuring classical translational symmetry in phase space (i.e., in angular momentum) for an infinite set of values (the rational ones) of a parameter η . The experimental realization of quantum DKRs by atom-optics methods motivates the study of the double kicked particle (DKP). The latter reduces, at any fixed value of the conserved quasimomentum β ℏ , to a generalized DKR, the "β -DKR ." We determine general quantum properties of β -DKRs and DKPs for arbitrary rational η . The quasienergy problem of β -DKRs is shown to be equivalent to the energy eigenvalue problem of a finite strip of coupled lattice chains. Exact connections are then obtained between quasienergy spectra of β -DKRs for all β in a generically infinite set. The general conditions of quantum resonance for β -DKRs are shown to be the simultaneous rationality of η ,β , and a scaled Planck constant ℏS. For rational ℏS and generic values of β , the quasienergy spectrum is found to have a staggered-ladder structure. Other spectral structures, resembling Hofstadter butterflies, are also found. Finally, we show the existence of particular DKP wave-packets whose quantum dynamics is free, i.e., the evolution frequencies of expectation values in these wave-packets are independent of the nonintegrability. All the results for rational ℏS exhibit unique number-theoretical features involving η ,ℏS, and β .

  12. Engineering colloidal quantum dot solids within and beyond the mobility-invariant regime

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2014-05-06

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Colloidal quantum dots are attractive materials for efficient, low-cost and facile implementation of solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Despite impressive mobilities (1-30 cm2V-1 s-1) reported for new classes of quantum dot solids, it is-surprisingly-the much lower-mobility (10-3-10-2 cm2V-1 s-1) solids that have produced the best photovoltaic performance. Here we show that it is not mobility, but instead the average spacing among recombination centres that governs the diffusion length of charges in today\\'s quantum dot solids. In this regime, colloidal quantum dot films do not benefit from further improvements in charge carrier mobility. We develop a device model that accurately predicts the thickness dependence and diffusion length dependence of devices. Direct diffusion length measurements suggest the solid-state ligand exchange procedure as a potential origin of the detrimental recombination centres. We then present a novel avenue for in-solution passivation with tightly bound chlorothiols that retain passivation from solution to film, achieving an 8.5% power conversion efficiency.

  13. The conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator and factor ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Michael P.; Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    In quantum mechanics the kinetic energy term for a single particle is usually written in the form of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. This operator is a factor ordering of the classical kinetic energy. We investigate other relatively simple factor orderings and show that the only other solution for a conformally flat metric is the conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator. For non-conformally-flat metrics this type of factor ordering fails, by just one term, to give the conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator

  14. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat M. Gainutdinov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uqsl(2-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=eiπ/p with integer p≥2, the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings, and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  15. Shaping the composition profiles in heteroepitaxial quantum dots: Interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Georgiou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations, coupling thermodynamic and kinetic effects, resolve a longstanding controversy regarding the origin of composition profiles in heteroepitaxial SiGe quantum dots. It is shown that profiles with cores rich in the unstrained (Si component derive from near-equilibrium processes and intraisland diffusion. Profiles with cores rich in the strained (Ge component are of nonequilibrium nature, i.e., they are strain driven but kinetically limited. They are shaped by the distribution of kinetic barriers of atomic diffusion in the islands. The diffusion pathways are clearly revealed for the first time. Geometrical kinetics play a minor role.

  16. Gauge invariant lattice quantum field theory: Implications for statistical properties of high frequency financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoyet, B.; Fiebig, H. R.; Musgrove, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on initial studies of a quantum field theory defined on a lattice with multi-ladder geometry and the dilation group as a local gauge symmetry. The model is relevant in the cross-disciplinary area of econophysics. A corresponding proposal by Ilinski aimed at gauge modeling in non-equilibrium pricing is implemented in a numerical simulation. We arrive at a probability distribution of relative gains which matches the high frequency historical data of the NASDAQ stock exchange index.

  17. Topics in quantum groups and finite-type invariants mathematics at the independent University of Moscow

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, S M; Odesskii, A V; Feigin, B; Vassiliev, V

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents the first collection of articles consisting entirely of work by faculty and students of the Higher Mathematics College of the Independent University of Moscow (IUM). This unique institution was established to train elite students to become research scientists. Covered in the book are two main topics: quantum groups and low-dimensional topology. The articles were written by participants of the Feigin and Vassiliev seminars, two of the most active seminars at the IUM.

  18. String Quantum Gravity, Lorentz-Invariance Violation and Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of the review, I discuss ways of obtaining Lorentz-Invariance-Violating (LIV) space-time foam in the modern context of string theory, involving brane world scenarios. The foamy structures are provided by lower-dimensional background brane defects in a D3-brane Universe, whose density is a free parameter to be constrained phenomenologically. Such constraining can be provided by high energy gamma-ray photon tests, including ultra-high energy/infrared photon-photon scattering. In the second part, I analyze the currently available data from MAGIC and FERMI Telescopes on delayed cosmic photon arrivals in this context. It is understood of course that conventional Astrophysics source effects, which currently are far from being understood, might be the dominant reason for the observed delayed arrivals. I also discuss how the stringent constraints from studies of synchrotron-radiation from distant Nebulae, absence of cosmic birefringence and non observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic photons can be ...

  19. Non-reversible evolution of quantum chaotic system. Kinetic description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotorlishvili, L.; Skrinnikov, V.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the appearance of non-reversibility in classical chaotic systems is connected with a local instability of phase trajectories relatively to a small change of initial conditions and parameters of the system. Classical chaotic systems reveal an exponential sensitivity to these changes. This leads to an exponential growth of initial error with time, and as the result after the statistical averaging over this error, the dynamics of the system becomes non-reversible. In spite of this, the question about the origin of non-reversibility in quantum case remains actual. The point is that the classical notion of instability of phase trajectories loses its sense during quantum consideration. The current work is dedicated to the clarification of the origin of non-reversibility in quantum chaotic systems. For this purpose we study a non-stationary dynamics of the chaotic quantum system. By analogy with classical chaos, we consider an influence of a small unavoidable error of the parameter of the system on the non-reversibility of the dynamics. It is shown in the Letter that due to the peculiarity of chaotic quantum systems, the statistical averaging over the small unavoidable error leads to the non-reversible transition from the pure state into the mixed one. The second part of the Letter is dedicated to the kinematic description of the chaotic quantum-mechanical system. Using the formalism of superoperators, a muster kinematic equation for chaotic quantum system was obtained from Liouville equation under a strict mathematical consideration

  20. Quantum field kinetics of QCD quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone dominated processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    A quantum kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of non-equilibrium multi-parton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the `closed-time-path' Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the 2-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the `two-scale nature' of light-cone dominated QCD processes, i.e. the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary inter- actions, the quantum-field equations of ...

  1. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of growth of Ge quantum dot multilayers with amorphous matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Jan, E-mail: endres.jan@gmail.com; Holý, Václav; Daniš, Stanislav [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic); Buljan, Maja [Ruđer Bošković Institute (Croatia)

    2017-04-15

    Kinetic Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the growth of germanium quantum dot multilayers with amorphous matrix. We modified a model for self-assembled growth of quantum dots in crystalline matrix for the case of the amorphous one. The surface morphology given as hills above the buried dots is the main driving force for the ordering of the quantum dots. In the simulations, we observed a short-range self-ordering in the lateral direction. The ordering in lateral and vertical direction depends strongly on the surface morphology, mostly on the strength how the deposited material replicates previous surfaces.

  2. A consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of quantum Bose-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.Hlushak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A consistent approach to the description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of many-Boson systems is proposed. The generalized transport equations for strongly and weakly nonequilibrium Bose systems are obtained. Here we use the method of nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. New equations for the time distribution function of the quantum Bose system with a separate contribution from both the kinetic and potential energies of particle interactions are obtained. The generalized transport coefficients are determined accounting for the consistent description of kinetic and hydrodynamic processes.

  3. Quantum kinetics of a superconducting tunnel junction: Theory and comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, K.S.; Browne, D.A.; Ambegaokar, V.

    1988-01-01

    We develop a kinetic theory for the real-time response of a quantum particle interacting with a macroscopic reservoir. We discuss the equilibrium and long-time behavior of the solution of the kinetic equation for such a system. In the limit of low damping, the kinetic equation reduces to a master equation. Using the theory to model a Josephson junction loaded with an external impedance, we make contact with the experiments of Clark, Devoret, Esteve, and Martinis. We argue that a stationary solution of the master equation sufficiently describes the experiments, and make detailed comparison with data

  4. A many-particle quantum-kinetic formalism for describing properties of light emitters in frozen dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladush M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A many particle quantum-kinetic formalism is suggested to derive the Maxwell-Bloch-type equations which describe the interaction of quantum emitters with light in a frozen dielectric. It is shown that the quantum-kinetic formalism can meet the concept of local variations of dielectric properties and their influence on the emitter. The definitions of the local response and the effective refractive index in macroscopically homogeneous media are discussed.

  5. Renormalizing the kinetic energy operator in elementary quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, F A B [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo e LIM 01-HCFMUSP, 05405-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Amaku, M [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: coutinho@dim.fm.usp.br

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation of the form {psi}(r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) {ne} 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly cancelling the kinetic energy divergence. This renormalization procedure produces a self-adjoint Hamiltonian. We solve some problems with this new Hamiltonian to illustrate its usefulness.

  6. Renormalizing the kinetic energy operator in elementary quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, F A B; Amaku, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation of the form ψ(r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) ≠ 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly cancelling the kinetic energy divergence. This renormalization procedure produces a self-adjoint Hamiltonian. We solve some problems with this new Hamiltonian to illustrate its usefulness.

  7. Invariant differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Vladimir K

    2016-01-01

    With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.

  8. Invariant differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Vladimir K

    With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.

  9. Renormalizing the Kinetic Energy Operator in Elementary Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F. A. B.; Amaku, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schrodinger equation of the form [psi](r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) [is not equal to] 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly…

  10. Automated chemical kinetic modeling via hybrid reactive molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döntgen, Malte; Schmalz, Felix; Kopp, Wassja A; Kröger, Leif C; Leonhard, Kai

    2018-06-13

    An automated scheme for obtaining chemical kinetic models from scratch using reactive molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry simulations is presented. This methodology combines the phase space sampling of reactive molecular dynamics with the thermochemistry and kinetics prediction capabilities of quantum mechanics. This scheme provides the NASA polynomial and modified Arrhenius equation parameters for all species and reactions that are observed during the simulation and supplies them in the ChemKin format. The ab initio level of theory for predictions is easily exchangeable and the presently used G3MP2 level of theory is found to reliably reproduce hydrogen and methane oxidation thermochemistry and kinetics data. Chemical kinetic models obtained with this approach are ready-to-use for, e.g., ignition delay time simulations, as shown for hydrogen combustion. The presented extension of the ChemTraYzer approach can be used as a basis for methodologically advancing chemical kinetic modeling schemes and as a black-box approach to generate chemical kinetic models.

  11. Excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot driven by Gaussian white noise: Interplay with external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r 0 ). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role

  12. Transport in semiconductor nanowire superlattices described by coupled quantum mechanical and kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, M; Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Melnik, R V N; Prabhakar, S

    2013-08-21

    In this paper we develop a kinetic model for the analysis of semiconductor superlattices, accounting for quantum effects. The model consists of a Boltzmann-Poisson type system of equations with simplified Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisions, obtained from the general time-dependent Schrödinger-Poisson model using Wigner functions. This system for superlattice transport is supplemented by the quantum mechanical part of the model based on the Ben-Daniel-Duke form of the Schrödinger equation for a cylindrical superlattice of finite radius. The resulting energy spectrum is used to characterize the Fermi-Dirac distribution that appears in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision, thereby coupling the quantum mechanical and kinetic parts of the model. The kinetic model uses the dispersion relation obtained by the generalized Kronig-Penney method, and allows us to estimate radii of quantum wire superlattices that have the same miniband widths as in experiments. It also allows us to determine more accurately the time-dependent characteristics of superlattices, in particular their current density. Results, for several experimentally grown superlattices, are discussed in the context of self-sustained coherent oscillations of the current density which are important in an increasing range of current and potential applications.

  13. The soliton solution of BBGKY quantum kinetic equations chain for different type particles system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, M.Yu.; Avazov, U.; Hassan, T.

    2006-12-01

    In the present paper on the basis of BBGKY chain of quantum kinetic equations the chain of equations for correlation matrices is derived, describing the evolution of a system of different types particles, which interact by pair potential. The series, which is the solution of this chain of equations for correlation matrices, is suggested. Using this series the solution of the last chain of equations is reduced to a solution of a set of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous von-Neumann's kinetic equations (analogue of Vlasov equations for quantum case). The first and second equations of this set of equations coincide with the first and second kinetic equations of the set, which is used in plasma physics. For an potential in the form of Dirac delta function, the solution of von-Neumann equation is defined through soliton solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Based on von-Neumann equation one can define all terms of series, which is a solution of a chain of equations for correlation matrices. On the basis of these correlation matrices for a system of different types of particles we can define exact solution of BBGKY chain of quantum kinetic equations

  14. Quantum field kinetics of QCD: Quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone-dominated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, K.

    1996-01-01

    A quantum-kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of nonequilibrium multiparton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the open-quote open-quote closed-time-path close-quote close-quote Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the two-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the open-quote open-quote two-scale nature close-quote close-quote of light-cone-dominated QCD processes, i.e., the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary interactions, the quantum field equations of motion are converted into a corresponding set of open-quote open-quote renormalization equations close-quote close-quote and open-quote open-quote transport equations.close-quote close-quote The former describe renormalization and dissipation effects through the evolution of the spectral density of individual, dressed partons, whereas the latter determine the statistical occurrence of scattering processes among these dressed partons. The renormalization equations and the transport equations are coupled, and, hence, must be solved self-consistently. This amounts to evolving the multiparton system, from a specified initial configuration, in time and full seven-dimensional phase space, constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Interacting systems far from equilibrium quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date formalism of non-equilibrium Green's functions covering different applications ranging from solid state physics, plasma physics, cold atoms in optical lattices up to relativistic transport and heavy ion collisions. Within the Green's function formalism, the basic sets of equations for these diverse systems are similar, and approximations developed in one field can be adapted to another field. The central object is the self-energy which includes all non-trivial aspects of the system dynamics. The focus is therefore on microscopic processes starting from elementary principles for classical gases and the complementary picture of a single quantum particle in a random potential. This provides an intuitive picture of the interaction of a particle with the medium formed by other particles, on which the Green's function is built on.

  16. From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetti, D.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de

    1985-01-01

    Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author) [pt

  17. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Gimenez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Kemp, Kyle W.; Sargent, Edward H.; Bisquert, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in InGaAs/InP quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, M. A.; Pusep, Yu. A.; Gold, A.; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2016-03-01

    The electron transport and recombination processes of photoexcited electron-hole pairs were studied in InGaAs/InP single quantum wells. Comprehensive transport data analysis reveals a asymmetric shape of the quantum well potential where the electron mobility was found to be dominated by interface-roughness scattering. The low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence was employed to investigate recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons. Remarkable modification of Auger recombination was observed with variation of the electron mobility. In high mobility quantum wells, the increasing pump power resulted in a new and unexpected phenomenon: a considerably enhanced Auger non-radiative recombination time. We propose that the distribution of the photoexcited electrons over different conduction band valleys might account for this effect. In low mobility quantum wells, disorder-induced relaxation of the momentum conservation rule causes inter-valley transitions to be insignificant; as a consequence, the non-radiative recombination time is reduced with the increase in pump power. Thus, interface-roughness scattering was found responsible for both transport properties and dynamic optical response in InGaAs/InP quantum wells.

  20. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2013-08-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.

    1997-01-01

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)

  2. Invariant subspaces

    CERN Document Server

    Radjavi, Heydar

    2003-01-01

    This broad survey spans a wealth of studies on invariant subspaces, focusing on operators on separable Hilbert space. Largely self-contained, it requires only a working knowledge of measure theory, complex analysis, and elementary functional analysis. Subjects include normal operators, analytic functions of operators, shift operators, examples of invariant subspace lattices, compact operators, and the existence of invariant and hyperinvariant subspaces. Additional chapters cover certain results on von Neumann algebras, transitive operator algebras, algebras associated with invariant subspaces,

  3. Finite type invariants and fatgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry

    2010-01-01

    –Murakami–Ohtsuki of the link invariant of Andersen–Mattes–Reshetikhin computed relative to choices determined by the fatgraph G; this provides a basic connection between 2d geometry and 3d quantum topology. For each fixed G, this invariant is shown to be universal for homology cylinders, i.e., G establishes an isomorphism...

  4. Novel topological invariants and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, M.; Sugimasa, N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that novel topological invariants are associated with a class of Dirac operators. Trace formulas which are similar to but different from Callias's formula are derived. Implications of these topological invariants to anomalies in quantum field theory are discussed. A new class of anomalies are calculated for two models: one is two dimensional and the other four dimensional

  5. Hybrid quantum and classical methods for computing kinetic isotope effects of chemical reactions in solutions and in enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiali; Major, Dan T; Fan, Yao; Lin, Yen-Lin; Ma, Shuhua; Wong, Kin-Yiu

    2008-01-01

    A method for incorporating quantum mechanics into enzyme kinetics modeling is presented. Three aspects are emphasized: 1) combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical methods are used to represent the potential energy surface for modeling bond forming and breaking processes, 2) instantaneous normal mode analyses are used to incorporate quantum vibrational free energies to the classical potential of mean force, and 3) multidimensional tunneling methods are used to estimate quantum effects on the reaction coordinate motion. Centroid path integral simulations are described to make quantum corrections to the classical potential of mean force. In this method, the nuclear quantum vibrational and tunneling contributions are not separable. An integrated centroid path integral-free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling (PI-FEP/UM) method along with a bisection sampling procedure was summarized, which provides an accurate, easily convergent method for computing kinetic isotope effects for chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. In the ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (EA-VTST/MT), these three aspects of quantum mechanical effects can be individually treated, providing useful insights into the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. These methods are illustrated by applications to a model process in the gas phase, the decarboxylation reaction of N-methyl picolinate in water, and the proton abstraction and reprotonation process catalyzed by alanine racemase. These examples show that the incorporation of quantum mechanical effects is essential for enzyme kinetics simulations.

  6. Infrared asymptotics and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gauge-invariant spinor Green function in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The Dayson-Schwinger equations for the gauge-invariant (G.I.) spinor Green function are derived for an Abelian case. On the basis of these equations as well as the functional integration method the behaviour of the G.I. spinor propagator is studied in the infrared region. It is shown that the G.I. propagator has a singularity of a simple pole in this region

  7. Arrhenius-kinetics evidence for quantum tunneling in microbial “social” decision rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Social-like bacteria, fungi and protozoa communicate chemical and behavioral signals to coordinate their specializations into an ordered group of individuals capable of fitter ecological performance. Examples of microbial “social” behaviors include sporulation and dispersion, kin recognition and nonclonal or paired reproduction. Paired reproduction by ciliates is believed to involve intra- and intermate selection through pheromone-stimulated “courting” rituals. Such social maneuvering minimizes survival-reproduction tradeoffs while sorting superior mates from inferior ones, lowering the vertical spread of deleterious genes in geographically constricted populations and possibly promoting advantageous genetic innovations. In a previous article, I reported findings that the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum can out-complete mating rivals in simulated social trials by learning behavioral heuristics which it then employs to store and select sets of altruistic and deceptive signaling strategies. Frequencies of strategy use typically follow Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB), Fermi-Dirac (FD) or Bose-Einstein (BE) statistical distributions. For ciliates most adept at social decision making, a brief classical MB computational phase drives signaling behavior into a later quantum BE computational phase that condenses or favors the selection of a single fittest strategy. Appearance of the network analogue of BE condensation coincides with Hebbian-like trial-and-error learning and is consistent with the idea that cells behave as heat engines, where loss of energy associated with specific cellular machinery critical for mating decisions effectively reduces the temperature of intracellular enzymes cohering into weak Fröhlich superposition. I extend these findings by showing the rates at which ciliates switch serial behavioral strategies agree with principles of chemical reactions exhibiting linear and nonlinear Arrhenius kinetics during respective classical and quantum computations

  8. Role of dynamical screening in excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells: Nonlinear absorption and ultrabroadband terahertz emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2006-01-01

    In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Quantum consistency of a gauge-invariant theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interacting with external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindani, S.D.

