Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions
Huang, Huichi
2012-01-01
We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.
Is quantum entanglement invariant in special relativity?
Ahn, D.; Lee, H. J.; Hwang, S. W.; Kim, M. S.
2003-01-01
Quantum entanglements are of fundamental importance in quantum physics ranging from the quantum information processing to the physics of black hole. Here, we show that the quantum entanglement is not invariant in special relativity. This suggests that nearly all aspects of quantum information processing would be affected significantly when relativistic effects are considered because present schemes are based on the general assumption that entanglement is invariant. There should be additional ...
Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabholkar, Atish, E-mail: atish@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP-UNESCO, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)
2016-09-10
Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
Local unitary invariants for multipartite quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vrana, Peter, E-mail: vranap@math.bme.hu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)
2011-03-18
A method is presented to obtain local unitary invariants for multipartite quantum systems consisting of fermions or distinguishable particles. The invariants are organized into infinite families, in particular, the generalization to higher dimensional single-particle Hilbert spaces is straightforward. Many well-known invariants and their generalizations are also included.
Bonitz, Michael
2016-01-01
This book presents quantum kinetic theory in a comprehensive way. The focus is on density operator methods and on non-equilibrium Green functions. The theory allows to rigorously treat nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Of particular interest are ultrafast processes in plasmas, condensed matter and trapped atoms that are stimulated by rapidly developing experiments with short pulse lasers and free electron lasers. To describe these experiments theoretically, the most powerful approach is given by non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations that are discussed in detail, including computational aspects.
Demonstration of entanglement assisted invariance on IBM's quantum experience.
Deffner, Sebastian
2017-11-01
Quantum entanglement is among the most fundamental, yet from classical intuition also most surprising properties of the fully quantum nature of physical reality. We report several experiments performed on IBM's Quantum Experience demonstrating envariance - entanglement assisted invariance. Envariance is a recently discovered symmetry of composite quantum systems, which is at the foundational origin of physics and a quantum phenomenon of pure states. These very easily reproducible and freely accessible experiments on Quantum Experience provide simple tools to study the properties of envariance, and we illustrate this for several cases with "quantum universes" consisting of up to five qubits.
The supersymmetric t-J model with quantum group invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foerster, A.; Karowski, M.
1993-04-01
An integrable quantum group deformation of the supersymmetric t-J model is introduced. Open boundary conditions lead to an spl q (2, 1) invariant hamiltonian. A general procedure to obtain such invariant models is proposed. To solve the model a generalized nested algebraic Bethe ansatz is constructed and the Bethe ansatz equations are obtained. The quantum supergroup structure of the model is investigated. (orig.)
Superfield approach to symmetry invariance in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
invariance for the Abelian and non-Abelian 1-form gauge theories where there is an explicit coupling between the 1-form gauge fields and the Dirac fields. It has been established, in the above works [26–28], that the (anti-)BRST invariance of the 4D Lagrangian densities is encoded in the Grassmannian independence of ...
Gromov–Witten invariants and quantum cohomology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
no local invariant in symplectic geometry, like, for example, the curvature in Riemannian geometry. The only possible invariants have to be global. The Darboux ..... that earlier Donaldson [D] used similar arguments for the orientation of Yang–Mills moduli spaces. Part (b) uses an infinite dimensional version of Sard–Smale ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habegger, N.; Thompson, G.
1999-11-01
Let Z LMO be the 3-manifold invariant of [LMO]. It is shown that Z LMO (M) = 1, if the first Betti number of M, b 1 (M), is greater than 3. If b 1 (M) = 3, then Z LMO (M) is completely determined by the cohomology ring of M. A relation of Z LMO with the Rozansky-Witten invariants Z X RW [M] is established at a physical level of rigour. We show that Z X RW [M] satisfies appropriate connected sum properties suggesting that the generalized Casson invariant ought to be computable from the LMO invariant. (author)
Manifestly scale-invariant regularization and quantum effective operators
Ghilencea, D.M.
2016-01-01
Scale invariant theories are often used to address the hierarchy problem, however the regularization of their quantum corrections introduces a dimensionful coupling (dimensional regularization) or scale (Pauli-Villars, etc) which break this symmetry explicitly. We show how to avoid this problem and study the implications of a manifestly scale invariant regularization in (classical) scale invariant theories. We use a dilaton-dependent subtraction function $\\mu(\\sigma)$ which after spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry generates the usual DR subtraction scale $\\mu(\\langle\\sigma\\rangle)$. One consequence is that "evanescent" interactions generated by scale invariance of the action in $d=4-2\\epsilon$ (but vanishing in $d=4$), give rise to new, finite quantum corrections. We find a (finite) correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$ to the one-loop scalar potential for $\\phi$ and $\\sigma$, beyond the Coleman-Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ is due to an evanescent correction ($\\propto\\epsilon$) to the field-dependent masses (of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.Y. Klimenko
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of directional properties of decoherence on kinetics rate equations. The physical reality is understood as a chain of unitary and decoherence events. The former are quantum-deterministic, while the latter introduce uncertainty and increase entropy. For interactions of matter and antimatter, two approaches are considered: symmetric decoherence, which corresponds to conventional symmetric (CP-invariant thermodynamics, and antisymmetric decoherence, which corresponds to antisymmetric (CPT-invariant thermodynamics. Radiation, in its interactions with matter and antimatter, is shown to be decoherence-neutral. The symmetric and antisymmetric assumptions result in different interactions of radiation with matter and antimatter. The theoretical predictions for these differences are testable by comparing absorption (emission of light by thermodynamic systems made of matter and antimatter. Canonical typicality for quantum mixtures is briefly discussed in Appendix A.
Superfield approach to symmetry invariance in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
vectors Ei and Bi are the electric and magnetic fields and totally antisymmetric εijk is the 3D Levi–Civita tensor. ... origin to the exterior derivative (i.e. d = dxµ∂µ) of the differential geometry, remains invariant. ... of the Langrangian density (2.1), modulo some total ordinary space-time derivative terms, which do not affect the ...
Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.
2018-01-23
Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.
Gromov-Witten Invariants and Quantum Cohomology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This article is an elaboration of a talk given at an international conference on Operator Theory, Quantum Probability, and Noncommutative Geometry held during December 20--23, 2004, at the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata. The lecture was meant for a general audience, and also prospective research students, the idea ...
Quantum critical phenomena and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhe Chang.
1995-05-01
We show that the Abelian bosonization of continuum limit of the 1D Hubbard model corresponds to the 2D explicitly conformal invariant Gaussian model at weak coupling limit. A universality argument is used to extend the equivalence to an entire segment of the critical line of the strongly correlated electron system. An integral equation satisfied by the mapping function between critical lines of the 1D Hubbard model and 2D Gaussian model is obtained and then solved in some limiting cases. By making use of the fact that the free Hubbard system reduces to four fermions and each of them is related to a c = 1/2 conformal field theory, we present exactly the partition function of the Hubbard model on a finite 1D lattice. (author). 16 refs
Quantum invariants of knots and 3-manifolds. 2. rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turaev, Vladimir G.
2010-01-01
Due to the strong appeal and wide use of this monograph, it is now available in its second revised edition. The monograph gives a systematic treatment of 3-dimensional topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) based on the work of the author with N. Reshetikhin and O. Viro. This subject was inspired by the discovery of the Jones polynomial of knots and the Witten-Chern-Simons field theory. On the algebraic side, the study of 3-dimensional TQFTs has been influenced by the theory of braided categories and the theory of quantum groups. The book is divided into three parts. Part I presents a construction of 3-dimensional TQFTs and 2-dimensional modular functors from so-called modular categories. This gives a vast class of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants as well as a class of linear representations of the mapping class groups of surfaces. In Part II the technique of 6j-symbols is used to define state sum invariants of 3-manifolds. Their relation to the TQFTs constructed in Part I is established via the theory of shadows. Part III provides constructions of modular categories, based on quantum groups and skein modules of tangles in the 3-space. This fundamental contribution to topological quantum field theory is accessible to graduate students in mathematics and physics with knowledge of basic algebra and topology. It is an indispensable source for everyone who wishes to enter the forefront of this fascinating area at the borderline of mathematics and physics. From the contents: - Invariants of graphs in Euclidean 3-space and of closed 3-manifolds - Foundations of topological quantum field theory - Three-dimensional topological quantum field theory - Two-dimensional modular functors - 6j-symbols - Simplicial state sums on 3-manifolds - Shadows of manifolds and state sums on shadows - Constructions of modular categories. (orig.)
Diffeomorphism invariant cosmological sector in loop quantum gravity
Beetle, C.; Engle, J. S.; Hogan, M. E.; Mendonça, P.
2017-11-01
In this paper we work out in detail a new proposal to define rigorously a sector of loop quantum gravity at the diffeomorphism invariant level corresponding to homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies, and propose how to compare in detail the physics of this sector with that of loop quantum cosmology. The key technical steps we have completed are (a) to formulate conditions for homogeneity and isotropy in a diffeomorphism covariant way on the classical phase space of general relativity, and (b) to translate these conditions consistently using well-understood techniques to loop quantum gravity. To impose the symmetry at the quantum level, on both the connection and its conjugate momentum, the method used necessarily has similiarities to the Gupta-Bleuler method of quantizing the electromagnetic field. Lastly, a strategy for embedding states of loop quantum cosmology into this new homogeneous isotropic sector, and using this embedding to compare the physics, is presented.
Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy
Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao
2017-05-01
In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.
Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)
2017-05-15
In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)
Manifestly scale-invariant regularization and quantum effective operators
Ghilencea, D. M.
2016-05-01
Scale-invariant theories are often used to address the hierarchy problem. However the regularization of their quantum corrections introduces a dimensionful coupling (dimensional regularization) or scale (Pauli-Villars, etc) which breaks this symmetry explicitly. We show how to avoid this problem and study the implications of a manifestly scale-invariant regularization in (classical) scale-invariant theories. We use a dilaton-dependent subtraction function μ (σ ) which, after spontaneous breaking of the scale symmetry, generates the usual dimensional regularization subtraction scale μ (⟨σ ⟩) . One consequence is that "evanescent" interactions generated by scale invariance of the action in d =4 -2 ɛ (but vanishing in d =4 ) give rise to new, finite quantum corrections. We find a (finite) correction Δ U (ϕ ,σ ) to the one-loop scalar potential for ϕ and σ , beyond the Coleman-Weinberg term. Δ U is due to an evanescent correction (∝ɛ ) to the field-dependent masses (of the states in the loop) which multiplies the pole (∝1 /ɛ ) of the momentum integral to give a finite quantum result. Δ U contains a nonpolynomial operator ˜ϕ6/σ2 of known coefficient and is independent of the subtraction dimensionless parameter. A more general μ (ϕ ,σ ) is ruled out since, in their classical decoupling limit, the visible sector (of the Higgs ϕ ) and hidden sector (dilaton σ ) still interact at the quantum level; thus, the subtraction function must depend on the dilaton only, μ ˜σ . The method is useful in models where preserving scale symmetry at quantum level is important.
The parametrization invariant and gauge invariant effective actions in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odintsov, S.D.
1990-01-01
The review of formulation and methods of calculation of the parametrization and gauge invariant effective actions in quantum field theory is given. As an example the Vilkovisky-De Witt Effective action (EA) is studied (this EA is a natural representative of gauge and parametrization invariant EA's). The examples where the use of the standard EA leads to the ambiguity are demonstrated. This happens as the result of dependence of the standard EA upon the choice of gauge condition. These examples are as follows: Coleman-Weinberg potential in the finite theories and symmetry breaking, EA in quantum gravity with matter and d=5 gauged supergravity, the possibility of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in N=1 supergravity and the spontaneous compactification in the multidimensional R 2 -gravity. In all these cases the one-loop Vilkovisky-De Witt EA is found and therefore the problem of gauge dependence of EA is solved. The dependence of standard EA of composite fields upon the gauge is studied for the general gauge theories. The class of gauge and parametrization invariant EA's of the composite fields is offered. (author)
Quantum kinetic Heisenberg models: a unique dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timonen, J.; Pilling, D.J.; Bullough, R.K.
1986-01-01
We suggest that the dynamics Glauber embodied in his kinetic Ising model can be introduced similarly and in an apparently unique way, into the quantum statistical mechanics of the quantum-integrable models like the Heisenberg, sine-Gordon and Massive Thirring models. The latter may suggest an extension of the theory to unique kinetic Ising models in two dimensions. The kinetic repulsive bose gas which is studied in detail in the steady state seems to be a solvable kinetic model. (author)
Invariant integration in 2. -->. 3 processes in quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duplii, S.A.; Rekalo, M.P.
1982-11-01
The energy and angular distributions of the quark-antiquark pair QQ-bar (treated as a whole) which is produced in the processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-barg and gq..-->..QQ-barq, where g is the gluon, q = u,d,s are the light quarks, and Q are the heavy quarks, are found to lowest order in a perturbation expansion in the quark-gluon interaction constant. The interference of the two classes of diagrams responsible for QQ-bar pair production by one and two gluons does not vanish (in contrast to quantum electrodynamics). The technique of invariant integration developed in quantum electrodynamics is generalized to the case of quantum chromodynamics. This allows the analytic calculation of all contributions to the differential cross section of the processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-barg and gq..-->..QQ-barq, integrated over the final QQ-bar pair.
A combinatorial approach to diffeomorphism invariant quantum gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapata, J.A.
1997-01-01
Quantum gauge theory in the connection representation uses functions of holonomies as configuration observables. Physical observables (gauge and diffeomorphism invariant) are represented in the Hilbert space of physical states; physical states are gauge and diffeomorphism invariant distributions on the space of functions of the holonomies of the edges of a certain family of graphs. Then a family of graphs embedded in the space manifold (satisfying certain properties) induces a representation of the algebra of physical observables. We construct a quantum model from the set of piecewise linear graphs on a piecewise linear manifold, and another manifestly combinatorial model from graphs defined on a sequence of increasingly refined simplicial complexes. Even though the two models are different at the kinematical level, they provide unitarily equivalent representations of the algebra of physical observables in separable Hilbert spaces of physical states (their s-knot basis is countable). Hence, the combinatorial framework is compatible with the usual interpretation of quantum field theory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Einstein causal quantum fields on lattices with discrete Lorentz invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgaertel, H.
1986-01-01
Results on rigorous construction of quantum fields on the hypercubic lattice Z 4 considered as a lattice in the Minkowski space R 4 are presented. Two associated fields are constructed: The first one having on the lattice points of Z 4 is causal and Poincare invariant in the discrete sense. The second one is an interpolating field over R 4 which is pointlike, translationally covariant and spectral in such a manner that the 'real' lattices field is the restriction of the interpolating field to Z 4 . Furthermore, results on a rigorous perturbation theory of such fields are mentioned
1/N expansion for invariant potentials in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avan, J.; Vega, H.J. de
1983-01-01
The 1/N series for a general O(N) invariant potential in quantum mechanics is analyzed in the functional integral approach. We solve the stationary-point equation (here it is a non-linear and non-local equation). The instanton solutions and their action are expressed in closed form. Potentials of different shapes are analyzed. The Kth order of the 1/N expansion for the ground state energy is obtained from the instanton solution up to order K -1 . This asymptotic formula reads in terms of quadratures of the potential. The series appears to be Borel summable for a wide class of potentials. (orig.)
On conformal invariance in gauge theories. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaikov, R.P.
1983-01-01
In the present paper another nontrivial model of the conformal quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The main hypothesis is that the electromagnetic potential together with an additional zero scale, dimensional scalar field is transformed by a nonbasic and, consequently, nondecomposable representation of the conformal group. There are found nontrivial conformal covariant two-point functions and an invariant action from which equations of motion are derived. There is considered the covariant procedure of quantization and it is shown that the norm of one-particle physical states is positive definite
Galilei-invariant quantum field theories with pair interaction review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1990-01-01
We exhibit a class of quantum field theories where particles interact with pair potentials and for which the time evolution exists in the Heisenberg representation. The essential condition for existence is the stability in the thermodynamic sense and this is achieved by having the interaction fall off with the relative momenta of the particles. This can be done in a Galilei-invariant manner. We show that these systems have some mixing behaviour which one postulates in ergodic theory but difficult to prove for classical systems. (Authors) 59 refs
Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models
Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.
2018-03-01
Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.
On invariants of graphs related to quantum sl(2) at roots of unity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geer, Nathan; Reshetikhin, Nicolai
2009-01-01
We show how to define invariants of graphs related to quantum sl 2 when the graph has more then one connected component and components are colored by blocks of representations with zero quantum dimensions.......We show how to define invariants of graphs related to quantum sl 2 when the graph has more then one connected component and components are colored by blocks of representations with zero quantum dimensions....
Understanding Kinetic Energy paradox in Quantum Mechanics
Kornyushin, Yuri
2008-01-01
A concept of Kinetic Energy in Quantum Mechanics is analyzed. Kinetic Energy is not zero in many cases where there are no motion and flux. This paradox can be understood, using expansion of the wave function in Fourier integral, that is on the basis of virtual plane waves.
Estimating Turaev-Viro three-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alagic, Gorjan; Reichardt, Ben W.; Jordan, Stephen P.; Koenig, Robert
2010-01-01
The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem efficiently decidable by a quantum computer. Thus approximating certain Turaev-Viro invariants of manifolds presented by Heegaard splittings is a universal problem for quantum computation. This establishes a relation between the task of distinguishing nonhomeomorphic 3-manifolds and the power of a general quantum computer.
Explicit Minkowski invariance and differential calculus in the quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Zhan.
1991-11-01
In terms of the R-circumflex matrix of the quantum group SL q (2), the explicit Minkowski coordinate commutation relations in the four-dimensional quantum space-time are given, and the invariance of the Minkowski metric is shown. The differential calculus in this quantum space-time is discussed and the corresponding commutation relations are proposed. (author). 17 refs
Convergence of operator product expansions on the vacuum in conformal invariant quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1976-06-01
In a conformal invariant quantum field theory (in 4 space time dimensions), Wilson operator product expansions converge on the vacuum because they are closely related to conformal partial wave expansions. (orig.) [de
Point group invariants in the Uqp(u(2)) quantum algebra picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibler, M.
1993-07-01
Some consequences of a qp-quantization of a point group invariant developed in the enveloping algebra of SU(2) are examined. A set of open problems concerning such invariants in the U qp (u(2)) quantum algebra picture is briefly discussed. (author) 18 refs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
removed two cells of the same color. Whenever you are putting a 2 × 1 rectangle you are covering one black and one white cell. So the total number of white cells you have covered minus the total number of black cells you have covered after putting some 2 × 1 rectangles is always zero. So this difference is an invariant! You.
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153
Super-quantum correlation for SU(2) invariant state in 4⊗ 2 system
Li, Lin-Song; Tao, Yuan-Hong; Nan, Hua; Xu, Hui
2018-04-01
We analytically evaluate the weak one-way deficit and super-quantum discord for a system composed of spin-3/2 and spin-1/2 subsystems possessing SU(2) symmetry. We also make a comparative study of the relationships among the quantum discord, one-way deficit, weak one-way deficit, and super-quantum discord for the SU(2) invariant state. It is shown that super-quantum discord via weak measurement is greater than that via von Neumann measurement. But weak one-way deficit is less than the one-way deficit. As a result, weak measurement do not always reveal more quantumness.
Chen, Dong-Xu; Liu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li
2013-11-01
We report an experimental proposal of quantum key distribution without sharing reference frame by using single photon rotational-invariant subspace. The rotational-invariant subspace is achieved by taking advantage of photon's spin-orbital composite states. Our scheme is simple and can be developed as a compact QKD system under current technology. Earth-to-satellite QKD is an emerging scenario that will benefit from our protocol.
Weyl versus conformal invariance in quantum field theory
Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina
2017-10-01
We argue that conformal invariance in flat spacetime implies Weyl invariance in a general curved background metric for all unitary theories in spacetime dimensions d ≤ 10. We also study possible curvature corrections to the Weyl transformations of operators, and show that these are absent for operators of sufficiently low dimensionality and spin. We find possible `anomalous' Weyl transformations proportional to the Weyl (Cotton) tensor for d > 3 ( d = 3). The arguments are based on algebraic consistency conditions similar to the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions that classify possible local anomalies. The arguments can be straightforwardly extended to larger operator dimensions and higher d with additional algebraic complexity.
Geometrical aspects of operator ordering terms in gauge invariant quantum models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houston, P.J.
1990-01-01
Finite-dimensional quantum models with both boson and fermion degrees of freedom, and which have a gauge invariance, are studied here as simple versions of gauge invariant quantum field theories. The configuration space of these finite-dimensional models has the structure of a principal fibre bundle and has defined on it a metric which is invariant under the action of the bundle or gauge group. When the gauge-dependent degrees of freedom are removed, thereby defining the quantum models on the base of the principal fibre bundle, extra operator ordering terms arise. By making use of dimensional reduction methods in removing the gauge dependence, expressions are obtained here for the operator ordering terms which show clearly their dependence on the geometry of the principal fibre bundle structure. (author)
Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.
1974-01-01
A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property
Absolute space-time and realism in Lorentz invariant interpretations of quantum mechanics
Combourieu, Marie-Christine; Vigier, Jean-Pierre
1993-04-01
The assertion that Lorentz invariance must necessarily be violated in models aimed at giving a realistic account of quantum theory is shown to be incorrect. Assuming that an absolute curved system ofaxes forms the envelope of Local inertial frames where the 2.7 K radiation field as the preferred frame is isotropic, we demonstrate that Lorentz invariance, as well as covariance, stil apply to quantum mechanics in all frames of reference whenever Einstein and de Broglie's theory of light, recently revisited by Vigier [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 18 (1990) 64; in: Proc. ISQM-SAT Conf.], is considered.
Parton densities in quantum chromodynamics. Gauge invariance, path-dependence, and Wilson lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cherednikov, Igor O. [Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Dept. Fysica; Veken, Frederik F. van der [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2017-05-01
The purpose of this book is to give a systematic pedagogical exposition of the quantitative analysis of Wilson lines and gauge-invariant correlation functions in quantum chromodynamics. Using techniques from the previous volume (Wilson Lines in Quantum Field Theory, 2014), an ab initio methodology is developed and practical tools for its implementation are presented. Emphasis is put on the implications of gauge invariance and path-dependence properties of transverse-momentum dependent parton density functions. The latter are associated with the QCD factorization approach to semi-inclusive hadronic processes, studied at currently operating and planned experimental facilities.
Quantum kinetic theory of the chiral anomaly
Sekine, Akihiko; Culcer, Dimitrie; MacDonald, Allan H.
2017-12-01
We present a general quantum kinetic theory of low-field magnetotransport in weakly disordered crystals that accounts fully for the interplay between electric-field-induced interband coherence, Bloch-state scattering, and an external magnetic field. The quantum kinetic equation we derive for the Bloch-state density matrix naturally incorporates the momentum-space Berry phase effects whose influence on Bloch-state wave-packet dynamics is normally incorporated into transport theory in an ad hoc manner. The Berry phase correction to the momentum-space density of states in the presence of an external magnetic field implied by semiclassical wave-packet dynamics is captured by our theory as an intrinsic density-matrix response to a magnetic field. We propose a simple and general procedure for expanding the linear response of the Bloch-state density matrix to an electric field in powers of magnetic field. As an illustration, we apply our theory to magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals. We show that the chiral anomaly (positive magnetoconductivity quadratic in magnetic field) that appears when separate Fermi surface pockets surround distinct Weyl points survives only when intervalley scattering is very weak compared to intravalley scattering.