    1989-03-01

    A gauge-invariant theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interaction with external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, obtained earlier by Kaluza-Klein reduction of a massless Rarita-Schwinger theory, is quantized using Dirac's procedure. The field anticommutators are found to be positive definite. The theory, which was earlier shown to be free from the classical Velo-Zwanziger problem of noncausal propagation modes, is thus also free from the problem of negative-norm states, a long-standing problem associated with massive spin-3/2 theories with external interaction. (author). 19 refs

  10. Quantum kinetic field theory in curved spacetime: Covariant Wigner function and Liouville-Vlasov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.; Habib, S.; Hu, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    We consider quantum fields in an external potential and show how, by using the Fourier transform on propagators, one can obtain the mass-shell constraint conditions and the Liouville-Vlasov equation for the Wigner distribution function. We then consider the Hadamard function G 1 (x 1 ,x 2 ) of a real, free, scalar field in curved space. We postulate a form for the Fourier transform F/sup (//sup Q//sup )/(X,k) of the propagator with respect to the difference variable x = x 1 -x 2 on a Riemann normal coordinate centered at Q. We show that F/sup (//sup Q//sup )/ is the result of applying a certain Q-dependent operator on a covariant Wigner function F. We derive from the wave equations for G 1 a covariant equation for the distribution function and show its consistency. We seek solutions to the set of Liouville-Vlasov equations for the vacuum and nonvacuum cases up to the third adiabatic order. Finally we apply this method to calculate the Hadamard function in the Einstein universe. We show that the covariant Wigner function can incorporate certain relevant global properties of the background spacetime. Covariant Wigner functions and Liouville-Vlasov equations are also derived for free fermions in curved spacetime. The method presented here can serve as a basis for constructing quantum kinetic theories in curved spacetime or for near-uniform systems under quasiequilibrium conditions. It can also be useful to the development of a transport theory of quantum fields for the investigation of grand unification and post-Planckian quantum processes in the early Universe

  11. Femtosecond spectroscopy in semiconductors: a key to coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axt, V M; Kuhn, T

    2004-01-01

    The application of femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor materials and nanostructures is reviewed with particular emphasis on the physics that can be learned from it. Excitation with ultrashort optical pulses in general results in the creation of coherent superpositions and correlated many-particle states. The review comprises a discussion of the dynamics of this correlated many-body system during and after pulsed excitation as well as its analysis by means of refined measurements and advanced theories. After an introduction of basic concepts-such as coherence, correlation and quantum kinetics-a brief overview of the most important experimental techniques and theoretical approaches is given. The remainder of this paper is devoted to specific results selected in order to highlight how femtosecond spectroscopy gives access to the physics of coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics involving charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. First examples deal with the dynamics of basic laser-induced coherences that can be observed, e.g. in quantum beat spectroscopy, in coherent control measurements or in experiments using few-cycle pulses. The phenomena discussed here are basic in the sense that they can be understood to a large extent on the mean-field level of the theory. Nevertheless, already on this level it is found that semiconductors behave substantially differently from atomic systems. Subsequent sections report on the occurrence of coherences and correlations beyond the mean-field level that are mediated either by carrier-phonon or carrier-carrier interactions. The corresponding analysis gives deep insight into fundamental issues such as the energy-time uncertainty, pure dephasing in quantum dot structures, the role of two-pair or even higher correlations and the build-up of screening. Finally results are presented concerning the ultrafast dynamics of resonantly coupled excitations, where a combination of different

  12. Time-resolved study of a pulsed dc discharge using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy : NO and gas temperature kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.; Gatilova, L.; Röpcke, J.; Rousseau, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a pulsed dc discharge of an Ar–N2 mixture containing 0.91% of NO the kinetics of the destruction of NO has been studied under static and flowing conditions, i.e. in a closed and open discharge tube (p = 266 Pa). For this purpose quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) in the

  13. NO kinetics in pulsed low-pressure nitrogen plasmas studied by time resolved quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.; Guaitella, O.; Lazzaroni, C.; Pintassilgo, C.; Rousseau, A.; Röpcke, J.

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy at 1897 cm-1 (5.27 µm) has been applied to study the NO(X) kinetics on the micro- and millisecond time scale in pulsed low-pressure N2/NO dc discharges. Experiments have been performed under flowing and static gas conditions to infer the

  14. Time-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy as a tool to measure the ligand exchange kinetics on a quantum dot surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, R.; Schapotschnikow, P.Z.; de Mello Donega, C.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Meijerink, A.

    2008-01-01

    The exchange kinetics of native ligands that passivate CdSe quantum dots (hexadecylamine (HDA), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and trioctylphosphine (TOP)) by thiols is followed in situ. This is realized by measuring, in real-time, the decrease in emission intensity of the QDs upon addition of

  15. Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shizgal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...

  16. Low Temperature Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots with Amine Derivative and Their Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seongmi Hwang,; Youngmin Choi,; Sunho Jeong,; Hakyun Jung,; Chang Gyoun Kim,; Teak-Mo Chung,; Beyong-Hwan Ryu,

    2010-05-01

    The chemical kinetics of growing CdSe nanocrystals was studied in order to investigate the effects of amine capping agents on the size of resulting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs were prepared in phenyl ether, and the amine ligand dependence of QD size was determined. The results show that the size of CdSe nanocrystals can be regulated by controlling reaction rate, with smaller QDs being formed in slower processes. The results of photoluminescence (PL) studies show that the emission wavelengths of the QDs well correlate with particle size. This simple process for forming different-sized QDs, which uses a cheap solvent and various capping agents, has the potential for preparing CdSe nanocrystals more economically.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of three-dimensional self-assembled quantum dot islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin; Feng Hao; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yin Hao-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    By three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the effects of the temperature, the flux rate, the total coverage and the interruption time on the distribution and the number of self-assembled InAs/GaAs (001) quantum dot (QD) islands are studied, which shows that a higher temperature, a lower flux rate and a longer growth time correspond to a better island distribution. The relations between the number of islands and the temperature and the flux rate are also successfully simulated. It is observed that for the total coverage lower than 0.5 ML, the number of islands decreases with the temperature increasing and other growth parameters fixed and the number of islands increases with the flux rate increasing when the deposition is lower than 0.6 ML and the other parameters are fixed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  18. Summational invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackrodt, C.; Reeh, H.

    1997-01-01

    General summational invariants, i.e., conservation laws acting additively on asymptotic particle states, are investigated within a classical framework for point particles with nontrivial scattering. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Extension of the quantum-kinetic model to lunar and Mars return physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liechty, D. S. [Aerothermodynamics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States); Lewis, M. J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high-mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. A recently introduced molecular-level chemistry model, the quantum-kinetic, or Q-K, model that predicts reaction rates for gases in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties, is extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. Like the Q-K procedures for neutral species chemical reactions, these new models are phenomenological procedures that aim to reproduce the reaction/transition rates but do not necessarily capture the exact physics. These engineering models are necessarily efficient due to the requirement to compute billions of simulated collisions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. The new models are shown to generally agree within the spread of reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near equilibrium conditions.

  20. Kinetic energy classification and smoothing for compact B-spline basis sets in quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogel, Jaron T.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of defect properties of transition metal oxides have become feasible in recent years due to increases in computing power. As the system size has grown, availability of on-node memory has become a limiting factor. Saving memory while minimizing computational cost is now a priority. The main growth in memory demand stems from the B-spline representation of the single particle orbitals, especially for heavier elements such as transition metals where semi-core states are present. Despite the associated memory costs, splines are computationally efficient. In this work, we explore alternatives to reduce the memory usage of splined orbitals without significantly affecting numerical fidelity or computational efficiency. We make use of the kinetic energy operator to both classify and smooth the occupied set of orbitals prior to splining. By using a partitioning scheme based on the per-orbital kinetic energy distributions, we show that memory savings of about 50% is possible for select transition metal oxide systems. For production supercells of practical interest, our scheme incurs a performance penalty of less than 5%.

  1. Construction of time-dependent dynamical invariants: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new way to obtain polynomial dynamical invariants of the classical and quantum time-dependent harmonic oscillator from the equations of motion. We also establish relations between linear and quadratic invariants, and discuss how the quadratic invariant can be related to the Ermakov invariant.

  2. The integrable quantum group invariant A2n-1(2) and Dn+1(2) open spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.; Retore, Ana L.

    2017-11-01

    A family of A2n(2) integrable open spin chains with Uq (Cn) symmetry was recently identified in arxiv:arXiv:1702.01482. We identify here in a similar way a family of A2n-1(2) integrable open spin chains with Uq (Dn) symmetry, and two families of Dn+1(2) integrable open spin chains with Uq (Bn) symmetry. We discuss the consequences of these symmetries for the degeneracies and multiplicities of the spectrum. We propose Bethe ansatz solutions for two of these models, whose completeness we check numerically for small values of n and chain length N. We find formulas for the Dynkin labels in terms of the numbers of Bethe roots of each type, which are useful for determining the corresponding degeneracies. In an appendix, we briefly consider Dn+1(2) chains with other integrable boundary conditions, which do not have quantum group symmetry.

  3. The integrable quantum group invariant A2n−1(2 and Dn+1(2 open spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael I. Nepomechie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A family of A2n(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Cn symmetry was recently identified in arXiv:1702.01482. We identify here in a similar way a family of A2n−1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Dn symmetry, and two families of Dn+1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Bn symmetry. We discuss the consequences of these symmetries for the degeneracies and multiplicities of the spectrum. We propose Bethe ansatz solutions for two of these models, whose completeness we check numerically for small values of n and chain length N. We find formulas for the Dynkin labels in terms of the numbers of Bethe roots of each type, which are useful for determining the corresponding degeneracies. In an appendix, we briefly consider Dn+1(2 chains with other integrable boundary conditions, which do not have quantum group symmetry.

  4. Search for Quantum Black-Hole Production in High-Invariant-Mass Lepton+Jet Final States Using Proton–Proton Collisions at √s = 8TeV and the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; 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    2014-03-05

    This Letter presents a search for quantum black-hole production using 20.3 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at the LHC at √s = 8TeV. The quantum black holes are assumed to decay into a lepton (electron or muon) and a jet. In either channel, no event with a lepton–jet invariant mass of 3.5TeV or more is observed, consistent with the expected background. Limits are set on the product of cross sections and branching fractions for the lepton+jet final states of quantum black holes produced in a search region for invariant masses above 1TeV. The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3TeV in the model considered.

  5. Search for quantum black hole production in high-invariant-mass lepton+jet final states using pp collisions at √s=8  TeV and the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Prieur, D; Primavera, M; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopapadaki, E; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Prudent, X; Przybycien, M; Przysiezniak, H; Psoroulas, S; Ptacek, E; Pueschel, E; Puldon, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Pylypchenko, Y; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Quilty, D; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rammes, M; Randle-Conde, A S; Rangel-Smith, C; Rao, K; Rauscher, F; Rave, T C; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reinsch, A; Reisin, H; Relich, M; Rembser, C; Ren, Z L; Renaud, A; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Resende, B; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodrigues, L; Roe, S; Røhne, O; 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Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarrazin, B; Sartisohn, G; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Satsounkevitch, I; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Sauvan, J B; Savard, P; Savu, D O; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, D H; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaelicke, A; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schram, M; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; 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Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2014-03-07

    This Letter presents a search for quantum black-hole production using 20.3 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at the LHC at √s = 8 TeV. The quantum black holes are assumed to decay into a final state characterized by a lepton (electron or muon) and a jet. In either channel, no event with a lepton-jet invariant mass of 3.5 TeV or more is observed, consistent with the expected background. Limits are set on the product of cross sections and branching fractions for the lepton+jet final states of quantum black holes produced in a search region for invariant masses above 1 TeV. The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5 TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3 TeV in the model considered.

  6. Schwinger pair production in space- and time-dependent electric fields: Relating the Wigner formalism to quantum kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebenstreit, F.; Alkofer, R.; Gies, H.

    2010-01-01

    The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E-vector(x-vector,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E 0 and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E 0 sech 2 (t/τ). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.

  7. Quantum Chemical Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Effects on Combustion Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S

    2017-05-18

    In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O 2 ), diluted with CO 2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO 2 and H 2 O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO 2 at supercritical state (sCO 2 ). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO 2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule. All transition states and reactant and product complexes are reported for three reactions: H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 (R1), 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 (R2), and CO + OH → CO 2 + H (R3). In reaction R3, covalent binding of CO 2 to the OH radical and then the CO molecule opens a new pathway, including hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms followed by CH bond dissociation. Compared to the bimolecular OH + CO mechanism, this pathway reduces the activation barrier by 5 kcal/mol and is expected to accelerate the reaction. In the case of hydroperoxyl self-reaction 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 the intermediates, containing covalent bonds to CO 2 are found not to be competitive. However, the spectator CO 2 molecule can stabilize the cyclic transition state and lower the barrier by 3 kcal/mol. Formation of covalent intermediates is also discovered in the H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 reaction, but these species lead to substantially higher activation barriers, which makes them unlikely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide also stabilizes the transition state and reduces the reaction barrier. These results indicate that the CO 2 environment is likely to have a catalytic effect on combustion reactions, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO 2 .

  8. Adsorption kinetics of WS2 quantum dots onto a polycrystalline gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhukil Valappil, Manila; Roopesh, Mekkat; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K

    2018-04-18

    In this work, we report the adsorption kinetics of electrochemically synthesized WS2 quantum dots (ca. 3 nm) onto a polycrystalline gold electrode. Langmuir adsorption isotherm approach was employed to explore the temperature and adsorbate concentration dependence of experimentally calculated equilibrium constant of adsorption (Keq) and free energy for adsorption (ΔGads). Subsequently, we extract other thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption rate constant (Kads), desorption rate constant (Kd), the enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHads) and the entropy of adsorption (ΔSads). Our findings indicate that ΔGads is temperature dependent and ca. -1.74 kcal mol-1, ΔHads = -10.697 kcal mol-1 and ΔSads = -30 cal/(mol.K). These investigations on the contribution of the enthalpic and entropic forces to the total free energy of this system underscore the role of entropic forces on the stability of the WS2 QDs monolayer and provide new thermodynamic insights into other TMDQDs monolayers as well.

  9. Direct Measurements of Quantum Kinetic Energy Tensor in Stable and Metastable Water near the Triple Point: An Experimental Benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Carla; Romanelli, Giovanni; Senesi, Roberto

    2016-06-16

    This study presents the first direct and quantitative measurement of the nuclear momentum distribution anisotropy and the quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable (supercooled) water near its triple point, using deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS). From the experimental spectra, accurate line shapes of the hydrogen momentum distributions are derived using an anisotropic Gaussian and a model-independent framework. The experimental results, benchmarked with those obtained for the solid phase, provide the state of the art directional values of the hydrogen mean kinetic energy in metastable water. The determinations of the direction kinetic energies in the supercooled phase, provide accurate and quantitative measurements of these dynamical observables in metastable and stable phases, that is, key insight in the physical mechanisms of the hydrogen quantum state in both disordered and polycrystalline systems. The remarkable findings of this study establish novel insight into further expand the capacity and accuracy of DINS investigations of the nuclear quantum effects in water and represent reference experimental values for theoretical investigations.

  10. A charged particle interacting with a stationary magnetic monopole: quantum mechanics based on the kinetic momentum operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raković, Milun J

    2011-01-01

    The standard quantum mechanical description of the motion of a charged particle in the field of a stationary magnetic monopole is notorious for the presence of unnatural singularities in the Hamiltonian operator originating in the vector potential A(r) used to describe the magnetic field of the monopole. In this paper, an elementary quantum mechanical formulation of the problem which involves only the physically observable field B(r) is presented. This is achieved by treating as a fundamental observable of the charged particle its kinetic momentum instead of the linear momentum p. An irreducible representation of the fundamental commutation relations involving the operators r-hat. It is shown that the existence of an irreducible representation requires that Dirac’s charge quantization condition is satisfied. Also, it is demonstrated that, from the quantum mechanical perspective, the singularities (appearing when the vector potential is introduced) are in fact properties of coordinate representations of the fundamental commutation relations. (paper)

  11. Quantum physics; Physique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J. [Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.) refs.

  12. Conformal invariance of extended spinning particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.

    1988-01-01

    Recently a mechanics action has been considered with extended, local, one-dimensional supersymmetry. The authors show this action is conformally invariant in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, and derive the corresponding quantum mechanical restriction on the Lorentz representations it describes

  13. Invariant measures in brain dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarsky, Abraham; Gora, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    This note concerns brain activity at the level of neural ensembles and uses ideas from ergodic dynamical systems to model and characterize chaotic patterns among these ensembles during conscious mental activity. Central to our model is the definition of a space of neural ensembles and the assumption of discrete time ensemble dynamics. We argue that continuous invariant measures draw the attention of deeper brain processes, engendering emergent properties such as consciousness. Invariant measures supported on a finite set of ensembles reflect periodic behavior, whereas the existence of continuous invariant measures reflect the dynamics of nonrepeating ensemble patterns that elicit the interest of deeper mental processes. We shall consider two different ways to achieve continuous invariant measures on the space of neural ensembles: (1) via quantum jitters, and (2) via sensory input accompanied by inner thought processes which engender a 'folding' property on the space of ensembles

  14. Exploration of near the origin and the asymptotic behaviors of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density for two-dimensional quantum dot systems with parabolic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Subrata; Samal, Prasanjit

    2018-01-01

    The behaviors of the positive definite Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density near the origin and at the asymptotic region play a major role in designing meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) for exchange in low-dimensional quantum systems. It is shown that near the origin of the parabolic quantum dot, the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy differs from its von Weizsäcker counterpart due to the p orbital contributions, whereas in the asymptotic region, the difference between the above two kinetic energy densities goes as ˜ρ/(r ) r2 . All these behaviors have been explored using the two-dimensional isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator as a test case. Several meta-GGA ingredients are then studied by making use of the above findings. Also, the asymptotic conditions for the exchange energy density and the potential at the meta-GGA level are proposed using the corresponding behaviors of the two kinetic energy densities.

  15. Nonlocal, yet translation invariant, constraints for rotationally invariant slave bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Thomas; Kotliar, Gabriel

    The rotationally-invariant slave boson (RISB) method is a lightweight framework allowing to study the low-energy properties of complex multiorbital problems currently out of the reach of more comprehensive, yet more computationally demanding methods such as dynamical mean field theory. In the original formulation of this formalism, the slave-boson constraints can be made nonlocal by enlarging the unit cell and viewing the quantum states enclosed in this new unit cell as molecular levels. In this work, we extend RISB to constraints which are nonlocal while preserving translation invariance. We apply this extension to the Hubbard model.

  16. Conformal invariance in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Kinetic-quantum chemical model for catalytic cycles: the Haber-Bosch process and the effect of reagent concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuch, Sebastian; Shaik, Sason

    2008-07-03

    A combined kinetic-quantum chemical model is developed with the goal of estimating in a straightforward way the turnover frequency (TOF) of catalytic cycles, based on the state energies obtained by quantum chemical calculations. We describe how the apparent activation energy of the whole cycle, so-called energetic span (delta E), is influenced by the energy levels of two species: the TOF determining transition state (TDTS) and the TOF determining intermediate (TDI). Because these key species need not be adjoining states, we conclude that for catalysis there are no rate-determining steps, only rate determining states. In addition, we add here the influence of reactants concentrations. And, finally, the model is applied to the Haber-Bosch process of ammonia synthesis, for which we show how to calculate which catalyst will be the most effective under specific reagents conditions.

  18. General decoupling procedure for expectation values of four-operator products in electron–phonon quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas; Fähnle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In the density-matrix formalism of electron–phonon quantum kinetics, the hierarchy of infinitely many coupled equations of motion for the expectation values of products of electron and phonon creation and annihilation operators of arbitrary order is usually terminated on the level of the equations of motion for the expectation values of three-operator products by using decoupling procedures for the four-operator products occurring in these equations. In the literature, decoupling procedures are discussed for special types of electron and phonon states. In the present paper, generalized decoupling procedures are derived for arbitrary electron and phonon states. (paper)

  19. Scheme dependence of quantum gravity on de Sitter background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamoto, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kitamoto@post.kek.jp [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kitazawa, Yoshihisa, E-mail: kitazawa@post.kek.jp [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-08-11

    We extend our investigation of the IR effects on the local dynamics of matter fields in quantum gravity. Specifically we clarify how the IR effects depend on the change of the quantization scheme: different parametrization of the metric and the matter field redefinition. Conformal invariance implies effective Lorentz invariance of the matter system in de Sitter space. An arbitrary choice of the parametrization of the metric and the matter field redefinition does not preserve the effective Lorentz invariance of the local dynamics. As for the effect of different parametrization of the metric alone, the effective Lorentz symmetry breaking term can be eliminated by shifting the background metric. In contrast, we cannot compensate the matter field redefinition dependence by such a way. The effective Lorentz invariance can be retained only when we adopt the specific matter field redefinitions where all dimensionless couplings become scale invariant at the classical level. This scheme is also singled out by unitarity as the kinetic terms are canonically normalized.

  20. Link invariants for flows in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Compean, Hugo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Linking numbers in higher dimensions and their generalization including gauge fields are studied in the context of BF theories. The linking numbers associated with n-manifolds with smooth flows generated by divergence-free p-vector fields, endowed with an invariant flow measure, are computed in the context of quantum field theory. They constitute invariants of smooth dynamical systems (for nonsingular flows) and generalize previous proposals of invariants. In particular, they generalize Arnold's asymptotic Hopf invariant from three to higher dimensions. This invariant is generalized by coupling with a non-Abelian gauge flat connection with nontrivial holonomy. The computation of the asymptotic Jones-Witten invariants for flows is naturally extended to dimension n=2p+1. Finally, we give a possible interpretation and implementation of these issues in the context of 11-dimensional supergravity and string theory.

  1. Fermions and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.; Saleur, H.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of knot theory are discussed when fermionic degrees of freedom are taken into account in the braid group representations and in the state models. It is discussed how the R matrix for the Alexander polynomial arises from the Fox differential calculus, and how it is related to the quantum group U q gl(1,1). New families of solutions of the Yang Baxter equation obtained from ''linear'' representations of the braid group and exterior algebra are investigated. State models associated with U q sl(n,m), and in the case n=m=1 a state model for the multivariable Alexander polynomial are studied. Invariants of links in solid handlebodies are considered and it is shown how the non trivial topology lifts the boson fermion degeneracy is present in S 3 . (author) 36 refs

  2. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  3. Gauge-invariant flow equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a closed gauge-invariant functional flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations. Deriving this equation from a functional integral we employ the freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field and the effective average action in order to realize a closed and simple form of the flow equation.

  4. Modified dispersion relations, inflation, and scale invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Friedhoff, Victor Nicolai; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2018-02-01

    For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to redshift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This requires nontrivial background dynamics before the onset of standard radiation-dominated cosmology; we demonstrate that one possible solution is inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, for this slow roll is not necessary. In addition, we also show that if the slow-roll condition is added to inflation with a large Hubble rate, then for any power law modified dispersion relation quantum vacuum fluctuations become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius.

  5. A many-particle adiabatic invariant of strongly magnetized pure electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A pure electron plasma is said to be strongly magnetized if the cyclotron radius of the electrons is much smaller than the classical distance of closest approach. In this parameter regime a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional dynamics. For the case of a uniform magnetic field, the adiabatic invariant is the total kinetic energy associated with the electron velocity components that are perpendicular to the magnetic field (i.e., Σ j mv 2 j perpendicular/2). Were the adiabatic invariant an exact constant of the motion, no exchange of energy would be possible between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and the plasma could develop and maintain two different temperatures T parallel and T perpendicular. An adiabatic invariant, however, is not strictly conserved. In the present case, each collision produces an exponentially small exchange of energy between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and these act cumulatively in such a way that T parallel and T perpendicular eventually relax to a common value. The rate of equilibrium is calculated, both in the case where the collisions are described by classical mechanics and in the case where the collisions are described by quantum mechanics, the two calculations giving essentially the same result. A molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out, verifying the existence of this unusual invariant, and verifying the theoretically predicted rate equation

  6. Knot invariants and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Ben

    2018-01-01

    The author constructs knot invariants categorifying the quantum knot variants for all representations of quantum groups. He shows that these invariants coincide with previous invariants defined by Khovanov for \\mathfrak{sl}_2 and \\mathfrak{sl}_3 and by Mazorchuk-Stroppel and Sussan for \\mathfrak{sl}_n. The author's technique is to study 2-representations of 2-quantum groups (in the sense of Rouquier and Khovanov-Lauda) categorifying tensor products of irreducible representations. These are the representation categories of certain finite dimensional algebras with an explicit diagrammatic presentation, generalizing the cyclotomic quotient of the KLR algebra. When the Lie algebra under consideration is \\mathfrak{sl}_n, the author shows that these categories agree with certain subcategories of parabolic category \\mathcal{O} for \\mathfrak{gl}_k.

  7. Spin foam diagrammatics and topological invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girelli, Florian; Oeckl, Robert; Perez, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    We provide a simple proof of the topological invariance of the Turaev-Viro model (corresponding to simplicial 3D pure Euclidean gravity with cosmological constant) by means of a novel diagrammatic formulation of the state sum models for quantum BF theories. Moreover, we prove the invariance under more general conditions allowing the state sum to be defined on arbitrary cellular decompositions of the underlying manifold. Invariance is governed by a set of identities corresponding to local gluing and rearrangement of cells in the complex. Due to the fully algebraic nature of these identities our results extend to a vast class of quantum groups. The techniques introduced here could be relevant for investigating the scaling properties of non-topological state sums, proposed as models of quantum gravity in 4D, under refinement of the cellular decomposition

  8. Kinetics of self-assembled InN quantum dots grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Roul, Basanta; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Sinha, Neeraj; Kalghatgi, A. T.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the scientific challenges of growing InN quantum dots (QDs), using Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), is to understand the fundamental processes that control the morphology and distribution of QDs. A systematic manipulation of the morphology, optical emission, and structural properties of InN/Si (111) QDs is demonstrated by changing the growth kinetics parameters such as flux rate and growth time. Due to the large lattice mismatch, between InN and Si (∼8%), the dots formed from the Strannski–Krastanow (S–K) growth mode are dislocated. Despite the variations in strain (residual) and the shape, both the dot size and pair separation distribution show the scaling behavior. We observed that the distribution of dot sizes, for samples grown under varying conditions, follow the scaling function.

  9. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  10. Physical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.M.; Pitajewski, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    The textbook covers the subject under the following headings: kinetic gas theory, diffusion approximation, collisionless plasma, collisions within the plasma, plasma in the magnetic field, theory of instabilities, dielectrics, quantum fluids, metals, diagram technique for nonequilibrium systems, superconductors, and kinetics of phase transformations

  11. In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 μg virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaefer-Rolffs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.

  13. Conformal invariance from nonconformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which classically conformally invariant models in four dimensions can arise out of nonconformal (Einstein) gravity. As an 'existence proof' that this is indeed possible we show how to derive N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with any compact gauge group G from nonconformal gauged N=4 supergravity as a special flat space limit. We stress the role that the anticipated UV finiteness of the (so far unknown) underlying theory of quantum gravity would have to play in such a scheme, as well as the fact that the masses of elementary particles would have to arise via quantum gravitational effects which mimic the conformal anomalies of standard (flat space) UV divergent quantum field theory.

  14. Hidden invariance of the free classical particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group G is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semi-invariance under G leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by U(1) leads to quantum mechanics

  15. Euler and Navier endash Stokes limits of the Uehling endash Uhlenbeck quantum kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlotti, L.; Lachowicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Uehling endash Uhlenbeck evolution equations for gases of identical quantum particles either fermions or bosons, in the case in which the collision kernel does not depend on the distribution function, are considered. The existence of solutions and their asymptotic relations with solutions of the hydrodynamic equations both at the level of the Euler system and at the level of the Navier endash Stokes system are proved. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Physical Invariants of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  17. Invariant submanifold flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olver, Peter J [School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)], E-mail: olver@math.umn.edu

    2008-08-29

    Given a Lie group acting on a manifold, our aim is to analyze the evolution of differential invariants under invariant submanifold flows. The constructions are based on the equivariant method of moving frames and the induced invariant variational bicomplex. Applications to integrable soliton dynamics, and to the evolution of differential invariant signatures, used in equivalence problems and object recognition and symmetry detection in images, are discussed.

  18. Coherent quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1987-01-01

    The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex

  19. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. II. Radical-pair reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A.; Górecka, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2016-03-01

    We apply the quantum-walk approach proposed in the preceding paper [A. Chia et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032407] to a radical-pair reaction where realistic estimates for the intermediate transition rates are available. The well-known average hitting time from quantum walks can be adopted as a measure of how quickly the reaction occurs and we calculate this for varying degrees of dephasing in the radical pair. The time for the radical pair to react to a product is found to be independent of the amount of dephasing introduced, even in the limit of no dephasing where the transient population dynamics exhibits strong coherent oscillations. This can be seen to arise from the existence of a rate-limiting step in the reaction and we argue that in such examples, a purely classical model based on rate equations can be used for estimating the time scale of the reaction but not necessarily its population dynamics.

  20. Microscopic distribution functions, structure, and kinetic energy of liquid and solid neon: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Martin; Zoppi, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We have performed extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations of liquid and solid neon, in order to derive the kinetic energy as well as the single-particle and pair distribution functions of neon atoms in the condensed phases. From the single-particle distribution function n(r) one can derive the momentum distribution and thus obtain an independent estimate of the kinetic energy. The simulations have been carried out using mostly the semiempirical HFD-C2 pair potential by Aziz et al. [R. A. Aziz, W. J. Meath, and A. R. Allnatt, Chem. Phys. 79, 295 (1983)], but, in a few cases, we have also used the Lennard-Jones potential. The differences between the potentials, as measured by the properties investigated, are not very large, especially when compared with the actual precision of the experimental data. The simulation results have been compared with all the experimental information that is available from neutron scattering. The overall agreement with the experiments is very good

  1. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  2. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  3. A Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization of loop integrals. Then we can compute the one loop quantum corrections to the photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex in the Electrodynamics sector of the Very Special Relativity Standard Model (VSRSM.

  4. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  5. Structural invariance of the Schroedinger equation and chronoprojective geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Perrin, M.

    1983-07-01

    We describe an extension of the chronoprojective geometry and show how its automorphisms are related to the invariance properties of the Schroedinger equation describing a quantum test particle in any Newton-Cartan structure

  6. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  7. Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)

  8. Chronoprojective invariance of the five-dimensional Schroedinger formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, M.; Burdet, G.; Duval, C.

    1984-10-01

    Invariance properties of the five-dimensional Schroedinger formalism describing a quantum test particle in the Newton-Cartan theory of gravitation are studied. The geometry which underlies these invariance properties is presented as a reduction of the 0(5,2) conformal geometry various applications are given

  9. Computational invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm

    2015-01-01

    This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...

  10. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  11. On diffeomorphism invariance for lattice theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, A.; Zapata, J.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantization of lattice formulations of diffeomorphism invariant theories of connections. It has been argued that in working with abstract lattices one automatically takes care of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantum theory. We use two systems in order to show that imposing the diffeomorphism constraint is imperative to obtain a physically acceptable quantum theory. First, we consider 2+1 gravity where an exact lattice formulation is available. Next, general theories of connections for compact gauge groups are treated, where the quantum theories are known - for both the continuum and the lattice - and can be compared. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the catalytic mechanism of AICAR transformylase by pH-dependent kinetics, mutagenesis, and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J H; Wall, M; Benkovic, S J; Díaz, N; Suárez, D; Merz, K M

    2001-05-23

    The catalytic mechanism of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR Tfase) is evaluated with pH dependent kinetics, site-directed mutagenesis, and quantum chemical calculations. The chemistry step, represented by the burst rates, was not pH-dependent, which is consistent with our proposed mechanism that the 4-carboxamide of AICAR assists proton shuttling. Quantum chemical calculations on a model system of 5-amino-4-carboxamide imidazole (AICA) and formamide using the B3LYP/6-31G level of theory confirmed that the 4-carboxamide participated in the proton-shuttling mechanism. The result also indicated that the amide-assisted mechanism is concerted such that the proton transfers from the 5-amino group to the formamide are simultaneous with nucleophilic attack by the 5-amino group. Because the process does not lead to a kinetically stable intermediate, the intramolecular proton transfer from the 5-amino group through the 4-carboxamide to the formamide proceeds in the same transition state. Interestingly, the calculations predicted that protonation of the N3 of the imidazole of AICA would reduce the energy barrier significantly. However, the pK(a) of the imidazole of AICAR was determined to be 3.23 +/- 0.01 by NMR titration, and AICAR is likely to bind to the enzyme with its imidazole in the free base form. An alternative pathway was suggested by modeling Lys266 to have a hydrogen-bonding interaction with the N3 of the imidazole of AICAR. Lys266 has been implicated in catalysis based on mutagenesis studies and the recent X-ray structure of AICAR Tfase. The quantum chemical calculations on a model system that contains AICA complexed with CH3NH3+ as a mimic of the Lys residue confirmed that such an interaction lowered the activation energy of the reaction and likewise implicated the 4-carboxamide. To experimentally verify this hypothesis, we prepared the K266R mutant and found that its kcat is reduced by 150-fold from that of the wild type

  13. Random SU(2) invariant tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youning; Han, Muxin; Ruan, Dong; Zeng, Bei

    2018-04-01

    SU(2) invariant tensors are states in the (local) SU(2) tensor product representation but invariant under the global group action. They are of importance in the study of loop quantum gravity. A random tensor is an ensemble of tensor states. An average over the ensemble is carried out when computing any physical quantities. The random tensor exhibits a phenomenon known as ‘concentration of measure’, which states that for any bipartition the average value of entanglement entropy of its reduced density matrix is asymptotically the maximal possible as the local dimensions go to infinity. We show that this phenomenon is also true when the average is over the SU(2) invariant subspace instead of the entire space for rank-n tensors in general. It is shown in our earlier work Li et al (2017 New J. Phys. 19 063029) that the subleading correction of the entanglement entropy has a mild logarithmic divergence when n  =  4. In this paper, we show that for n  >  4 the subleading correction is not divergent but a finite number. In some special situation, the number could be even smaller than 1/2, which is the subleading correction of random state over the entire Hilbert space of tensors.

  14. Non-relativistic and relativistic quantum kinetic equations in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botermans, W.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis an attempt is made to draw up a quantummechanical tranport equation for the explicit calculation oof collision processes between two (heavy) ions, by making proper approaches of the exact equations (non-rel.: N-particles Schroedinger equation; rel.: Euler-Lagrange field equations.). An important starting point in the drag-up of the theory is the behaviour of nuclear matter in equilibrium which is determined by individual as well as collective effects. The central point in this theory is the effective interaction between two nucleons both surrounded by other nucleons. In the derivation of the tranport equations use is made of the green's function formalism as developed by Schwinger and Keldys. For the Green's function kinematic equations are drawn up and are solved by choosing a proper factorization of three- and four-particle Green's functions in terms of one- and two-particle Green's functions. The necessary boundary condition is obtained by explicitly making use of Boltzmann's assumption that colliding particles are statistically uncorrelated. Finally a transport equation is obtained in which the mean field as well as the nucleon-nucleon collisions are given by the same (medium dependent) interaction. This interaction is the non-equilibrium extension of the interaction as given in the Brueckner theory of nuclear matter. Together, kinetic equation and interaction, form a self-consistent set of equations for the case of a non-relativistic as well as for the case of a relativistic starting point. (H.W.) 148 refs.; 6 figs.; 411 schemes

  15. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  16. Rotation Invariance Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Rotation invariance and translation invariance have great values in image recognition tasks. In this paper, we bring a new architecture in convolutional neural network (CNN) named cyclic convolutional layer to achieve rotation invariance in 2-D symbol recognition. We can also get the position and orientation of the 2-D symbol by the network to achieve detection purpose for multiple non-overlap target. Last but not least, this architecture can achieve one-shot learning in some cases using thos...

  17. Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee

    2002-05-13

    We propose a modification of special relativity in which a physical energy, which may be the Planck energy, joins the speed of light as an invariant, in spite of a complete relativity of inertial frames and agreement with Einstein's theory at low energies. This is accomplished by a nonlinear modification of the action of the Lorentz group on momentum space, generated by adding a dilatation to each boost in such a way that the Planck energy remains invariant. The associated algebra has unmodified structure constants. We also discuss the resulting modifications of field theory and suggest a modification of the equivalence principle which determines how the new theory is embedded in general relativity.

  18. Strong coupling in a gauge invariant field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. [Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    I would like to discuss some approximations which may be significant in the domain of strong coupling in a field system analogous to quantum electrodynamics. The motivation of this work is the idea that the strong couplings and elementary particle spectrum may be the consequence of the dynamics of a system whose underlying description is in terms of a set of Fermi fields gauge invariantly coupled to a single (''bare'') massless neutral vector field. The basis of this gauge invariance would of course be the exact conservation law of baryons or ''nucleonic charge''. It seems to me that a coupling scheme based on an invariance principle is most attractive if that invariance is an exact one. It would then be nice to try to account for the approximate invariance principles in the same way one would describe ''accidental degeneracies'' in any quantum system.

  19. Spontaneously broken supersymmetry and Poincare invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, X.R.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Schechter, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    It is argued that the spontaneous breakdown of global supersymmetry is consistent with unbroken Poincare invariance if and only if the supersymmetry algebra A = 0 is understood to mean the invariance of the dynamical variables phi under the transformations generated by the algebra, i.e. [A, phi] = 0 rather than as an operator equation. It is further argued that this weakening of the algebra does not alter any of the conclusions about supersymmetric quantum field theories that have been obtained using the original (stronger) form of the algebra

  20. Spontaneously broken supersymmetry and Poincare invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, X.R.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Schechter, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the spontaneous breakdown of global supersymmetry is consistent with unbroken Poincare invariance if and only if the supersymmetry algebra 'A=0' is understood to mean the invariance of the dynamical variables phi under the transformations generated by the algebra, i.e. [A, phi]=0 rather than as an operator equation. It is further argued that this 'weakening' of the algrebra does not alter any of the conclusions about supersymmetry quantum field theories that have been obtained using the original (stronger) form of the algebra. (orig.)

  1. Reparametrization invariance and the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, V.I.; Pashnev, A.I.; Rosales, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A time-dependent Schroedinger equation for systems invariant under the reparametrization of time is considered. We develop the two-stage procedure of construction such systems from a given initial ones, which are not invariant under the time reparametrization. One of the first-class constraints of the systems in such description becomes the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The procedure is applicable in the supersymmetric theories as well. The n = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics is coupled to world-line supergravity, and the local supersymmetric action is constructed leading to the square root representation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation

  2. In situ study of the formation kinetics of InSb quantum dots grown in an InAs(Sb) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A. N.; Lyublinskaya, O. G.; Solov’ev, V. A.; Mel’tser, B. Ya.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of InSb quantum dots grown in an InAs matrix by molecular-beam epitaxy that does not involve forced deposition of InSb is studied. Detection of intensity oscillations in the reflection of high-energy electron diffraction patterns was used to study in situ the kinetics of the formation of InSb quantum dots and an InAsSb wetting layer. The effects of the substrate temperature, the shutter operation sequence, and the introduction of growth interruptions on the properties of the array of InSb quantum dots are examined. Introduction of a growth interruption immediately after completing the exposure of the InAs surface to the antimony flux leads to a reduction in the nominal thickness of InSb and to an enhancement in the uniformity of the quantum-dot array. It is shown that, in the case of deposition of submonolayer-thickness InSb/InAs quantum dots, the segregation layer of InAsSb plays the role of the wetting layer. The Sb segregation length and segregation ratio, as well as their temperature dependences, are determined.

  3. Gauge invariance rediscovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyasu, K.

    1978-01-01

    A pedagogical approach to gauge invariance is presented which is based on the analogy between gauge transformations and relativity. By using the concept of an internal space, purely geometrical arguments are used to teach the physical ideas behind gauge invariance. Many of the results are applicable to general gauge theories

  4. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance: Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Romeijn, J.W.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  5. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  6. Invariance Signatures: Characterizing contours by their departures from invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, David; Caelli, Terry M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new invariant feature of two-dimensional contours is reported: the Invariance Signature. The Invariance Signature is a measure of the degree to which a contour is invariant under a variety of transformations, derived from the theory of Lie transformation groups. It is shown that the Invariance Signature is itself invariant under shift, rotation and scaling of the contour. Since it is derived from local properties of the contour, it is well-suited to a neural network implement...

  7. Invariance Lie algebra and group of the non relativistic hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoster, Alain

    1970-01-01

    The first part of this work contains a general survey of the use of Lie groups and algebras in quantum mechanics, followed by an extensive description of tbe invariance algebra and invariance group of the non-relativistic hydrogen atom; the realization of this group discovered by FOCK is specially examined. The second part is a two-hundred items bibliography on invariance groups and algebras of classical and quantum-mechanical simple systems. (author) [fr

  8. Gromov-Witten invariants and localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David R.

    2017-11-01

    We give a pedagogical review of the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants via localization in 2D gauged linear sigma models. We explain the relationship between the two-sphere partition function of the theory and the Kähler potential on the conformal manifold. We show how the Kähler potential can be assembled from classical, perturbative, and non-perturbative contributions, and explain how the non-perturbative contributions are related to the Gromov-Witten invariants of the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifold. We then explain how localization enables efficient calculation of the two-sphere partition function and, ultimately, the Gromov-Witten invariants themselves. This is a contribution to the review issue ‘Localization techniques in quantum field theories’ (ed V Pestun and M Zabzine) which contains 17 chapters, available at [1].

  9. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  10. Gauge invariance and Weyl-polymer quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to Weyl non-regular quantization suitable for the description of physically interesting quantum systems, where the traditional Dirac-Heisenberg quantization is not applicable.  The latter implicitly assumes that the canonical variables describe observables, entailing necessarily the regularity of their exponentials (Weyl operators). However, in physically interesting cases -- typically in the presence of a gauge symmetry -- non-observable canonical variables are introduced for the description of the states, namely of the relevant representations of the observable algebra. In general, a gauge invariant ground state defines a non-regular representation of the gauge dependent Weyl operators, providing a mathematically consistent treatment of familiar quantum systems -- such as the electron in a periodic potential (Bloch electron), the Quantum Hall electron, or the quantum particle on a circle -- where the gauge transformations are, respectively, the lattice translations, the magne...