Chern-Simons invariants on hyperbolic manifolds and topological quantum field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA/ISAS), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bytsenko, A.A.; Goncalves, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Londrina-Parana (Brazil)
2016-11-15
We derive formulas for the classical Chern-Simons invariant of irreducible SU(n)-flat connections on negatively curved locally symmetric three-manifolds. We determine the condition for which the theory remains consistent (with basic physical principles). We show that a connection between holomorphic values of Selberg-type functions at point zero, associated with R-torsion of the flat bundle, and twisted Dirac operators acting on negatively curved manifolds, can be interpreted by means of the Chern-Simons invariant. On the basis of the Labastida-Marino-Ooguri-Vafa conjecture we analyze a representation of the Chern-Simons quantum partition function (as a generating series of quantum group invariants) in the form of an infinite product weighted by S-functions and Selberg-type functions. We consider the case of links and a knot and use the Rogers approach to discover certain symmetry and modular form identities. (orig.)
Classical and quantum superfield invariants in \\mathscr{N} = (1, 1), 6D SYM theory
Ivanov, Evgeny
2018-02-01
We give an overview of recent results on the classical and quantum superfield invariants of \\mathscr{N} = (1, 1), 6D supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the off-shell \\mathscr{N} = (1, 0) and on-shell \\mathscr{N} = (1, 1), 6D harmonic superspaces.
Modular invariance, universality and crossover in the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
1999-01-01
An analytic form for the conductivity tensor in crossover between two quantum Hall plateaux is derived, which appears to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. The derivation relies on an assumed symmetry between quantum Hall states, a generalisation of the law of corresponding states from rational filling factors to complex conductivity, which has a mathematical expression in terms of an action of the modular group on the upper-half complex conductivity plane. This symmetry implies universality in quantum Hall crossovers. The assumption that the β-function for the complex conductivity is a complex analytic function, together with some experimental constraints, results in an analytic expression for the crossover, as a function of the external magnetic field
Invariants and the evolution of nonstationary quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.
1989-01-01
This book presents a detailed review of some new results in quantum mechanics and statistics obtained during the last decade and a half. The main point of principle on which the studies in the paper are based is the concept of time-dependent integrals of motion of a quantum system (in the Schroedinger picture). This concepts is significant for the problem of supersensitive measurements, e.g., for gravitational wave experiments.A new concept of correlated coherent states of a harmonic oscillator is introduced in connection with the generalized version of this relation. One paper is devoted mainly to a detailed investigation of this concept, as well as its contact with so-called squeezed states. The concepts of new classes of states of physical quantized fields (correlated light and sound) are also discussed
Relativistic Violation Invariance, Multiverses and Quantum Field Theory
Gamboa, J.; Loewe, M.; Mendez, F.
2003-01-01
The possibility of interaction among multiverses is studied assuming that in the first instants of the big-bang, many disjoint regions were created producing many independent universes (multiverses). Many of these mini-universes were unstable and they decayed, but other remained as topological remnant (like domain walls or baby universes) or possibly as mini-black-holes. In this paper, we study the quantum statistical mechanics of multiverses assuming that in the first instants of the big-ban...
Asymptotics of the quantum invariants for surgeries on the figure 8 knot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Hansen, Søren Kold
2006-01-01
a formula for the leading asymptotics of the invariants in the limit of large quantum level. We analyze this expression using the saddle point method. We construct a certain surjection from the set of stationary points for the relevant phase functions onto the space of conjugacy classes of nonabelian SL(2......, ℂ)-representations of the fundamental group of M and prove that the values of these phase functions at the relevant stationary points equals the classical Chern–Simons invariants of the corresponding flat SU(2)-connections. Our findings are in agreement with the asymptotic expansion conjecture...
Irreps and off-shell invariant actions of the N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco. E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br
2006-10-15
The complete classification of the irreducible representations of the N-extended one-dimensional supersymmetry algebra linearly realized on a finite number of fields is presented. Off-shell invariant actions of one-dimensional supersymmetric sigma models are constructed. The role of both Clifford algebras and the Cayley-Dickson's doubling of algebras in association with the N-extended supersymmetries is discussed. We prove in specific examples that the octonionic structure constants enter the N = 8 invariant actions as coupling constants. We further explain how to relate one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems to the dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional supersymmetric theories. (author)
Implications of conformal invariance for quantum field theories in d>2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborn, H.
1994-01-01
Recently obtained results for two and three point functions for quasi-primary operators in conformally invariant theories in arbitrary dimensions d are described. As a consequence the three point function for the energy momentum tensor has three linearly independent forms for general d compatible with conformal invariance. The corresponding coefficients may be regarded as possible generalisations of the Virasoro central charge to d larger than 2. Ward identities which link two linear combinations of the coefficients to terms appearing in the energy momentum tensor trace anomaly on curved space are discussed. The requirement of positivity for expectation values of the energy density is also shown to lead to positivity conditions which are simple for a particular choice of the three coefficients. Renormalisation group like equations which express the constraints of broken conformal invariance for quantum field theories away from critical points are postulated and applied to two point functions. (orig.)
Multi-scale kinetic description of granular clusters: invariance, balance, and temperature
Capriz, Gianfranco; Mariano, Paolo Maria
2017-12-01
We discuss a multi-scale continuum representation of bodies made of several mass particles flowing independently each other. From an invariance procedure and a nonstandard balance of inertial actions, we derive the balance equations introduced in earlier work directly in pointwise form, essentially on the basis of physical plausibility. In this way, we analyze their foundations. Then, we propose a Boltzmann-type equation for the distribution of kinetic energies within control volumes in space and indicate how such a distribution allows us to propose a definition of (granular) temperature along processes far from equilibrium.
Invariant class operators in the decoherent histories analysis of timeless quantum theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halliwell, J. J.; Wallden, P.
2006-01-01
The decoherent histories approach to quantum theory is applied to a class of reparametrization-invariant models whose state is an energy eigenstate. A key step in this approach is the construction of class operators characterizing the questions of physical interest, such as the probability of the system entering a given region of configuration space without regard to time. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics these class operators are given by time-ordered products of projection operators. But in reparametrization-invariant models, where there is no time, the construction of the class operators is more complicated, the main difficulty being to find operators which commute with the Hamiltonian constraint (and so respect the invariance of the theory). Here, inspired by classical considerations, we put forward a proposal for the construction of such class operators for a class of reparametrization-invariant systems. They consist of continuous infinite temporal products of Heisenberg picture projection operators. We investigate the consequences of this proposal in a number of simple models and also compare with the evolving constants method. The formalism developed here is ultimately aimed at cosmological models described by a Wheeler-DeWitt equation, but the specific features of such models are left to future papers
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro
2002-01-01
It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Zwanziger, D.
1979-01-01
We establish the Lorentz invariance of the quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge. This is a priori implausible because the theory is the second-quantized version of a classical field theory which is inconsistent if the minimally coupled charged fields are smooth functions. For our proof we express the generating functional for the gauge-invariant Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics: with or without magnetic charge: as a path integral over the trajectories of classical charged point particles. The electric-electric and electric-magnetic interactions contribute factors exp(JDJ) and exp(JD'K), where J and K are the electric and magnetic currents of classical point particles and D is the usual photon propagator. The propagator D' involves the Dirac string but exp(JD'K) depends on it only through a topological integer linking string and classical particle trajectories. The charge quantization condition e/sub i/g/sub j/ - g/sub i/e/sub j/ = integer then suffices to make the gauge-invariant Green's functions string independent. By implication our formulation shows that if the Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics are expressed as usual as functional integrals over classical charged fields, the smooth field configurations have measure zero and all the support of the Feynman measure lies on the trajectories of classical point particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Ryeol Choi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.
Modern quantum kinetic theory and spectral line shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monchick, L.
1991-01-01
The modern quantum kinetic theory of spectral line shapes is outlined and a typical calculation of a Raman scattered line shape described. The distinguishing feature of this calculation is that it was completely ab initio and therefore constituted a test of modern quantum kinetic theory, the state of the art in computing molecular-scattering cross sections, and novel methods of solving kinetic equations. The computation employed a large assortment of tools: group theory, finite-element methods, classic methods of solving coupled sets of ordinary differential equations, graph methods of combining angular momenta, and matrix methods of solving integral equations. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. 13 refs
Spectral and scattering theory for translation invariant models in quantum field theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Morten Grud
This thesis is concerned with a large class of massive translation invariant models in quantum field theory, including the Nelson model and the Fröhlich polaron. The models in the class describe a matter particle, e.g. a nucleon or an electron, linearly coupled to a second quantised massive scalar...... field e.g. describing mesons or phonons. The models are given by three inputs: - the dispersion relation for the matter particle, - the dispersion relation for the field particle, and - the (UV cut-off) coupling function. The assumptions imposed on , and are rather weak and are satisfied...... by the physically relevant choices. The translation invariance implies that the Hamiltonian may be decomposed into a direct integral over the space of total momentum where the fixed momentum fiber Hamiltonians are given by , where denotes total momentum and is the Segal field operator. The fiber Hamiltonians...
Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators
Ghilencea, D.M.
2016-11-29
Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a higgs-like scalar $\\phi$ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton ($\\sigma$). Its vev $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$ generates the DR subtraction scale ($\\mu\\sim\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where $\\mu$=fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking ($\\mu$=fixed scale). These operators have the form: $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$, $\\phi^8/\\sigma^4$, etc, which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle\\gg \\langle\\phi\\rangle$, where such hierarchy is arranged by {\\it one} initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum...
Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, S.E.
1980-08-01
A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A/sub 0/ = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube.
Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.E.
1980-08-01
A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A 0 = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube
Dietz, Barbara; Yunko, Vitalii; Białous, Małgorzata; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Sirko, Leszek
2017-05-01
We present experimental and numerical results for the long-range fluctuation properties in the spectra of quantum graphs with chaotic classical dynamics and preserved time-reversal invariance. Such systems are generally believed to provide an ideal basis for the experimental study of problems originating from the field of quantum chaos and random matrix theory. Our objective is to demonstrate that this is true only for short-range fluctuation properties in the spectra, whereas the observation of deviations in the long-range fluctuations is typical for quantum graphs. This may be attributed to the unavoidable occurrence of short periodic orbits, which explore only the individual bonds forming a graph and thus do not sense the chaoticity of its dynamics. In order to corroborate our supposition, we performed numerous experimental and corresponding numerical studies of long-range fluctuations in terms of the number variance and the power spectrum. Furthermore, we evaluated length spectra and compared them to semiclassical ones obtained from the exact trace formula for quantum graphs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudetz, T.
1989-01-01
We review the development of the non-Abelian generalization of the Kolmogorov-Sinai(KS) entropy invariant, as initated by Connes and Stormer and completed by Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring only recently. As an introduction and motivation, the classical KS theory is reformulated in terms of Abelian W * -algebras. Finally, we describe simple physical applications of the developed characteristic invariant to space-time symmetry group actions on infinite quantum systems. 42 refs. (Author)
Sakuraba, Takao
The approach to quantum physics via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group is established. This thesis studies possible infinite Bose gas systems using this approach. Systems of locally finite configurations and systems of configurations with accumulation points are considered, with the main emphasis on the latter. In Chapter 2, canonical quantization, quantization via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group are reviewed. In Chapter 3, a new definition of the space of configurations is proposed and an axiom for general configuration spaces is abstracted. Various subsets of the configuration space, including those specifying the number of points in a Borel set and those specifying the number of accumulation points in a Borel set are proved to be measurable using this axiom. In Chapter 4, known results on the space of locally finite configurations and Poisson measure are reviewed in the light of the approach developed in Chapter 3, including the approach to current algebra in the Poisson space by Albeverio, Kondratiev, and Rockner. Goldin and Moschella considered unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of the line based on self-similar random processes, which may describe infinite quantum gas systems with clusters. In Chapter 5, the Goldin-Moschella theory is developed further. Their construction of measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphisms is reviewed, and a rigorous proof of their conjectures is given. It is proved that their measures with distinct correlation parameters are mutually singular. A quasi-invariant measure constructed by Ismagilov on the space of configurations with accumulation points on the circle is proved to be singular with respect to the Goldin-Moschella measures. Finally a generalization of the Goldin-Moschella measures to the higher-dimensional case is studied, where the notion of covariance matrix and the notion of condition number play important roles. A
Kinetic measurements and quantum chemical calculations on low ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 7. Kinetic measurements and quantum chemical calculations on low spin Ni(II)/(III) macrocyclic complexes in aqueous and sulphato medium. Anuradha Sankaran E J Padma Malar Venkatapuram Ramanujam Vijayaraghavan. Regular Articles Volume 127 ...
Radiative Transfer Reconsidered as a Quantum Kinetic Theory ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We revisit the radiative transfer theory from first principles approach, inspired from quantum kinetic theory. The radiation field is described within the second quantization formalism. A master equation for the radiation density operator is derived and transformed into a bal- ance relation in the phase space, which ...
Radiative Transfer Reconsidered as a Quantum Kinetic Theory ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... We revisit the radiative transfer theory from first principles approach, inspired from quantum kinetic theory. The radiation field is described within the second quantization formalism. A master equation for the radiation density operator is derived and transformed into a balance relation in the phase space, ...
Radiative Transfer Reconsidered as a Quantum Kinetic Theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We revisit the radiative transfer theory from first principles approach, inspired from quantum kinetic theory. The radiation field is described within the second quantization formalism. A master equation for the radiation density operator is derived and transformed into a bal- ance relation in the phase space, which ...
High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd W.
2012-01-01
High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.
Kinetic Energy of a Free Quantum Brownian Particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweł Bialas
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We consider a paradigmatic model of a quantum Brownian particle coupled to a thermostat consisting of harmonic oscillators. In the framework of a generalized Langevin equation, the memory (damping kernel is assumed to be in the form of exponentially-decaying oscillations. We discuss a quantum counterpart of the equipartition energy theorem for a free Brownian particle in a thermal equilibrium state. We conclude that the average kinetic energy of the Brownian particle is equal to thermally-averaged kinetic energy per one degree of freedom of oscillators of the environment, additionally averaged over all possible oscillators’ frequencies distributed according to some probability density in which details of the particle-environment interaction are present via the parameters of the damping kernel.
Kinetic theory of the quantum field system with unstable vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyanskij, S.A.; Prozorkevich, A.V.; Skokov, V.V.
2005-01-01
The description of quantum field systems with meta-stable vacuum is motivated by studies of many physical problems (η-meson sector of the Witten-Di Vecchia-Veneziano model, disoriented chiral condensate, false vacuum decay in inflation cosmological models, etc.). A nonperturbative approach based on the kinetic description within the framework of the quasiparticle representation is proposed. We restrict ourselves to scalar field theory with self-interaction potential having a nontrivial set of vacuum states. If the vacuum state is not uniquely defined, the quasiparticle definition is introduced by some physical reason. As a result, we obtain the self-consistent system of the kinetic equation for quasiparticle distribution function and the equation of motion for the background field. Two examples - the quantum field system with φ 4 and double-well type potential - are considered
Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.
2012-01-01
For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into “unperturbed” and “perturbed” terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double δ-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: ► A new basis set expansion method is proposed. ► Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. ► Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. ► Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.
Quantum instanton evaluation of the kinetic isotope effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.; Castillo, Jesus F.; Aoiz, F.Javier
2005-04-19
A general quantum-mechanical method for computing kinetic isotope effects is presented. The method is based on the quantum instanton approximation for the rate constant and on the path integral Metropolis Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Boltzmann operator matrix elements. It computes the kinetic isotope effect directly, using a thermodynamic integration with respect to the mass of the isotope, thus avoiding the more computationally expensive process of computing the individual rate constants. The method is more accurate than variational transition-state theories or the semiclassical instanton method since it does not assume a single reaction path and does not use a semiclassical approximation of the Boltzmann operator. While the general Monte-Carlo implementation makes the method accessible to systems with a large number of atoms, we present numerical results for the Eckart barrier and for the collinear and full three-dimensional isotope variants of the hydrogen exchange reaction H+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}+H. In all seven test cases, for temperatures between 250 K and 600 K, the error of the quantum instanton approximation for the kinetic isotope effects is less than {approx}10%.
Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2017-12-01
We numerically construct translationally invariant quasiconserved operators with maximum range M , which best commute with a nonintegrable quantum spin chain Hamiltonian, up to M =12 . In the large coupling limit, we find that the residual norm of the commutator of the quasiconserved operator decays exponentially with its maximum range M at small M , and turns into a slower decay at larger M . This quasiconserved operator can be understood as a dressed total "spin-z " operator, by comparing with the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff construction developed to high order reaching essentially the same maximum range. We also examine the operator inverse participation ratio of the operator, which suggests its localization in the operator Hilbert space. The operator also shows an almost exponentially decaying profile at short distance, while the long-distance behavior is not clear due to limitations of our numerical calculation. Further dynamical simulation confirms that the prethermalization-equilibrated values are described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble that includes such quasiconserved operator.
Zreihan, Noam; Faran, Eilon; Vives, Eduard; Planes, Antoni; Shilo, Doron
2018-01-01
It is generally claimed that physical processes which display scale-invariant power-law distributions are subjected to a dynamic criticality that prohibits a well-defined kinetic law. In this paper, we demonstrate the coexistence of these two apparently contradicting behaviors during the same physical process—the motion of type-II twin boundaries in martensite Ni-Mn-Ga. The process is investigated by combined measurements of the temporal twin-boundary velocity and the acoustic emitted energy. Velocity values are extracted from high-resolution force measurements taken during displacement-driven mechanical tests, as well as from force-driven magnetic tests, and cover an overall range of six orders of magnitude. Acoustic emission (AE) is measured during mechanical tests. Velocity values follow a normal distribution whose characteristic value is determined by the material's kinetic relation, and its width scales with the average velocity. In addition, it is observed that velocity distributions are characterized by a heavy tail at the right (i.e., faster) end that exhibits a power law over more than one and a half orders of magnitude. At the same time, the AE signals follow a scale-invariant power-law distribution, which is not sensitive to the average twin-boundary velocity. The coexistence of these two different statistical behaviors reflects the complex nature of twin-boundary motion and suggests the possibility that the transformation proceeds through physical subprocesses that are close to criticality alongside other processes that are not.
Monthus, Cécile
2018-03-01
For the line of critical antiferromagnetic XXZ chains with coupling J > 0 and anisotropy 0block-spin renormalization procedure preserving the SU q (2) symmetry introduced by Martin-Delgado and Sierra (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1146) can be reformulated as the translation-invariant scale-invariant tree-tensor-state of the smallest dimension that is compatible with the quantum symmetries of the model. The properties of this tree-tensor-state are studied in detail via the ground-state energy, the magnetizations and the staggered magnetizations, as well as the Shannon-Renyi entropies characterizing the multifractality of the components of the wave function.
2017-03-24
NUMBER (Include area code) 24 March 2017 Briefing Charts 01 March 2017 - 31 March 2017 Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction Kinetics...Laboratory AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB, CA 93524 *Email: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction ...Clearance 17161 Zador et al., Prog. Energ. Combust. Sci., 37 371 (2011) Why Quantum Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies? DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for
On the existence of pointlike localized fields in conformally invariant quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joerss, M.
1992-11-01
In quantum field theory the existence of pointlike localizable objects called 'fields' is a preassumption. Since charged fields are in general not observable this situation is unsatisfying from a quantum physics point of view. Indeed in any quantum theory the existence of fields should follow from deeper physical concepts and more natural first principles like stability, locality, causality and symmetry. In the framework of algebraic quantum field theory with Haag-Kastler nets of local observables this is presented for the case of conformal symmetry in 1+1 dimensions. Conformal fields are explicitly constructed as limits of observables localized in finite regions of space-time. These fields then allow to derive a geometric identification of modular operators, Haag duality in the vacuum sector, the PCT-theorem and an equivalence theorem for fields and algebras. (orig.)
Quantum gravity in the chronometrically invariant formalism of Zel'manov
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollock, M.D.
1990-03-01
The Einstein-Hilbert lagrangian function R is expressed in terms of the chronometrically invariant quantities introduced by Zel'manov, for an arbitrary four-dimensional metric g ij . The chronometrically invariant three-space is the physical space γ αβ =g αβ -g0 α g0 β /g00, whose determinant is γ. The momentum canonically conjugate to γ αβ is π αβ =-√γ(K αβ -γ αβ K), where K αβ =1/2δ t γ αβ and δ t =|g00| -1/2 δ 0 is the chronometrically invariant derivative with respect to time. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function Ψ is derived. For a stationary space-time, such as the Kerr metric, π αβ vanishes, implying that there is then no dynamics, as expected. The formalism coincides with that of Arnowitt, Deser and Misner when the space-time cross-terms g0α are absent. (author). 11 refs
Classification of irreps and invariants of the N-extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Rojas, Moises; Toppan, Francesco
2006-01-01
We present an algorithmic classification of the irreps of the N-extended one-dimensional supersymmetry algebra linearly realized on a finite number of fields. Our work is based on the 1-to-1 correspondence between Weyl-type Clifford algebras (whose irreps are fully classified) and classes of irreps of the N-extended 1D supersymmetry. The complete classification of irreps is presented up to N ≤ 10. The fields of an irrep are accommodated in l different spin states. N = 10 is the minimal value admitting length l>4 irreps. The classification of length-4 irreps of the N = 12 and real N = 11 extended supersymmetries is also explicitly presented. Tensoring irreps allows us to systematically construct manifestly (N-extended) supersymmetric multi-linear invariants without introducing a superspace formalism. Multi-linear invariants can be constructed both for unconstrained and multi-linearly constrained fields. A whole class of off-shell invariant actions are produced in association with each irreducible representation. The explicit example of the N = 8 off-shell action of the (1,8,7) multiplet is presented. Tensoring zero-energy irreps leads us to the notion of the fusion algebra of the 1D N-extended supersymmetric vacua
Parton densities in quantum chromodynamics gauge invariance, path-dependence and Wilson lines
Cherednikov, Igor O
2016-01-01
The purpose of this book is to give a systematic pedagogical exposition of the quantitative analysis of Wilson lines and loops in quantum chromodynamics. Using techniques from the previous volume (Wilson Lines in Quantum Field Theory, 2014), ab initio techniques are developed and practical tools for their implementation presented. An emphasis is put on their renormalization and on implications on processes observable at experimental facilities.
Kinetic approach to the initial value problem in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chi Yong; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.
1989-06-01
Time-dependente projection techniques developed to derive kinetic equations in the context of the quantum many-body problem are applied to φ 4 field theory. The approach is illustrated by working out the 0+1 dimensional case explicitly, including numerical solutions of the kinetic equations. Extension to higher dimensions is briefly discussed. (author) [pt
Non-relativistic and relativistic quantum kinetic equations in nuclear physics.
Botermans, Wilhelmus Martinus Maria
1989-01-01
In this thesis, we discussed the derivation of quantum kinetic equations appropriate for applications in nuclear physics, both in a non-relativistic and in a relativistic context. In each case we obtained a kinetic equation together with an equation for the effective interaction. The latter serves
Engineering colloidal quantum dot solids within and beyond the mobility-invariant regime
Zhitomirsky, David
2014-05-06
© 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Colloidal quantum dots are attractive materials for efficient, low-cost and facile implementation of solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Despite impressive mobilities (1-30 cm2V-1 s-1) reported for new classes of quantum dot solids, it is-surprisingly-the much lower-mobility (10-3-10-2 cm2V-1 s-1) solids that have produced the best photovoltaic performance. Here we show that it is not mobility, but instead the average spacing among recombination centres that governs the diffusion length of charges in today\\'s quantum dot solids. In this regime, colloidal quantum dot films do not benefit from further improvements in charge carrier mobility. We develop a device model that accurately predicts the thickness dependence and diffusion length dependence of devices. Direct diffusion length measurements suggest the solid-state ligand exchange procedure as a potential origin of the detrimental recombination centres. We then present a novel avenue for in-solution passivation with tightly bound chlorothiols that retain passivation from solution to film, achieving an 8.5% power conversion efficiency.
Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.
2012-09-01
Light nuclei at room temperature and below exhibit a kinetic energy which significantly deviates from the predictions of classical statistical mechanics. This quantum kinetic energy is responsible for a wide variety of isotope effects of interest in fields ranging from chemistry to climatology. It also furnishes the second moment of the nuclear momentum distribution, which contains subtle information about the chemical environment and has recently become accessible to deep inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Here, we show how, by combining imaginary time path integral dynamics with a carefully designed generalized Langevin equation, it is possible to dramatically reduce the expense of computing the quantum kinetic energy. We also introduce a transient anisotropic Gaussian approximation to the nuclear momentum distribution which can be calculated with negligible additional effort. As an example, we evaluate the structural properties, the quantum kinetic energy, and the nuclear momentum distribution for a first-principles simulation of liquid water.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azat M. Gainutdinov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uqsl(2-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=eiπ/p with integer p≥2, the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings, and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized eigenvectors for various values of p and N.
Arkhipov, S M; Odesskii, A V; Feigin, B; Vassiliev, V
1998-01-01
This volume presents the first collection of articles consisting entirely of work by faculty and students of the Higher Mathematics College of the Independent University of Moscow (IUM). This unique institution was established to train elite students to become research scientists. Covered in the book are two main topics: quantum groups and low-dimensional topology. The articles were written by participants of the Feigin and Vassiliev seminars, two of the most active seminars at the IUM.
Xing, Yanlong; Cai, Jinjun; Li, Liangjun; Yang, Menglong; Zhao, Xuebo
2014-08-14
The quantum sieving effect of H2/D2 at 77 K on commercially available carbon molecular sieves (1.5GN-H and 3KT-172) was studied. An exceptional reverse kinetic quantum effect is observed on 1.5GN-H where D2 diffuses much faster than H2 with a ratio of up to 5.83 at low pressure, and the difference is still very evident even as the pressure increases up to 1 bar. D2 also diffuses faster than H2 on 3KT-172 with a ratio of up to 1.86. However, the reverse kinetic sieving disappears in a polymer-based carbon (PC). The present kinetic quantum sieving effect of H2 and D2 at 77 K on 1.5GN-H is the highest to date.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu
2009-01-01
Two sets of infinitely many exceptional orthogonal polynomials related to the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials are presented. They are derived as the eigenfunctions of shape invariant and thus exactly solvable quantum mechanical Hamiltonians, which are deformations of those for the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials in terms of a degree l (l=1,2,...) eigenpolynomial. These polynomials are exceptional in the sense that they start from degree l≥1 and thus not constrained by any generalisation of Bochner's theorem.
Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.
2014-01-01
Light nuclei at room temperature and below exhibit a kinetic energy which significantly deviates from the predictions of classical statistical mechanics. This quantum kinetic energy is responsible for a wide variety of isotope effects of interest in fields ranging from chemistry to climatology. It also furnishes the second moment of the nuclear momentum distribution, which contains subtle information about the chemical environment and has recently become accessible to deep inelastic neutron s...
Quantum field kinetics of QCD quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone dominated processes
Kinder-Geiger, Klaus
1996-01-01
A quantum kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of non-equilibrium multi-parton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the `closed-time-path' Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the 2-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the `two-scale nature' of light-cone dominated QCD processes, i.e. the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary inter- actions, the quantum-field equations of ...
A consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of quantum Bose-systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.A.Hlushak
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A consistent approach to the description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of many-Boson systems is proposed. The generalized transport equations for strongly and weakly nonequilibrium Bose systems are obtained. Here we use the method of nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. New equations for the time distribution function of the quantum Bose system with a separate contribution from both the kinetic and potential energies of particle interactions are obtained. The generalized transport coefficients are determined accounting for the consistent description of kinetic and hydrodynamic processes.
Invariant differential operators
Dobrev, Vladimir K
2016-01-01
With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gladush, M.G.
2017-01-01
A many particle quantum-kinetic formalism is suggested to derive the Maxwell-Bloch-type equations which describe the interaction of quantum emitters with light in a frozen dielectric. It is shown that the quantum-kinetic formalism can meet the concept of local variations of dielectric properties and their influence on the emitter. The definitions of the local response and the effective refractive index in macroscopically homogeneous media are discussed.
Quantum kinetic exciton-LO-phonon interaction in CdSe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woggon, Ulrike; Gindele, Frank; Langbein, Wolfgang
2000-01-01
Oscillations with a period of similar to 150 fs are observed in the four-wave mixing (FWM) signal of bulk CdSe and interpreted in terms of non-Markovian exciton-LO-phonon scattering. The experiments show evidence of phonon quantum kinetics in semiconductors of strong polar coupling strength...
Renormalizing the kinetic energy operator in elementary quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coutinho, F A B [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo e LIM 01-HCFMUSP, 05405-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Amaku, M [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: coutinho@dim.fm.usp.br
2009-09-15
In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation of the form {psi}(r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) {ne} 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly cancelling the kinetic energy divergence. This renormalization procedure produces a self-adjoint Hamiltonian. We solve some problems with this new Hamiltonian to illustrate its usefulness.
Renormalizing the kinetic energy operator in elementary quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutinho, F A B; Amaku, M
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation of the form ψ(r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) ≠ 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly cancelling the kinetic energy divergence. This renormalization procedure produces a self-adjoint Hamiltonian. We solve some problems with this new Hamiltonian to illustrate its usefulness.
Renormalizing the Kinetic Energy Operator in Elementary Quantum Mechanics
Coutinho, F. A. B.; Amaku, M.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider solutions to the three-dimensional Schrodinger equation of the form [psi](r) = u(r)/r, where u(0) [is not equal to] 0. The expectation value of the kinetic energy operator for such wavefunctions diverges. We show that it is possible to introduce a potential energy with an expectation value that also diverges, exactly…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Suvajit [Department of Chemistry, Hetampur Raj High School, Hetampur, Birbhum 731124, West Bengal (India); Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, Mississippi, MS 39217-0510 (United States); Ganguly, Jayanta [Department of Chemistry, Brahmankhanda Basapara High School, Basapara, Birbhum 731215, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)
2013-11-29
Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r{sub 0}). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Suvajit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r 0 ). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
András Balázs
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A novel, alternative and deeper view to the “selfish gene” paradigm is presented, describable as the “selfish code” frame. Introducing it, we put forth a quantum mechanical algorithm as a new description of the intracellular protein synthetizing machinery. The successive steps of the algorithm are, tentatively, semiotic constraints of the well-known quantum mechanical molecular “internal measurement” type. It is proposed that this molecular algorithm mediates a quantum mechanical time reversed dynamics with a primordial special version of this latter molecular measurement type (“mixed measurement” as its origin. It is furthermore suggested that this intracellular regressive algorithmical dynamics is a component of biological “motion”, the other, strongly coupled component being the macroscopic phenotypic motion. The biological “invariant of motion” of this hierarchically coupled overall generalized dynamics is suggested to be the evolutionally converged invariant genetic code vocabulary. It forms, possibly, the underlying internal “driving force” of evolution, as being “struggle for life”.
Quantum field kinetics of QCD: Quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone-dominated processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geiger, K.
1996-01-01
A quantum-kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of nonequilibrium multiparton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the open-quote open-quote closed-time-path close-quote close-quote Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the two-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the open-quote open-quote two-scale nature close-quote close-quote of light-cone-dominated QCD processes, i.e., the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary interactions, the quantum field equations of motion are converted into a corresponding set of open-quote open-quote renormalization equations close-quote close-quote and open-quote open-quote transport equations.close-quote close-quote The former describe renormalization and dissipation effects through the evolution of the spectral density of individual, dressed partons, whereas the latter determine the statistical occurrence of scattering processes among these dressed partons. The renormalization equations and the transport equations are coupled, and, hence, must be solved self-consistently. This amounts to evolving the multiparton system, from a specified initial configuration, in time and full seven-dimensional phase space, constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (Abstract Truncated)
Interacting systems far from equilibrium quantum kinetic theory
Morawetz, Klaus
2018-01-01
This book presents an up-to-date formalism of non-equilibrium Green's functions covering different applications ranging from solid state physics, plasma physics, cold atoms in optical lattices up to relativistic transport and heavy ion collisions. Within the Green's function formalism, the basic sets of equations for these diverse systems are similar, and approximations developed in one field can be adapted to another field. The central object is the self-energy which includes all non-trivial aspects of the system dynamics. The focus is therefore on microscopic processes starting from elementary principles for classical gases and the complementary picture of a single quantum particle in a random potential. This provides an intuitive picture of the interaction of a particle with the medium formed by other particles, on which the Green's function is built on.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.
1997-01-01
This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)
Radjavi, Heydar
2003-01-01
This broad survey spans a wealth of studies on invariant subspaces, focusing on operators on separable Hilbert space. Largely self-contained, it requires only a working knowledge of measure theory, complex analysis, and elementary functional analysis. Subjects include normal operators, analytic functions of operators, shift operators, examples of invariant subspace lattices, compact operators, and the existence of invariant and hyperinvariant subspaces. Additional chapters cover certain results on von Neumann algebras, transitive operator algebras, algebras associated with invariant subspaces,
Recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in InGaAs/InP quantum wells
Tito, M. A.; Pusep, Yu. A.; Gold, A.; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; LaPierre, R. R.
2016-03-01
The electron transport and recombination processes of photoexcited electron-hole pairs were studied in InGaAs/InP single quantum wells. Comprehensive transport data analysis reveals a asymmetric shape of the quantum well potential where the electron mobility was found to be dominated by interface-roughness scattering. The low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence was employed to investigate recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons. Remarkable modification of Auger recombination was observed with variation of the electron mobility. In high mobility quantum wells, the increasing pump power resulted in a new and unexpected phenomenon: a considerably enhanced Auger non-radiative recombination time. We propose that the distribution of the photoexcited electrons over different conduction band valleys might account for this effect. In low mobility quantum wells, disorder-induced relaxation of the momentum conservation rule causes inter-valley transitions to be insignificant; as a consequence, the non-radiative recombination time is reduced with the increase in pump power. Thus, interface-roughness scattering was found responsible for both transport properties and dynamic optical response in InGaAs/InP quantum wells.
Mora-Sero, Ivan
2013-08-12
Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Gao, Jiali; Major, Dan T; Fan, Yao; Lin, Yen-Lin; Ma, Shuhua; Wong, Kin-Yiu
2008-01-01
A method for incorporating quantum mechanics into enzyme kinetics modeling is presented. Three aspects are emphasized: 1) combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical methods are used to represent the potential energy surface for modeling bond forming and breaking processes, 2) instantaneous normal mode analyses are used to incorporate quantum vibrational free energies to the classical potential of mean force, and 3) multidimensional tunneling methods are used to estimate quantum effects on the reaction coordinate motion. Centroid path integral simulations are described to make quantum corrections to the classical potential of mean force. In this method, the nuclear quantum vibrational and tunneling contributions are not separable. An integrated centroid path integral-free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling (PI-FEP/UM) method along with a bisection sampling procedure was summarized, which provides an accurate, easily convergent method for computing kinetic isotope effects for chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. In the ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (EA-VTST/MT), these three aspects of quantum mechanical effects can be individually treated, providing useful insights into the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. These methods are illustrated by applications to a model process in the gas phase, the decarboxylation reaction of N-methyl picolinate in water, and the proton abstraction and reprotonation process catalyzed by alanine racemase. These examples show that the incorporation of quantum mechanical effects is essential for enzyme kinetics simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudarev, S.L.
1988-01-01
A quantum kinetic equation for the particle density matrix in a crystal is formulated. It describes inelastic collisions without recourse to the Born approximation in the problem of scattering by an atom or nucleus. A solution is found of the problem of spin incoherent scattering and depolarization of neutrons in a thick crystal. Analytic expressions are obtained for the intensity distribution in Kossel patterns arising on diffraction of the particles emitted from the crystal. Resonance singularities in the backscattering angular spectrum are observed which are similar to those encountered in the problem of weak localization of waves in a randomly inhomogeneous medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2006-01-01
In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... to a dynamical modification of the properties of the system within an excitation pulse duration. We calculate the excitation kinetics of a biased quantum well and the dependency of resulting electronic and optical properties on the excitation pulse fluence, quantum well width,and initial bias field strength. Our...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...
Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.
Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D
2016-03-01
Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.
Rostamian, Rahele; Behnejad, Hassan
2018-01-01
Recently, pharmaceutically active compounds including antibiotics have been detected in drinking water at very low levels, mostly nanogram/liter concentrations, proposing that these materials were unaffected by water treatment processes. Adsorption processes were suggested to play a significant role in the removal of antibiotics. In this study, the adsorption behavior of doxycycline (DC) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The four factors influencing the adsorption of DC onto graphene nanosheet (GNS) were studied. The results showed that initial pH ∼ 6 to 7 and contact time ∼ 200 min are optimum. The monolayer adsorption capacity was reduced with the increasing temperature from 25 to 45 °C. Nonlinear regressions were carried out to define the best fit model for every system. Among various models, the Hill isotherm model represented the equilibrium adsorption data of antibiotics while the kinetic data were well fitted by the Elovich kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity (q max ) was 110 mg.g -1 , obtained from the Hill equation. Semiempirical molecular orbital theory was used to investigate the molecular interaction of the adsorption system. The experiments and semiempirical computation have systematically demonstrated that DC could be adsorbed onto GNS by π- π and electrostatic interactions. It was shown that there is a good compromise with the experimental results. Graphical abstract Insights into doxycycline adsorption onto graphene nanosheet: quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetic study.
Quantum chemistry investigation of secondary reaction kinetics in acrylate-based copolymers.
Cuccato, Danilo; Mavroudakis, Evangelos; Moscatelli, Davide
2013-05-30
Recently, a growing amount of attention has been focused on the influence of secondary reactions on the free radical polymerization features and the properties and microstructure of the final polymer, particularly in the context of acrylate copolymers. One of the most challenging aspects of this research is the accurate determination of the corresponding reaction kinetics. In this paper, this problem is addressed using quantum chemistry. The reaction rate coefficients of various backbiting, propagation, and β-scission steps are estimated considering different chain configurations of a terpolymer system composed of methyl acrylate, styrene, and methyl methacrylate. The replacement of methyl acrylate radical units with styrene and methyl methacrylate globally decreases the backbiting probability and shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants, while the effect of replacing adjacent units is weaker and more dependent upon the specific substituting monomer. Propagation kinetics is affected primarily by the replacement of the radical units, while this effect appears to be particularly effective on midchain radical reactivity. The overall results clarify the different physicochemical behavior of chain-end, midchain, and short-branch radicals as a function of copolymer composition, providing new insights into free radical polymerization kinetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin
2015-01-01
We develop a population and flux landscape theory for general non-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our theory by modelling the quantum transport of donor-acceptor energy transfer. We find two driving forces for the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. The symmetric part of the driving force corresponds to the population landscape contribution which mainly governs the equilibrium part of dynamics while the anti-symmetric part of the driving force generates the non-equilibrium curl quantum flux which leads to the detailed-balance-breaking and time-irreversibility. The multi-loop structure of the flux emerges forms the flux-landscape. We study the trend of changes in population and flux-landscape with respect to the voltage (temperature difference induced by environments) and electronic coupling. Improving the voltage and electronic coupling in general facilitates the quantum transport by reducing the population landscape barriers between major states and increasing the mean value of the flux. A limit-cycle mode emerges when the underlying flux-landscape becomes funnelled with a significant gap between the largest flux loop and the rest of them. On the kinetic level, we find that multiple kinetic paths between quantum states emerge and illustrate the interference effects. The degree of interference is determined by the landscape and flux. Furthermore, we quantify kinetic rate which strongly correlates with the population landscape and flux. For quantum transport, we demonstrate that as the coherence or the quantum entanglement is enhanced, the flux and energy transfer efficiency are increased. Finally it is surprising that the non-equilibriumness quantified by voltage has a non-trivial contribution on strengthening the entanglement, which is attributed to the non-local feature of the quantum curl flux. (paper)
Femtosecond spectroscopy in semiconductors: a key to coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axt, V M; Kuhn, T
2004-01-01
The application of femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor materials and nanostructures is reviewed with particular emphasis on the physics that can be learned from it. Excitation with ultrashort optical pulses in general results in the creation of coherent superpositions and correlated many-particle states. The review comprises a discussion of the dynamics of this correlated many-body system during and after pulsed excitation as well as its analysis by means of refined measurements and advanced theories. After an introduction of basic concepts-such as coherence, correlation and quantum kinetics-a brief overview of the most important experimental techniques and theoretical approaches is given. The remainder of this paper is devoted to specific results selected in order to highlight how femtosecond spectroscopy gives access to the physics of coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics involving charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. First examples deal with the dynamics of basic laser-induced coherences that can be observed, e.g. in quantum beat spectroscopy, in coherent control measurements or in experiments using few-cycle pulses. The phenomena discussed here are basic in the sense that they can be understood to a large extent on the mean-field level of the theory. Nevertheless, already on this level it is found that semiconductors behave substantially differently from atomic systems. Subsequent sections report on the occurrence of coherences and correlations beyond the mean-field level that are mediated either by carrier-phonon or carrier-carrier interactions. The corresponding analysis gives deep insight into fundamental issues such as the energy-time uncertainty, pure dephasing in quantum dot structures, the role of two-pair or even higher correlations and the build-up of screening. Finally results are presented concerning the ultrafast dynamics of resonantly coupled excitations, where a combination of different
Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics
Shizgal, Bernard
2015-01-01
This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...
State-to-State Internal Energy Relaxation Following the Quantum-Kinetic Model in DSMC
Liechty, Derek S.
2014-01-01
A new model for chemical reactions, the Quantum-Kinetic (Q-K) model of Bird, has recently been introduced that does not depend on macroscopic rate equations or values of local flow field data. Subsequently, the Q-K model has been extended to include reactions involving charged species and electronic energy level transitions. Although this is a phenomenological model, it has been shown to accurately reproduce both equilibrium and non-equilibrium reaction rates. The usefulness of this model becomes clear as local flow conditions either exceed the conditions used to build previous models or when they depart from an equilibrium distribution. Presently, the applicability of the relaxation technique is investigated for the vibrational internal energy mode. The Forced Harmonic Oscillator (FHO) theory for vibrational energy level transitions is combined with the Q-K energy level transition model to accurately reproduce energy level transitions at a reduced computational cost compared to the older FHO models.
Wu, Jianlan; Tang, Zhoufei; Gong, Zhihao; Cao, Jianshu; Mukamel, Shaul
2015-04-02
The energy absorbed in a light-harvesting protein complex is often transferred collectively through aggregated chromophore clusters. For population evolution of chromophores, the time-integrated effective rate matrix allows us to construct quantum kinetic clusters quantitatively and determine the reduced cluster-cluster transfer rates systematically, thus defining a minimal model of energy-transfer kinetics. For Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) and light-havrvesting complex II (LCHII) monomers, quantum Markovian kinetics of clusters can accurately reproduce the overall energy-transfer process in the long-time scale. The dominant energy-transfer pathways are identified in the picture of aggregated clusters. The chromophores distributed extensively in various clusters can assist a fast and long-range energy transfer.
Modern Tests of Lorentz Invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mattingly David
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, a tremendous amount of effort over the past decade has gone into testing Lorentz invariance in various regimes. This review summarizes both the theoretical frameworks for tests of Lorentz invariance and experimental advances that have made new high precision tests possible. The current constraints on Lorentz violating effects from both terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations are presented.
Kinetic energy classification and smoothing for compact B-spline basis sets in quantum Monte Carlo
Krogel, Jaron T.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
2018-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of defect properties of transition metal oxides have become feasible in recent years due to increases in computing power. As the system size has grown, availability of on-node memory has become a limiting factor. Saving memory while minimizing computational cost is now a priority. The main growth in memory demand stems from the B-spline representation of the single particle orbitals, especially for heavier elements such as transition metals where semi-core states are present. Despite the associated memory costs, splines are computationally efficient. In this work, we explore alternatives to reduce the memory usage of splined orbitals without significantly affecting numerical fidelity or computational efficiency. We make use of the kinetic energy operator to both classify and smooth the occupied set of orbitals prior to splining. By using a partitioning scheme based on the per-orbital kinetic energy distributions, we show that memory savings of about 50% is possible for select transition metal oxide systems. For production supercells of practical interest, our scheme incurs a performance penalty of less than 5%.
Extension of the quantum-kinetic model to lunar and Mars return physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liechty, D. S.; Lewis, M. J.
2014-01-01
The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high-mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. A recently introduced molecular-level chemistry model, the quantum-kinetic, or Q-K, model that predicts reaction rates for gases in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties, is extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. Like the Q-K procedures for neutral species chemical reactions, these new models are phenomenological procedures that aim to reproduce the reaction/transition rates but do not necessarily capture the exact physics. These engineering models are necessarily efficient due to the requirement to compute billions of simulated collisions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. The new models are shown to generally agree within the spread of reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near equilibrium conditions
The integrable quantum group invariant A2n−1(2 and Dn+1(2 open spin chains
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Rafael I. Nepomechie
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A family of A2n(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Cn symmetry was recently identified in arXiv:1702.01482. We identify here in a similar way a family of A2n−1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Dn symmetry, and two families of Dn+1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Bn symmetry. We discuss the consequences of these symmetries for the degeneracies and multiplicities of the spectrum. We propose Bethe ansatz solutions for two of these models, whose completeness we check numerically for small values of n and chain length N. We find formulas for the Dynkin labels in terms of the numbers of Bethe roots of each type, which are useful for determining the corresponding degeneracies. In an appendix, we briefly consider Dn+1(2 chains with other integrable boundary conditions, which do not have quantum group symmetry.
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2014-03-07
This Letter presents a search for quantum black-hole production using 20.3 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at the LHC at √s = 8 TeV. The quantum black holes are assumed to decay into a final state characterized by a lepton (electron or muon) and a jet. In either channel, no event with a lepton-jet invariant mass of 3.5 TeV or more is observed, consistent with the expected background. Limits are set on the product of cross sections and branching fractions for the lepton+jet final states of quantum black holes produced in a search region for invariant masses above 1 TeV. The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5 TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3 TeV in the model considered.
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Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2014-03-05
This Letter presents a search for quantum black-hole production using 20.3 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at the LHC at √s = 8TeV. The quantum black holes are assumed to decay into a lepton (electron or muon) and a jet. In either channel, no event with a lepton–jet invariant mass of 3.5TeV or more is observed, consistent with the expected background. Limits are set on the product of cross sections and branching fractions for the lepton+jet final states of quantum black holes produced in a search region for invariant masses above 1TeV. The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3TeV in the model considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Suvajit [Department of Chemistry, Hetampur Raj High School, Hetampur, Birbhum 731124, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)
2013-09-23
Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dopant propagation is damped. • Confinement sources couple with damping. • The coupling influences the excitation kinetics. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot as the dopant is propagating. The study assumes importance because of its intimate connection with impurity drift in nanodevices. The problem has been made more realistic by considering the dopant propagation to be damped. For simplicity, we have considered an inherently linear motion of the dopant with a Gaussian potential. The damping strength and the dot confinement sources of electric and magnetic origin have been found to fabricate the said kinetics in a delicate way. The present study sheds light on how the individual or combined variation of different confinement sources could design the excitation kinetics in presence of damping. However, in the overdamped region, we find attainment of stabilization in the excitation rate. The present investigation is believed to provide some useful perceptions in the phenomenon of damping that has potential importance in nanoelectronic applications.
Quantum Chemical Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Effects on Combustion Kinetics.
Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S
2017-05-18
In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O 2 ), diluted with CO 2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO 2 and H 2 O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO 2 at supercritical state (sCO 2 ). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO 2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule. All transition states and reactant and product complexes are reported for three reactions: H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 (R1), 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 (R2), and CO + OH → CO 2 + H (R3). In reaction R3, covalent binding of CO 2 to the OH radical and then the CO molecule opens a new pathway, including hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms followed by CH bond dissociation. Compared to the bimolecular OH + CO mechanism, this pathway reduces the activation barrier by 5 kcal/mol and is expected to accelerate the reaction. In the case of hydroperoxyl self-reaction 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 the intermediates, containing covalent bonds to CO 2 are found not to be competitive. However, the spectator CO 2 molecule can stabilize the cyclic transition state and lower the barrier by 3 kcal/mol. Formation of covalent intermediates is also discovered in the H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 reaction, but these species lead to substantially higher activation barriers, which makes them unlikely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide also stabilizes the transition state and reduces the reaction barrier. These results indicate that the CO 2 environment is likely to have a catalytic effect on combustion reactions, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO 2 .