  11. On the BRST invariance of field deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.; Damgaard, P.H.; Latorre, J.I.; Montano, D.

    1989-08-01

    Topological quantum field theories are distinguished by a BRST symmetry corresponding to local field deformations. We investigate in this letter to what extent an arbitrary quantum field theory may be related to this BRST invariance. We demonstrate that at the expense of having to add extra variables (but without changing the physics) one may always extend to symmetry of an arbitrary action to include local field deformations. New avenues for gauge-fixing are then available. Examples are worked out for Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  12. Scale-invariant extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential

  13. Link invariant and $G_2$ web space

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Takuro; Yonezawa, Yasuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct Kuperberg’s $G_2$ web space [5, 6]. We introduce a new web diagram (a trivalent graph with only double edges) and new relations between Kuperberg’s web diagrams and the new web diagram. Using the web diagrams, we give crossing formulas for the $R$-matrices associated to some irreducible representations of $U_q(G_2)$ and calculate $G_2$ quantum link invariants for generalized twist links.

  14. Remarks on Chern-Simons Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Mnëv, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The perturbative Chern-Simons theory is studied in a finite-dimensional version or assuming that the propagator satisfies certain properties (as is the case, e.g., with the propagator defined by Axelrod and Singer). It turns out that the effective BV action is a function on cohomology (with shifted degrees) that solves the quantum master equation and is defined modulo certain canonical transformations that can be characterized completely. Out of it one obtains invariants.

  15. Cosmological disformal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Naruko, Atsushi, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    The invariance of physical observables under disformal transformations is considered. It is known that conformal transformations leave physical observables invariant. However, whether it is true for disformal transformations is still an open question. In this paper, it is shown that a pure disformal transformation without any conformal factor is equivalent to rescaling the time coordinate. Since this rescaling applies equally to all the physical quantities, physics must be invariant under a disformal transformation, that is, neither causal structure, propagation speed nor any other property of the fields are affected by a disformal transformation itself. This fact is presented at the action level for gravitational and matter fields and it is illustrated with some examples of observable quantities. We also find the physical invariance for cosmological perturbations at linear and high orders in perturbation, extending previous studies. Finally, a comparison with Horndeski and beyond Horndeski theories under a disformal transformation is made.

  16. Algorithms in invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of laser-pulse excited semiconductors: non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations with nonequilibrium correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.Ignatyuk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Markovian kinetic equations in the second Born approximation are derived for a two-zone semiconductor excited by a short laser pulse. Both collision dynamics and running nonequilibrium correlations are taken into consideration. The energy balance and relaxation of the system to equilibrium are discussed. Results of numerical solution of the kinetic equations for carriers and phonons are presented.

  18. Phenomenology of local scale invariance: from conformal invariance to dynamical scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, Malte

    2002-01-01

    Statistical systems displaying a strongly anisotropic or dynamical scaling behaviour are characterized by an anisotropy exponent θ or a dynamical exponent z. For a given value of θ (or z), we construct local scale transformations, which can be viewed as scale transformations with a space-time-dependent dilatation factor. Two distinct types of local scale transformations are found. The first type may describe strongly anisotropic scaling of static systems with a given value of θ, whereas the second type may describe dynamical scaling with a dynamical exponent z. Local scale transformations act as a dynamical symmetry group of certain non-local free-field theories. Known special cases of local scale invariance are conformal invariance for θ=1 and Schroedinger invariance for θ=2. The hypothesis of local scale invariance implies that two-point functions of quasi primary operators satisfy certain linear fractional differential equations, which are constructed from commuting fractional derivatives. The explicit solution of these yields exact expressions for two-point correlators at equilibrium and for two-point response functions out of equilibrium. A particularly simple and general form is found for the two-time auto response function. These predictions are explicitly confirmed at the uniaxial Lifshitz points in the ANNNI and ANNNS models and in the aging behaviour of simple ferromagnets such as the kinetic Glauber-Ising model and the kinetic spherical model with a non-conserved order parameter undergoing either phase-ordering kinetics or non-equilibrium critical dynamics

  19. A new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin, E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mitra, Arpita, E-mail: arpita12t@bose.res.in [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mukherjee, Pradip, E-mail: mukhpradip@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Barasat, West Bengal (India)

    2014-10-07

    We provide a new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance. It is generated by localising the usual global Galilean symmetry. The correspondence with the type of diffeomorphism invariant models currently in vogue in the theory of fractional quantum Hall effect has been discussed. Our construction is shown to open up a general approach of model building in theoretical condensed matter physics. Also, this formulation has the capacity of obtaining Newton–Cartan geometry from the gauge procedure.

  20. Translational invariance and the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Tseng, C.-Y.; Wise, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    Primordial quantum fluctuations produced by inflation are conventionally assumed to be statistically homogeneous, a consequence of translational invariance. In this paper we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes lm a l ' m ' *> of the spherical-harmonic coefficients.

  1. Translational invariance and the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Tseng, Chien-Yao; Wise, Mark B.

    2010-04-01

    Primordial quantum fluctuations produced by inflation are conventionally assumed to be statistically homogeneous, a consequence of translational invariance. In this paper we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes ⟨almal'm'*⟩ of the spherical-harmonic coefficients.

  2. Quantum thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.; Gyftopoulos, E.P.; Park, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A novel nonlinear equation of motion is proposed for a general quantum system consisting of more than one distinguishable elementary constituent of matter. In the domain of idempotent quantum-mechanical state operators, it is satisfied by all unitary evolutions generated by the Schroedinger equation. But in the broader domain of nonidempotent state operators not contemplated by conventional quantum mechanics, it generates a generally nonunitary evolution, it keeps the energy invariant and causes the entropy to increase with time until the system reaches a state of equilibrium or a limit cycle

  3. Plasma kinetics and biodistribution of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in mice: a comparison between Cd and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Xie Guangyun; Sun Zhiwei; Mu Ying; Han Sihai; Xiao Yang; Liu Na; Wang Hui; Guo Caixia; Shi Zhixiong; Li Yanbo; Huang Peili

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg −1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium–telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111 Cd and 125 Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.

  4. Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.

  5. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  6. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-07-15

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  7. Quantum invariants of knots and 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir G

    2016-01-01

    The series is devoted to the publication of monographs and high-level textbooks in mathematics, mathematical methods and their applications. Apart from covering important areas of current interest, a major aim is to make topics of an interdisciplinary nature accessible to the non-specialist. The works in this series are addressed to advanced students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics. In addition, it can serve as a guide for lectures and seminars on a graduate level. The series de Gruyter Studies in Mathematics was founded ca. 30 years ago by the late Professor Heinz Bauer and Professor Peter Gabriel with the aim to establish a series of monographs and textbooks of high standard, written by scholars with an international reputation presenting current fields of research in pure and applied mathematics. While the editorial board of the Studies has changed with the years, the aspirations of the Studies are unchanged. In times of rapid growth of mathematical knowledge carefully written monogr...

  8. Invariant quantum mechanical equations of motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigner, E. P. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1963-01-15

    One of the last few years’ most important developments in theoretical physics is the recognition that it is useful to extend to complex numbers the definition domain of intrinsically real variables, such as energy or angular momentum. This leads one to review many subjects which were considered to be closed. It should not have surprised me, therefore, when Dr. Salam asked me to report, at this seminar, on equations for elementary particles which are not believed to exist in nature, such as particles with imaginary mass. Even though the equations which describe such particles will play no role in the theory as long as the variables such as energy or angular momentum have physically meaningful values, that is, as long as they are real, they may play a significant role when the definition domain of these variables is extended.

  9. Conformal invariance in the quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.

    1975-09-01

    Basic features concerning the present knowledge of conformal symmetry are illustrated in a simple model. Composite field dimensions of this model are computed and related to the conformal group. (author) [pt

  10. Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gongou

    1994-01-01

    Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos are discussed. From the view of global properties of quantum states, it is clarified that quantum chaos originates from the break-down of invariant properties of quantum canonical transformations. There exist precise correspondences between quantum and classical chaos

  11. Hermiticity and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Theory of Hermitian Relativity (HRT) the postulates of hermiticity and gauge invariance are formulated in different ways, due to a different understanding of the idea of hermiticity. However all hermitian systems of equations have to satisfy Einstein's weak system of equations being equivalent to Einstein-Schroedinger equations. (author)

  12. Riemann quasi-invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhozhaev, Stanislav I

    2011-01-01

    The notion of Riemann quasi-invariants is introduced and their applications to several conservation laws are considered. The case of nonisentropic flow of an ideal polytropic gas is analysed in detail. Sufficient conditions for gradient catastrophes are obtained. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  13. The invariance of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramson, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    An isolated system in general relativity makes a transition between stationary states. It is shown that the spin vectors of the system, long before and long after the emission of radiation, are supertranslation invariant and, hence, independent of the choice of Minkowski observation space. (author)

  14. Field transformations, collective coordinates and BRST invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.; Damgaard, P.H.

    1989-12-01

    A very large class of general field transformations can be viewed as a field theory generalization of the method of collective coordinates. The introduction of new variables induces a gauge invariance in the transformed theory, and the freedom left in gauge fixing this new invariance can be used to find equivalent formulations of the same theory. First the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky formalism is applied to the Hamiltonian formulation of physical systems that can be described in terms of collective coordinates. We then show how this type of collective coordinate scheme can be generalized to field transformations, and discuss the War Identities of the associated BRST invariance. For Yang-Mills theory a connection to topological field theory and the background field method is explained in detail. In general the resulting BRST invariance we find hidden in any quantum field theory can be viewed as a consequence of our freedom in choosing a basis of coordinates φ(χ) in the action S[φ]. (orig.)

  15. Invariants of generalized Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    Invariants and invariant multilinear forms are defined for generalized Lie algebras with arbitrary grading and commutation factor. Explicit constructions of invariants and vector operators are given by contracting invariant forms with basic elements of the generalized Lie algebra. The use of the matrix of a linear map between graded vector spaces is emphasized. With the help of this matrix, the concept of graded trace of a linear operator is introduced, which is a rich source of multilinear forms of degree zero. To illustrate the use of invariants, a characteristic identity similar to that of Green is derived and a few Racah coefficients are evaluated in terms of invariants

  16. Properties of invariant modelling and invariant glueing of vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Invariant modelling and invariant glueing of both continuous (rates and accelerations) and descrete vector fields, gradient and divergence cases are considered. The following appendices are discussed: vector fields in crystals, crystal disclinations, topological charges and their fields

  17. Quantum symmetry in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    1993-02-01

    Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry

  18. Quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. It is local, non-abelian gauge theory descripting the interactions between quarks and gluons, the constituents of hadrons. In these lectures, the basic concepts and ph will be introduced in a pedagogical way. Topics will include : asymptotically free partons, colour and confinement ; non-abelian gauge invariance and quantization ; the running coupling constant ; deep-inelastic scattering and scaling violations ; th chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. Some elementary knowledge of field theory, abelian gauge invariance and Feynman diagrams will be helpful in following the course.

  19. Relaxation of a kinetic hole due to carrier-carrier scattering in multisubband single-quantum-well semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...

  20. BRS invariant stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-11-01

    We study stochastic quantization of gravity in terms of a BRS invariant canonical operator formalism. By introducing artificially canonical momentum variables for the original field variables, a canonical formulation of stochastic quantization is proposed in the sense that the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian is the generator of the fictitious time translation. Then we show that there exists a nilpotent BRS symmetry in an enlarged phase space of the first-class constrained systems. The phase space is spanned by the dynamical variables, their canonical conjugate momentum variables, Faddeev-Popov ghost and anti-ghost. We apply the general BRS invariant formulation to stochastic quantization of gravity which is described as a second-class constrained system in terms of a pair of Langevin equations coupled with white noises. It is shown that the stochastic action of gravity includes explicitly the De Witt's type superspace metric which leads to a geometrical interpretation of quantum gravity analogous to nonlinear σ-models. (author)

  1. Mutation, Witten index, and quiver invariant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeyeon [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Lee, Seung-Joo [Department of Physics, Robeson Hall, Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Yi, Piljin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    We explore Seiberg-like dualities, or mutations, for N=4 quiver quantum mechanics in the context of wall-crossing. In contrast to higher dimensions, the 1d Seiberg-duality must be performed with much care. With fixed Fayet-Iliopoulos constants, at most two nodes can be mutated, one left and the other right, mapping a chamber of a quiver into a chamber of a mutated quiver. We delineate this complex pattern for triangle quivers and show how the Witten indices are preserved under such finely chosen mutations. On the other hand, the quiver invariants, or wall-crossing-safe part of supersymmetric spectra, mutate more straightforwardly, whereby a quiver is mapped to a quiver. The mutation rule that preserves the quiver invariant is different from the usual one, however, which we explore and confirm numerically.

  2. Mutation, Witten index, and quiver invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeyeon; Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2015-01-01

    We explore Seiberg-like dualities, or mutations, for N=4 quiver quantum mechanics in the context of wall-crossing. In contrast to higher dimensions, the 1d Seiberg-duality must be performed with much care. With fixed Fayet-Iliopoulos constants, at most two nodes can be mutated, one left and the other right, mapping a chamber of a quiver into a chamber of a mutated quiver. We delineate this complex pattern for triangle quivers and show how the Witten indices are preserved under such finely chosen mutations. On the other hand, the quiver invariants, or wall-crossing-safe part of supersymmetric spectra, mutate more straightforwardly, whereby a quiver is mapped to a quiver. The mutation rule that preserves the quiver invariant is different from the usual one, however, which we explore and confirm numerically.

  3. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  5. Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.

  6. Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.

  7. Slow Invariant Manifolds in Chemically Reactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph M.

    2006-11-01

    The scientific design of practical gas phase combustion devices has come to rely on the use of mathematical models which include detailed chemical kinetics. Such models intrinsically admit a wide range of scales which renders their accurate numerical approximation difficult. Over the past decade, rational strategies, such as Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifolds (ILDM) or Computational Singular Perturbations (CSP), for equilibrating fast time scale events have been successfully developed, though their computation can be challenging and their accuracy in most cases uncertain. Both are approximations to the preferable slow invariant manifold which best describes how the system evolves in the long time limit. Strategies for computing the slow invariant manifold are examined, and results are presented for practical combustion systems.

  8. Moment invariants for particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Overley, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The rms emittance is a certain function of second moments in 2-D phase space. It is preserved for linear uncoupled (1-D) motion. In this paper, the authors present new functions of moments that are invariants for coupled motion. These invariants were computed symbolically using a computer algebra system. Possible applications for these invariants are discussed. Also, approximate moment invariants for nonlinear motion are presented

  9. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  10. Implicit Moment Invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautský, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2010), s. 72-86 ISSN 0920-5691 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Implicit invariants * Orthogonal polynomials * Polynomial image deformation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/flusser-0329394.pdf

  11. Projective moment invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2004), s. 1364-1367 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : projective transform * moment invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040112.pdf

  12. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, People’s Republic of China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China. (China)

    2016-08-21

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  13. Reassessment of Bohm's quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory is reexamined, with emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. Subjects of the discussion are the observability of 'hidden' variables, the applicability of Bohm's theory to spinor QED, the violation of Lorentz invariance, and variants of Bohm's theory. A formulation of causal quantum field theory in terms of distributions is also presented. (Author)

  14. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam; Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge; González-Pérez, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Sánchez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X_m_a_x), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t_1_/_2) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X_m_a_x occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t_1_/_2 were 0.024 h"−"1 and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.

  15. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam [Doctorado en Biología Experimental, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-I) (Mexico); Facultad de Agrobiología, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala, San Pedro Xalcatzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala CP 90180 (Mexico); González-Pérez, Manuel [Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla CP 72410 (Mexico); Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, D.F (Mexico); Sánchez, Carmen, E-mail: sanher6@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala CP. 90062 (Mexico)

    2016-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X{sub max}), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X{sub max} occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t{sub 1/2} were 0.024 h{sup −1} and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.

  16. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy as tools to investigate the heteroepitaxial capping of self-assembled quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, J.G.; Koenraad, P.M.; Smereka, P.; Ulloa, J.M.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, an ever increasing understanding of heteroepitaxial growth has paved the way for the fabrication of a multitude of self-assembled nanostructures. Nowadays, nanostructures such as quantum rings,1 quantum wires,2 quantum dashes,3 quantum rods,4 and quantum dots (QDs)5 can be grown

  17. Quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ∂ q replaced by ∂ q with dq = dq/√1-β 2 (q), where β 2 (q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures κ W and κ Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (∂ q 2 + κ W )ψ = 0

  18. Method of chronokinemetrical invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Shelkovenko, A.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    A particular case of a general dyadic method - the method of chronokinemetric invariants is formulated. The time-like dyad vector is calibrated in a chronometric way, and the space-like vector - in a kinemetric way. Expressions are written for the main physical-geometrical values of the dyadic method and for differential operators. The method developed may be useful for predetermining the reference system of a single observer, and also for studying problems connected with emission and absorption of gravitational and electromagnetic waves [ru

  19. Impact of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in quantum electrodynamics, particularly those involving tests of muon dynamics as well as quantum electrodynamics tests. A new limit on possible muon composite structure is also given. The impact of quantum electrodynamics and its generalizations, the gauge theories, to other areas of physics, including the weak and strong interactions and the atomic spectrum of new particles. The consequences of scale invariance in hadron, atomic, and nuclear physics are reviewed. 119 references

  20. Quantum group and quantum symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhe.

    1994-05-01

    This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs

  1. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  2. Implementing quantum Ricci curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitgaard, N.; Loll, R.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum Ricci curvature has been introduced recently as a new, geometric observable characterizing the curvature properties of metric spaces, without the need for a smooth structure. Besides coordinate invariance, its key features are scalability, computability, and robustness. We demonstrate that these properties continue to hold in the context of nonperturbative quantum gravity, by evaluating the quantum Ricci curvature numerically in two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity, defined in terms of dynamical triangulations. Despite the well-known, highly nonclassical properties of the underlying quantum geometry, its Ricci curvature can be matched well to that of a five-dimensional round sphere.

  3. Subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothionein response and oxidative damage in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Durigon, Emerson Giuliani [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2016-06-01

    The environmental health impact of metal-based nanomaterials is of emerging concern, but their metabolism and detoxification pathways in marine bioindicator species remain unclear. This study investigated the role of subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothioneins (MTs) response and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation – LPO) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in comparison with its dissolved counterpart. Mussels were exposed to QDs and dissolved Cd for 21 days at 10 μg Cd L{sup −1} followed by a 50 days depuration. Higher Cd concentrations were detected in fractions containing mitochondria, nucleus and lysosomes, suggesting potential subcellular targets of QDs toxicity in mussel tissues. Tissue specific metabolism patterns were observed in mussels exposed to both Cd forms. Although MT levels were directly associated with Cd in both forms, QDs subcellular partitioning is linked to biologically active metal (BAM), but no increase in LPO occurred, while in the case of dissolved Cd levels are in the biologically detoxified metal (BDM) form, indicating nano-specific effects. Mussel gills showed lower detoxification capability of QDs, while the digestive gland is the major tissue for storage and detoxification of both Cd forms. Both mussel tissues were unable to completely eliminate the Cd accumulated in the QDs form (estimated half-life time > 50 days), highlighting the potential source of Cd and QDs toxicity for human and environmental health. Results indicate tissue specific metabolism patterns and nano-specific effects in marine mussel exposed to QDs. - Highlights: • Subcellular partitioning and MT response are Cd form, tissue and time dependent. • Tissue specific metabolism of Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) in marine mussels. • QDs are slower biologically detoxified when compared to dissolved Cd. • Subcellular partitioning and biomarker responses indicate nano-specific effects. • Subcellular

  4. ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sez. Roma1, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Piran, Tsvi [The Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-06-20

    The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.

  5. Evidence for several dipolar quasi-invariants in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, C. J.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    The quasi-equilibrium states of an observed quantum system involve as many constants of motion as the dimension of the operator basis which spans the blocks of all the degenerate eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian that drives the system dynamics, however, the possibility of observing such quasi-invariants in solid-like spin systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is not a strictly exact prediction. The aim of this work is to provide experimental evidence of several quasi-invariants, in the proton NMR of small spin clusters, like nematic liquid crystal molecules, in which the use of thermodynamic arguments is not justified. We explore the spin states prepared with the Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence by analyzing the time-domain signals yielded by this sequence as a function of the preparation times, in a variety of dipolar networks, solids, and liquid crystals. We observe that the signals can be explained with two dipolar quasi-invariants only within a range of short preparation times, however at longer times liquid crystal signals show an echo-like behaviour whose description requires assuming more quasi-invariants. We study the multiple quantum coherence content of such signals on a basis orthogonal to the z-basis and see that such states involve a significant number of correlated spins. Therefore, we show that the NMR signals within the whole preparation time-scale can only be reconstructed by assuming the occurrence of multiple quasi-invariants which we experimentally isolate.

  6. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation

  7. Donaldson invariants in algebraic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsche, L.

    2000-01-01

    In these lectures I want to give an introduction to the relation of Donaldson invariants with algebraic geometry: Donaldson invariants are differentiable invariants of smooth compact 4-manifolds X, defined via moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections. If X is an algebraic surface, then these moduli spaces can for a suitable choice of the metric be identified with moduli spaces of stable vector bundles on X. This can be used to compute Donaldson invariants via methods of algebraic geometry and has led to a lot of activity on moduli spaces of vector bundles and coherent sheaves on algebraic surfaces. We will first recall the definition of the Donaldson invariants via gauge theory. Then we will show the relation between moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections and moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic surfaces, and how this makes it possible to compute Donaldson invariants via algebraic geometry methods. Finally we concentrate on the case that the number b + of positive eigenvalues of the intersection form on the second homology of the 4-manifold is 1. In this case the Donaldson invariants depend on the metric (or in the algebraic geometric case on the polarization) via a system of walls and chambers. We will study the change of the invariants under wall-crossing, and use this in particular to compute the Donaldson invariants of rational algebraic surfaces. (author)

  8. Remarks on the E-invariant and the Casson invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seade, J.

    1991-08-01

    In this work a framed manifold means a pair (M,F) consisting of a closed C ∞ , stably parallelizable manifold M, together with a trivialization F of its stable tangent bundle. The purpose of this work is to understand and determine in higher dimensions the invariant h(M,F) appearing in connection with the Adams e-invariants. 28 refs

  9. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  10. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi

    2017-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  11. Decomposition mechanisms and kinetics of novel energetic molecules BNFF-1 and ANFF-1: quantum-chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V; Kuklja, Maija M

    2013-07-18

    Decomposition mechanisms, activation barriers, Arrhenius parameters, and reaction kinetics of the novel explosive compounds, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1), and 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1) were explored by means of density functional theory with a range of functionals combined with variational transition state theory. BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 were recently suggested to be good candidates for insensitive high energy density materials. Our modeling reveals that the decomposition initiation in both BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 molecules is triggered by ring cleavage reactions while the further process is defined by a competition between two major pathways, the fast C-NO₂ homolysis and slow nitro-nitrite isomerization releasing NO. We discuss insights on design of new energetic materials with targeted properties gained from our modeling.

  12. Decomposition Mechanisms and Kinetics of Novel Energetic Molecules BNFF-1 and ANFF-1: Quantum-Chemical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija M. Kuklja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition mechanisms, activation barriers, Arrhenius parameters, and reaction kinetics of the novel explosive compounds, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1, and 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1 were explored by means of density functional theory with a range of functionals combined with variational transition state theory. BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 were recently suggested to be good candidates for insensitive high energy density materials. Our modeling reveals that the decomposition initiation in both BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 molecules is triggered by ring cleavage reactions while the further process is defined by a competition between two major pathways, the fast C-NO2 homolysis and slow nitro-nitrite isomerization releasing NO. We discuss insights on design of new energetic materials with targeted properties gained from our modeling.

  13. Algebraic solutions of shape-invariant position-dependent effective mass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Naila, E-mail: naila.amir@live.com, E-mail: naila.amir@seecs.edu.pk [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid, E-mail: sic80@hotmail.com, E-mail: siqbal@sns.nust.edu.pk [School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    Keeping in view the ordering ambiguity that arises due to the presence of position-dependent effective mass in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian, a general scheme for obtaining algebraic solutions of quantum mechanical systems with position-dependent effective mass is discussed. We quantize the Hamiltonian of the pertaining system by using symmetric ordering of the operators concerning momentum and the spatially varying mass, initially proposed by von Roos and Lévy-Leblond. The algebraic method, used to obtain the solutions, is based on the concepts of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance. In order to exemplify the general formalism a class of non-linear oscillators has been considered. This class includes the particular example of a one-dimensional oscillator with different position-dependent effective mass profiles. Explicit expressions for the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions in terms of generalized Hermite polynomials are presented. Moreover, properties of these modified Hermite polynomials, like existence of generating function and recurrence relations among the polynomials have also been studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results for the linear harmonic oscillator are recovered.

  14. One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2016-01-01

    We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...

  15. Poincaré invariance in low-energy EFTs for QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Sungmin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the calculations on deriving constraints between the Wilson coefficients in non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and potential non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics by exploiting the symmetry of its fundamental theory, Poincaré invariance in particular. Implications of the constraints are briefly discussed in the context of the effective string theory.

  16. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...

  17. Deposition kinetics of quantum dots and polystyrene latex nanoparticles onto alumina: role of water chemistry and particle coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Ivan R; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-03-05

    A clear understanding of the factors controlling the deposition behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as quantum dots (QDs), is necessary for predicting their transport and fate in natural subsurface environments and in water filtration processes. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to study the effect of particle surface coatings and water chemistry on the deposition of commercial QDs onto Al2O3. Two carboxylated QDs (CdSe and CdTe) with different surface coatings were compared with two model nanoparticles: sulfate-functionalized (sPL) and carboxyl-modified (cPL) polystyrene latex. Deposition rates were assessed over a range of ionic strengths (IS) in simple electrolyte (KCl) and in electrolyte supplemented with two organic molecules found in natural waters; namely, humic acid and rhamnolipid. The Al2O3 collector used here is selected to be representative of oxide patches found on the surface of aquifer or filter grains. Deposition studies showed that ENP deposition rates on bare Al2O3 generally decreased with increasing salt concentration, with the exception of the polyacrylic-acid (PAA) coated CdTe QD which exhibited unique deposition behavior due to changes in the conformation of the PAA coating. QD deposition rates on bare Al2O3 were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of the polystyrene latex nanoparticles, likely as a result of steric stabilization imparted by the QD surface coatings. Adsorption of humic acid or rhamnolipid on the Al2O3 surface resulted in charge reversal of the collector and subsequent reduction in the deposition rates of all ENPs. Moreover, the ratio of the two QCM-D output parameters, frequency and dissipation, revealed key structural information of the ENP-collector interface; namely, on bare Al2O3, the latex particles were rigidly attached as compared to the more loosely attached QDs. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the nature of ENP coatings as well

  18. Cohomological invariants in Galois cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Garibaldi, Skip; Serre, Jean Pierre

    2003-01-01

    This volume is concerned with algebraic invariants, such as the Stiefel-Whitney classes of quadratic forms (with values in Galois cohomology mod 2) and the trace form of �tale algebras (with values in the Witt ring). The invariants are analogues for Galois cohomology of the characteristic classes of topology. Historically, one of the first examples of cohomological invariants of the type considered here was the Hasse-Witt invariant of quadratic forms. The first part classifies such invariants in several cases. A principal tool is the notion of versal torsor, which is an analogue of the universal bundle in topology. The second part gives Rost's determination of the invariants of G-torsors with values in H^3(\\mathbb{Q}/\\mathbb{Z}(2)), when G is a semisimple, simply connected, linear group. This part gives detailed proofs of the existence and basic properties of the Rost invariant. This is the first time that most of this material appears in print.

  19. Mass generation within conformal invariant theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flato, M.; Guenin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The massless Yang-Mills theory is strongly conformally invariant and renormalizable; however, when masses are introduced the theory becomes nonrenormalizable and weakly conformally invariant. Conditions which recover strong conformal invariance are discussed in the letter. (author)

  20. Test of charge conjugation invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Prakhov, S.; Gaardestig, A.; Clajus, M.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J.W.; Starostin, A.; Tippens, W.B.; Allgower, C.E.; Spinka, H.; Bekrenev, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Lopatin, I.; Briscoe, W.J.; Shafi, A.; Comfort, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of η decay to π 0 π 0 γ and to π 0 π 0 π 0 γ. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(η→π 0 π 0 γ) -4 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isoscalar electromagnetic interactions of the light quarks. We have also measured BR(η→π 0 π 0 π 0 γ) -5 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions

  1. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  2. Invariant and semi-invariant probabilistic normed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.B. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, B. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria E-04120 (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Saiedinezhad, S. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ssaiedinezhad@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Probabilistic metric spaces were introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger . We introduce the concept of semi-invariance among the PN spaces. In this paper we will find a sufficient condition for some PN spaces to be semi-invariant. We will show that PN spaces are normal spaces. Urysohn's lemma, and Tietze extension theorem for them are proved.

  3. On density of the Vassiliev invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots......The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots...

  4. Propagators for gauge-invariant observables in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröb, Markus B.; Lima, William C. C.

    2018-05-01

    We make a proposal for gauge-invariant observables in perturbative quantum gravity in cosmological spacetimes, building on the recent work of Brunetti et al (2016 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP08(2016)032). These observables are relational, and are obtained by evaluating the field operator in a field-dependent coordinate system. We show that it is possible to define this coordinate system such that the non-localities inherent in any higher-order observable in quantum gravity are causal, i.e. the value of the gauge-invariant observable at a point x only depends on the metric and inflation perturbations in the past light cone of x. We then construct propagators for the metric and inflaton perturbations in a gauge adapted to that coordinate system, which simplifies the calculation of loop corrections, and give explicit expressions for relevant cases: matter- and radiation-dominated eras and slow-roll inflation.

  5. CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection

    CERN Document Server

    Bain, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This book seeks to answer the question "What explains CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection?" These properties play foundational roles in relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs), are supported by high-precision experiments, and figure into explanations of a wide range of phenomena, from antimatter, to the periodic table of the elements, to superconductors and superfluids. They can be derived in RQFTs by means of the famous CPT and Spin-Statistics theorems; but, the author argues, these theorems cannot be said to explain these properties, at least under standard philosophical accounts of scientific explanation. This is because there are multiple, in some cases incompatible, ways of deriving these theorems, and, secondly, because the theorems fail for the types of theories that underwrite the empirical evidence: non-relativistic quantum theories, and realistic interacting RQFTs. The goal of this book is to work towards an understanding of CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection by firs...

  6. Relational motivation for conformal operator ordering in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Operator ordering in quantum cosmology is a major as-yet unsettled ambiguity with not only formal but also physical consequences. We determine the Lagrangian origin of the conformal invariance that underlies the conformal operator-ordering choice in quantum cosmology. This arises particularly naturally and simply from relationalist product-type actions (such as the Jacobi action for mechanics or Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler-type actions for general relativity), for which all that is required is for the kinetic and potential factors to rescale in compensation to each other. These actions themselves mathematically sharply implement philosophical principles relevant to whole-universe modelling, so that the motivation for conformal operator ordering in quantum cosmology is thereby substantially strengthened. Relationalist product-type actions also give emergent times which amount to recovering Newtonian, proper and cosmic time in various contexts. The conformal scaling of these actions directly tells us how emergent time scales; if one follows suit with the Newtonian time or the lapse in the more commonly used difference-type Euler-Lagrange or Arnowitt-Deser-Misner-type actions, one sees how these too obey a more complicated conformal invariance. Moreover, our discovery of the conformal scaling of the emergent time permits relating how this simplifies equations of motion with how affine parametrization simplifies geodesics.

  7. Scale-invariant curvature fluctuations from an extended semiclassical gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinamonti, Nicola, E-mail: pinamont@dima.unige.it, E-mail: siemssen@dima.unige.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Siemssen, Daniel, E-mail: pinamont@dima.unige.it, E-mail: siemssen@dima.unige.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    We present an extension of the semiclassical Einstein equations which couple n-point correlation functions of a stochastic Einstein tensor to the n-point functions of the quantum stress-energy tensor. We apply this extension to calculate the quantum fluctuations during an inflationary period, where we take as a model a massive conformally coupled scalar field on a perturbed de Sitter space and describe how a renormalization independent, almost-scale-invariant power spectrum of the scalar metric perturbation is produced. Furthermore, we discuss how this model yields a natural basis for the calculation of non-Gaussianities of the considered metric fluctuations.

  8. Neutral meson tests of time-reversal symmetry invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, Adrian; Inguglia, Gianluca; Zoccali, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The laws of quantum physics can be studied under the mathematical operation T that inverts the direction of time. Strong and electromagnetic forces are known to be invariant under temporal inversion, however the weak force is not. The BaBar experiment recently exploited the quantum-correlated production of pairs of B0 mesons to show that T is a broken symmetry. Here we show that it is possible to perform a wide range of tests of quark flavour changing processes under T in order to validate th...

  9. Renormalization group, principle of invariance and functional automodelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    There exists a remarkable identity of functional equations describing the property of functional automodelity in diverse branches of physics: renormalization group equations in quantum field theory, functional equations of the invariance principle of the one-dimensional transport theory and some others. The origin of this identity is investigated. It is shown that the structure of these equations reflects the simple and general property of transitivity with respect to the way of fixatio of initial on effective degrees of freedom [ru

  10. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  11. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  12. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  13. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  14. Affine invariants of convex polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flusser, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In this correspondence, we prove that the affine invariants, for image registration and object recognition, proposed recently by Yang and Cohen (see ibid., vol.8, no.7, p.934-46, July 1999) are algebraically dependent. We show how to select an independent and complete set of the invariants. The use of this new set leads to a significant reduction of the computing complexity without decreasing the discrimination power.

  15. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-01-01

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  16. Embedded graph invariants in Chern-Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Seth A.

    1999-01-01

    Chern-Simons gauge theory, since its inception as a topological quantum field theory, has proved to be a rich source of understanding for knot invariants. In this work the theory is used to explore the definition of the expectation value of a network of Wilson lines -- an embedded graph invariant. Using a generalization of the variational method, lowest-order results for invariants for graphs of arbitrary valence and general vertex tangent space structure are derived. Gauge invariant operators are introduced. Higher order results are found. The method used here provides a Vassiliev-type definition of graph invariants which depend on both the embedding of the graph and the group structure of the gauge theory. It is found that one need not frame individual vertices. However, without a global projection of the graph there is an ambiguity in the relation of the decomposition of distinct vertices. It is suggested that framing may be seen as arising from this ambiguity -- as a way of relating frames at distinct vertices

  17. Elementary quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirring, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    The first section of the book deals with the mathematical and physical description of a quantum field with the Bose-Einstein statistics and discusses observables, invariants of the field, and inner symmetries. The second section develops further methods for solvable interactions of a quantum field with static source. Section 3 explains with the aid of the Chew-Low model especially pion-nucleon scattering, static properties of nucleons, electromagnetic phenomena, and nuclear forces. (BJ/LN) [de

  18. Identification of invariant measures of interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinwen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an approach for identifying certain mixture representations of some invariant measures of interacting stochastic systems. This is related to the problem of ergodicity of certain extremal invariant measures that are translation invariant. Corresponding to these, results concerning the existence of invariant measures and certain weak convergence of the systems are also provided

  19. Link invariants from finite Coxeter racks

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sam; Wieghard, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We study Coxeter racks over $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ and the knot and link invariants they define. We exploit the module structure of these racks to enhance the rack counting invariants and give examples showing that these enhanced invariants are stronger than the unenhanced rack counting invariants.

  20. A confining and asymptotically free solution for the renormalization group invariant charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, B.H.

    1978-01-01

    The central role of the invariant charge in applications of the renormalization group to quantum chromodynamics is discussed. The general structure of the invariant charge is examined, and it is shown to be a non-singular function of q 2 for all finite non-zero q 2 . At q 2 = 0 and q 2 = +or- infinity shows that QCD is asymptotically free. Some applications of these general results are discussed

  1. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  2. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-12-15

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  3. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction to Regge calculus, some examples of its application is quantum gravity are described in this paper. In particular, the earliest such application, by Ponzano and Regge, is discussed in some detail and it is shown how this leads naturally to current work on invariants of three-manifolds

  4. Quantum K-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of a K-system to a non-commutative dynamical system by requiring that an invariantly defined memory loss be 100%. We give some examples of quantum K-systems and show that they cannot contain any quasi-periodic subsystem. 13 refs. (Author)

  5. Quantum cosmology on the worldsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.R.; Susskind, L.; Thorlacius, L.

    1991-08-01

    Two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to conformally invariant matter central c > 25 provides a toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. Two-dimensional quantum cosmology can thus be studied in terms of string theory in background fields. The large scale cosmological constant depends on non-linear dynamics in the string theory target space and does not appear to be suppressed by wormhole effects. 13 refs

  6. Remarks on mass and angular momenta for U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaee, Aghil, E-mail: aak818@mun.ca; Kunduri, Hari K., E-mail: hkkunduri@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador NL A1C 4P5 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    We extend Brill’s positive mass theorem to a large class of asymptotically flat, maximal, U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data sets on simply connected four dimensional manifolds Σ. Moreover, we extend the local mass angular momenta inequality result [A. Alaee and H. K. Kunduri, Classical Quantum Gravity 32(16), 165020 (2015)] for U(1){sup 2} invariant black holes to the case with nonzero stress energy tensor with positive matter density and energy-momentum current invariant under the above symmetries.

  7. Demystifying the constancy of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant for a time-dependent oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) possesses a conserved quantity, usually called Ermakov-Lewis invariant. I provide a simple physical interpretation of this invariant as well as a whole family of related invariants. This interpretation does not seem to have been noticed in the literature before. The procedure also allows one to tackle some key conceptual issues which arise in the study of quantum fields in the external, time-dependent backgrounds like in the case of particle production in an expanding universe and Schwinger effect.

  8. Invariant probabilities of transition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zaharopol, Radu

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the set of all the invariant probabilities and the structure of various types of individual invariant probabilities of a transition function are two topics of significant interest in the theory of transition functions, and are studied in this book. The results obtained are useful in ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, which, in turn, can be applied in various other areas (like number theory). They are illustrated using transition functions defined by flows, semiflows, and one-parameter convolution semigroups of probability measures. In this book, all results on transition probabilities that have been published by the author between 2004 and 2008 are extended to transition functions. The proofs of the results obtained are new. For transition functions that satisfy very general conditions the book describes an ergodic decomposition that provides relevant information on the structure of the corresponding set of invariant probabilities. Ergodic decomposition means a splitting of t...

  9. Invariants of triangular Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated

  10. Supersymmetry and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.; Sukhatme, U.

    1995-01-01

    In the past ten years, the ideas of supersymmetry have been profitably applied to many nonrelativistic quantum mechanical problems. In particular, there is now a much deeper understanding of why certain potentials are analytically solvable and an array of powerful new approximation methods for handling potentials which are not exactly solvable. In this report, we review the theoretical formulation of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and discuss many applications. Exactly solvable potentials can be understood in terms of a few basic ideas which include supersymmetric partner potentials, shape invariance and operator transformations. Familiar solvable potentials all have the property of shape invariance. We describe new exactly solvable shape invariant potentials which include the recently discovered self-similar potentials as a special case. The connection between inverse scattering, isospectral potentials and supersymmetric quantum mechanics is discussed and multi-soliton solutions of the KdV equation are constructed. Approximation methods are also discussed within the framework of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in particular it is shown that a supersymmetry inspired WKB approximation is exact for a class of shape invariant potentials. Supersymmetry ideas give particularly nice results for the tunneling rate in a double well potential and for improving large N expansions. We also discuss the problem of a charged Dirac particle in an external magnetic field and other potentials in terms of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we discuss structures more general than supersymmetric quantum mechanics such as parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics in which there is a symmetry between a boson and a para-fermion of order p. ((orig.))

  11. Invariant Set Theory: Violating Measurement Independence without Fine Tuning, Conspiracy, Constraints on Free Will or Retrocausality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Palmer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invariant Set (IS theory is a locally causal ontic theory of physics based on the Cosmological Invariant Set postulate that the universe U can be considered a deterministic dynamical system evolving precisely on a (suitably constructed fractal dynamically invariant set in U's state space. IS theory violates the Bell inequalities by violating Measurement Independence. Despite this, IS theory is not fine tuned, is not conspiratorial, does not constrain experimenter free will and does not invoke retrocausality. The reasons behind these claims are discussed in this paper. These arise from properties not found in conventional ontic models: the invariant set has zero measure in its Euclidean embedding space, has Cantor Set structure homeomorphic to the p-adic integers (p>>0 and is non-computable. In particular, it is shown that the p-adic metric encapulates the physics of the Cosmological Invariant Set postulate, and provides the technical means to demonstrate no fine tuning or conspiracy. Quantum theory can be viewed as the singular limit of IS theory when when p is set equal to infinity. Since it is based around a top-down constraint from cosmology, IS theory suggests that gravitational and quantum physics will be unified by a gravitational theory of the quantum, rather than a quantum theory of gravity. Some implications arising from such a perspective are discussed.

  12. Regularization of the quantum field theory of charges and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotakopoulos, C.