Adsorption kinetics of WS2 quantum dots onto a polycrystalline gold surface.
Ozhukil Valappil, Manila; Roopesh, Mekkat; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K
2018-04-18
In this work, we report the adsorption kinetics of electrochemically synthesized WS2 quantum dots (ca. 3 nm) onto a polycrystalline gold electrode. Langmuir adsorption isotherm approach was employed to explore the temperature and adsorbate concentration dependence of experimentally calculated equilibrium constant of adsorption (Keq) and free energy for adsorption (ΔGads). Subsequently, we extract other thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption rate constant (Kads), desorption rate constant (Kd), the enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHads) and the entropy of adsorption (ΔSads). Our findings indicate that ΔGads is temperature dependent and ca. -1.74 kcal mol-1, ΔHads = -10.697 kcal mol-1 and ΔSads = -30 cal/(mol.K). These investigations on the contribution of the enthalpic and entropic forces to the total free energy of this system underscore the role of entropic forces on the stability of the WS2 QDs monolayer and provide new thermodynamic insights into other TMDQDs monolayers as well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raković, Milun J
2011-01-01
The standard quantum mechanical description of the motion of a charged particle in the field of a stationary magnetic monopole is notorious for the presence of unnatural singularities in the Hamiltonian operator originating in the vector potential A(r) used to describe the magnetic field of the monopole. In this paper, an elementary quantum mechanical formulation of the problem which involves only the physically observable field B(r) is presented. This is achieved by treating as a fundamental observable of the charged particle its kinetic momentum instead of the linear momentum p. An irreducible representation of the fundamental commutation relations involving the operators r-hat. It is shown that the existence of an irreducible representation requires that Dirac’s charge quantization condition is satisfied. Also, it is demonstrated that, from the quantum mechanical perspective, the singularities (appearing when the vector potential is introduced) are in fact properties of coordinate representations of the fundamental commutation relations. (paper)
Supersymmetric gauge invariant interaction revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.W.; Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro; Barcelos Neto, J.
1983-01-01
A supersymmetric Lagrangian invariant under local U(1) gauge transformations is written in terms of a non-chiral superfield which substitute the usual vector supermultiplet together with chiral and anti-chiral superfields. The Euler equations allow us to obtain the off-shell version of the usual Lagrangian for supersymmetric quantum-electrodynamics (SQED). (Author) [pt
Tensor network methods for invariant theory
Biamonte, Jacob; Bergholm, Ville; Lanzagorta, Marco
2013-11-01
Invariant theory is concerned with functions that do not change under the action of a given group. Here we communicate an approach based on tensor networks to represent polynomial local unitary invariants of quantum states. This graphical approach provides an alternative to the polynomial equations that describe invariants, which often contain a large number of terms with coefficients raised to high powers. This approach also enables one to use known methods from tensor network theory (such as the matrix product state (MPS) factorization) when studying polynomial invariants. As our main example, we consider invariants of MPSs. We generate a family of tensor contractions resulting in a complete set of local unitary invariants that can be used to express the Rényi entropies. We find that the graphical approach to representing invariants can provide structural insight into the invariants being contracted, as well as an alternative, and sometimes much simpler, means to study polynomial invariants of quantum states. In addition, many tensor network methods, such as MPSs, contain excellent tools that can be applied in the study of invariants.
Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M
2015-06-06
This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We
Conformal invariance in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, E.A.
1983-01-01
In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)
Scale invariant transfer matrices and Hamiltionians
Jones, Vaughan F. R.
2018-03-01
Given a direct system of Hilbert spaces s\\mapsto {\\mathcal H}s (with isometric inclusion maps \\iota_s^t:{\\mathcal H}_s→ {\\mathcal H}t for s≤slant t ) corresponding to quantum systems on scales s, we define notions of scale invariant and weakly scale invariant operators. In some cases of quantum spin chains we find conditions for transfer matrices and nearest neighbour Hamiltonians to be scale invariant or weakly so. Scale invariance forces spatial inhomogeneity of the spectral parameter. But weakly scale invariant transfer matrices may be spatially homogeneous in which case the change of spectral parameter from one scale to another is governed by a classical dynamical system exhibiting fractal behaviour.
Kozuch, Sebastian; Shaik, Sason
2008-07-03
A combined kinetic-quantum chemical model is developed with the goal of estimating in a straightforward way the turnover frequency (TOF) of catalytic cycles, based on the state energies obtained by quantum chemical calculations. We describe how the apparent activation energy of the whole cycle, so-called energetic span (delta E), is influenced by the energy levels of two species: the TOF determining transition state (TDTS) and the TOF determining intermediate (TDI). Because these key species need not be adjoining states, we conclude that for catalysis there are no rate-determining steps, only rate determining states. In addition, we add here the influence of reactants concentrations. And, finally, the model is applied to the Haber-Bosch process of ammonia synthesis, for which we show how to calculate which catalyst will be the most effective under specific reagents conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teeny, Nicolas; Fähnle, Manfred
2013-01-01
In the density-matrix formalism of electron–phonon quantum kinetics, the hierarchy of infinitely many coupled equations of motion for the expectation values of products of electron and phonon creation and annihilation operators of arbitrary order is usually terminated on the level of the equations of motion for the expectation values of three-operator products by using decoupling procedures for the four-operator products occurring in these equations. In the literature, decoupling procedures are discussed for special types of electron and phonon states. In the present paper, generalized decoupling procedures are derived for arbitrary electron and phonon states. (paper)
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti......Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...
Invariants in probabilistic reasoning.
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul
2018-02-01
Recent research has identified three invariants or identities that appear to hold in people's probabilistic reasoning: the QQ identity, the addition law identity, and the Bayes rule identity (Costello and Watts, 2014, 2016a, Fisher and Wolfe, 2014, Wang and Busemeyer, 2013, Wang et al., 2014). Each of these identities represent specific agreement with the requirements of normative probability theory; strikingly, these identities seem to hold in people's judgements despite the presence of strong and systematic biases against the requirements of normative probability theory in those very same judgements. These results suggest that the systematic biases seen in people's probabilistic reasoning follow mathematical rules: for these particular identities, these rules cause an overall cancellation of biases and so produce agreement with normative requirements. We assess two competing mathematical models of probabilistic reasoning (the 'probability theory plus noise' model and the 'quantum probability' model) in terms of their ability to account for this pattern of systematic biases and invariant identities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modified dispersion relations, inflation, and scale invariance
Bianco, Stefano; Friedhoff, Victor Nicolai; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2018-02-01
For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to redshift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This requires nontrivial background dynamics before the onset of standard radiation-dominated cosmology; we demonstrate that one possible solution is inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, for this slow roll is not necessary. In addition, we also show that if the slow-roll condition is added to inflation with a large Hubble rate, then for any power law modified dispersion relation quantum vacuum fluctuations become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius.
Spin foam diagrammatics and topological invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girelli, Florian; Oeckl, Robert; Perez, Alejandro
2002-01-01
We provide a simple proof of the topological invariance of the Turaev-Viro model (corresponding to simplicial 3D pure Euclidean gravity with cosmological constant) by means of a novel diagrammatic formulation of the state sum models for quantum BF theories. Moreover, we prove the invariance under more general conditions allowing the state sum to be defined on arbitrary cellular decompositions of the underlying manifold. Invariance is governed by a set of identities corresponding to local gluing and rearrangement of cells in the complex. Due to the fully algebraic nature of these identities our results extend to a vast class of quantum groups. The techniques introduced here could be relevant for investigating the scaling properties of non-topological state sums, proposed as models of quantum gravity in 4D, under refinement of the cellular decomposition
Knot invariants and higher representation theory
Webster, Ben
2018-01-01
The author constructs knot invariants categorifying the quantum knot variants for all representations of quantum groups. He shows that these invariants coincide with previous invariants defined by Khovanov for \\mathfrak{sl}_2 and \\mathfrak{sl}_3 and by Mazorchuk-Stroppel and Sussan for \\mathfrak{sl}_n. The author's technique is to study 2-representations of 2-quantum groups (in the sense of Rouquier and Khovanov-Lauda) categorifying tensor products of irreducible representations. These are the representation categories of certain finite dimensional algebras with an explicit diagrammatic presentation, generalizing the cyclotomic quotient of the KLR algebra. When the Lie algebra under consideration is \\mathfrak{sl}_n, the author shows that these categories agree with certain subcategories of parabolic category \\mathcal{O} for \\mathfrak{gl}_k.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gladush M.G.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We obtained the system of Maxwell-Bloch equations (MB that describe the interaction of cw laser with optically active impurity centers (particles embedded in a dielectric material. The dielectric material is considered as a continuous medium with sufficient laser detuning from its absorption lines. The model takes into account the effects associated with both the real and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the material. MB equations were derived within a many-particle quantum-kinetic formalism, which is based on Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY hierarchy for reduced density matrices and correlation operators of material particles and the quantized radiation field modes. It is shown that this method is beneficial to describe the effects of individual and collective behavior of the light emitters and requires no phenomenological procedures. It automatically takes into account the characteristics associated with the presence of non-resonant and resonant particles filling the space between the optical centers.
Trace anomaly and invariance under transformation of units
Namavarian, Nadereh
2017-05-01
Paying attention to conformal invariance as the invariance under local transformations of units of measure, we take a conformal-invariant quantum field as a quantum matter theory in which one has the freedom to choose the values of units of mass, length, and time arbitrarily at each point. To be able to have this view, it is necessary that the background on which the quantum field is based be conformal invariant as well. Consequently, defining the unambiguous expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor of such a quantum field through the Wald renormalizing prescription necessitates breaking down the conformal symmetry of the background. Then, noticing the field equations suitable for describing the backreaction effect, we show that the existence of the "trace anomaly," known for indicating the brokenness of conformal symmetry in quantum field theory, can also indicate the above "gravitational" conformal symmetry brokenness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.
2003-01-01
We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...
In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.
Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong
2015-09-01
Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 μg virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
Euler and Navier endash Stokes limits of the Uehling endash Uhlenbeck quantum kinetic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arlotti, L.; Lachowicz, M.
1997-01-01
The Uehling endash Uhlenbeck evolution equations for gases of identical quantum particles either fermions or bosons, in the case in which the collision kernel does not depend on the distribution function, are considered. The existence of solutions and their asymptotic relations with solutions of the hydrodynamic equations both at the level of the Euler system and at the level of the Navier endash Stokes system are proved. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Physical Invariants of Intelligence
Zak, Michail
2010-01-01
A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
InAs/GaAs quantum dot capping in kinetically limited MOVPE growth regime
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Vyskočil, Jan; Oswald, Jiří; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Caha, O.; Hazdra, P.; Kuldová, Karla; Hulicius, Eduard
2011-01-01
Roč. 317, č. 1 (2011), s. 39-42 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA ČR GAP108/10/0253; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GA202/09/0676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : low dimensional structures * photoluminescence * low-pressure MOVPE * InAs/GaAs quantum dot s * semiconducting III–V materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2011
Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. II. Radical-pair reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana
Chia, A.; Górecka, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.
2016-03-01
We apply the quantum-walk approach proposed in the preceding paper [A. Chia et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032407] to a radical-pair reaction where realistic estimates for the intermediate transition rates are available. The well-known average hitting time from quantum walks can be adopted as a measure of how quickly the reaction occurs and we calculate this for varying degrees of dephasing in the radical pair. The time for the radical pair to react to a product is found to be independent of the amount of dephasing introduced, even in the limit of no dephasing where the transient population dynamics exhibits strong coherent oscillations. This can be seen to arise from the existence of a rate-limiting step in the reaction and we argue that in such examples, a purely classical model based on rate equations can be used for estimating the time scale of the reaction but not necessarily its population dynamics.
Construction of exact complex dynamical invariant of a two ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dimensional classical dynamical system on an extended complex space utilizing Lie algebraic approach. These invariants are expected to play a vital role in understanding the complex trajectories of both classical and quantum systems.
Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory
Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju
2018-03-01
In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.
Observation of the Efimovian Expansion in Scale Invariant Fermi Gases
Deng, Shujin; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Diao, Pengpeng; Yu, Qianli; Zhai, Hui; Qi, Ran; Wu, Haibin
2015-01-01
Scale invariance emerges and plays an important role in strongly correlated many-body systems such as critical regimes nearby phase transitions and the unitary Fermi gases. Discrete scaling symmetry also manifests itself in quantum few-body systems such as the Efimov effect. Here we report both theoretical predication and experimental observation of a novel type expansion dynamics for scale invariant quantum gases. When the frequency of the harmonic trap holding the gas decreases continuously...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mounir Maafi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The lack of integrated rate-laws for photoreactions has led to carry out the treatment of drugs photodegradation kinetic data using the classical zeroth-, first-, and second-order kinetics that were originally developed for thermal reactions. The recent developments of Φ-order kinetic models has opened new perspectives in the treatment of photoreaction kinetics of systems involving a photolabile molecule (A transforming into a photochemically and thermally stable product (B, that is, the AB(1Φ photoreaction systems. Within this framework, the kinetics of cardiovascular and photosensitive drug nisoldipine (NIS has been rationalised. Continuous and monochromatic irradiation of NIS in ethanol obeyed Φ-order kinetics with a sigmoid-shaped quantum yield variation with irradiation wavelength (0.0041–0.35 within 235–390 nm spectral region. Both NIS initial concentration-induced self-photostabilisation effect and the photostabilisation by absorption competitors were quantified (up 70% and related to a reduction of the photokinetic factor. Finally, the Φ-order kinetics also served to demonstrate the actinometric potential of NIS for the 320–400 nm dynamic range.
Computational invariant theory
Derksen, Harm
2015-01-01
This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...
Random SU(2) invariant tensors
Li, Youning; Han, Muxin; Ruan, Dong; Zeng, Bei
2018-04-01
SU(2) invariant tensors are states in the (local) SU(2) tensor product representation but invariant under the global group action. They are of importance in the study of loop quantum gravity. A random tensor is an ensemble of tensor states. An average over the ensemble is carried out when computing any physical quantities. The random tensor exhibits a phenomenon known as ‘concentration of measure’, which states that for any bipartition the average value of entanglement entropy of its reduced density matrix is asymptotically the maximal possible as the local dimensions go to infinity. We show that this phenomenon is also true when the average is over the SU(2) invariant subspace instead of the entire space for rank-n tensors in general. It is shown in our earlier work Li et al (2017 New J. Phys. 19 063029) that the subleading correction of the entanglement entropy has a mild logarithmic divergence when n = 4. In this paper, we show that for n > 4 the subleading correction is not divergent but a finite number. In some special situation, the number could be even smaller than 1/2, which is the subleading correction of random state over the entire Hilbert space of tensors.
Shim, J H; Wall, M; Benkovic, S J; Díaz, N; Suárez, D; Merz, K M
2001-05-23
The catalytic mechanism of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR Tfase) is evaluated with pH dependent kinetics, site-directed mutagenesis, and quantum chemical calculations. The chemistry step, represented by the burst rates, was not pH-dependent, which is consistent with our proposed mechanism that the 4-carboxamide of AICAR assists proton shuttling. Quantum chemical calculations on a model system of 5-amino-4-carboxamide imidazole (AICA) and formamide using the B3LYP/6-31G level of theory confirmed that the 4-carboxamide participated in the proton-shuttling mechanism. The result also indicated that the amide-assisted mechanism is concerted such that the proton transfers from the 5-amino group to the formamide are simultaneous with nucleophilic attack by the 5-amino group. Because the process does not lead to a kinetically stable intermediate, the intramolecular proton transfer from the 5-amino group through the 4-carboxamide to the formamide proceeds in the same transition state. Interestingly, the calculations predicted that protonation of the N3 of the imidazole of AICA would reduce the energy barrier significantly. However, the pK(a) of the imidazole of AICAR was determined to be 3.23 +/- 0.01 by NMR titration, and AICAR is likely to bind to the enzyme with its imidazole in the free base form. An alternative pathway was suggested by modeling Lys266 to have a hydrogen-bonding interaction with the N3 of the imidazole of AICAR. Lys266 has been implicated in catalysis based on mutagenesis studies and the recent X-ray structure of AICAR Tfase. The quantum chemical calculations on a model system that contains AICA complexed with CH3NH3+ as a mimic of the Lys residue confirmed that such an interaction lowered the activation energy of the reaction and likewise implicated the 4-carboxamide. To experimentally verify this hypothesis, we prepared the K266R mutant and found that its kcat is reduced by 150-fold from that of the wild type
Remark on shape invariant potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drigo Filho, Elso; Ricotta, Regina Maria
1997-01-01
For more than a decade, Supersymmetry has provided new information about ordinary quantum mechanical problems, and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics has become a field research by itself. If has been shown that the symmetry between two different systems that share energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of supersymmetry. From the knowledge of the ground state of a given potential it is possible to find another potential with the same energy spectrum, except for the ground state. In fact, from the use of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians and their degeneracy spectra it has become possible to determine a ladder of Hamiltonians and their spectra, only through the ground states of the ladder. Concerning the partner Hamiltonians with potentials V + and V - that are similar in shape but Differ in the parameters. Gedenshtein introduced in 1983 the concept of shape invariance. Here we propose an extension of this concept. It is formulated in terms of the functional form of the whole super-family and not only between any two members of the ladder. We give two examples where all the members of the super-family can be written in a general functional form and conclude that Gedenshtein's conditions of shape invariance is sufficient but not necessary in order to obtain the super-family. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya-Fen Chen
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d = 6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude.
Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity
Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang
2017-09-01
Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude
Non-relativistic and relativistic quantum kinetic equations in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botermans, W.M.M.
1989-01-01
In this thesis an attempt is made to draw up a quantummechanical tranport equation for the explicit calculation oof collision processes between two (heavy) ions, by making proper approaches of the exact equations (non-rel.: N-particles Schroedinger equation; rel.: Euler-Lagrange field equations.). An important starting point in the drag-up of the theory is the behaviour of nuclear matter in equilibrium which is determined by individual as well as collective effects. The central point in this theory is the effective interaction between two nucleons both surrounded by other nucleons. In the derivation of the tranport equations use is made of the green's function formalism as developed by Schwinger and Keldys. For the Green's function kinematic equations are drawn up and are solved by choosing a proper factorization of three- and four-particle Green's functions in terms of one- and two-particle Green's functions. The necessary boundary condition is obtained by explicitly making use of Boltzmann's assumption that colliding particles are statistically uncorrelated. Finally a transport equation is obtained in which the mean field as well as the nucleon-nucleon collisions are given by the same (medium dependent) interaction. This interaction is the non-equilibrium extension of the interaction as given in the Brueckner theory of nuclear matter. Together, kinetic equation and interaction, form a self-consistent set of equations for the case of a non-relativistic as well as for the case of a relativistic starting point. (H.W.) 148 refs.; 6 figs.; 411 schemes
Reparametrization invariance and the Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkach, V.I.; Pashnev, A.I.; Rosales, J.J.
1999-01-01
A time-dependent Schroedinger equation for systems invariant under the reparametrization of time is considered. We develop the two-stage procedure of construction such systems from a given initial ones, which are not invariant under the time reparametrization. One of the first-class constraints of the systems in such description becomes the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The procedure is applicable in the supersymmetric theories as well. The n = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics is coupled to world-line supergravity, and the local supersymmetric action is constructed leading to the square root representation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation
Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale.
Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee
2002-05-13
We propose a modification of special relativity in which a physical energy, which may be the Planck energy, joins the speed of light as an invariant, in spite of a complete relativity of inertial frames and agreement with Einstein's theory at low energies. This is accomplished by a nonlinear modification of the action of the Lorentz group on momentum space, generated by adding a dilatation to each boost in such a way that the Planck energy remains invariant. The associated algebra has unmodified structure constants. We also discuss the resulting modifications of field theory and suggest a modification of the equivalence principle which determines how the new theory is embedded in general relativity.
Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?
Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.
This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement
Marinetti, T; Subramaniam, S; Mogi, T; Marti, T; Khorana, H G
1989-01-01
Recently, a number of aspartic acid mutants of bacteriorhodopsin have been shown to be defective in steady-state proton transport. Here we report time-resolved measurements of light-induced proton release and uptake for these mutants. Proton transfers between the protein and the aqueous phase were directly monitored by measuring changes in the bulk conductivity of a micellar solution of bacteriorhodopsin. For the Asp-96----Asn mutant, proton uptake was slowed by greater than 1 order of magnitude with no observable effect on the release step. For Asp-85----Asn, H+ uptake occurred with normal kinetics, but the yield was significantly lower compared with either the Asp-96----Asn mutant or wild type, especially at pH 6. Substitution of glutamate for Asp-85 or Asp-96 had smaller but detectable effects on the kinetics and quantum yield of proton movements. Both asparagine and glutamate substitutions of aspartates at positions 115 and 212 lowered the proton quantum yields. Of these, only the Asp-115----Asn mutant showed an effect on the proton release step, and only the Asp-212----Glu mutation decreased the proton uptake rate. These experiments imply an obligatory role for Asp-96 in H+ uptake in the normal operation of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. The results also indicate that the amino acid substitutions affect the kinetics of either H+ release or H+ uptake, but not both. This implies that the two steps occur independently of each other after initiation of the photocycle.
Gauge invariance and Weyl-polymer quantization
Strocchi, Franco
2016-01-01
The book gives an introduction to Weyl non-regular quantization suitable for the description of physically interesting quantum systems, where the traditional Dirac-Heisenberg quantization is not applicable. The latter implicitly assumes that the canonical variables describe observables, entailing necessarily the regularity of their exponentials (Weyl operators). However, in physically interesting cases -- typically in the presence of a gauge symmetry -- non-observable canonical variables are introduced for the description of the states, namely of the relevant representations of the observable algebra. In general, a gauge invariant ground state defines a non-regular representation of the gauge dependent Weyl operators, providing a mathematically consistent treatment of familiar quantum systems -- such as the electron in a periodic potential (Bloch electron), the Quantum Hall electron, or the quantum particle on a circle -- where the gauge transformations are, respectively, the lattice translations, the magne...
Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V
1999-01-01
This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.
2007-06-13
The quantum instanton approximation is used to compute kinetic isotope effects for intramolecular hydrogen transfer in cis-1,3-pentadiene. Due to the importance of skeleton motions, this system with 13 atoms is a simple prototype for hydrogen transfer in enzymatic reactions. The calculation is carried out using thermodynamic integration with respect to the mass of the isotopes and a path integral Monte Carlo evaluation of relevant thermodynamic quantities. Efficient 'virial' estimators are derived for the logarithmic derivatives of the partition function and the delta-delta correlation functions. These estimators require significantly fewer Monte Carlo samples since their statistical error does not increase with the number of discrete time slices in the path integral. The calculation treats all 39 degrees of freedom quantum-mechanically and uses an empirical valence bond potential based on a modified general AMBER force field.
Wang, Wenji; Zhao, Yi
2012-12-07
Thermal rate constants for the title reaction are calculated by using the quantum instanton approximation within the full dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The results reveal that the quantum effect is remarkable for the reaction at both low and high temperatures, and the obtained rates are in good agreement with experimental measurements at high temperatures. Compared to the harmonic approximation, the torsional anharmonic effect of the internal rotation has a little influence on the rates at low temperatures, however, it enhances the rate by about 20% at 1000 K. In addition, the free energy barriers for the isotopic reactions and the temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects are also investigated. Generally speaking, for the title reaction, the replacement of OH with OD will reduce the free energy barrier, while substituting D for H (connected to C) will increase the free energy barrier.