    1981-09-01

    A gauge invariant regularization procedure for quantum field theories of electric and magnetic charges based on Zwanziger's local formulation is proposed. The bare regularized full Green's functions of gauge invariant operators are shown to be Lorentz invariant. This would have as a consequence the Lorentz invariance of the finite Green's functions that might result after any reasonable subtraction if such a subtraction can be found. (author)

  13. Dark coupling and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data

  14. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  15. Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  16. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  17. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  18. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  19. Approach to equilibrium in infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ergodic theory of infinite quantum systems is discussed. The framework of this theory is based in an algebra of quasi-local observables. Nonrelativistic situation, i.e., Galilei invariance and Clifford algebra, is used [pt

  20. A TQFT associated to the LMO invariant of three-dimensional manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheptea, Dorin; Le, Thang

    2007-01-01

    We construct a Topological Quantum Field Theory associated to the universal finite-type invariant of 3-dimensional manifolds, as a functor from a category of 3-dimensional manifolds with parametrized boundary, satisfying some additional conditions, to an algebraic-combinatorial category. This is ......We construct a Topological Quantum Field Theory associated to the universal finite-type invariant of 3-dimensional manifolds, as a functor from a category of 3-dimensional manifolds with parametrized boundary, satisfying some additional conditions, to an algebraic-combinatorial category...

  1. Random quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Juergen; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We define a natural ensemble of trace preserving, completely positive quantum maps and present algorithms to generate them at random. Spectral properties of the superoperator Φ associated with a given quantum map are investigated and a quantum analogue of the Frobenius-Perron theorem is proved. We derive a general formula for the density of eigenvalues of Φ and show the connection with the Ginibre ensemble of real non-symmetric random matrices. Numerical investigations of the spectral gap imply that a generic state of the system iterated several times by a fixed generic map converges exponentially to an invariant state

  2. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  3. Entendue invariance in speckle fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.F.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.; Henao, R.; Trivi, M.

    2000-04-01

    Experimental evidence is shown that confirms the Entendue invariance in speckle fields. Because of this condition, the coherence patch of the speckle field can be significantly greater than the mean size of the speckles, as is shown by double exposure speckle interferometry. (author)

  4. Geometric Invariants and Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    University of Chicago Press. Maybank , S.J. [1992], "The Projection of Two Non-coplanar Conics", in Geometric Invariance in Machine Vision, eds. J.L...J.L. Mundy and A. Zisserman, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Mundy, J.L., Kapur, .. , Maybank , S.J., and Quan, L. [1992a] "Geometric Inter- pretation of

  5. On renormalization-invariant masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.; Furuya, K.

    1978-02-01

    It is shown that spontaneous generation of renormalization invariant mass is possible in infra-red stable theories with more than one coupling constant. If relations among the coupling constants are permitted the effect can be made compatible with pertubation theory

  6. Gauge invariance of string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.; Peskin, M.E.

    1985-10-01

    Some work done to understand the appearance of gauge bosons and gravitons in string theories is reported. An action has been constructed for free (bosonic) string field theory which is invariant under an infinite set of gauge transformations which include Yang-Mills transformations and general coordinate transformations as special cases. 15 refs., 1 tab

  7. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  8. Second-order gauge-invariant perturbations during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, F.; Marozzi, G.; Vacca, G. P.; Venturi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of gauge invariant second-order scalar perturbations in a general single field inflationary scenario are presented. Different second-order gauge-invariant expressions for the curvature are considered. We evaluate perturbatively one of these second order curvature fluctuations and a second-order gauge-invariant scalar field fluctuation during the slow-roll stage of a massive chaotic inflationary scenario, taking into account the deviation from a pure de Sitter evolution and considering only the contribution of super-Hubble perturbations in mode-mode coupling. The spectra resulting from their contribution to the second order quantum correlation function are nearly scale-invariant, with additional logarithmic corrections with respect to the first order spectrum. For all scales of interest the amplitude of these spectra depends on the total number of e-folds. We find, on comparing first and second order perturbation results, an upper limit to the total number of e-folds beyond which the two orders are comparable

  9. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  10. Triviality - quantum decoherence of Fermionic quantum chromodynamics SU (Nc) in the presence of an external strong U (∞) flavored constant noise field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the triviality-quantum decoherence of Euclidean quantum chromodynamics in the gauge invariant quark current sector in the presence of an external U (∞) flavor constant charged white noise reservoir. (author)

  11. Can confinement ensure natural CP-invariance of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    P- and T-invariance violation in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) due to the so called THETA term Δα=THETAxgsub(s)sup(2)/32πsup(2)xGsub(μν)sup(a)xGsub(μν)sup(a) tilde, where Gsub(μν)sup(a) is the gluon field strength tensor, and gsub(s) is the quark-gluon coupling constant is discussed. It is shown that irrespectively of how the confinement works there emerge observable P- and T-odd effects. The proof is based on the assumption that QCD resolves the upsilon(1) problem, i.e. the mass of the singlet pseudoscalar meson does not vanish in the chiral limit. A modification of the axion scheme which restores the natural P and T invariance of the theory is suggested and cannot be ruled out experimentally

  12. A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event. (paper)

  13. From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isasi, E; Schieber, G

    2007-01-01

    We start with a given modular invariant M of a two-dimensional su-hat(n) k conformal field theory (CFT) and present a general method for solving the Ocneanu modular splitting equation and then determine, in a step-by-step explicit construction (1) the generalized partition functions corresponding to the introduction of boundary conditions and defect lines; (2) the quantum symmetries of the higher ADE graph G associated with the initial modular invariant M. Note that one does not suppose here that the graph G is already known, since it appears as a by-product of the calculations. We analyse several su-hat(3) k exceptional cases at levels 5 and 9

  14. Pomeron-Quark Coupling from Charge Conjugation Invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Wu Qing; Ma Weixing; Gu Yunting

    2006-01-01

    Based on the charge conjugation invariance and the vacuum property of the Pomeron, we point out that the commonly used vector vertex of the Pomeron coupling to quark is incorrect since it contradicts with the Pomeron property. We also claim that the soft Pomeron could be a tensor glueball ξ(2230) with quantum numbers I G J PC = 0 + 2 ++ and total decay width Γ tot ≅100 MeV, which lies on the soft Pomeron trajectory α p = 1.08+0.20t. Therefore, the coupling vertex of the soft Pomeron to quark should be tensorial which is invariant under the charge conjugation and can explain why the inadequate vector coupling, γ μ , of the soft Pomeron to quark is successful in dealing with Pomeron physics.

  15. Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(G q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators - the 'reflection matrix' Y= triple bond L + SL - being a special case - generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N). (orig.)

  16. Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...

  17. Gauge-invariant cosmological density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao.

    1986-06-01

    Gauge-invariant formulation of cosmological density perturbation theory is reviewed with special emphasis on its geometrical aspects. Then the gauge-invariant measure of the magnitude of a given perturbation is presented. (author)

  18. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  19. The quantum 2-sphere as a complex quantum manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Chongsun; Ho Peiming; Zumino, B.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the quantum sphere of Podles for c=0 by means of a stereographic projection which is analogous to that which exibits the classical sphere as a complex manifold. We show that the algebra of functions and the differential calculus on the sphere are covariant under the coaction of fractional transformations with SU q (2) coefficients as well as under the action of SU q (2) vector fields. Going to the classical limit we obtain the Poisson sphere. Finally, we study the invariant integration of functions on the sphere and find its relation with the translationally invariant integration on the complex quantum plane. (orig.)

  20. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  1. Gauge invariance and holographic renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalization: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. There is a mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the bulk theory and the boundary one. We resolve this problem by noticing that there is a residual gauge symmetry (RGS. By extending the RGS such that it satisfies infalling boundary condition at the horizon, we can understand the problem in the context of general holographic embedding of a global symmetry at the boundary into the local gauge symmetry in the bulk.

  2. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  3. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  4. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Testing CPT invariance with neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    We investigate possible tests of CPT invariance on the level of event rates at neutrino factories. We do not assume any specific model, but phenomenological differences in the neutrino-antineutrino masses and mixing angles in a Lorentz invariance preserving context, which could be induced by physics beyond the Standard Model. We especially focus on the muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance channels in order to obtain constraints on the neutrino-antineutrino mass and mixing angle differences. In a typical neutrino factory setup simulation, we find, for example, that vertical bar m 3 - m-bar 3 vertical bar $1.9 · 10 -4 eV and vertical bar ≡ 23 - ≡-bar 23 vertical bar < or approx. 2 deg

  6. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models

  8. Lorentz and CPT invariances and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauregard, O.C. de

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows that there is no conflict between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation and the new 1925 - 55 ''microrelativity principle'' stating the Lorentz and CPT invariance of physical law at the microlevel. The CPT invariance concept is a perfectly legal heir of the 1876 Loschmidt T-invariance concept. Therefore, the EPR-paradox can be understood as synthetizing two earlier ''paradoxes'': the wavelike probability calculus, and the T- or CPT-symmetry of elementary physical processes. The CPT-invariance can be summarized as the basic requirement of second quantization, that particle emission and antiparticle absorption are mathematically equivalent. The phenomenology displays causality as arrowless at the microlevel. The relativistic S-matrix scheme displays the CPT invariance of causality concept at the microlevel. In order to strengthen the point that the Lorentz and CPT invariant schemes of relativistic quantum mechanics do contain the full formalization of the EPR correlation, the covariant calculations pertaining to the subject are presented. The formalization of the EPR correlation and its interpretation are contained in the existing relativistic quantum mechanics. (Kato, T.)

  9. Wave functions constructed from an invariant sum over histories satisfy constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.J.; Hartle, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Invariance of classical equations of motion under a group parametrized by functions of time implies constraints between canonical coordinates and momenta. In the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics, invariance is normally imposed by demanding that physical wave functions are annihilated by the operator versions of these constraints. In the sum-over-histories quantum mechanics, however, wave functions are specified, directly, by appropriate functional integrals. It therefore becomes an interesting question whether the wave functions so specified obey the operator constraints of the Dirac theory. In this paper, we show for a wide class of theories, including gauge theories, general relativity, and first-quantized string theories, that wave functions constructed from a sum over histories are, in fact, annihilated by the constraints provided that the sum over histories is constructed in a manner which respects the invariance generated by the constraints. By this we mean a sum over histories defined with an invariant action, invariant measure, and an invariant class of paths summed over

  10. Molecular invariants: atomic group valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim, K.C.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular invariants may be deduced in a very compact way through Grassman algebra. In this work, a generalized valence is defined for an atomic group; it reduces to the Known expressions for the case of an atom in a molecule. It is the same of the correlations between the fluctions of the atomic charges qc and qd (C belongs to the group and D does not) around their average values. Numerical results agree with chemical expectation. (author) [pt

  11. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  12. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV

  13. Invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Example 1 (Word Problem): This is taken from Em- peror's New Mind ... is as follows. We are given a set of equalities of words .... pictures without proper definitions, and without being ... a polynomial, or in other words it could be a collection of.

  14. Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, F. Duncan M.

    2017-10-01

    Nobel Lecture, presented December 8, 2016, Aula Magna, Stockholm University. I will describe the history and background of three discoveries cited in this Nobel Prize: The "TKNN" topological formula for the integer quantum Hall effect found by David Thouless and collaborators, the Chern insulator or quantum anomalous Hall effect, and its role in the later discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators, and the unexpected topological spin-liquid state of the spin-1 quantum antiferromagnetic chain, which provided an initial example of topological quantum matter. I will summarize how these early beginnings have led to the exciting, and currently extremely active, field of "topological matter."

  15. The holonomy expansion: Invariants and approximate supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we give a new expansion, based on cyclicity of the trace, to study regularity properties of twisted expectations =Tr H (γU(θ)X(s)). Here X(s)=X 0 e -s 0 Q 2 X 1 e -s 1 Q 2 ...X k e -s k Q 2 is a product of operators X j , regularized by heat kernels e -s j Q 2 with s j >0. The twist groups γ(set-membership sign)Z 2 and U(θ)(set-membership sign)U(1) are commuting symmetries of Q 2 . The name ''holonomy expansion'' arises from picturing as a circular graph, with vertices in the graph representing the operators X j , in the order that they appear in the product, and the line-segment following X j representing the heat kernel e -s j Q 2 . The trace functional is cyclic, so the graph is circular. We generate our expansion by ''transporting'' a vertex X k around the circle, ending in its original position. We choose an X k that transforms under a one-dimensional representation of Z 2 xU(1). For θ in the complement of the discrete set γ sing (where the group Z 2 xU(1) acts trivially on X k ) we obtain an identity between the original expectation and some new expectations. We study an example from supersymmetric quantum mechanics, with a Dirac operator Q(λ) depending on a parameter λ and with a U(1) group of symmetries U(θ). We apply our expansion to invariants Z(λ;θ)=Z(Q(λ);θ) suggested by non-commutative geometry. These invariants are sums of expectations of the form above. We investigate this example as a first step toward developing an expansion to evaluate related invariants arising in supersymmetric quantum field theory. We establish differentiability of Z(λ; θ) in λ for λ(set-membership sign)(0,1] and show Z(λ; θ) is independent of λ. We wish to evaluate Z(λ; θ) at the endpoint λ=0, but Z(0; θ) is ill-defined. We regularize the endpoint, while preserving the U(θ)-symmetry, by replacing Q(λ) 2 with H(ε,λ)=Q(λ) 2 +ε 2 |z| 2 . The regularized function Z(ε, λ; θ) depends on all three variables ε, λ, θ; for fixed θ, it

  16. The role of instantons in scale-invariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.

    1980-01-01

    Instanton calculations in scale-invariant gauge theories, such as QCD, have long been plagued by divergences at large distances where strong coupling effects are important. Furthermore, Witten has argued that quantum effects may cause the instanton gas to disappear and has displayed this phenomenon in the CPsup(N-1) model at large N. It is argued here that instantons can play a role in calculations involving an inherent infrared cut-off, and this is demonstrated in the CPsup(N-1) model for large N at a finite temperature. Some results on finite-temperature QED are also obtained in passing. (orig.)

  17. On a generalized oscillator: invariance algebra and interbasis expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakopyan, E.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Kibler, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article deals with a quantum-mechanical system which generalizes the ordinary isotropic harmonic oscillator system. We give the coefficients connecting the polar and Cartesian bases for D=2 and the coefficients connecting the Cartesian and cylindrical bases as well as the cylindrical and spherical bases for D=3. These interbasis expansion coefficients are found to be analytic continuations to real values of their arguments of the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). For D=2, the super integrable character for the generalized oscillator system is investigated from the point of view of a quadratic invariance algebra

  18. Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.

  19. Random walks and a simple chirally invariant lattice Hamiltonian without fermion doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyea, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that there is a simple chirally-invariant lattice Hamiltonian for fermions which is doubling-free but non-Hermitian and which may be valuable in lattice Hamiltonian studies of quantum chromodynamics. A connection is established between the existence of random walk representations of spinor propagators and this doubling-free formulation, in analogy with Wilson fermions. 15 refs

  20. K-theoretic Gromov-Witten invariants in genus 0 and integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Todor; Tonita, Valentin

    2018-03-01

    We prove that the genus 0 invariants in K-theoretic Gromov-Witten theory are governed by an integrable hierarchy of hydrodynamic type. If the K-theoretic quantum product is semisimple, then we also prove the completeness of the hierarchy.

  1. The first Donaldson invariant as the winding number of a Nicolai map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors show that the first Donaldson invariant expressed by Witten as the partition function of a relativistic quantum field theory can be interpreted as the winding number of the stochastic map introduced by Nicolai in the context of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

  2. Geometrical phases from global gauge invariance of nonlinear classical field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.C.; Chiao, R.Y.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the geometrical phases recently discovered in quantum mechanics also occur naturally in the theory of any classical complex multicomponent field satisfying nonlinear equations derived from a Lagrangean with is invariant under gauge transformations of the first kind. Some examples are the paraxial wave equation for nonlinear optics, and Ginzburg-Landau equations for complex order parameters in condensed-matter physics

  3. Cartan invariants and event horizon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Chavy-Waddy, P. C.; Coley, A. A.; Forget, A.; Gregoris, D.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; McNutt, D. D.

    2018-04-01

    We show that it is possible to locate the event horizon of a black hole (in arbitrary dimensions) by the zeros of certain Cartan invariants. This approach accounts for the recent results on the detection of stationary horizons using scalar polynomial curvature invariants, and improves upon them since the proposed method is computationally less expensive. As an application, we produce Cartan invariants that locate the event horizons for various exact four-dimensional and five-dimensional stationary, asymptotically flat (or (anti) de Sitter), black hole solutions and compare the Cartan invariants with the corresponding scalar curvature invariants that detect the event horizon.

  4. Constraints on violation of Lorentz invariance from atmospheric showers initiated by multi-TeV photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsov, Grigory; Satunin, Petr; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: satunin@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: Sergey.Sibiryakov@cern.ch [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    Parameterizing hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies using the framework of effective quantum field theory, we discuss its effect on the formation of atmospheric showers by very-high-energy gamma rays. In the scenario where Lorentz invariance violation leads to a decrease of the photon velocity with energy the formation of the showers is suppressed compared to the Lorentz invariant case. Absence of such suppression in the high-energy part of spectrum of the Crab nebula measured independently by HEGRA and H.E.S.S. collaborations is used to set lower bounds on the energy scale of Lorentz invariance violation. These bounds are competitive with the strongest existing constraints obtained from timing of variable astrophysical sources and the absorption of TeV photons on the extragalactic background light. They will be further improved by the next generation of multi-TeV gamma-ray observatories.

  5. Lorentz invariance on trial in the weak decay of polarized atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Stefan E., E-mail: s.mueller@kvi.nl [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    One of the most fundamental principles underlying our current understanding of nature is the invariance of the laws of physics under Lorentz transformations. Theories trying to unify the Standard Model with quantum gravity suggest that this invariance may be broken by the presence of Lorentz-violating background fields. Dedicated high-precision experiments at low energies could observe such suppressed signals from the Planck scale. At KVI, a test on Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction is performed searching for a dependence of the decay rate of spin-polarized nuclei on the orientation of their spin with respect to a fixed absolute galactical reference frame. An observation of such a dependence would imply a violation of Lorentz invariance.

  6. Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments

  7. Invariant Lagrangians, mechanical connections and the Lagrange-Poincare equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestdag, T; Crampin, M

    2008-01-01

    We deal with Lagrangian systems that are invariant under the action of a symmetry group. The mechanical connection is a principal connection that is associated with Lagrangians which have a kinetic energy function that is defined by a Riemannian metric. In this paper, we extend this notion to arbitrary Lagrangians. We then derive the reduced Lagrange-Poincare equations in a new fashion and we show how solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations can be reconstructed with the help of the mechanical connection. Illustrative examples confirm the theory

  8. Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K 2 graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.

  9. Near-Milne realization of scale-invariant fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, Joao

    2007-01-01

    A near-Milne universe produces a very red spectrum of vacuum quantum fluctuations but has the potential to produce near-scale-invariant thermal fluctuations. This happens if the energy and entropy are mildly subextensive, for example, if there is a Casimir contribution. Therefore, one does not need to invoke corrections to Einstein gravity (as in loop quantum cosmology) for a thermal scenario to be viable. Neither do we need the energy to scale like the area, as in scenarios where the thermal fluctuations are subject to a phase transition in the early universe. Some odd features of this model are pointed out: whether they are fatal or merely unusual will need to be investigated further

  10. Translationally invariant and non-translationally invariant empirical effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golin, M.; Zamick, L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work empirical deficiencies of the core-renormalized realistic effective interactions are examined and simple corrective potentials are sought. The inability of the current realistic interactions to account for the energies of isobaric analog states is noted, likewise they are unable to reproduce the changes in the single-particle energies, as one goes from one closed shell to another. It is noted that the Schiffer interaction gives better results for these gross properties and this is attributed to a combination of several facts. First, to the inclusion of long range terms in the Schiffer potential, then to the presence of relative p-state terms (l=1), in addition to the usual relative s-state terms (l=0). The strange shape of the above interaction is further attributed to the fact that it is translationally invariant whereas the theory of core-polarization yields non-translationally invariant potentials. Consequently, as a correction to the monopole deficiencies of the realistic interactions the term Vsub(mon)=ar 2 (1)r 2 (2)+r 2 (1)+β[r 4 (1)r 2 (2)r 4 (2) ] is proposed. (Auth.)

  11. Alternative Hamiltonian description for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, B.A.; Marno, G.; Simoni, A.

    1990-01-01

    The existence of time-invariant Kahler structures is analyzed in both Classical and Quantum Mechanics. In Quantum Mechanics, a family of such Kahler structures is found, in the finite-dimensional case it is proven that this family is complete

  12. Kinetic theory of weakly ionized dilute gas of hydrogen-like atoms of the first principles of quantum statistics and dispersion laws of eigenwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyusarenko, Yurii V.; Sliusarenko, Oleksii Yu.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a microscopic approach to the construction of the kinetic theory of dilute weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms. The approach is based on the statements of the second quantization method in the presence of bound states of particles. The basis of the derivation of kinetic equations is the method of reduced description of relaxation processes. Within the framework of the proposed approach, a system of common kinetic equations for the Wigner distribution functions of free oppositely charged fermions of two kinds (electrons and cores) and their bound states—hydrogen-like atoms— is obtained. Kinetic equations are used to study the spectra of elementary excitations in the system when all its components are non-degenerate. It is shown that in such a system, in addition to the typical plasma waves, there are longitudinal waves of matter polarization and the transverse ones with a behavior characteristic of plasmon polaritons. The expressions for the dependence of the frequencies and Landau damping coefficients on the wave vector for all branches of the oscillations discovered are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the elementary perturbation parameters in the system on an example of a weakly ionized dilute gas of the 23Na atoms using the D2-line characteristics of the natrium atom is given. We note the possibility of using the results of the developed theory to describe the properties of a Bose condensate of photons in the diluted weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms.