Scale-invariant extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.
1991-01-01
We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential
Limit Cycles and Conformal Invariance
Fortin, Jean-Francois; Stergiou, Andreas
2013-01-01
There is a widely held belief that conformal field theories (CFTs) require zero beta functions. Nevertheless, the work of Jack and Osborn implies that the beta functions are not actually the quantites that decide conformality, but until recently no such behavior had been exhibited. Our recent work has led to the discovery of CFTs with nonzero beta functions, more precisely CFTs that live on recurrent trajectories, e.g., limit cycles, of the beta-function vector field. To demonstrate this we study the S function of Jack and Osborn. We use Weyl consistency conditions to show that it vanishes at fixed points and agrees with the generator Q of limit cycles on them. Moreover, we compute S to third order in perturbation theory, and explicitly verify that it agrees with our previous determinations of Q. A byproduct of our analysis is that, in perturbation theory, unitarity and scale invariance imply conformal invariance in four-dimensional quantum field theories. Finally, we study some properties of these new, "cycl...
Algorithms in invariant theory
Sturmfels, Bernd
2008-01-01
J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.
RG Cycles, Scale vs Conformal Invariance, and All That...
Fortin, J.-F.; Grinstein, B.; Stergiou, A.
Two long-standing questions in Quantum Field Theory have been recently answered, at least in perturbation theory. The first one is, are there recursive flows as solutions of the renormalization group equation (answer: yes). The second one is, can a theory display invariance under dilatations but not be conformally invariant? (answer: no). We review these results. In so doing we give a hopefully pedagogic derivation of the trace anomaly equation and of the Weyl consistency conditions of Jack and Osborn.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Chou.
1991-05-01
It is important but difficult to find the invariant groups for the differential equations. We found a new invariant group for the MKdV equation. In this paper, we present a new invariance for the CDF equation. By using this invariance, we obtain some new solutions of CDF equation. (author). 5 refs
Lorentz invariance in shape dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S; Gomes, Henrique
2015-01-01
Shape dynamics is a reframing of canonical general relativity in which time reparametrization invariance is ‘traded’ for a local conformal invariance. We explore the emergence of Lorentz invariance in this model in three contexts: as a maximal symmetry, an asymptotic symmetry and a local invariance. (paper)
Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos
2006-01-01
The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.
Noise resistant quantum control using dynamical invariants
Levy, Amikam; Kiely, A.; Muga, J. G.; Kosloff, R.; Torrontegui, E.
2018-02-01
A systematic approach to design robust control protocols against the influence of different types of noise is introduced. We present control schemes which protect the decay of the populations avoiding dissipation in the adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes and minimize the effect of dephasing. The effectiveness of the protocols is demonstrated in two different systems. Firstly, we present the case of population inversion of a two-level system in the presence of either one or two simultaneous noise sources. Secondly, we present an example of the expansion of coherent and thermal states in harmonic traps, subject to noise arising from monitoring and modulation of the control, respectively.
Quantum invariants of knots and 3-manifolds
Turaev, Vladimir G
2016-01-01
The series is devoted to the publication of monographs and high-level textbooks in mathematics, mathematical methods and their applications. Apart from covering important areas of current interest, a major aim is to make topics of an interdisciplinary nature accessible to the non-specialist. The works in this series are addressed to advanced students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics. In addition, it can serve as a guide for lectures and seminars on a graduate level. The series de Gruyter Studies in Mathematics was founded ca. 30 years ago by the late Professor Heinz Bauer and Professor Peter Gabriel with the aim to establish a series of monographs and textbooks of high standard, written by scholars with an international reputation presenting current fields of research in pure and applied mathematics. While the editorial board of the Studies has changed with the years, the aspirations of the Studies are unchanged. In times of rapid growth of mathematical knowledge carefully written monogr...
Conformal invariance in the quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurak, V.
1975-09-01
Basic features concerning the present knowledge of conformal symmetry are illustrated in a simple model. Composite field dimensions of this model are computed and related to the conformal group. (author) [pt
Robust Affine Invariant Descriptors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianwei Yang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An approach is developed for the extraction of affine invariant descriptors by cutting object into slices. Gray values associated with every pixel in each slice are summed up to construct affine invariant descriptors. As a result, these descriptors are very robust to additive noise. In order to establish slices of correspondence between an object and its affine transformed version, general contour (GC of the object is constructed by performing projection along lines with different polar angles. Consequently, affine in-variant division curves are derived. A slice is formed by points fall in the region enclosed by two adjacent division curves. To test and evaluate the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very robust to noise.
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolschin, Georg
2016-01-01
This course is a concise introduction to the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics. It is concipated as one-semester, two-hour arrangement for bachelor and master students; some of the advanced parts can be also of interest or promovings. Primary adressates are studyings from the fourth semester upwards, which have already worked out the basic course of quantum mechanics and want beyond to get to know relativistic wave equations. In the introduction I draw first the development, the result of which was the establishment of Lorentz-invariant relativistic wave equations by Schroedinger, Klein, Gordon, and Dirac. After a chapter about the connection to the Galilei-invariant nonrelativistic quantum mechanics follow the presentations of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac and the study of the Dirac theory in view of invariances concerning parity, charge conjugation, ant time-reversal transformation. A short introduction to the principles of quantum field theory, especially quantum electrodynamics, follows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-07-15
We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Ying; Xie Guangyun; Sun Zhiwei; Mu Ying; Han Sihai; Xiao Yang; Liu Na; Wang Hui; Guo Caixia; Shi Zhixiong; Li Yanbo; Huang Peili
2011-01-01
Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg −1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium–telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111 Cd and 125 Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.
Rahmanian, Omid; Dinari, Mohammad; Abdolmaleki, Mahmood Karimi
2018-01-01
Novel carbon quantum dots/zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide (CQD/ZnAl-LDH) composite was prepared through the precipitation of metal nitrates in the presence of CQD by a facile and simple method and further applied to remove excessive Cd(II) ions from water. The chemical composition and morphology of the CQDs/ZnAl-LDH hybrid was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Batch studies were done to evaluate the effects of the adsorption of Cd(II) by CQDs/ZnAl-LDH to optimize the major parameters such as pH, contact time, and initial concentration. The maximum uptake capacity of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH was only 12.60 mg/g at 20 min due to the available exterior sites on the adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH were also investigated. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of Cd(II) on CQDs/ZnAl-LDH were well-fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively.
Field transformations, collective coordinates and BRST invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.; Damgaard, P.H.
1989-12-01
A very large class of general field transformations can be viewed as a field theory generalization of the method of collective coordinates. The introduction of new variables induces a gauge invariance in the transformed theory, and the freedom left in gauge fixing this new invariance can be used to find equivalent formulations of the same theory. First the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky formalism is applied to the Hamiltonian formulation of physical systems that can be described in terms of collective coordinates. We then show how this type of collective coordinate scheme can be generalized to field transformations, and discuss the War Identities of the associated BRST invariance. For Yang-Mills theory a connection to topological field theory and the background field method is explained in detail. In general the resulting BRST invariance we find hidden in any quantum field theory can be viewed as a consequence of our freedom in choosing a basis of coordinates φ(χ) in the action S[φ]. (orig.)
Modular invariant gaugino condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, M.K.
1991-05-09
The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.
Perspective Projection Invariants,
1986-02-01
AD-AI67 793 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION INVARIANTS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/1~ OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB VERRI ET AL , FEB 86 AI-M-832...some stability properties. On the contrary, zeros of curvature of arbitrary 3D curves do not present any simple kindi of stability. Thus zeros of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bramson, B.D.
1978-01-01
An isolated system in general relativity makes a transition between stationary states. It is shown that the spin vectors of the system, long before and long after the emission of radiation, are supertranslation invariant and, hence, independent of the choice of Minkowski observation space. (author)
Invariants of generalized Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawala, V.K.
1981-01-01
Invariants and invariant multilinear forms are defined for generalized Lie algebras with arbitrary grading and commutation factor. Explicit constructions of invariants and vector operators are given by contracting invariant forms with basic elements of the generalized Lie algebra. The use of the matrix of a linear map between graded vector spaces is emphasized. With the help of this matrix, the concept of graded trace of a linear operator is introduced, which is a rich source of multilinear forms of degree zero. To illustrate the use of invariants, a characteristic identity similar to that of Green is derived and a few Racah coefficients are evaluated in terms of invariants
Mutation, Witten index, and quiver invariant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Heeyeon; Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin
2015-01-01
We explore Seiberg-like dualities, or mutations, for N=4 quiver quantum mechanics in the context of wall-crossing. In contrast to higher dimensions, the 1d Seiberg-duality must be performed with much care. With fixed Fayet-Iliopoulos constants, at most two nodes can be mutated, one left and the other right, mapping a chamber of a quiver into a chamber of a mutated quiver. We delineate this complex pattern for triangle quivers and show how the Witten indices are preserved under such finely chosen mutations. On the other hand, the quiver invariants, or wall-crossing-safe part of supersymmetric spectra, mutate more straightforwardly, whereby a quiver is mapped to a quiver. The mutation rule that preserves the quiver invariant is different from the usual one, however, which we explore and confirm numerically.
BRS invariant stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazawa, Naohito.
1989-11-01
We study stochastic quantization of gravity in terms of a BRS invariant canonical operator formalism. By introducing artificially canonical momentum variables for the original field variables, a canonical formulation of stochastic quantization is proposed in the sense that the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian is the generator of the fictitious time translation. Then we show that there exists a nilpotent BRS symmetry in an enlarged phase space of the first-class constrained systems. The phase space is spanned by the dynamical variables, their canonical conjugate momentum variables, Faddeev-Popov ghost and anti-ghost. We apply the general BRS invariant formulation to stochastic quantization of gravity which is described as a second-class constrained system in terms of a pair of Langevin equations coupled with white noises. It is shown that the stochastic action of gravity includes explicitly the De Witt's type superspace metric which leads to a geometrical interpretation of quantum gravity analogous to nonlinear σ-models. (author)
Quantum computation of scattering amplitudes in scalar quantum electrodynamics
Yeter-Aydeniz, Kübra; Siopsis, George
2018-02-01
We present a quantum algorithm for the calculation of scattering amplitudes of massive charged scalar particles in scalar quantum electrodynamics. Our algorithm is based on continuous-variable quantum computing architecture resulting in exponential speedup over classical methods. We derive a simple form of the Hamiltonian including interactions and a straightforward implementation of the constraint due to gauge invariance.
Analytic invariants of boundary links
Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome
2001-01-01
Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.
Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...
Status of time reversal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1989-01-01
Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.
2003-01-01
We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...
Reassessment of Bohm's quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, K.
1986-01-01
Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory is reexamined, with emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. Subjects of the discussion are the observability of 'hidden' variables, the applicability of Bohm's theory to spinor QED, the violation of Lorentz invariance, and variants of Bohm's theory. A formulation of causal quantum field theory in terms of distributions is also presented. (Author)
Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation
Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon
2011-01-01
We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.
Invariant scattering convolution networks.
Bruna, Joan; Mallat, Stéphane
2013-08-01
A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation which is stable to deformations and preserves high-frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors, whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information that improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explains important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having the same Fourier power spectrum. State-of-the-art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, with a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier.
2010-12-02
evaluating the function ΘP (A) for any fixed A,P is equivalent to solving the so-called Quadratic Assignment Problem ( QAP ), and thus we can employ various...tractable linear programming, spectral, and SDP relaxations of QAP [40, 11, 33]. In particular we discuss recent work [14] on exploiting group...symmetry in SDP relaxations of QAP , which is useful for approximately computing elementary convex graph invariants in many interesting cases. Finally in
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Flusser, Jan; Kautský, J.; Šroubek, Filip
2010-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 1 (2010), s. 72-86 ISSN 0920-5691 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Implicit invariants * Orthogonal polynomials * Polynomial image deformation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/flusser-0329394.pdf
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 10 (2004), s. 1364-1367 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : projective transform * moment invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040112.pdf
Higher dimensional gravity invariant under the Poincare group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salgado, P.; Cataldo, M.; Campo, S. del
2002-01-01
It is shown that the Stelle-West Grignani-Nardelli formalism allows, both when odd dimensions and when even dimensions are considered, constructing actions for higher dimensional gravity invariant under local Lorentz rotations and under local Poincare translations. It is also proved that such actions have the same coefficients as those obtained by Troncoso and Zanelli [Class. Quantum Grav. 17, 4451 (2000)
Invariant Distributionally Scrambled Manifolds for an Annihilation Operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinxing Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This note proves that the annihilation operator of a quantum harmonic oscillator admits an invariant distributionally ε-scrambled linear manifold for any 0<ε<2. This is a positive answer to Question 1 by Wu and Chen (2013.
Translational invariant shell model for Λ hypernuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jolos R.V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We extend shell model for Λ hypernuclei suggested by Gal and Millener by including 2ћω excitations in the translation invariant version to estimate yields of different hyperfragments from primary p-shell hypernuclei. We are inspired by the first successful experiment done at MAMI which opens way to study baryon decay of hypernuclei. We use quantum numbers of group SU(4, [f], and SU(3, (λμ, to classify basis wave functions and calculate coefficients of fractional parentage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam [Doctorado en Biología Experimental, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-I) (Mexico); Facultad de Agrobiología, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala, San Pedro Xalcatzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala CP 90180 (Mexico); González-Pérez, Manuel [Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla CP 72410 (Mexico); Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, D.F (Mexico); Sánchez, Carmen, E-mail: sanher6@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala CP. 90062 (Mexico)
2016-10-01
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X{sub max}), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X{sub max} occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t{sub 1/2} were 0.024 h{sup −1} and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.
Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schleich, W.P.; Dahl, Jens Peder
2002-01-01
Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number N of particles. We present a quantum state of N noninteracting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum...
Viability, invariance and applications
Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I
2007-01-01
The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...
ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sez. Roma1, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Piran, Tsvi [The Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2015-06-20
The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.
Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2012-12-01
In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Durigon, Emerson Giuliani [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)
2016-06-01
The environmental health impact of metal-based nanomaterials is of emerging concern, but their metabolism and detoxification pathways in marine bioindicator species remain unclear. This study investigated the role of subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothioneins (MTs) response and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation – LPO) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in comparison with its dissolved counterpart. Mussels were exposed to QDs and dissolved Cd for 21 days at 10 μg Cd L{sup −1} followed by a 50 days depuration. Higher Cd concentrations were detected in fractions containing mitochondria, nucleus and lysosomes, suggesting potential subcellular targets of QDs toxicity in mussel tissues. Tissue specific metabolism patterns were observed in mussels exposed to both Cd forms. Although MT levels were directly associated with Cd in both forms, QDs subcellular partitioning is linked to biologically active metal (BAM), but no increase in LPO occurred, while in the case of dissolved Cd levels are in the biologically detoxified metal (BDM) form, indicating nano-specific effects. Mussel gills showed lower detoxification capability of QDs, while the digestive gland is the major tissue for storage and detoxification of both Cd forms. Both mussel tissues were unable to completely eliminate the Cd accumulated in the QDs form (estimated half-life time > 50 days), highlighting the potential source of Cd and QDs toxicity for human and environmental health. Results indicate tissue specific metabolism patterns and nano-specific effects in marine mussel exposed to QDs. - Highlights: • Subcellular partitioning and MT response are Cd form, tissue and time dependent. • Tissue specific metabolism of Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) in marine mussels. • QDs are slower biologically detoxified when compared to dissolved Cd. • Subcellular partitioning and biomarker responses indicate nano-specific effects. • Subcellular
Bény, Cédric
2018-02-01
We propose a method for stably removing noise from measurements of a quantum many-body system. The question is cast to a linear inverse problem by using a quantum Fischer information metric as figure of merit. This requires the ability to compute the adjoint of the noise channel with respect to the metric, which can be done analytically when the metric is evaluated at a Gaussian (quasi-free) state. This approach can be applied effectively to n-point functions of a quantum field theory. For translation invariant noise, this yields a stable deconvolution method on the first moments of the field which differs from what one would obtain from a purely classical analysis.
Stable pair invariants of surfaces and Seiberg-Witten invariants
Kool, M.
2016-01-01
The moduli space of stable pairs on a local surface X = KS is in general non-compact. The action of C ∗ on the fibres of X induces an action on the moduli space and the stable pair invariants of X are defined by the virtual localization formula. We study the contribution to these invariants of
The Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants of finite order mapping tori I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard Andersen, Jørgen
We formulate the Asymptotic Expansion Conjecture for the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev quantum invariants of closed oriented three manifolds. For finite order mapping tori, we study these quantum invariants via the geometric gauge theory approach to the corresponding quantum representations and prove...... explicitly describe the fixed point set in terms of moduli spaces of the quotient orbifold Riemann surface and for the smooth components we express the aforementioned coefficients in terms of the known generators of the cohomology ring. We provide an explicit formula in terms of the Seifert invariants...... is a polynomial in the level $k$, weighted by a complex phase, which is $k$ times the Chern-Simons invariant corresponding to the component. We express the coefficients of these polynomials in terms of cohomological pairings on the fixed point set of the moduli space of flat connections on the surface. We...
Wulan, Hasi
2017-01-01
This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.
Poincaré invariance in low-energy EFTs for QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hwang Sungmin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present the calculations on deriving constraints between the Wilson coefficients in non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and potential non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics by exploiting the symmetry of its fundamental theory, Poincaré invariance in particular. Implications of the constraints are briefly discussed in the context of the effective string theory.
On the generalized Casson invariant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, G.
1998-11-01
The path integral generalization of the Casson invariant as developed by Rozansky and Witten is investigated. The path integral for various three manifolds is explicitly evaluated. A new class of topological observables are introduced that may allow for more effective invariants. Finally it is shown how the dimensional reduction of these theories correspond to a generalization of the topological B sigma model. (author)
Sun, Yanhui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wenxing
2015-08-01
The OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-47) was investigated by using quantum chemical calculations. All possible pathways involved in the oxidation process were discussed. Potential barriers and reaction heats have been obtained to assess the energetically favorable reaction pathways and the relatively stable products. The study shows that the OH radicals are more likely to attack the C3 and C5 atom of the aromatic ring in the PCB-47 molecule to form PCB-OH adducts. Subsequent reactions are the addition of O2 or NO2 molecule to the PCB-OH adducts at the ortho position of the OH group. Water molecule plays an important role during the whole degradation process. The individual and overall rate constants were calculated by using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory over the temperature range of 180-370K. At 298K, the atmospheric lifetime of PCB-47 determined by OH radicals is about 9.1d. The computational results are crucial to risk assessment and pollution prevention of PCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hidden scale invariance of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maija M. Kuklja
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Decomposition mechanisms, activation barriers, Arrhenius parameters, and reaction kinetics of the novel explosive compounds, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1, and 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1 were explored by means of density functional theory with a range of functionals combined with variational transition state theory. BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 were recently suggested to be good candidates for insensitive high energy density materials. Our modeling reveals that the decomposition initiation in both BNFF-1 and ANFF-1 molecules is triggered by ring cleavage reactions while the further process is defined by a competition between two major pathways, the fast C-NO2 homolysis and slow nitro-nitrite isomerization releasing NO. We discuss insights on design of new energetic materials with targeted properties gained from our modeling.
A Robust Quantum Watermark Algorithm Based on Quantum Log-polar Images
Qu, Zhiguo; Cheng, Zhenwen; Luo, Mingxing; Liu, Wenjie
2017-11-01
Copyright protection for quantum image is an important research branch of quantum information technology. In this paper, based on quantum log-polar image (QUALPI), a new quantum watermark algorithm is proposed to better protect copyright of quantum image. In order to realize quantum watermark embedding, the least significant qubit (LSQb) of quantum carrier image is replaced by quantum watermark image. The new algorithm has good practicability for designing quantum circuits of embedding and extracting watermark image respectively. Compared to previous quantum watermark algorithms, the new algorithm effectively utilizes two important properties of log-polar sampling, i.e., rotation and scale invariances. These invariances make quantum watermark image extracted have a good robustness when stego image was subjected to various geometric attacks, such as rotation, flip, scaling and translation. Experimental simulation based on MATLAB shows that the new algorithm has a good performance on robustness, transparency and capacity.
Quevedo, Ivan R; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie
2013-03-05
A clear understanding of the factors controlling the deposition behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as quantum dots (QDs), is necessary for predicting their transport and fate in natural subsurface environments and in water filtration processes. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to study the effect of particle surface coatings and water chemistry on the deposition of commercial QDs onto Al2O3. Two carboxylated QDs (CdSe and CdTe) with different surface coatings were compared with two model nanoparticles: sulfate-functionalized (sPL) and carboxyl-modified (cPL) polystyrene latex. Deposition rates were assessed over a range of ionic strengths (IS) in simple electrolyte (KCl) and in electrolyte supplemented with two organic molecules found in natural waters; namely, humic acid and rhamnolipid. The Al2O3 collector used here is selected to be representative of oxide patches found on the surface of aquifer or filter grains. Deposition studies showed that ENP deposition rates on bare Al2O3 generally decreased with increasing salt concentration, with the exception of the polyacrylic-acid (PAA) coated CdTe QD which exhibited unique deposition behavior due to changes in the conformation of the PAA coating. QD deposition rates on bare Al2O3 were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of the polystyrene latex nanoparticles, likely as a result of steric stabilization imparted by the QD surface coatings. Adsorption of humic acid or rhamnolipid on the Al2O3 surface resulted in charge reversal of the collector and subsequent reduction in the deposition rates of all ENPs. Moreover, the ratio of the two QCM-D output parameters, frequency and dissipation, revealed key structural information of the ENP-collector interface; namely, on bare Al2O3, the latex particles were rigidly attached as compared to the more loosely attached QDs. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the nature of ENP coatings as well
CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection
Bain, Jonathan
2016-01-01
This book seeks to answer the question "What explains CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection?" These properties play foundational roles in relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs), are supported by high-precision experiments, and figure into explanations of a wide range of phenomena, from antimatter, to the periodic table of the elements, to superconductors and superfluids. They can be derived in RQFTs by means of the famous CPT and Spin-Statistics theorems; but, the author argues, these theorems cannot be said to explain these properties, at least under standard philosophical accounts of scientific explanation. This is because there are multiple, in some cases incompatible, ways of deriving these theorems, and, secondly, because the theorems fail for the types of theories that underwrite the empirical evidence: non-relativistic quantum theories, and realistic interacting RQFTs. The goal of this book is to work towards an understanding of CPT invariance and the spin-statistics connection by firs...
Propagators for gauge-invariant observables in cosmology
Fröb, Markus B.; Lima, William C. C.
2018-05-01
We make a proposal for gauge-invariant observables in perturbative quantum gravity in cosmological spacetimes, building on the recent work of Brunetti et al (2016 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP08(2016)032). These observables are relational, and are obtained by evaluating the field operator in a field-dependent coordinate system. We show that it is possible to define this coordinate system such that the non-localities inherent in any higher-order observable in quantum gravity are causal, i.e. the value of the gauge-invariant observable at a point x only depends on the metric and inflation perturbations in the past light cone of x. We then construct propagators for the metric and inflaton perturbations in a gauge adapted to that coordinate system, which simplifies the calculation of loop corrections, and give explicit expressions for relevant cases: matter- and radiation-dominated eras and slow-roll inflation.
Some Remarks on Quantum Brachistochrone
Masillo, Fabio
2011-01-01
We study some aspects of the Quantum Brachistochrone Problem. Physical realizability of the faster pseudo Hermitian version of the problem is also discussed. This analysis, applied to simple quantum gates, supports an informational interpretation of the problem that is quasi Hermitian invariant.