  13. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)

  14. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  15. Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs

  16. Quantum cohomology of flag manifolds and Toda lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givental, A.; Kim, B.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss relations of Vafa's quantum cohomology with Floer's homology theory, introduce equivariant quantum cohomology, formulate some conjectures about its general properties and, on the basis of these conjectures, compute quantum cohomology algebras of the flag manifolds. The answer turns out to coincide with the algebra of regular functions on an invariant lagrangian variety of a Toda lattice. (orig.)

  17. Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculations of Vibrational Levels of NH4(+) and Isotopomers on An Accurate Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua

    2016-04-14

    Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4(+)) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4(+) and ND4(+) exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. The low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm(-1).

  18. Two-qubit quantum computing in a projected subspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Qiao; Ruda, H.E.; Zhan, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    A formulation for performing quantum computing in a projected subspace is presented, based on the subdynamical kinetic equation (SKE) for an open quantum system. The eigenvectors of the kinetic equation are shown to remain invariant before and after interaction with the environment. However, the eigenvalues in the projected subspace exhibit a type of phase shift to the evolutionary states. This phase shift does not destroy the decoherence-free (DF) property of the subspace because the associated fidelity is 1. This permits a universal formalism to be presented--the eigenprojectors of the free part of the Hamiltonian for the system and bath may be used to construct a DF projected subspace based on the SKE. To eliminate possible phase or unitary errors induced by the change in the eigenvalues, a cancellation technique is proposed, using the adjustment of the coupling time, and applied to a two-qubit computing system. A general criteria for constructing a DF-projected subspace from the SKE is discussed. Finally, a proposal for using triangulation to realize a decoherence-free subsystem based on SKE is presented. The concrete formulation for a two-qubit model is given exactly. Our approach is general and appears to be applicable to any type of decoherence

  19. Quantum hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)

  20. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-04-05

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  1. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.

    2017-04-01

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  2. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  3. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  4. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...

  5. Admissible invariant distributions on reductive

    CERN Document Server

    Harish-Chandra; Paul J Sally, Jr

    1999-01-01

    Harish-Chandra presented these lectures on admissible invariant distributions for p-adic groups at the Institute for Advanced Study in the early 1970s. He published a short sketch of this material as his famous "Queen's Notes". This book, which was prepared and edited by DeBacker and Sally, presents a faithful rendering of Harish-Chandra's original lecture notes. The main purpose of Harish-Chandra's lectures was to show that the character of an irreducible admissible representation of a connected reductive p-adic group G is represented by a locally summable function on G. A key ingredient in this proof is the study of the Fourier transforms of distributions on \\mathfrak g, the Lie algebra of G. In particular, Harish-Chandra shows that if the support of a G-invariant distribution on \\mathfrak g is compactly generated, then its Fourier transform has an asymptotic expansion about any semisimple point of \\mathfrak g. Harish-Chandra's remarkable theorem on the local summability of characters for p-adic groups was ...

  6. Scale-invariant gravity: geometrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall O

    2003-01-01

    We present a scale-invariant theory, conformal gravity, which closely resembles the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity (GR). While previous attempts to create scale-invariant theories of gravity have been based on Weyl's idea of a compensating field, our direct approach dispenses with this and is built by extension of the method of best matching w.r.t. scaling developed in the parallel particle dynamics paper by one of the authors. In spatially compact GR, there is an infinity of degrees of freedom that describe the shape of 3-space which interact with a single volume degree of freedom. In conformal gravity, the shape degrees of freedom remain, but the volume is no longer a dynamical variable. Further theories and formulations related to GR and conformal gravity are presented. Conformal gravity is successfully coupled to scalars and the gauge fields of nature. It should describe the solar system observations as well as GR does, but its cosmology and quantization will be completely different

  7. O(N) invariance of the multi-field bounce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Kfir; Honda, Masazumi; Sato, Ryosuke [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Takimoto, Masahiro [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Tobioka, Kohsaku [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,Tel-Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2017-05-19

    In his 1977 paper on vacuum decay in field theory: The Fate of the False Vacuum, Coleman considered the problem of a single scalar field and assumed that the minimum action tunnelling field configuration, the bounce, is invariant under O(4) rotations in Euclidean space. A proof of the O(4) invariance of the bounce was provided later by Coleman, Glaser, and Martin (CGM), who extended the proof to N>2 Euclidean dimensions but, again, restricted non-trivially to a single scalar field. As far as we know a proof of O(N) invariance of the bounce for the tunnelling problem with multiple scalar fields has not been reported in the QFT literature, even though it was assumed in many works since. We make progress towards closing this gap. Following CGM we define the reduced problem of finding a field configuration minimizing the kinetic energy at fixed potential energy. Given a solution of the reduced problem, the minimum action bounce can always be obtained from it by means of a scale transformation. We show that if a solution of the reduced problem exists, then it and the minimum action bounce derived from it are indeed O(N) symmetric. We review complementary results in the mathematical literature that established the existence of a minimizer under specified criteria.

  8. Finite groups and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive “finite” point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution—only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers—a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories—in particular, within the Standard Model.

  9. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  10. Noncommutative field theory and violation of translation invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Guisado, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Noncommutative field theories with commutator of the coordinates of the form [x μ , x ν ] = i Λ μν ω x ω with nilpotent structure constants are studied and shown that a free quantum field theory is not affected. Invariance under translations is broken and the conservation of energy-momentum is violated, obeying a new law which is expressed by a Poincare-invariant equation. The resulting new kinematics is studied and applied to simple examples and to astrophysical puzzles, such as the observed violation of the GZK cutoff. The λΦ 4 quantum field theory is also considered in this context. In particular, self interaction terms violate the usual conservation of energy-momentum and, hence, the radiative correction to the propagator is altered. The correction to first order in λ is calculated. The usual UV divergent terms are still present, but a new type of term also emerges, which is IR divergent, violates momentum conservation and implies a correction to the dispersion relation. (author)

  11. Kinetic Typography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images.......After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....

  12. Towards topological quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Mironov, S.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical) permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates) for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern-Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.

  13. Towards topological quantum computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Melnikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern–Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.

  14. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  15. Recent progress in invariant pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Henri H.; Chang, S.; Gagne, Philippe; Gualdron Gonzalez, Oscar

    1996-12-01

    We present some recent results in invariant pattern recognition, including methods that are invariant under two or more distortions of position, orientation and scale. There are now a few methods that yield good results under changes of both rotation and scale. Some new methods are introduced. These include locally adaptive nonlinear matched filters, scale-adapted wavelet transforms and invariant filters for disjoint noise. Methods using neural networks will also be discussed, including an optical method that allows simultaneous classification of multiple targets.

  16. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  17. Quasi Hopf quantum symmetry in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1991-05-01

    In quantum theory, internal symmetries more general than groups are possible. We show that quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebras G * as introduced by Drinfeld permit a consistent formulation of a transformation law of states in the physical Hilbert space H, of invariance of the ground state, and of a transformation law of field operators which is consistent with local braid relations of field operators as proposed by Froehlich. All this remains true when Drinfelds axioms are suitably weakened in order to build in truncated tensor products. Conversely, all the axioms of a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra are motivated from what physics demands of a symmetry. Unitarity requires in addition that G * admits a * -operation with certain properties. Invariance properties of Greens functions follow from invariance of the ground state and covariance of field operators as usual. Covariant adjoints and covariant products of field operators can be defined. The R-matrix elements in the local braid relations are in general operators in H. They are determined by the symmetry up to a phase factor. Quantum group algebras like U q (sl 2 ) with vertical strokeqvertical stroke=1 are examples of symmetries with special properties. We show that a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra G * is canonically associated with U q (sl 2 ) if q P =-1. We argue that these weak quasi Hopf algebras are the true symmetries of minimal conformal models. Their dual algebras G ('functions on the group') are neither commutative nor associative. (orig.)

  18. Solution to the hierarchy problem from an almost decoupled hidden sector within a classically scale invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R.; McDonald, Kristian L.

    2008-01-01

    If scale invariance is a classical symmetry then both the Planck scale and the weak scale should emerge as quantum effects. We show that this can be realized in simple scale invariant theories with a hidden sector. The weak/Planck scale hierarchy emerges in the (technically natural) limit in which the hidden sector decouples from the ordinary sector. In this limit, finite corrections to the weak scale are consequently small, while quadratic divergences are absent by virtue of classical scale invariance, so there is no hierarchy problem

  19. History in a quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulty of defining history in the context of orthodox quantum theory is discussed. A possible definition, involving the concept of conscious awareness, and using backwards unitary evolution, is described. Reasons are given why a demonstration that particular things happened with 100% certainty does not always give a history that is Lorentz invariant. (author). 16 refs

  20. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  1. Transition Effect Matrices and Quantum Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2009-06-01

    A transition effect matrix (TEM) is a quantum generalization of a classical stochastic matrix. By employing a TEM we obtain a quantum generalization of a classical Markov chain. We first discuss state and operator dynamics for a quantum Markov chain. We then consider various types of TEMs and vector states. In particular, we study invariant, equilibrium and singular vector states and investigate projective, bistochastic, invertible and unitary TEMs.

  2. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  3. A functional LMO invariant for Lagrangian cobordisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheptea, Dorin; Habiro, Kazuo; Massuyeau, Gwénaël

    2008-01-01

    Lagrangian cobordisms are three-dimensional compact oriented cobordisms between once-punctured surfaces, subject to some homological conditions. We extend the Le–Murakami–Ohtsuki invariant of homology three-spheres to a functor from the category of Lagrangian cobordisms to a certain category...... of Jacobi diagrams. We prove some properties of this functorial LMO invariant, including its universality among rational finite-type invariants of Lagrangian cobordisms. Finally, we apply the LMO functor to the study of homology cylinders from the point of view of their finite-type invariants....

  4. Kowalevski top in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, A.

    2013-01-01

    The quantum mechanical Kowalevski top is studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The spectra show different behaviors depending on the region divided by the bifurcation sets of the classical invariant tori. Some of these spectra are nearly degenerate due to the multiplicity of the invariant tori. The Kowalevski top has several symmetries and symmetry quantum numbers can be assigned to the eigenstates. We have also carried out the semiclassical quantization of the Kowalevski top by the EBK formulation. It is found that the semiclassical spectra are close to the exact values, thus the eigenstates can be also labeled by the integer quantum numbers. The symmetries of the system are shown to have close relations with the semiclassical quantum numbers and the near-degeneracy of the spectra. -- Highlights: •Quantum spectra of the Kowalevski top are calculated. •Semiclassical quantization is carried out by the EBK formulation. •Quantum states are labeled by the semiclassical integer quantum numbers. •Multiplicity of the classical torus makes the spectra nearly degenerate. •Symmetries, quantum numbers and near-degenerate spectra are closely related

  5. Fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras

  6. Energy principle with global invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with minimum energy in a toroidal plasma. The total energy is minimized subject to global invariants which act as constraints during relaxation of the plasma. These global integrals of motion are preserved exactly for all idea motions and approximately for a wide class of resistive motions. We assume, specifically, that relaxation of the plasma is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. Equilibria with realistic current density and pressure profiles may be constructed in this theory, which is also used here to study current penetration in tokamaks. The second variation of the free energy functional is computed. It is shown that if the second variation of any equilibrium constructed in this theory is positive, the equilibrium satisfies the necessary and sufficient conditions for ideal stability

  7. Modular invariance and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zwanziger, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Polyakov path integrals and covariant closed-string field theory, integration over Teichmueller parameters must be restricted by hand to a single modular region. This problem has an analog in Yang-Mills gauge theory---namely, the Gribov problem, which can be resolved by the method of stochastic gauge fixing. This method is here employed to quantize a simple modular-invariant system: the Polyakov point particle. In the limit of a large gauge-fixing force, it is shown that suitable choices for the functional form of the gauge-fixing force can lead to a restriction of Teichmueller integration to a single modular region. Modifications which arise when applying stochastic quantization to a system in which the volume of the orbits of the gauge group depends on a dynamical variable, such as a Teichmueller parameter, are pointed out, and the extension to Polyakov strings and covariant closed-string field theory is discussed

  8. Elementary introduction to conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandati, Y.

    1992-01-01

    These notes constitute an elementary introduction to the concept of conformal invariance and its applications to the study of bidimensional critical phenomena. The aim is to give an access as pedestrian as possible to this vast subject. After a brief account of the general properties of conformal transformation in D dimensions, we study more specifically the case D = 2. The center of the discussion is then the consequences of the action of this symmetry group on bidimensional field theories, and in particular the links between the representations of the Virasoro algebra and the structure of the correlation functions of conformal field theories. Finally after showing how the Ising model reduces to a Majorana fermionic field theory, we see how the general formalism previously discussed can be applied to the Ising case at the critical point. (orig.)

  9. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  10. Translational invariance in bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, F.

    1981-10-01

    In this thesis, the effect of restoring the translational invariance to an approximation to the MIT bag model on the calculation of deep inelastic structure functions is investigated. In chapter one, the model and its major problems are reviewed and Dirac's method of quantisation is outlined. This method is used in chapter two to quantise a two-dimensional complex scalar bag and formal expressions for the form factor and the structure functions are obtained. In chapter three, the expression for the structure function away from the Bjorken limit is studied. The corrections to the L 0 - approximation to the structure function is calculated in chapter four and it is shown to be large. Finally, in chapter five, a bag-like model for kinematic corrections to structure functions is introduced and agreement with data between 2 and 6 (GeV/C) 2 is obtained. (author)

  11. Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziino, G.

    1978-01-01

    The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)

  12. Kinetic models in spin chemistry. 1. The hyperfine interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, M.; Pedersen, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic models for quantum systems are quite popular due to their simplicity, although they are difficult to justify. We show that the transformation from quantum to kinetic description can be done exactly for the hyperfine interaction of one nuclei with arbitrary spin; more spins are described w...... induced enhancement of the reaction yield. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Invariant-based inverse engineering for fluctuation transfer between membranes in an optomechanical cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a nonadiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states; thus, the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.

  14. Stochastic quantization and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas about Parisi-Wu's Stochastic Quantization Method, with applications to Scalar, Gauge and Fermionic theories, is done. In particular, the Analytic Stochastic Regularization Scheme is used to calculate the polarization tensor for Quantum Electrodynamics with Dirac bosons or Fermions. The regularization influence is studied for both theories and an extension of this method for some supersymmetrical models is suggested. (author)

  15. Invariance principle and asymptotic completeness for a quantum mechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    Operators H and H 0 acting on the Hilbert Space L 2 (R) are studied. The free or unperturbed operator H 0 is the multiplication (also known as the position) operator x. H = H 0 + A is considered, where the perturbation A is an integral operator which may be unbounded. H 0 is known to be self-adjoint. Conditions are given on the pertubation A for H to be self-adjoint as well. The primary objective of this dissertation is to prove the main conclusions of scattering theory for operators of the type just described. Both time-dependent and stationary methods are utilized. A factored perturbation technique to prove existence and completeness of the wave operators W +- (H,H 0 ). Conditions are obtained for the existence of the wave operators for a generalized integral perturbation where A is not factorable. This is accomplished by first finding operators L 0 and B in momentum (Fourier-transform) space which are equivalent to the operators H and H 0 in configuration space. Then, by showing that the two pairs of Hamiltonians are equilavent, it has been proved that all theorems proved for H and H 0 are true for L(=L 0 + B) and L 0 , and vice versa. Then the operators L and L 0 can be examined and the results can be transferred to H and H 0

  16. General coordinate invariance in quantum many-body systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš; Endlich, S.; Monin, A.; Penco, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2014), s. 105016 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Chiral Perturbation-Theory * Planar Galilei Group * Lagrangians Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  17. Gauge fixing, BRS invariance and Ward identities for randomly stirred flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David

    2009-01-01

    The Galilean invariance of the Navier-Stokes equation is shown to be akin to a global gauge symmetry familiar from quantum field theory. This symmetry leads to a multiple counting of infinitely many inertial reference frames in the path integral approach to randomly stirred fluids. This problem is solved by fixing the gauge, i.e., singling out one reference frame. The gauge fixed theory has an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry which leads to the Ward identity relating the exact inverse response and vertex functions. This identification of Galilean invariance as a gauge symmetry is explored in detail, for different gauge choices and by performing a rigorous examination of a discretized version of the theory. The Navier-Stokes equation is also invariant under arbitrary rectilinear frame accelerations, known as extended Galilean invariance (EGI). We gauge fix this extended symmetry and derive the generalized Ward identity that follows from the BRS invariance of the gauge-fixed theory. This new Ward identity reduces to the standard one in the limit of zero acceleration. This gauge-fixing approach unambiguously shows that Galilean invariance and EGI constrain only the zero mode of the vertex but none of the higher wavenumber modes.

  18. Gauge fixing, BRS invariance and Ward identities for randomly stirred flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berera, Arjun [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk; Hochberg, David [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: hochbergd@inta.es

    2009-06-21

    The Galilean invariance of the Navier-Stokes equation is shown to be akin to a global gauge symmetry familiar from quantum field theory. This symmetry leads to a multiple counting of infinitely many inertial reference frames in the path integral approach to randomly stirred fluids. This problem is solved by fixing the gauge, i.e., singling out one reference frame. The gauge fixed theory has an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry which leads to the Ward identity relating the exact inverse response and vertex functions. This identification of Galilean invariance as a gauge symmetry is explored in detail, for different gauge choices and by performing a rigorous examination of a discretized version of the theory. The Navier-Stokes equation is also invariant under arbitrary rectilinear frame accelerations, known as extended Galilean invariance (EGI). We gauge fix this extended symmetry and derive the generalized Ward identity that follows from the BRS invariance of the gauge-fixed theory. This new Ward identity reduces to the standard one in the limit of zero acceleration. This gauge-fixing approach unambiguously shows that Galilean invariance and EGI constrain only the zero mode of the vertex but none of the higher wavenumber modes.

  19. Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs

  20. Can CP invariance be saved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgi, L.

    1975-01-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of one-electron oxidation of phenoxyl radical by metal halides (NbCl 5 , GaCl 3 , TiCl 4 ) are studied. In course of the reaction (in CH 3 CN) the radical absorption bands disappear from electron spectra and cation-radical bands emerge. The rate of the radicals disappearance for the 10-15 fold excess of the metal halide is a linear function of the radical concentration. The rate of one-electron radical oxidation is described by a second-order equation. The activation energy of the reaction found from the temperature dependence of the rate constants is 2.3+-0.3 kcal/mol. The kinetic parametres of free radicals oxidation may be used to quantitatively estimate the metal halides capacity to acceptance of one electron

  1. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  2. Scale invariant Volkov–Akulov supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ferrara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A scale invariant goldstino theory coupled to supergravity is obtained as a standard supergravity dual of a rigidly scale-invariant higher-curvature supergravity with a nilpotent chiral scalar curvature. The bosonic part of this theory describes a massless scalaron and a massive axion in a de Sitter Universe.

  3. Pattern recognition: invariants in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. A set of invariants are defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to tag the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 3 refs

  4. Triality invariance in the N=2 superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, Leonardo; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Sommovigo, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We prove the discrete triality invariance of the N=2 NSR superstring moving in a D=2+2 target space. We find that triality holds also in the Siegel-Berkovits formulation of the selfdual superstring. A supersymmetric generalization of Cayley's hyperdeterminant, based on a quartic invariant of the SL(2|1) 3 superalgebra, is presented.

  5. Triality invariance in the N=2 superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: leonardo.castellani@mfn.unipmn.it; Grassi, Pietro Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: pietro.grassi@mfn.unipmn.it; Sommovigo, Luca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luca.sommovigo@mfn.unipmn.it

    2009-07-20

    We prove the discrete triality invariance of the N=2 NSR superstring moving in a D=2+2 target space. We find that triality holds also in the Siegel-Berkovits formulation of the selfdual superstring. A supersymmetric generalization of Cayley's hyperdeterminant, based on a quartic invariant of the SL(2|1){sup 3} superalgebra, is presented.

  6. Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry

    2008-01-01

    It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing...

  7. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  8. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  9. Knot invariants derived from quandles and racks

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Seiichi

    2002-01-01

    The homology and cohomology of quandles and racks are used in knot theory: given a finite quandle and a cocycle, we can construct a knot invariant. This is a quick introductory survey to the invariants of knots derived from quandles and racks.