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2017-11-01
A consideration of waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic field is presented. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived from the quantum kinetic equations with non-trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions in the linear approximation on the amplitude of wave perturbations. It is possible to consider the equilibrium spin-distribution functions with nonzero z-projection proportional to the difference of the Fermi steps of electrons with the chosen spin direction, while x- and y-projections are equal to zero. It is called the trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions. In the general case, x- and y-projections of the spin-distribution functions are nonzero which is called the non-trivial regime. A corresponding equilibrium solution is found in Andreev [Phys. Plasmas 23, 062103 (2016)]. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function appears in the dielectric permeability tensor in the additive form. It is explicitly found here. A corresponding modification in the dispersion equation for the transverse waves is derived. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function in the spectrum of transverse waves is calculated numerically. It is found that the term caused by the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function can be comparable with the classic terms for the relatively small wave vectors and frequencies above the cyclotron frequency. In a majority of regimes, the extra spin caused term dominates over the spin term found earlier, except the small frequency regime, where their contributions in the whistler spectrum are comparable. A decrease of the left-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, an increase of the high-frequency right-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, and a decrease of frequency changing by an increase of frequency at the growth of the wave vector for the whistler are found. A considerable decrease of the spin wave frequency is found either. It results in an
Invariant and semi-invariant probabilistic normed spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghaemi, M.B. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, B. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria E-04120 (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Saiedinezhad, S. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ssaiedinezhad@yahoo.com
2009-10-15
Probabilistic metric spaces were introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger . We introduce the concept of semi-invariance among the PN spaces. In this paper we will find a sufficient condition for some PN spaces to be semi-invariant. We will show that PN spaces are normal spaces. Urysohn's lemma, and Tietze extension theorem for them are proved.
Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil D. Barrie
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.
Conformal invariance in conditioned stochastic particle systems
Schütz, Gunter M.
2017-08-01
We consider space-time correlations in generic one-dimensional stochastic interacting particle systems with short-range interactions that undergo a fluctuation with an atypically activity of particle jumps or reactions or spin flips. We briefly review the approach in the framework of the quantum Hamiltonian formalism and present examples where the dynamics during such large fluctuations is governed not by the typical stationary dynamics, but by ballistic universality classes with dynamical exponent z=1 that are described unitary conformally invariant field theories with central charge c. For reaction-diffusion and spin flip dynamics we identify critical points (a) in the Ising universality class with c=1/2 , and (b) in the universality class of the three-states Potts model with c=4/5 . For the Ising universality class we obtain a universal scaling form for the generating function of cumulants of the jump activity. For repulsive driven diffusive systems with one conservation law the regime of an atypically high current or hopping activity is generically conformally invariant with central charge c=1 .
The invariant theory of matrices
Concini, Corrado De
2017-01-01
This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...
CPT invariance in classical electrodynamics
Kaplan, Aaron D.; Tsankov, Tsvetelin D.
2017-11-01
The transformation properties of classical electrodynamic variables under charge conjugation C, parity reversal P, and time inversion T are considered both for standard and atypical assumptions for the nature of charge. We have shown that four distinct behaviours of charge under space and time inversion are consistent with the invariance of Maxwell’s equations under CPT and P. No prior knowledge of CPT invariance is assumed and the material is accessible to undergraduate students.
Invariant measures for Chebyshev maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abraham Boyarsky
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Let Tλ(x=cos(λarccosx, −1≤x≤1, where λ>1 is not an integer. For a certain set of λ's which are irrational, the density of the unique absolutely continuous measure invariant under Tλ is determined exactly. This is accomplished by showing that Tλ is differentially conjugate to a piecewise linear Markov map whose unique invariant density can be computed as the unique left eigenvector of a matrix.
Invariant Bayesian estimation on manifolds
Jermyn, Ian H.
2005-01-01
A frequent and well-founded criticism of the maximum a posteriori (MAP) and minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimates of a continuous parameter \\gamma taking values in a differentiable manifold \\Gamma is that they are not invariant to arbitrary ``reparameterizations'' of \\Gamma. This paper clarifies the issues surrounding this problem, by pointing out the difference between coordinate invariance, which is a sine qua non for a mathematically well-defined problem, and diffeomorphism invarianc...
Object recognition by implicit invariants
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip
2007-01-01
Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://staff.utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf
Classification of simple current invariants
Gato-Rivera, Beatriz
1992-01-01
We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)
Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.
2011-01-01
Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maquet, A.; Rahman, N.K.
1987-01-01
The relevance of gauge invariance in considering the question of emission of photons in the presence of external electromagnetic field from the ground state of quantum mechanical systems is studied. With an exact numerical calculation for atomic hydrogen, it is shown that the photons cannot be unequivocally assigned to have been emitted from the ground state due to the invariance of gauge of the probability for the process
Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces
Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.
A class of regular invariants as asymptotical limits or ergodic means
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courbage, M.
1977-01-01
The asymptotic or ergodic behavior of a class of initial states for quantum statistical systems where the collision operator, introduced by Prigogine and coworkers, is non-vanishing is studied. In this case, they distinguish two particular classes of invariants, called respectively regular and collisionnal invariants, among the invariants of the motion. A class of initial states which tend to those invariants asymptotically or in the ergodic mean is caracterized using the destruction operator and some spectral properties of the representation in the case of systems whose hamiltonians have an absolutely continuous part in their spectrum. Furthermore, collisional invariants which can be obtained as ergodic means of some equivalence class of one initial state are characterized in terms of the GAMMA + Friedrichs operator. Uniqueness of that initial state is lost when the asymptotic collision operator is non-vanishing [fr
Regularization of the quantum field theory of charges and monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotakopoulos, C.
1981-09-01
A gauge invariant regularization procedure for quantum field theories of electric and magnetic charges based on Zwanziger's local formulation is proposed. The bare regularized full Green's functions of gauge invariant operators are shown to be Lorentz invariant. This would have as a consequence the Lorentz invariance of the finite Green's functions that might result after any reasonable subtraction if such a subtraction can be found. (author)
Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-01-01
It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.
Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2016-08-04
It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.
Gauge-invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabo, A. [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Group of Theoretical Physics, La Habana (Cuba); Rigol, M. [University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States)
2006-07-15
The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter {alpha}. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the {alpha}-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge-invariance properties. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim Palmer
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Invariant Set (IS theory is a locally causal ontic theory of physics based on the Cosmological Invariant Set postulate that the universe U can be considered a deterministic dynamical system evolving precisely on a (suitably constructed fractal dynamically invariant set in U's state space. IS theory violates the Bell inequalities by violating Measurement Independence. Despite this, IS theory is not fine tuned, is not conspiratorial, does not constrain experimenter free will and does not invoke retrocausality. The reasons behind these claims are discussed in this paper. These arise from properties not found in conventional ontic models: the invariant set has zero measure in its Euclidean embedding space, has Cantor Set structure homeomorphic to the p-adic integers (p>>0 and is non-computable. In particular, it is shown that the p-adic metric encapulates the physics of the Cosmological Invariant Set postulate, and provides the technical means to demonstrate no fine tuning or conspiracy. Quantum theory can be viewed as the singular limit of IS theory when when p is set equal to infinity. Since it is based around a top-down constraint from cosmology, IS theory suggests that gravitational and quantum physics will be unified by a gravitational theory of the quantum, rather than a quantum theory of gravity. Some implications arising from such a perspective are discussed.
Foell, Charles A.; Abel, Keith A.; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Young, Jeff F.
2014-01-01
A kinetic model is derived and used to analyze recently published works and new data on the temperature dependence of the spectrally integrated photoluminescence (PL) from thick-film formulations of PbSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs), with particular attention to the effects of air exposure. The model assumes that the excitons thermalize within a ground-state manifold of states and treats the distribution of radiative and nonradiative decay rates within the distribution as generally as possible, while using a minimal number of free parameters. By adjusting the parameters of the model, good fits are obtained for the wide range of integrated PL behaviors reported in [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 889 (2011), 10.1021/jz2001979; ACS Nano 6, 5498 (2012), 10.1021/nn301405j; Phys. Rev. B 82, 165435 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.165435] and the new data presented in this manuscript. By comparing the extracted parameters we deduce the following: (i) All of the samples in the first two references emit from two distinct clusters of states separated by an energy of 55 to 80 meV regardless of air exposure, while there is only one cluster of emissive states that contributes to the emission reported in the third reference. (ii) In the absence of intentional air exposure, the nonradiative decay from all samples can be described by a single Arrhenius-like process. (iii) Although air-exposure effects are reversible in some samples and irreversible in others, the changes in integrated PL behavior brought about by air-exposure forces the introduction of a common, low-activation-energy nonradiative pathway in all cases. (iv) The low-lying emissive cluster of the two-emissive-cluster samples exhibits behavior similar to the single emissive cluster of the other samples. (v) Many hours of air exposure do not trend either the radiative or nonradiative behavior of the dual-emissive-cluster samples towards the behavior of the single-emissive-cluster samples.
Becerra, Rosa; Cannady, J Pat; Pfrang, Christian; Walsh, Robin
2015-11-19
Time-resolved kinetics studies of silylene, SiH2, generated by laser flash photolysis of phenylsilane, were performed to obtain rate coefficients for its bimolecular reaction with 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5-DHF). The reaction was studied in the gas phase over the pressure range of 1-100 Torr in SF6 bath gas, at five temperatures in the range of 296-598 K. The reaction showed pressure dependences characteristic of a third body assisted association. The second-order rate coefficients obtained by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM)-assisted extrapolation to the high-pressure limit at each temperature fitted the following Arrhenius equation where the error limits are single standard deviations: log(k/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) = (-9.96 ± 0.08) + (3.38 ± 0.62 kJ mol(-1))/RT ln 10. End-product analysis revealed no GC-identifiable product. Quantum chemical (ab initio) calculations indicate that reaction of SiH2 with 2,5-DHF can occur at both the double bond (to form a silirane) and the O atom (to form a donor-acceptor, zwitterionic complex) via barrierless processes. Further possible reaction steps were explored, of which the only viable one appears to be decomposition of the O-complex to give 1,3-butadiene + silanone, although isomerization of the silirane cannot be completely ruled out. The potential energy surface for SiH2 + 2,5-DHF is consistent with that of SiH2 with Me2O, and with that of SiH2 with cis-but-2-ene, the simplest reference reactions. RRKM calculations incorporating reaction at both π- and O atom sites, can be made to fit the experimental rate coefficient pressure dependence curves at 296-476 K, giving values for k(∞)(π) and k(∞)(O) that indicate the latter is larger in magnitude at all temperatures, in contrast to values from individual model reactions. This unexpected result suggests that, in 2,5-DHF with its two different reaction sites, the O atom exerts the more pronounced electrophilic attraction on the approaching silylene. Arrhenius parameters
Energy Invariance in Capillary Systems
Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Guan, Jian H.; Xu, Ben; McHale, Glen; Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo
2017-05-01
We demonstrate the continuous translational invariance of the energy of a capillary surface in contact with reconfigurable solid boundaries. We present a theoretical approach to find the energy-invariant equilibria of spherical capillary surfaces in contact with solid boundaries of arbitrary shape and examine the implications of dynamic frictional forces upon a reconfiguration of the boundaries. Experimentally, we realize our ideas by manipulating the position of a droplet in a wedge geometry using lubricant-impregnated solid surfaces, which eliminate the contact-angle hysteresis and provide a test bed for quantifying dissipative losses out of equilibrium. Our experiments show that dissipative energy losses for an otherwise energy-invariant reconfiguration are relatively small, provided that the actuation time scale is longer than the typical relaxation time scale of the capillary surface. We discuss the wider applicability of our ideas as a pathway for liquid manipulation at no potential energy cost in low-pinning, low-friction situations.
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-01-01
Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated
Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of topological invariants: Euler and Pontryagin classes
Escalante, Alberto; Medel-Portugal, C.
2018-04-01
The symplectic analysis for the four dimensional Pontryagin and Euler invariants is performed within the Faddeev-Jackiw context. The Faddeev-Jackiw constraints and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets are reported; we show that in spite of the Pontryagin and Euler classes give rise the same equations of motion, its respective symplectic structures are different to each other. In addition, a quantum state that solves the Faddeev-Jackiw constraints is found, and we show that the quantum states for these invariants are different to each other. Finally, we present some remarks and conclusions.
Dark coupling and gauge invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavela, M.B.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.
2010-01-01
We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data
Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
2017-05-19
In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.
Trace Invariance for Quaternion Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralph John de la Cruz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Let F be a f ield. It is a classical result in linear algebra that for each A, P ϵ Mn (F such that P is nonsingular, tr A = tr (PAP-1. We show in this paper that the preceding property does not hold true if F is the division ring of real quaternions. We show that the only quaternion matrices that have their trace invariant under unitary similarity are Hermitian matrices, and that the only matrices that have their trace invariant under similarity are real scalar matrices.
Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.
1993-01-01
A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(G q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators - the 'reflection matrix' Y= triple bond L + SL - being a special case - generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N). (orig.)
On renormalization-invariant masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleming, H.; Furuya, K.
1978-02-01
It is shown that spontaneous generation of renormalization invariant mass is possible in infra-red stable theories with more than one coupling constant. If relations among the coupling constants are permitted the effect can be made compatible with pertubation theory
Moment Invariants in Image Analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Flusser, Jan
2006-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 2 (2006), s. 196-201 ISSN 1305-5313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/04/0155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : moment invariants * pattern recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics
A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
1999-01-01
For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon...
Limit cycles in quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemann, Patrick
2015-04-27
In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.
Can confinement ensure natural CP-invariance of strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.
1979-01-01
P- and T-invariance violation in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) due to the so called THETA term Δα=THETAxgsub(s)sup(2)/32πsup(2)xGsub(μν)sup(a)xGsub(μν)sup(a) tilde, where Gsub(μν)sup(a) is the gluon field strength tensor, and gsub(s) is the quark-gluon coupling constant is discussed. It is shown that irrespectively of how the confinement works there emerge observable P- and T-odd effects. The proof is based on the assumption that QCD resolves the upsilon(1) problem, i.e. the mass of the singlet pseudoscalar meson does not vanish in the chiral limit. A modification of the axion scheme which restores the natural P and T invariance of the theory is suggested and cannot be ruled out experimentally
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in 5D Conformally Invariant Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taeyoon Moon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implements the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.
Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2014-01-01
A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models
Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...
Wave functions constructed from an invariant sum over histories satisfy constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halliwell, J.J.; Hartle, J.B.
1991-01-01
Invariance of classical equations of motion under a group parametrized by functions of time implies constraints between canonical coordinates and momenta. In the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics, invariance is normally imposed by demanding that physical wave functions are annihilated by the operator versions of these constraints. In the sum-over-histories quantum mechanics, however, wave functions are specified, directly, by appropriate functional integrals. It therefore becomes an interesting question whether the wave functions so specified obey the operator constraints of the Dirac theory. In this paper, we show for a wide class of theories, including gauge theories, general relativity, and first-quantized string theories, that wave functions constructed from a sum over histories are, in fact, annihilated by the constraints provided that the sum over histories is constructed in a manner which respects the invariance generated by the constraints. By this we mean a sum over histories defined with an invariant action, invariant measure, and an invariant class of paths summed over
Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimi, S.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K 2 graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.
Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)
2011-09-26
Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.
Invariance for Single Curved Manifold
Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de
2012-08-01
Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Molecular invariants: atomic group valence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mundim, K.C.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.
1988-01-01
Molecular invariants may be deduced in a very compact way through Grassman algebra. In this work, a generalized valence is defined for an atomic group; it reduces to the Known expressions for the case of an atom in a molecule. It is the same of the correlations between the fluctions of the atomic charges qc and qd (C belongs to the group and D does not) around their average values. Numerical results agree with chemical expectation. (author) [pt
Homotopy invariants of Gauss words
Gibson, Andrew
2009-01-01
By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.
Invariant path integration and the functional measure for Einstein gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, L.C.L.
1985-01-01
An invariant path integral approach is proposed for the Einstein gravitation theory suitable to the analysis of the associated functional measure problem. The proposed formulation is used to analyse the phenomenon of quantum gravity in two dimensional space times. (Author) [pt
K-theoretic Gromov-Witten invariants in genus 0 and integrable hierarchies
Milanov, Todor; Tonita, Valentin
2018-03-01
We prove that the genus 0 invariants in K-theoretic Gromov-Witten theory are governed by an integrable hierarchy of hydrodynamic type. If the K-theoretic quantum product is semisimple, then we also prove the completeness of the hierarchy.
Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Zheng Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.
On a generalized oscillator: invariance algebra and interbasis expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakopyan, E.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Kibler, M.
1998-01-01
This article deals with a quantum-mechanical system which generalizes the ordinary isotropic harmonic oscillator system. We give the coefficients connecting the polar and Cartesian bases for D=2 and the coefficients connecting the Cartesian and cylindrical bases as well as the cylindrical and spherical bases for D=3. These interbasis expansion coefficients are found to be analytic continuations to real values of their arguments of the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). For D=2, the super integrable character for the generalized oscillator system is investigated from the point of view of a quadratic invariance algebra
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Example 5 (Chameleons): In a certain island there are 13 grey, 15 brown and 17 crimson chameleons. If two chameleons of different colors meet, both of them change to the third color. No other color changes are ... permutation)?' is the question. Well, the set of per- mutations are divided into two classes, odd and even.
From knots to quantum groups (and back)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffman, L. (Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (USA) Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
1990-04-01
This paper traces how the Jones polynomial leads naturally to the notion of quantum group, and how quantum groups give rise to invariants of links via solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation. Section 5, is an original treatment of the construction of the universal R-matrix. All the other material has, or will appear elsewhere in similar form.
Quantum Einstein's equations and constraints algebra
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The former is the. WDW equation and the latter represents the invariance under general spatial transforma- tion. Now we shall apply the de-Broglie–Bohm theory to canonical quantum gravity. In the. Hamilton–Jacobi language (which is suitable for our discussion), in de-Broglie–Bohm the- ory the desired quantum system is ...
Blur invariants constructed from arbitrary moments.
Kautsky, Jaroslav; Flusser, Jan
2011-12-01
This paper deals with moment invariants with respect to image blurring. It is mainly a reaction to the works of Zhang and Chen , recently published in these Transactions. We present a general method on how to construct blur invariants from arbitrary moments and show that it is no longer necessary to separately derive the invariants for each polynomial basis. We show how to discard dependent terms in blur invariants definition and discuss a proper implementation of the invariants in orthogonal bases using recurrent relations. An example for Legendre moments is given. © 2011 IEEE
Cartan invariants and event horizon detection
Brooks, D.; Chavy-Waddy, P. C.; Coley, A. A.; Forget, A.; Gregoris, D.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; McNutt, D. D.
2018-04-01
We show that it is possible to locate the event horizon of a black hole (in arbitrary dimensions) by the zeros of certain Cartan invariants. This approach accounts for the recent results on the detection of stationary horizons using scalar polynomial curvature invariants, and improves upon them since the proposed method is computationally less expensive. As an application, we produce Cartan invariants that locate the event horizons for various exact four-dimensional and five-dimensional stationary, asymptotically flat (or (anti) de Sitter), black hole solutions and compare the Cartan invariants with the corresponding scalar curvature invariants that detect the event horizon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serot, B.D.
1992-01-01
It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
.... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...
Quantum cohomology of flag manifolds and Toda lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Givental, A.; Kim, B.
1995-01-01
We discuss relations of Vafa's quantum cohomology with Floer's homology theory, introduce equivariant quantum cohomology, formulate some conjectures about its general properties and, on the basis of these conjectures, compute quantum cohomology algebras of the flag manifolds. The answer turns out to coincide with the algebra of regular functions on an invariant lagrangian variety of a Toda lattice. (orig.)
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Towards topological quantum computer
Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Mironov, S.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.
2018-01-01
Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical) permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates) for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern-Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.
Towards topological quantum computer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Melnikov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum R-matrices, the entangling deformations of non-entangling (classical permutations, provide a distinguished basis in the space of unitary evolutions and, consequently, a natural choice for a minimal set of basic operations (universal gates for quantum computation. Yet they play a special role in group theory, integrable systems and modern theory of non-perturbative calculations in quantum field and string theory. Despite recent developments in those fields the idea of topological quantum computing and use of R-matrices, in particular, practically reduce to reinterpretation of standard sets of quantum gates, and subsequently algorithms, in terms of available topological ones. In this paper we summarize a modern view on quantum R-matrix calculus and propose to look at the R-matrices acting in the space of irreducible representations, which are unitary for the real-valued couplings in Chern–Simons theory, as the fundamental set of universal gates for topological quantum computer. Such an approach calls for a more thorough investigation of the relation between topological invariants of knots and quantum algorithms.
Invariant Classification of Gait Types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles....... Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...
Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.
1991-05-01
In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs
Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong-Ryeol, Choi
2010-01-01
After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)
The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories
Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.
2017-04-01
We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.
The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-04-05
We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squires, E.J.
1992-01-01
The difficulty of defining history in the context of orthodox quantum theory is discussed. A possible definition, involving the concept of conscious awareness, and using backwards unitary evolution, is described. Reasons are given why a demonstration that particular things happened with 100% certainty does not always give a history that is Lorentz invariant. (author). 16 refs
Slyusarenko, Yurii V.; Sliusarenko, Oleksii Yu.
2017-11-01
We develop a microscopic approach to the construction of the kinetic theory of dilute weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms. The approach is based on the statements of the second quantization method in the presence of bound states of particles. The basis of the derivation of kinetic equations is the method of reduced description of relaxation processes. Within the framework of the proposed approach, a system of common kinetic equations for the Wigner distribution functions of free oppositely charged fermions of two kinds (electrons and cores) and their bound states—hydrogen-like atoms— is obtained. Kinetic equations are used to study the spectra of elementary excitations in the system when all its components are non-degenerate. It is shown that in such a system, in addition to the typical plasma waves, there are longitudinal waves of matter polarization and the transverse ones with a behavior characteristic of plasmon polaritons. The expressions for the dependence of the frequencies and Landau damping coefficients on the wave vector for all branches of the oscillations discovered are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the elementary perturbation parameters in the system on an example of a weakly ionized dilute gas of the 23Na atoms using the D2-line characteristics of the natrium atom is given. We note the possibility of using the results of the developed theory to describe the properties of a Bose condensate of photons in the diluted weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms.
Fixed points of quantum operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.
2002-01-01
Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras
Marklof, Jens
2009-01-01
One of the central challenges in kinetic theory is the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations--describing, for example, the dynamics of an electron gas--from the underlying fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. An iconic mathematical model in this research area is the Lorentz gas, which describes an ensemble of non-interacting point particles in an infinite array of spherical scatterers. In the case of a disordered scatterer configuration, the classical result...
Noncommutative field theory and violation of translation invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Guisado, Luis
2003-01-01
Noncommutative field theories with commutator of the coordinates of the form [x μ , x ν ] = i Λ μν ω x ω with nilpotent structure constants are studied and shown that a free quantum field theory is not affected. Invariance under translations is broken and the conservation of energy-momentum is violated, obeying a new law which is expressed by a Poincare-invariant equation. The resulting new kinematics is studied and applied to simple examples and to astrophysical puzzles, such as the observed violation of the GZK cutoff. The λΦ 4 quantum field theory is also considered in this context. In particular, self interaction terms violate the usual conservation of energy-momentum and, hence, the radiative correction to the propagator is altered. The correction to first order in λ is calculated. The usual UV divergent terms are still present, but a new type of term also emerges, which is IR divergent, violates momentum conservation and implies a correction to the dispersion relation. (author)
Noncommutative field theory and violation of translation invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolami, Orfeu [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.pt; Guisado, Luis [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)
2003-12-01
Noncommutative field theories with commutator of the coordinates of the form [x{sup {mu}}, x{sup {nu}}] = i {lambda}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}{sub {omega}}x{sup {omega}} with nilpotent structure constants are studied and shown that a free quantum field theory is not affected. Invariance under translations is broken and the conservation of energy-momentum is violated, obeying a new law which is expressed by a Poincare-invariant equation. The resulting new kinematics is studied and applied to simple examples and to astrophysical puzzles, such as the observed violation of the GZK cutoff. The {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} quantum field theory is also considered in this context. In particular, self interaction terms violate the usual conservation of energy-momentum and, hence, the radiative correction to the propagator is altered. The correction to first order in {lambda} is calculated. The usual UV divergent terms are still present, but a new type of term also emerges, which is IR divergent, violates momentum conservation and implies a correction to the dispersion relation. (author)
Scale-invariant gravity: geometrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, Edward; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall O
2003-01-01
We present a scale-invariant theory, conformal gravity, which closely resembles the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity (GR). While previous attempts to create scale-invariant theories of gravity have been based on Weyl's idea of a compensating field, our direct approach dispenses with this and is built by extension of the method of best matching w.r.t. scaling developed in the parallel particle dynamics paper by one of the authors. In spatially compact GR, there is an infinity of degrees of freedom that describe the shape of 3-space which interact with a single volume degree of freedom. In conformal gravity, the shape degrees of freedom remain, but the volume is no longer a dynamical variable. Further theories and formulations related to GR and conformal gravity are presented. Conformal gravity is successfully coupled to scalars and the gauge fields of nature. It should describe the solar system observations as well as GR does, but its cosmology and quantization will be completely different
Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, H.P.