  10. Synthesizing chaotic maps with prescribed invariant densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alan; Shorten, Robert; Heffernan, Daniel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Inverse Frobenius-Perron Problem (IFPP) concerns the creation of discrete chaotic mappings with arbitrary invariant densities. In this Letter, we present a new and elegant solution to the IFPP, based on positive matrix theory. Our method allows chaotic maps with arbitrary piecewise-constant invariant densities, and with arbitrary mixing properties, to be synthesized

  11. Scale invariant Volkov–Akulov supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, S., E-mail: sergio.ferrara@cern.ch [Th-Ph Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Porrati, M., E-mail: mp9@nyu.edu [Th-Ph Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); CCPP, Department of Physics, NYU, 4 Washington Pl., New York, NY 10003 (United States); Sagnotti, A., E-mail: sagnotti@sns.it [Th-Ph Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-10-07

    A scale invariant goldstino theory coupled to supergravity is obtained as a standard supergravity dual of a rigidly scale-invariant higher-curvature supergravity with a nilpotent chiral scalar curvature. The bosonic part of this theory describes a massless scalaron and a massive axion in a de Sitter Universe.

  12. Invariance group of the Finster metric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    An invariance group of the Finsler metric function is introduced and studied that directly generalized the respective concept (a group of Euclidean rolations) of the Rieman geometry. A sequential description of the isotopic invariance of physical fields on the base of the Finsler geometry is possible in terms of this group

  13. A test for ordinal measurement invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, R.; Millsap, R.E.; Bolt, D.M.; van der Ark, L.A.; Wang, W.-C.

    2015-01-01

    One problem with the analysis of measurement invariance is the reliance of the analysis on having a parametric model that accurately describes the data. In this paper an ordinal version of the property of measurement invariance is proposed, which relies only on nonparametric restrictions. This

  14. The usage of color invariance in SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Gang; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Danpei

    2009-10-01

    SURF (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) is a robust local invariant feature descriptor. However, SURF is mainly designed for gray images. In order to make use of the information provided by color (mainly RGB channels), this paper presents a novel colored local invariant feature descriptor, CISURF (Color Invariance based SURF). The proposed approach builds the descriptors in a color invariant space, which stems from Kubelka-Munk model and provides more valuable information than the gray space. Compared with the conventional SURF and SIFT descriptors, the experimental results show that descriptors created by CISURF is more robust to the circumstance changes such as the illumination direction, illumination intensity, and the viewpoints, and are more suitable for the deep space background objects.

  15. BRDF invariant stereo using light transport constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yang, Ruigang; Davis, James E

    2007-09-01

    Nearly all existing methods for stereo reconstruction assume that scene reflectance is Lambertian and make use of brightness constancy as a matching invariant. We introduce a new invariant for stereo reconstruction called light transport constancy (LTC), which allows completely arbitrary scene reflectance (bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs)). This invariant can be used to formulate a rank constraint on multiview stereo matching when the scene is observed by several lighting configurations in which only the lighting intensity varies. In addition, we show that this multiview constraint can be used with as few as two cameras and two lighting configurations. Unlike previous methods for BRDF invariant stereo, LTC does not require precisely configured or calibrated light sources or calibration objects in the scene. Importantly, the new constraint can be used to provide BRDF invariance to any existing stereo method whenever appropriate lighting variation is available.

  16. A quantum liquid model for the QCD vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Olesen, P.

    1979-06-01

    It is shown that domains are formed in a homogeneous SU(2) color magnetic field. Due to quantum fluctuations the domains have fluid properties. It is then argued that quantum mechanically superpositions of such domains must be considered. The resulting state is gauge and rotational invariant, in spite of the fact that the original color magnetic field breaks these invariances. It is pointed out that in the model for the QCD vacuum color magnetic monopoles are not confined. (Auth.)

  17. Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.

  18. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.

  19. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grössing, G; Fussy, S; Pascasio, J Mesa; Schwabl, H

    2016-01-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively. (paper)

  20. Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkovich, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    This short survey is written by a physicist. It contains neither theorems nor precise definitions. Its main content is a description of the results of numerical solution of the equations of fluid mechanics in the regime of developed turbulence. Due to limitations of computers, the results are not very precise. Despite being neither exact nor rigorous, the findings may nevertheless be of interest for mathematicians. The main result is that the isolines of some scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in two-dimensional turbulence belong to the class of conformally invariant curves called SLE (Scramm-Loewner evolution) curves. First, this enables one to predict and find a plethora of quantitative relations going far beyond what was known previously about turbulence. Second, it suggests relations between phenomena that seemed unrelated, like the Euler equation and critical percolation. Third, it shows that one is able to get exact analytic results in statistical hydrodynamics. In short, physicists have found something unexpected and hope that mathematicians can help to explain it.

  1. Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad

    Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.

  2. Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao

    2006-01-01

    Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations. These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states. Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: (1) separability criterion, it is proved that the algebraic sets must be a union of the linear subspaces if the mixed states are separable; (2) simulation of Hamiltonians, it is proved that the simulation of semipositive Hamiltonians of the same rank implies the projective isomorphisms of the corresponding algebraic sets; (3) construction of bound entangled mixed states, examples of the entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transpositions (thus PPT bound entanglement) are constructed systematically from our new separability criterion

  3. The Koslowski–Sahlmann representation: gauge and diffeomorphism invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    The discrete spatial geometry underlying loop quantum gravity (LQG) is degenerate almost everywhere. This is at apparent odds with the non-degeneracy of asymptotically flat metrics near spatial infinity. Koslowski generalized the LQG representation so as to describe states labeled by smooth non-degenerate triad fields. His representation was further studied by Sahlmann with a view to imposing gauge and spatial diffeomorphism invariance through group averaging methods. Motivated by the desire to model asymptotically flat quantum geometry by states with triad labels which are non-degenerate at infinity but not necessarily so in the interior, we initiate a generalization of Sahlmann’s considerations to triads of varying degeneracy. In doing so, we include delicate phase contributions to the averaging procedure which are crucial for the correct implementation of the gauge and diffeomorphism constraints, and whose existence can be traced to the background exponential functions recently constructed by one of us. Our treatment emphasizes the role of symmetries of quantum states in the averaging procedure. Semianalyticity, influential in the proofs of the beautiful uniqueness results for LQG, plays a key role in our considerations. As a by product, we re-derive the group averaging map for standard LQG, highlighting the role of state symmetries and explicitly exhibiting the essential uniqueness of its specification. (paper)

  4. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  5. Gauge invariance and canonical quantization applied in the study of internal structure of gauge field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Chen Xiangsong; Lue Xiaofu; Sun Weiming; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However, we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed.

  6. Gauge invariance and quantization applied to atom and nucleon internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; LU Xiaofu; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing theoretical quark and gluon momentum,orbital angular momentum and spin operators, satisfy either gauge invariance or the corresponding canonical commutation relation, but one never has these operators which satisfy both except the quark spin. The conflicts between gauge invariance and the canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed.To achieve such a proper decomposition the key point is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics, and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)

  7. Permutation invariant polynomial neural network approach to fitting potential energy surfaces. II. Four-atom systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2013-11-28

    A rigorous, general, and simple method to fit global and permutation invariant potential energy surfaces (PESs) using neural networks (NNs) is discussed. This so-called permutation invariant polynomial neural network (PIP-NN) method imposes permutation symmetry by using in its input a set of symmetry functions based on PIPs. For systems with more than three atoms, it is shown that the number of symmetry functions in the input vector needs to be larger than the number of internal coordinates in order to include both the primary and secondary invariant polynomials. This PIP-NN method is successfully demonstrated in three atom-triatomic reactive systems, resulting in full-dimensional global PESs with average errors on the order of meV. These PESs are used in full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations.

  8. Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2014-01-01

    Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.

  9. The quantum self-eraser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Linares, Jesus; Vargas-Medina, Julio

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for an atomic beam quantum self-eraser is presented. The proposal is based on time reversal invariance on a quantum optical Ramsey fringe experiment, where a realization of complementarity for atomic coherence can be achieved. It consists of two high-finesse resonators that are pumped and probed by the same atom. This property relates quantum erasing to time reversal symmetry, allowing for a full quantum erasing of the which-way information stored in the cavity fields. The outlined scheme also prepares and observes a non-local state in the fields of the resonators: a coherent superposition between correlated states of macroscopically separated quantum systems. The proposed scheme emphasizes the role of entanglement swapping in delayed-choice experiments

  10. Topological excitations in U(1) -invariant theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savit, R.

    1977-01-01

    A class of U(1) -invariant theories in d dimensions is introduced on a lattice. These theories are labeled by a simplex number s, with 1 < or = s < d. The case with s = 1 is the X-Y model; and s = 2 gives compact photodynamics. An exact duality transformation is applied to show that the U(1) -invariant theory in d dimensions with simplex number s is the same as a similar theory in d dimensions but which is Z /sub infinity/-invariant and has simplex number s = d-s. This dual theory describes the topological excitations of the original theory. These excitations are of dimension s - 1

  11. Inflation in a Scale Invariant Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Noller, Johannes [Zurich U.; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2018-02-16

    A scale-invariant universe can have a period of accelerated expansion at early times: inflation. We use a frame-invariant approach to calculate inflationary observables in a scale invariant theory of gravity involving two scalar fields - the spectral indices, the tensor to scalar ratio, the level of isocurvature modes and non-Gaussianity. We show that scale symmetry leads to an exact cancellation of isocurvature modes and that, in the scale-symmetry broken phase, this theory is well described by a single scalar field theory. We find the predictions of this theory strongly compatible with current observations.

  12. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  13. Heparin kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, C.A.M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interactions with proteins resulting in anticoagulant and lipolytic effects are discussed in a review (chapter II), which also comprises some clinical aspects of heparin therapy. In chapter III the kinetics of the anticoagulant effect are described after intravenous administration of five commercial heparin preparations. A mathematical model is presented that fits best to these kinetics. The kinetics of the anticoagulant and lipolytic effects after intravenous injection of various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions and their relationship with the disappearance of the radiolabel are described in chapter IV. Chapter V gives a description of the kinetics of two radiolabels after injection of in vitro formed complexes consisting of purified, 125 I-radiolabelled antithrombin III and various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions. (Auth.)

  14. Formulation of invariant functional integrals and applications to the quantization of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, L.C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Introducting a metrical structure into the Configuration Space of Quantum Field Theories with Infinite-Dimensional symetry group, a formulation of Invariant Functional Integrals suitable for their quantization, is obtained. It is apllied to Gauge Theories of Yang-Mills and Polyakov's Bosonic String; obtaining several new facts about them, as well as reproducing some well known results. By following the general idea of invariant functional measures; a fermionic (chiral) change of variables in the fermionic sector of two-dimensional massless Quantum-Chromodynamics is implemented obtaining by the first time, a pure gluonic effective action for the model. In adittion, the complete solution for the Rothe-Stamatesu Model, is obtained. (author) [pt

  15. View synthesis using parallax invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi

    2001-06-01

    View synthesis becomes a focus of attention of both the computer vision and computer graphics communities. It consists of creating novel images of a scene as it would appear from novel viewpoints. View synthesis can be used in a wide variety of applications such as video compression, graphics generation, virtual reality and entertainment. This paper addresses the following problem. Given a dense disparity map between two reference images, we would like to synthesize a novel view of the same scene associated with a novel viewpoint. Most of the existing work is relying on building a set of 3D meshes which are then projected onto the new image (the rendering process is performed using texture mapping). The advantages of our view synthesis approach are as follows. First, the novel view is specified by a rotation and a translation which are the most natural way to express the virtual location of the camera. Second, the approach is able to synthesize highly realistic images whose viewing position is significantly far away from the reference viewpoints. Third, the approach is able to handle the visibility problem during the synthesis process. Our developed framework has two main steps. The first step (analysis step) consists of computing the homography at infinity, the epipoles, and thus the parallax field associated with the reference images. The second step (synthesis step) consists of warping the reference image into a new one, which is based on the invariance of the computed parallax field. The analysis step is working directly on the reference views, and only need to be performed once. Examples of synthesizing novel views using either feature correspondences or dense disparity map have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  16. Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetto, E

    2005-01-01

    This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)

  17. Two-dimensional fractal geometry, critical phenomena and conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplantier, B.

    1988-01-01

    The universal properties of critical geometrical systems in two-dimensions (2D) like the O (n) and Potts models, are described in the framework of Coulomb gas methods and conformal invariance. The conformal spectrum of geometrical critical systems obtained is made of a discrete infinite series of scaling dimensions. Specific applications involve the fractal properties of self-avoiding walks, percolation clusters, and also some non trivial critical exponents or fractal dimensions associated with subsets of the planar Brownian motion. The statistical mechanics of the same critical models on a random 2D lattice (namely in presence of a critically-fluctuating metric, in the so-called 2D quantum gravity) is also addressed, and the above critical geometrical systems are shown to be exactly solvable in this case. The new ''gravitational'' conformal spectrum so derived is found to satisfy the recent Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov quadratic relation which links it to the standard conformal spectrum in the plane

  18. Lorentz Invariance Violation effects on UHECR propagation: A geometrized approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Marco Danilo Claudio; Bertini, Stefano; Giammarchi, Marco; Miramonti, Lino

    2018-06-01

    We explore the possibility to geometrize the interaction of massive fermions with the quantum structure of space-time, trying to create a theoretical background, in order to explain what some recent experimental results seem to implicate on the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). We will investigate part of the phenomenological implications of this approach on the predicted effect of the UHECR suppression, in fact recent evidences seem to involve the modification of the GZK cut-off phenomenon. The search for an effective theory, which can explain this physical effect, is based on Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), which is introduced via Modified Dispersion Relations (MDRs). Furthermore we illustrate that this perspective implies a more general geometry of space-time than the usual Riemannian one, indicating, for example, the opportunity to resort to Finsler theory.

  19. Gauge invariance and the quark-antiquark static potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, K.; Stump, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    We calculate the quark-antiquark static potential to order g 4 in temporal-gauge quantum chromodynamics by constructing a suitably general family of gauge-invariant qq-bar states and then selecting the one whose energy is minimal for a given qq-bar separation r. Our results agree with those of conventional perturbation theory. We study various ways in which quark confinement might arise from nonperturbative effects related to the Gribov ambiguity. We find that the presence of long-range gauge fields can change the asymptotic behavior of the Coulomb Green's function from r -1 to r/sup -1/2/. We illustrate this possibility by a simple example. After making some simplifying assumptions, we obtain a minimally confining potential V (r) that rises logarithmically for large r

  20. Consistency relation for the Lorentz invariant single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we compute the sizes of equilateral and orthogonal shape bispectrum for the general Lorentz invariant single-field inflation. The stability of field theory implies a non-negative square of sound speed which leads to a consistency relation between the sizes of orthogonal and equilateral shape bispectrum, namely f NL orth. ≤ −0.054f NL equil. . In particular, for the single-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation, the consistency relation becomes f NL orth. = 0.070f NL equil. ≤ 0. These consistency relations are also valid in the mixed scenario where the quantum fluctuations of some other light scalar fields contribute to a part of total curvature perturbation on the super-horizon scale and may generate a local form bispectrum. A distinguishing prediction of the mixed scenario is τ NL loc. > ((6/5)f NL loc. ) 2 . Comparing these consistency relations to WMAP 7yr data, there is still a big room for the Lorentz invariant inflation, but DBI inflation has been disfavored at more than 68% CL

  1. Higgs mass naturalness and scale invariance in the UV

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, Gustavo Marques; Skiba, Witold

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model may be natural if the Standard Model merges into a conformal field theory (CFT) at short distances. In such a scenario the Higgs mass would be protected from quantum corrections by the scale invariance of the CFT. In order for the Standard Model to merge into a CFT at least one new ultraviolet (UV) scale is required at which the couplings turn over from their usual Standard Model running to the fixed point behavior. We argue that the Higgs mass is sensitive to such a turn-over scale even if there are no associated massive particles and the scale arises purely from dimensional transmutation. We demonstrate this sensitivity to the turnover scale explicitly in toy models. Thus if scale invariance is responsible for Higgs mass naturalness, then the transition to CFT dynamics must occur near the TeV scale with observable consequences at colliders. In addition, the UV fixed point theory in such a scenario must be interacting because loga...

  2. Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One popular method of treating Hamiltonian systems perturbatively is the Lie ... to be a symmetric, positive definite, bilinear form that is invariant under the action of ... we apply the above procedure to a FODO lattice (a common component of a.

  3. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  4. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  5. Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Supersymmetry; shape invariant potential; spectral statistics. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 70, No. ... the fluctuation properties of different systems whose average behaviours are not the same. ... coefficient c defined as [15] c = ∑.

  6. N = 2 coset compactifictions with nondiagonal invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Allekotte, I.; Font, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider four-dimensional string models obtained by tensoring N = 2 coset theories with nondiagonal modular invariants. The authors present results from a systematic analysis including moddings by discrete symmetries

  7. Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2014-06-13

    Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.

  8. Invariant Theory (IT) & Standard Monomial Theory (SMT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-06

    Jul 6, 2013 ... Why invariant theory? (continued). Now imagine algebraic calculations being made, with the two different sets of co-ordinates, about something of geometrical or physical interest concerning the configuration of points, ...

  9. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  10. Anomalies and modular invariance in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Warner, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    All known anomaly cancellations of heterotic string theories are derived directly from one-loop modular invariance, and are shown to be related to a property of modular functions of weight 2. Using modular invariance infinite classes of anomaly free field theories are constructed in (8m+2) dimensions for any m. A generating function is obtained for the anomalies of string-related field theories in (8m+2) dimensions. (orig.)

  11. Dynamical invariants for variable quadratic Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, Sergei K

    2010-01-01

    We consider linear and quadratic integrals of motion for general variable quadratic Hamiltonians. Fundamental relations between the eigenvalue problem for linear dynamical invariants and solutions of the corresponding Cauchy initial value problem for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are emphasized. An eigenfunction expansion of the solution of the initial value problem is also found. A nonlinear superposition principle for generalized Ermakov systems is established as a result of decomposition of the general quadratic invariant in terms of the linear ones.

  12. Invariant relations in Boussinesq-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meletlidou, Efi; Pouget, Joeel; Maugin, Gerard; Aifantis, Elias

    2004-01-01

    A wide class of partial differential equations have at least three conservation laws that remain invariant for certain solutions of them and especially for solitary wave solutions. These conservation laws can be considered as the energy, pseudomomentum and mass integrals of these solutions. We investigate the invariant relation between the energy and the pseudomomentum for solitary waves in two Boussinesq-type equations that come from the theory of elasticity and lattice models

  13. Computer calculation of Witten's 3-manifold invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, D.S.; Gompf, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Witten's 2+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is exactly solvable. We compute the partition function, a topological invariant of 3-manifolds, on generalized Seifert spaces. Thus we test the path integral using the theory of 3-manifolds. In particular, we compare the exact solution with the asymptotic formula predicted by perturbation theory. We conclude that this path integral works as advertised and gives an effective topological invariant. (orig.)

  14. Conformal (WEYL) invariance and Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shucheng.

    1991-10-01

    A massive Yang-Mills field theory with conformal invariance and gauge invariance is proposed. It involves gravitational and various gauge interactions, in which all the mass terms appear as a uniform form of interaction m(x) KΦ(x). When the conformal symmetry is broken spontaneously and gravitation is ignored, the Higgs field emerges naturally, where the imaginary mass μ can be described as a background curvature. (author). 7 refs

  15. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  16. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  17. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    ..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...

  18. On conformal-invariant behaviour of four-point theories in ultraviolet asymptotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushveridze, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented to obtain scale- and conformal-invariant solutions of four-point field theories in the ultraviolet asymptotics by means of reduction to the three-point problem. To do this a supplementary sigma field without a kinetic term is introduced and the Lagrangian is modified correspondingly. For the three-point problems the equations in form of the generalized unitarity conditions are solved further

  19. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  20. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and the quantum Turing machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2007-08-31

    The purpose of this thesis is to give a formal definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity and rigorous mathematical proofs of its basic properties. Classical Kolmogorov complexity is a well-known and useful measure of randomness for binary strings. In recent years, several different quantum generalizations of Kolmogorov complexity have been proposed. The most natural generalization is due to A. Berthiaume et al. (2001), defining the complexity of a quantum bit (qubit) string as the length of the shortest quantum input for a universal quantum computer that outputs the desired string. Except for slight modifications, it is this definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity that we study in this thesis. We start by analyzing certain aspects of the underlying quantum Turing machine (QTM) model in a more detailed formal rigour than was done previously. Afterwards, we apply these results to quantum Kolmogorov complexity. Our first result is a proof of the existence of a universal QTM which simulates every other QTM for an arbitrary number of time steps and than halts with probability one. In addition, we show that every input that makes a QTM almost halt can be modified to make the universal QTM halt entirely, by adding at most a constant number of qubits. It follows that quantum Kolmogorov complexity has the invariance property, i.e. it depends on the choice of the universal QTM only up to an additive constant. Moreover, the quantum complexity of classical strings agrees with classical complexity, again up to an additive constant. The proofs are based on several analytic estimates. Furthermore, we prove several incompressibility theorems for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. Finally, we show that for ergodic quantum information sources, complexity rate and entropy rate coincide with probability one. The thesis is finished with an outlook on a possible application of quantum Kolmogorov complexity in statistical mechanics. (orig.)