1986-01-01
Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs.
Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-12-20
In complex systems, it is often the case that the region of interest forms only one part of a much larger system. The idea of joining two different quantum simulations-a high level calculation on the active region of interest, and a low level calculation on its environment-formally defines a quantum embedding. While any combination of techniques constitutes an embedding, several rigorous formalisms have emerged that provide for exact feedback between the embedded system and its environment. These three formulations: density functional embedding, Green's function embedding, and density matrix embedding, respectively, use the single-particle density, single-particle Green's function, and single-particle density matrix as the quantum variables of interest. Many excellent reviews exist covering these methods individually. However, a unified presentation of the different formalisms is so far lacking. Indeed, the various languages commonly used, functional equations for density functional embedding, diagrammatics for Green's function embedding, and entanglement arguments for density matrix embedding, make the three formulations appear vastly different. In this Account, we introduce the basic equations of all three formulations in such a way as to highlight their many common intellectual strands. While we focus primarily on a straightforward theoretical perspective, we also give a brief overview of recent applications and possible future developments. The first section starts with density functional embedding, where we introduce the key embedding potential via the Euler equation. We then discuss recent work concerning the treatment of the nonadditive kinetic potential, before describing mean-field density functional embedding and wave function in density functional embedding. We finish the section with extensions to time-dependence and excited states. The second section is devoted to Green's function embedding. Here, we use the Dyson equation to obtain equations that
On the invariance conditions of corrosion cracking resistance characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Student, A.Z.
1981-01-01
The aim of the study is to check the invariance of kinetic diagrams of corrosion cracking and threshold levels Ksub(ISCC) (the threshold level of stress intensity factor of long statistic cracking resistance) if the generally accepted condition of plane strain (t) through sample thickness is met: t >= A (Ksub(IC)/σsub(0.2))sup(2) where A - is the factor which value lies within 0.5-6 limits. The 45KhN2MFA hardened and tempered at 200 deg C structural steel has been investigated. It is stated that fracture toughness invariance condition for a number of materials depends on material type and its structure. Subcritical crack propagation kinetics and Ksub(ISCC) parameter of high-tensile martensitic structure steel are sensitive to the size of original austenitic grain. Heat treatment for coarse grain produces a favourable effect on corrosion cracking resistance of such steel; the formation of austenitic grain boundaries of tooth shape results in an additional increase of corrosion crack propagation resistance. A technique based on the determination of the yielding of samples with a crack propagating along a curvilinear trajectory has turned out to be efficient when estimating the effective factor of stress intensity in the corrosion crack top
Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Alekseev
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.
General coordinate invariance in quantum many-body systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brauner, Tomáš; Endlich, S.; Monin, A.; Penco, R.
2014-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 10 (2014), s. 105016 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Chiral Perturbation-Theory * Planar Galilei Group * Lagrangians Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014
On the gauge invariance of the decay rate of false vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motoi Endo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We study the gauge invariance of the decay rate of the false vacuum for the model in which the scalar field responsible for the false vacuum decay has gauge quantum number. In order to calculate the decay rate, one should integrate out the field fluctuations around the classical path connecting the false and true vacua (i.e., so-called bounce. Concentrating on the case where the gauge symmetry is broken in the false vacuum, we show a systematic way to perform such an integration and present a manifestly gauge-invariant formula of the decay rate of the false vacuum.
Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan
2018-02-01
In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a nonadiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states; thus, the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.
Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach
Haas, Fernando
2011-01-01
This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...
Scale invariance in road networks.
Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher
2006-02-01
We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.
Invariants of DNA genomic signals
Cristea, Paul Dan A.
2005-02-01
For large scale analysis purposes, the conversion of genomic sequences into digital signals opens the possibility to use powerful signal processing methods for handling genomic information. The study of complex genomic signals reveals large scale features, maintained over the scale of whole chromosomes, that would be difficult to find by using only the symbolic representation. Based on genomic signal methods and on statistical techniques, the paper defines parameters of DNA sequences which are invariant to transformations induced by SNPs, splicing or crossover. Re-orienting concatenated coding regions in the same direction, regularities shared by the genomic material in all exons are revealed, pointing towards the hypothesis of a regular ancestral structure from which the current chromosome structures have evolved. This property is not found in non-nuclear genomic material, e.g., plasmids.
Local invariance via comparison functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovidiu Carja
2004-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the ordinary differential equation $u'(t=f(t,u(t$, where $f:[a,b]imes Do mathbb{R}^n$ is a given function, while $D$ is an open subset in $mathbb{R}^n$. We prove that, if $Ksubset D$ is locally closed and there exists a comparison function $omega:[a,b]imesmathbb{R}_+o mathbb{R}$ such that $$ liminf_{hdownarrow 0}frac{1}{h}ig[d(xi+hf(t,xi;K-d(xi;Kig] leqomega(t,d(xi;K $$ for each $(t,xiin [a,b]imes D$, then $K$ is locally invariant with respect to $f$. We show further that, under some natural extra condition, the converse statement is also true.
Asymptotic invariants of homotopy groups
Manin, Fedor
We study the homotopy groups of a finite CW complex X via constraints on the geometry of representatives of their elements. For example, one can measure the "size" of alpha ∈ pi n (X) by the optimal Lipschitz constant or volume of a representative. By comparing the geometrical structure thus obtained with the algebraic structure of the group, one can define functions such as growth and distortion in pin(X), analogously to the way that such functions are studied in asymptotic geometric group theory. We provide a number of examples and techniques for studying these invariants, with a special focus on spaces with few rational homotopy groups. Our main theorem characterizes those X in which all non-torsion homotopy classes are undistorted, that is, their volume distortion functions, and hence also their Lipschitz distortion functions, are linear.
Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziino, G.
1978-01-01
The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)
Negation switching invariant signed graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepa Sinha
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.
Stochastic quantization and gauge invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viana, R.L.
1987-01-01
A survey of the fundamental ideas about Parisi-Wu's Stochastic Quantization Method, with applications to Scalar, Gauge and Fermionic theories, is done. In particular, the Analytic Stochastic Regularization Scheme is used to calculate the polarization tensor for Quantum Electrodynamics with Dirac bosons or Fermions. The regularization influence is studied for both theories and an extension of this method for some supersymmetrical models is suggested. (author)
Information in individual quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brukner, C.
1999-09-01
A new measure of information in quantum mechanics is proposed which takes into account that for quantum systems, the only feature known before an experiment is performed are the probabilities for various events to occur. The sum of the individual measures of information for mutually complementary observations is invariant under the choice of the particular set of complementary observations and conserved in time if there is no information exchange with an environment unitary transformation. This operational quantum information invariant results in k bits of information for a system consisting of $k$ qubits. For a composite system, maximal entanglement results if the total information carried by the system is exhausted in specifying joint properties, with no individual qubit carrying any information on its own. We interpret our results as implying that information is the most fundamental notion in quantum mechanics. Based on this observation we suggest ideas for a foundational principle for quantum theory. It is proposed here that the foundational principle for quantum theory may be identified through the assumption that the most elementary system carries one bit of information only. Therefore an elementary system can only give a definite answer in one specific measurement. The irreducible randomness of individual outcomes in other measurements and quantum complementarity are then necessary consequences. The most natural function between probabilities for outcomes to occur and the experimental parameters, consistent with the foundational principle proposed, is the well-known sinusoidal dependence. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palgi, L.
1975-01-01
Kinetics and mechanism of one-electron oxidation of phenoxyl radical by metal halides (NbCl 5 , GaCl 3 , TiCl 4 ) are studied. In course of the reaction (in CH 3 CN) the radical absorption bands disappear from electron spectra and cation-radical bands emerge. The rate of the radicals disappearance for the 10-15 fold excess of the metal halide is a linear function of the radical concentration. The rate of one-electron radical oxidation is described by a second-order equation. The activation energy of the reaction found from the temperature dependence of the rate constants is 2.3+-0.3 kcal/mol. The kinetic parametres of free radicals oxidation may be used to quantitatively estimate the metal halides capacity to acceptance of one electron
Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Hao
2006-01-01
Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations. These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states. Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: (1) separability criterion, it is proved that the algebraic sets must be a union of the linear subspaces if the mixed states are separable; (2) simulation of Hamiltonians, it is proved that the simulation of semipositive Hamiltonians of the same rank implies the projective isomorphisms of the corresponding algebraic sets; (3) construction of bound entangled mixed states, examples of the entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transpositions (thus PPT bound entanglement) are constructed systematically from our new separability criterion
Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup
Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens
2018-04-01
One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia
2014-01-01
After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....
Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.
A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)
Scale invariant Volkov–Akulov supergravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ferrara
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A scale invariant goldstino theory coupled to supergravity is obtained as a standard supergravity dual of a rigidly scale-invariant higher-curvature supergravity with a nilpotent chiral scalar curvature. The bosonic part of this theory describes a massless scalaron and a massive axion in a de Sitter Universe.
Real object recognition using moment invariants
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
contour-based shape descriptors and region-based shape descriptors (Kim & Sung 2000). Regular moment invariants are one of the most popular and widely used contour-based shape descriptors is a set of derived by Hu (1962). These geometrical moment invariants have been then extended to larger sets by Wong & Siu ...
A test for ordinal measurement invariance
Ligtvoet, R.; Millsap, R.E.; Bolt, D.M.; van der Ark, L.A.; Wang, W.-C.
2015-01-01
One problem with the analysis of measurement invariance is the reliance of the analysis on having a parametric model that accurately describes the data. In this paper an ordinal version of the property of measurement invariance is proposed, which relies only on nonparametric restrictions. This
Graudenz, Dirk
1996-01-01
We consider the evolution of quantum fields on a classical background space-time, formulated in the language of differential geometry. Time evolution along the worldlines of observers is described by parallel transport operators in an infinite-dimensional vector bundle over the space-time manifold. The time evolution equation and the dynamical equations for the matter fields are invariant under an arbitrary local change of frames along the restriction of the bundle to the worldline of an observer, thus implementing a ``quantum gauge principle''. We derive dynamical equations for the connection and a complex scalar quantum field based on a gauge field action. In the limit of vanishing curvature of the vector bundle, we recover the standard equation of motion of a scalar field in a curved background space-time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia
2014-01-01
After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images.......After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....
Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael
1998-01-01
This paper presents a general method which from an invariant curve fairness measure constructs an invariant surface fairness measure. Besides the curve fairness measure one only needs a class of curves on the surface for which one wants to apply the curve measure. The surface measure at a point...... variation.The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family of curves. Such a family is generated by the flow of a vector field, orthogonal to the curves. The first, respectively the second order derivative along the curve...... of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...
The usage of color invariance in SURF
Meng, Gang; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Danpei
2009-10-01
SURF (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) is a robust local invariant feature descriptor. However, SURF is mainly designed for gray images. In order to make use of the information provided by color (mainly RGB channels), this paper presents a novel colored local invariant feature descriptor, CISURF (Color Invariance based SURF). The proposed approach builds the descriptors in a color invariant space, which stems from Kubelka-Munk model and provides more valuable information than the gray space. Compared with the conventional SURF and SIFT descriptors, the experimental results show that descriptors created by CISURF is more robust to the circumstance changes such as the illumination direction, illumination intensity, and the viewpoints, and are more suitable for the deep space background objects.
Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grössing, G; Fussy, S; Pascasio, J Mesa; Schwabl, H
2016-01-01
We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez-Linares, Jesus; Vargas-Medina, Julio
2004-01-01
A scheme for an atomic beam quantum self-eraser is presented. The proposal is based on time reversal invariance on a quantum optical Ramsey fringe experiment, where a realization of complementarity for atomic coherence can be achieved. It consists of two high-finesse resonators that are pumped and probed by the same atom. This property relates quantum erasing to time reversal symmetry, allowing for a full quantum erasing of the which-way information stored in the cavity fields. The outlined scheme also prepares and observes a non-local state in the fields of the resonators: a coherent superposition between correlated states of macroscopically separated quantum systems. The proposed scheme emphasizes the role of entanglement swapping in delayed-choice experiments
Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannetto, E
2005-01-01
This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)
Rotational Invariant Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms.
Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Shen, Linlin; Zhang, David
2017-11-01
A common intrinsic limitation of the traditional subspace learning methods is the sensitivity to the outliers and the image variations of the object since they use the norm as the metric. In this paper, a series of methods based on the -norm are proposed for linear dimensionality reduction. Since the -norm based objective function is robust to the image variations, the proposed algorithms can perform robust image feature extraction for classification. We use different ideas to design different algorithms and obtain a unified rotational invariant (RI) dimensionality reduction framework, which extends the well-known graph embedding algorithm framework to a more generalized form. We provide the comprehensive analyses to show the essential properties of the proposed algorithm framework. This paper indicates that the optimization problems have global optimal solutions when all the orthogonal projections of the data space are computed and used. Experimental results on popular image datasets indicate that the proposed RI dimensionality reduction algorithms can obtain competitive performance compared with the previous norm based subspace learning algorithms.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery
Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz
2014-01-01
Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.
Formulation of invariant functional integrals and applications to the quantization of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, L.C.L.
1985-01-01
Introducting a metrical structure into the Configuration Space of Quantum Field Theories with Infinite-Dimensional symetry group, a formulation of Invariant Functional Integrals suitable for their quantization, is obtained. It is apllied to Gauge Theories of Yang-Mills and Polyakov's Bosonic String; obtaining several new facts about them, as well as reproducing some well known results. By following the general idea of invariant functional measures; a fermionic (chiral) change of variables in the fermionic sector of two-dimensional massless Quantum-Chromodynamics is implemented obtaining by the first time, a pure gluonic effective action for the model. In adittion, the complete solution for the Rothe-Stamatesu Model, is obtained. (author) [pt
Observation of the Efimovian expansion in scale-invariant Fermi gases.
Deng, Shujin; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Diao, Pengpeng; Yu, Qianli; Zhai, Hui; Qi, Ran; Wu, Haibin
2016-07-22
Scale invariance plays an important role in unitary Fermi gases. Discrete scaling symmetry manifests itself in quantum few-body systems such as the Efimov effect. Here, we report on the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of a distinct type of expansion dynamics for scale-invariant quantum gases. When the frequency of the harmonic trap holding the gas decreases continuously as the inverse of time t, the expansion of the cloud size exhibits a sequence of plateaus. The locations of these plateaus obey a discrete geometric scaling law with a controllable scale factor, and the expansion dynamics is governed by a log-periodic function. This marked expansion shares the same scaling law and mathematical description as the Efimov effect. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Gromov–Witten invariants and localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, David R
2017-01-01
We give a pedagogical review of the computation of Gromov–Witten invariants via localization in 2D gauged linear sigma models. We explain the relationship between the two-sphere partition function of the theory and the Kähler potential on the conformal manifold. We show how the Kähler potential can be assembled from classical, perturbative, and non-perturbative contributions, and explain how the non-perturbative contributions are related to the Gromov–Witten invariants of the corresponding Calabi–Yau manifold. We then explain how localization enables efficient calculation of the two-sphere partition function and, ultimately, the Gromov–Witten invariants themselves. (topical review)
Topological excitations in U(1) -invariant theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savit, R.
1977-01-01
A class of U(1) -invariant theories in d dimensions is introduced on a lattice. These theories are labeled by a simplex number s, with 1 < or = s < d. The case with s = 1 is the X-Y model; and s = 2 gives compact photodynamics. An exact duality transformation is applied to show that the U(1) -invariant theory in d dimensions with simplex number s is the same as a similar theory in d dimensions but which is Z /sub infinity/-invariant and has simplex number s = d-s. This dual theory describes the topological excitations of the original theory. These excitations are of dimension s - 1
Comment on ``Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance''
Arias, J. M.; Gallardo, M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.
1999-05-01
A recent article by Dussel, Sofia, and Tonina studies the relation between Galilei invariance and dipole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR). The authors find that the pairing interaction, which is neither Galilei nor Lorentz invariant, produces big changes in the EWSR and in effective masses of the nucleons. They argue that these effects of the pairing force could be realistic. In this Comment we stress the validity of Galilei invariance to a very good approximation in this context of low-energy nuclear physics and show that the effective masses and the observed change in the EWSR for the electric dipole operator relative to its classical value are compatible with this symmetry.
Simultaneity as an Invariant Equivalence Relation
Mamone-Capria, Marco
2012-11-01
This paper deals with the concept of simultaneity in classical and relativistic physics as construed in terms of group-invariant equivalence relations. A full examination of Newton, Galilei and Poincaré invariant equivalence relations in ℝ4 is presented, which provides alternative proofs, additions and occasionally corrections of results in the literature, including Malament's theorem and some of its variants. It is argued that the interpretation of simultaneity as an invariant equivalence relation, although interesting for its own sake, does not cut in the debate concerning the conventionality of simultaneity in special relativity.
Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.
Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas
2016-01-01
Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.
Few trapped quantum dipoles: quantum versus classical structures
Sánchez-Baena, J.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.
2018-01-01
We analyze the ground state of a two-dimensional quantum system of a few strongly confined dipolar bosons. Dipoles arrange in different stable structures that depend on the tilting polarization angle and the anisotropy of the confining trap. To this end, we use the exact diffusion Monte Carlo method and the quantum results are compared with classical ones obtained by stochastic optimization using simulated annealing. We establish the stability domains for the different patterns and estimate the transition boundaries delimiting them. Our results show significant differences between the classical and quantum regimes which are mainly due to the quantum kinetic energy.
Time-invariant discord: high temperature limit and initial environmental correlations
Tabesh, F. T.; Karpat, G.; Maniscalco, S.; Salimi, S.; Khorashad, A. S.
2018-04-01
We present a thorough investigation of the phenomena of frozen and time-invariant quantum discord for two-qubit systems independently interacting with local reservoirs. Our work takes into account several significant effects present in decoherence models, which have not been yet explored in the context of time-invariant quantum discord, but which in fact must be typically considered in almost all realistic models. Firstly, we study the combined influence of dephasing, dissipation and heating reservoirs at finite temperature. Contrarily to previous claims in the literature, we show the existence of time-invariant discord at high temperature limit in the weak coupling regime and also examine the effect of thermal photons on the dynamical behavior of frozen discord. Secondly, we explore the consequences of having initial correlations between the dephasing reservoirs. We demonstrate in detail how the time-invariant discord is modified depending on the relevant system parameters such as the strength of the initial amount of entanglement between the reservoirs.
Dimensional reduction in momentum space and scale-invariant cosmological fluctuations
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João
2013-11-01
We adopt a framework where quantum gravity’s dynamical dimensional reduction of spacetime at short distances is described in terms of modified dispersion relations. We observe that by subjecting such models to a momentum-space diffeomorphism one obtains a “dual picture” with unmodified dispersion relations, but a modified measure of integration over momenta. We then find that the UV Hausdorff dimension of momentum space which can be inferred from this modified integration measure coincides with the short-distance spectral dimension of spacetime. This result sheds light into why scale-invariant fluctuations are obtained if the original model for two UV spectral dimensions is combined with Einstein gravity. By studying the properties of the inner product we derive the result that it is only in two energy-momentum dimensions that microphysical vacuum fluctuations are scale invariant. This is true ignoring gravity, but then we find that if Einstein gravity is postulated in the original frame, in the dual picture gravity switches off, since all matter becomes conformally coupled. We argue that our findings imply that the following concepts are closely connected: scale invariance of vacuum quantum fluctuations, conformal invariance of the gravitational coupling, UV reduction to spectral dimension two in position space, and UV reduction to Hausdorff dimension two in energy-momentum space.
Two-dimensional fractal geometry, critical phenomena and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplantier, B.
1988-01-01
The universal properties of critical geometrical systems in two-dimensions (2D) like the O (n) and Potts models, are described in the framework of Coulomb gas methods and conformal invariance. The conformal spectrum of geometrical critical systems obtained is made of a discrete infinite series of scaling dimensions. Specific applications involve the fractal properties of self-avoiding walks, percolation clusters, and also some non trivial critical exponents or fractal dimensions associated with subsets of the planar Brownian motion. The statistical mechanics of the same critical models on a random 2D lattice (namely in presence of a critically-fluctuating metric, in the so-called 2D quantum gravity) is also addressed, and the above critical geometrical systems are shown to be exactly solvable in this case. The new ''gravitational'' conformal spectrum so derived is found to satisfy the recent Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov quadratic relation which links it to the standard conformal spectrum in the plane
The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics
Cramer, John G.
2001-06-01
The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."
Quantum scaling in many-body systems an approach to quantum phase transitions
Continentino, Mucio
2017-01-01
Quantum phase transitions are strongly relevant in a number of fields, ranging from condensed matter to cold atom physics and quantum field theory. This book, now in its second edition, approaches the problem of quantum phase transitions from a new and unifying perspective. Topics addressed include the concepts of scale and time invariance and their significance for quantum criticality, as well as brand new chapters on superfluid and superconductor quantum critical points, and quantum first order transitions. The renormalisation group in real and momentum space is also established as the proper language to describe the behaviour of systems close to a quantum phase transition. These phenomena introduce a number of theoretical challenges which are of major importance for driving new experiments. Being strongly motivated and oriented towards understanding experimental results, this is an excellent text for graduates, as well as theorists, experimentalists and those with an interest in quantum criticality.
Consistency relation for the Lorentz invariant single-field inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Qing-Guo
2010-01-01
In this paper we compute the sizes of equilateral and orthogonal shape bispectrum for the general Lorentz invariant single-field inflation. The stability of field theory implies a non-negative square of sound speed which leads to a consistency relation between the sizes of orthogonal and equilateral shape bispectrum, namely f NL orth. ≤ −0.054f NL equil. . In particular, for the single-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation, the consistency relation becomes f NL orth. = 0.070f NL equil. ≤ 0. These consistency relations are also valid in the mixed scenario where the quantum fluctuations of some other light scalar fields contribute to a part of total curvature perturbation on the super-horizon scale and may generate a local form bispectrum. A distinguishing prediction of the mixed scenario is τ NL loc. > ((6/5)f NL loc. ) 2 . Comparing these consistency relations to WMAP 7yr data, there is still a big room for the Lorentz invariant inflation, but DBI inflation has been disfavored at more than 68% CL
Ramírez, Beatriz; Córdova-Sintjago, Tania C.; Ruette, Fernando; Chuchani, Gabriel
2015-02-01
The mechanisms of gas-phase thermal decomposition of alkyl-substituted cyclohexadienes were studied by the means of quantum chemical calculations with theory levels Møller-Plesset pertubation theory (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP, MPW1PW91, PBEPBE, ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP, M06, and M062X) with 6-31G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets. The examination of the reaction pathways of each substrate demonstrated a molecular mechanism through six-membered cyclic boat-like transition state (TS) structure. An alkyl group substituent causes a detrimental effect on the reaction rate, compared to the parent compound 1,4-cyclohexadiene; however, the reaction was favoured in the case of 3,6-dimethyl substitution. The 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene compound has activation energy 11.2 kJ/mol lower than the reference compound, which overcomes the effect of the most negative entropy of activation in the series. The effects of alkyl substituents in these reactions suggest a complex combination of electronic and steric influence. These reactions are characterised as highly synchronous concerted, with small predominance of C-H bond breaking in the TS.
Joneta Witabora; Jonata Witabora
2014-01-01
Kinetic Sculpture was born from a long process of searching new approach in sculpture. The artists tried to escape from 'static' paradigm and tried to implement movement into their works: a sculpture that is mobile. Movement is always a fascinating phenomenon to eyes. Kinetic sculpture strength lies in its unique character in combining science and art. Kinetic Sculptures are really interesting pieces of art. It succeeds to fascinate human everytime.
Invariant Measures of Genetic Recombination Processes
Akopyan, Arseniy V.; Pirogov, Sergey A.; Rybko, Aleksandr N.
2015-07-01
We construct a non-linear Markov process connected with a biological model of a bacterial genome recombination. The description of invariant measures of this process gives us the solution of one problem in elementary probability theory.
Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mancas, Stefan C.; Rosu, Haret C.
2014-01-01
Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained
Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry
2008-01-01
It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, li......, linking number and Milnor's triple linking number. A more general statement, for n independent Borromean surgeries, is also provided.......It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing...
Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)
2014-06-13
Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-10-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2012-01-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
Computer calculation of Witten's 3-manifold invariant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freed, D.S.; Gompf, R.E.
1991-01-01
Witten's 2+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is exactly solvable. We compute the partition function, a topological invariant of 3-manifolds, on generalized Seifert spaces. Thus we test the path integral using the theory of 3-manifolds. In particular, we compare the exact solution with the asymptotic formula predicted by perturbation theory. We conclude that this path integral works as advertised and gives an effective topological invariant. (orig.)
Concept of indistinguishable particles in classical and quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bach, A.
1988-01-01
The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable
Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Wanping; Long Zhengwen; Cai Shaohong
2009-01-01
Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space, which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta. The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated. The noncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics. (authors)
Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G
2016-03-02
Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.
Quantum algebraic representation of localization and motion of a Dirac electron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge
2001-01-01
Quantum algebraic observables representing localization in space-time of a Dirac electron are defined. Inertial motion of the electron is represented in the quantum algebra with electron mass acting as the generator of motion. Since transformations to uniformly accelerated frames are naturally included in this conformally invariant description, the quantum algebra is also able to deal with uniformly accelerated motion
Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-05-15
Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)
On the geometry of inhomogeneous quantum groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aschieri, Paolo [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)
1998-01-01
The author gives a pedagogical introduction to the differential calculus on quantum groups by stressing at all stages the connection with the classical case. He further analyzes the relation between differential calculus and quantum Lie algebra of left (right) invariant vectorfields. Equivalent definitions of bicovariant differential calculus are studied and their geometrical interpretation is explained. From these data he constructs and analyzes the space of vectorfields, and naturally introduces a contraction operator and a Lie derivative. Their properties are discussed.
2T Physics and Quantum Mechanics
Chagas-Filho, W.
2008-01-01
We use a local scale invariance of a classical Hamiltonian and describe how to construct six different formulations of quantum mechanics in spaces with two time-like dimensions. All these six formulations have the same classical limit described by the same Hamiltonian. One of these formulations is used as a basis for a complementation of the usual quantum mechanics when in the presence of gravity.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Collapse of a Bose gas: Kinetic approach ... Thermodynamical, statistical and static properties of condensates; Ultracold and trapped gases; matter waves. ... of a harmonically trapped attractively interacting Bose gas below the condensation point by introducing a kinetic approach within the Hartee-Fock approximation.
Black holes and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooft, G. ' t, E-mail: g.thooft@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute, P.O. Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-07-15
After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these interactions generate a Hilbert space of states on the black hole horizon, which can be investigated, displaying interesting systematics by themselves. To make such approaches more powerful, a study is made of the black hole complementarity principle, from which one may deduce the existence of a hidden form of local conformal invariance. Finally, the question is raised whether the principles underlying Quantum Mechanics are to be sharpened in this domain of physics as well. There are intriguing possibilities.
Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization
Vikman, Alexander
2013-01-01
We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swart, C.A.M. de.
1983-01-01
The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interactions with proteins resulting in anticoagulant and lipolytic effects are discussed in a review (chapter II), which also comprises some clinical aspects of heparin therapy. In chapter III the kinetics of the anticoagulant effect are described after intravenous administration of five commercial heparin preparations. A mathematical model is presented that fits best to these kinetics. The kinetics of the anticoagulant and lipolytic effects after intravenous injection of various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions and their relationship with the disappearance of the radiolabel are described in chapter IV. Chapter V gives a description of the kinetics of two radiolabels after injection of in vitro formed complexes consisting of purified, 125 I-radiolabelled antithrombin III and various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions. (Auth.)
A quantum gravity tensor equation formally integrating general relativity with quantum mechanics
Duan, Xu
2016-01-01
Extending black-hole entropy to ordinary objects, we propose kinetic entropy tensor, based on which a quantum gravity tensor equation is established. Our investigation results indicate that if N=1, the quantum gravity tensor equation returns to Schrodinger integral equation. When N becomes sufficiently large, it is equivalent to Einstein field equation. This illustrates formal unification and intrinsic compatibility of general relativity with quantum mechanics. The quantum gravity equation ma...
Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.
Curing Black Hole Singularities with Local Scale Invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Predrag Dominis Prester
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We show that Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity provides a description of black holes without classical space-time singularities. Singularities appear due to the ill behaviour of gauge fixing conditions, one example being the gauge in which theory is classically equivalent to standard General Relativity. The main conclusions of our analysis are as follows: (1 singularities signal a phase transition from broken to unbroken phase of Weyl symmetry; (2 instead of a singularity, there is a “baby universe” or a white hole inside a black hole; (3 in the baby universe scenario, there is a critical mass after which reducing mass makes the black hole larger as viewed by outside observers; (4 if a black hole could be connected with white hole through the “singularity,” this would require breakdown of (classical geometric description; (5 the singularity of Schwarzschild BH solution is nongeneric and so it is dangerous to rely on it in deriving general results. Our results may have important consequences for resolving issues related to information loss puzzle. Though quantum effects are still crucial and may change the proposed classical picture, a position of building quantum theory around essentially regular classical solutions normally provides a much better starting point.
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.
2007-01-01
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Postulates of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.
1977-01-01
Postulates of quantum mechanics and physical interpretation on observables and their measurement are presented. The physical content of Schroedinger equation, the superposition principle and the physical forecastings are also exposed. In complement are also presented: physical study of a particle in a infinite potential well; study of probability current; mean deviations of two conjugate observables; measurements on a part only of a physical system; density operator; evolution operator; Heisenberg and Schoredinger pictures; gauge invariance; propagator of the Schroedinger equation; unsteady levels lifetime; bound states of a particle in a potential well of any shape; non-bound states of a particle in a well or a potential barrier of some shape; quantum properties of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic structure [fr
The complexity of translationally invariant low-dimensional spin lattices in 3D
Bausch, Johannes; Piddock, Stephen
2017-11-01
In this theoretical paper, we consider spin systems in three spatial dimensions and consider the computational complexity of estimating the ground state energy, known as the local Hamiltonian problem, for translationally invariant Hamiltonians. We prove that the local Hamiltonian problem for 3D lattices with face-centered cubic unit cells and 4-local translationally invariant interactions between spin-3/2 particles and open boundary conditions is QMAEXP-complete, where QMAEXP is the class of problems which can be verified in exponential time on a quantum computer. We go beyond a mere embedding of past hard 1D history state constructions, for which the local spin dimension is enormous: even state-of-the-art constructions have local dimension 42. We avoid such a large local dimension by combining some different techniques in a novel way. For the verifier circuit which we embed into the ground space of the local Hamiltonian, we utilize a recently developed computational model, called a quantum ring machine, which is especially well suited for translationally invariant history state constructions. This is encoded with a new and particularly simple universal gate set, which consists of a single 2-qubit gate applied only to nearest-neighbour qubits. The Hamiltonian construction involves a classical Wang tiling problem as a binary counter which translates one cube side length into a binary description for the encoded verifier input and a carefully engineered history state construction that implements the ring machine on the cubic lattice faces. These novel techniques allow us to significantly lower the local spin dimension, surpassing the best translationally invariant result to date by two orders of magnitude (in the number of degrees of freedom per coupling). This brings our models on par with the best non-translationally invariant construction.
Finite conformal quantum gravity and spacetime singularities
Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław
2017-12-01
We show that a class of finite quantum non-local gravitational theories is conformally invariant at classical as well as at quantum level. This is actually a range of conformal anomaly-free theories in the spontaneously broken phase of the Weyl symmetry. At classical level we show how the Weyl conformal invariance is able to tame all the spacetime singularities that plague not only Einstein gravity, but also local and weakly non-local higher derivative theories. The latter statement is proved by a singularity theorem that applies to a large class of weakly non-local theories. Therefore, we are entitled to look for a solution of the spacetime singularity puzzle in a missed symmetry of nature, namely the Weyl conformal symmetry. Following the seminal paper by Narlikar and Kembhavi, we provide an explicit construction of singularity-free black hole exact solutions in a class of conformally invariant theories.
Kinetic models in spin chemistry. 1. The hyperfine interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, M.; Pedersen, J. B.
2012-01-01
Kinetic models for quantum systems are quite popular due to their simplicity, although they are difficult to justify. We show that the transformation from quantum to kinetic description can be done exactly for the hyperfine interaction of one nuclei with arbitrary spin; more spins are described...... with a very good approximation. The crucial points are: to represents the quantum coherent oscillations by first order rate constants, and to determine the number of kinetic channels corresponding to a given interaction. We consider a radical pair system with spin selective reactions and calculate the spin...
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Conformal constraint in canonical quantum gravity
t Hooft, G.
2010-01-01
Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant
The equivalence principle in a quantum world
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal
2015-01-01
the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory...
Programmable Quantum Photonic Processor Using Silicon Photonics
2017-04-01
mentioned above, increased infidelity in the single photon states produced by sources sharply increases the resource overhead for quantum repeaters...for a time-invariant cavity. Using a “dual Hong-Ou-Mandel” geometry shown in Fig. 3, we were able to ensure that the incoming and existing photon
What is novel in quantum transport for mesoscopics?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indeed, orthodox quantum kinetics would seem to say little about mesoscopics that has not been revealed – nearly effortlessly – by more popular means. Such is far from the case, however. The fact that kinetic theory remains very much in charge is best appreciated through the physics of a quantum point contact.
A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Nan
2010-07-01
This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T, m{sub f}/T and e{sup 2}, where m{sub D} and m{sub f} are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e {proportional_to} 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T and g{sup 2}, where m{sub D} is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T {proportional_to} 2 - 3 T{sub c}. The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)
Change of adiabatic invariant near the separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.
1995-10-01
The properties of particle motion in the vicinity of the separatrix in a phase plane are investigated. The change of adiabatic invariant value due to the separatrix crossing is evaluated as a function of a perturbation parameter magnitude and a phase of a particle for time dependent Hamiltonians. It is demonstrated that the change of adiabatic invariant value near the separatrix birth is much larger than that in the case of the separatrix crossing near the saddle point in a phase plane. The conditions of a stochastic regime to appear around the separatrix are found. The results are applied to study the longitudinal invariant behaviour of charged particles near singular lines of the magnetic field. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs
Blurred image recognition by legendre moment invariants
Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guo-Niu; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2010-01-01
Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments. PMID:19933003
Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics
Bublik, Vasily V.
2017-10-01
In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with
Hartle, James B.
2018-01-01
A quantum theory of the universe consists of a theory of its quantum dynamics and a theory of its quantum state The theory predicts quantum multiverses in the form of decoherent sets of alternative histories describing the evolution of the universe's spacetime geometry and matter content. These consequences follow: (a) The universe generally exhibits different quantum multiverses at different levels and kinds of coarse graining. (b) Quantum multiverses are not a choice or an assumption but ar...
Kolobov, Mikhail I
2007-01-01
Quantum Imaging is a newly born branch of quantum optics that investigates the ultimate performance limits of optical imaging allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Using the methods and techniques from quantum optics, quantum imaging addresses the questions of image formation, processing and detection with sensitivity and resolution exceeding the limits of classical imaging. This book contains the most important theoretical and experimental results achieved by the researchers of the Quantum Imaging network, a research programme of the European Community.
Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.
2005-01-01
When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2009-01-01
A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....
Invariant distances and metrics in complex analysis
Jarnicki, Marek
2013-01-01
As in the field of ""Invariant Distances and Metrics in Complex Analysis"" there was and is a continuous progress this is the second extended edition of the corresponding monograph. This comprehensive book is about the study of invariant pseudodistances (non-negative functions on pairs of points) and pseudometrics (non-negative functions on the tangent bundle) in several complex variables. It is an overview over a highly active research area at the borderline between complex analysis, functional analysis and differential geometry. New chapters are covering the Wu, Bergman and several other met
The decomposition of global conformal invariants
Alexakis, Spyros
2012-01-01
This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese
Application of invariant embedding to reactor physics
Shimizu, Akinao; Parsegian, V L
1972-01-01
Application of Invariant Embedding to Reactor Physics describes the application of the method of invariant embedding to radiation shielding and to criticality calculations of atomic reactors. The authors intend to show how this method has been applied to realistic problems, together with the results of applications which will be useful to shielding design. The book is organized into two parts. Part A deals with the reflection and transmission of gamma rays by slabs. The chapters in this section cover topics such as the reflection and transmission problem of gamma rays; formulation of the probl
Approaching Moons from Resonance via Invariant Manifolds
Anderson, Rodney L.
2012-01-01
In this work, the approach phase from the final resonance of the endgame scenario in a tour design is examined within the context of invariant manifolds. Previous analyses have typically solved this problem either by using numerical techniques or by computing a catalog of suitable trajectories. The invariant manifolds of a selected set of libration orbits and unstable resonant orbits are computed here to serve as guides for desirable approach trajectories. The analysis focuses on designing an approach phase that may be tied into the final resonance in the endgame sequence while also targeting desired conditions at the moon.
Conformal invariants topics in geometric function theory
Ahlfors, Lars V
2010-01-01
Most conformal invariants can be described in terms of extremal properties. Conformal invariants and extremal problems are therefore intimately linked and form together the central theme of this classic book which is primarily intended for students with approximately a year's background in complex variable theory. The book emphasizes the geometric approach as well as classical and semi-classical results which Lars Ahlfors felt every student of complex analysis should know before embarking on independent research. At the time of the book's original appearance, much of this material had never ap
Supersymmetric models with broken Lorentz invariance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marakulin Arthur
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Several supersymmetric theories with broken Lorentz invariance are considered. We study at the component level Lorentz violating representations of the supersymmetry algebra and construct Lagrangians for the scalar and vector supermultiplets with broken Lorentz invariance. Lorentz violating model for the gravitational supermultiplet is constructed using the superfield formalism as supersymmetric extension of the linearized Einstein-aether theory. The most general Lagrangian of the linearized Einstein-aether supergravity is constructed. We show that the Lagrangian for this model is unique and obtain its bosonic part in components. The constraints imposed by supersymmetry on the parameters of the theory are obtained. The phenomenological consequences of the model are discussed.
Perturbative string theory in BRST invariant formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Vecchia, P.; Hornfeck, K.; Frau, M.; Lerda, A.
1988-01-01
In this talk we present a constructive and very explicit way of calculating multiloop amplitudes in string theories. The main ingredients are the BRST invariant N String Vertex and the BRST invariant twisted propagator. This approach naturally leads to the Schottky parametrization of moduli space in terms of multipliers and fixed points of the g projective transformations which characterize a Riemann surface of genus g. The complete expression (including measure) of the multiloop corrections to the N String Vertex for the bosonic string is exhibited. (orig.)
Lorentz invariance as a low energy phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadha, S.
1982-09-01
It is propsed that the various symmetries observed in nature be regarded as infrared attractive fixed points of a large class of theories which are not endowed with these symmetries a priori. That this hypothesis is feasible is explicitly demonstrated for the case of Lorentz invariance. The strategy is to consider a suitable noncovariant model of electrodynamics, and to show by calculating the relevant β-functions that this model simulates Lorentz invariance better and better as the energy scale is progressively lowered. (Auth.)
Quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, Q.; Thouless, Ds.J.; Wu, Y.S.
1984-10-01
Whenever the Fermi level lies in a gap (or mobility gap) the bulk Hall conductance can be expressed in a topologically invariant form showing the quantization explicitly. The new formulation generalizes the earlier result by TKNN to the situation where many body interaction and substrate disorder are also present. When applying to the fractional quantized Hall effect we draw the conclusion that there must be a symmetry breaking in the many body ground state. The possibility of writing the fractionally quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant is also carefully discussed. 19 references
Scaling theory of {{{Z}}_{2}} topological invariants
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P.
2016-09-01
For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by {{{Z}}2} topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined.
Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas
Klimontovich, Yu L
2013-01-01
Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor
Khrennikov, Andrei
2014-01-01
The present wave of interest in quantum foundations is caused by the tremendous development of quantum information science and its applications to quantum computing and quantum communication. It has become clear that some of the difficulties encountered in realizations of quantum information processing have roots at the very fundamental level. To solve such problems, quantum theory has to be reconsidered. This book is devoted to the analysis of the probabilistic structure of quantum theory, probing the limits of classical probabilistic representation of quantum phenomena.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thierry-Mieg, J.
1985-01-01
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity
Representation Theory in Classical and Quantum Physics
Antoine, J.-P.
2006-10-01
We review the basic notions of group theory, in particular Lie groups and Lie algebras, and of representations of the latter. Then we examine briefly their occurrence in classical physics for the description of invariance properties of physical systems and the concomitant conservation laws resulting from Noether's theorem. In the last section, finally, we give an overview of the applications of group representation theory in quantum physics, with special emphasis on the proper mathematical description of symmetry properties, both in quantum mechanics and in quantum field theory.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach
Lederer, P.
2015-05-01
The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.
Translationally invariant multipartite Bell inequalities involving only two-body correlators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tura, J; B Sainz, A; Acín, A; Lewenstein, M; Augusiak, R; Vértesi, T
2014-01-01
Bell inequalities are natural tools that allow one to certify the presence of nonlocality in quantum systems. The known constructions of multipartite Bell inequalities contain, however, correlation functions involving all observers, making their experimental implementation difficult. The main purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of witnessing nonlocality in multipartite quantum states from the easiest-to-measure quantities, that is, the two-body correlations. In particular, we determine all three- and four-partite Bell inequalities constructed from one- and two-body expectation values that obey translational symmetry, and show that they reveal nonlocality in multipartite states. Also, by providing a particular example of a five-partite Bell inequality, we show that nonlocality can be detected from two-body correlators involving only nearest neighbours. Finally, we demonstrate that any translationally invariant Bell inequality can be maximally violated by a translationally invariant state and the same set of observables at all sites. We provide a numerical algorithm allowing one to seek for maximal violation of a translationally invariant Bell inequality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Pair production processes and flavor in gauge-invariant perturbation theory
Egger, Larissa; Maas, Axel; Sondenheimer, René
2017-12-01
Gauge-invariant perturbation theory is an extension of ordinary perturbation theory which describes strictly gauge-invariant states in theories with a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect. Such gauge-invariant states are composite operators which have necessarily only global quantum numbers. As a consequence, flavor is exchanged for custodial quantum numbers in the Standard Model, recreating the fermion spectrum in the process. Here, we study the implications of such a description, possibly also for the generation structure of the Standard Model. In particular, this implies that scattering processes are essentially bound-state-bound-state interactions, and require a suitable description. We analyze the implications for the pair-production process e+e‑→f¯f at a linear collider to leading order. We show how ordinary perturbation theory is recovered as the leading contribution. Using a PDF-type language, we also assess the impact of sub-leading contributions. To lowest order, we find that the result is mainly influenced by how large the contribution of the Higgs at large x is. This gives an interesting, possibly experimentally testable, scenario for the formal field theory underlying the electroweak sector of the Standard Model.
Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows
Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Lamata, L.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Succi, S.; Solano, E.
2015-08-01
Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.
Experimental study of invariance violations in neutrino and antineutrino reactions at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaes, R.
1983-06-01
This work is dedicated to the study of the structure functions in neutrino-nucleon interactions and to the interpretation of observed violations of scaling invariance. The first chapter describes the experimental setting, the Cargamelle cloud chamber has been used. The second chapter presents the data analysis, the event selection methodology, the muon identification and the energy correction that takes into account the non-detected particles. We also present the bi-dimensional x and q 2 distribution of events that is necessary to the determination of the structure functions. In the third chapter we detail the theoretical basis of our analysis: we define relevant kinematic variables and we discuss the scale invariance in the light of the quark-parton model. The violations of the scale invariance are considered first in the formalism of quantum chromodynamics and then in the view of higher twist or mass corrections. The fourth chapter deals with the experimental determination of the structure functions and of the violations of the scaling invariance. (A.C.)
Bell's conspiracy, Schrödinger's black cat and global invariant sets.
Palmer, T N
2015-08-06
A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that states of physical reality lie precisely on a non-computational measure-zero dynamically invariant set in the state space of the universe: the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate. To illustrate the relevance of the concept of a global invariant set, a simple analogy is considered where a massive object is propelled into a black hole depending on the decay of a radioactive atom. It is claimed that a locally causal hidden-variable theory constrained by the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality without being conspiratorial, superdeterministic, fine-tuned or retrocausal, and the theory readily accommodates the classical compatibilist notion of (experimenter) free will.
The Balescu kinetic equation with exchange interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyi, V V; Kukharenko, Yu A
2009-01-01
Starting with the quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the distribution functions, we have obtained the quantum kinetic equation including the dynamical screening of the interaction potential, which exactly takes into account the exchange scattering in the plasma. The collision integral is expressed in terms of the Green function of the linearized Hartree–Fock equation. The potential energy takes into account the polarization and exchange interaction too
Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F.
1996-01-01
In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Learning the Lie groups of visual invariance.
Miao, Xu; Rao, Rajesh P N
2007-10-01
A fundamental problem in biological and machine vision is visual invariance: How are objects perceived to be the same despite transformations such as translations, rotations, and scaling? In this letter, we describe a new, unsupervised approach to learning invariances based on Lie group theory. Unlike traditional approaches that sacrifice information about transformations to achieve invariance, the Lie group approach explicitly models the effects of transformations in images. As a result, estimates of transformations are available for other purposes, such as pose estimation and visuomotor control. Previous approaches based on first-order Taylor series expansions of images can be regarded as special cases of the Lie group approach, which utilizes a matrix-exponential-based generative model of images and can handle arbitrarily large transformations. We present an unsupervised expectation-maximization algorithm for learning Lie transformation operators directly from image data containing examples of transformations. Our experimental results show that the Lie operators learned by the algorithm from an artificial data set containing six types of affine transformations closely match the analytically predicted affine operators. We then demonstrate that the algorithm can also recover novel transformation operators from natural image sequences. We conclude by showing that the learned operators can be used to both generate and estimate transformations in images, thereby providing a basis for achieving visual invariance.
Gauge invariance and fractional quantized Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.
1984-01-01
It is shown that gauge invariance arguments imply the possibility of fractional quantized Hall effect; the Hall conductance is accurately quantized to a rational value. The ground state of a system showing the fractional quantized Hall effect must be degenerate; the non-degenerate ground state can only produce the integral quantized Hall effect. 12 references
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a function of system parameters, we demonstrate that the performance of a nonlinear Hamiltonian system is enhanced. Keywords. Invariant metric; symplectic maps; performance optimization. PACS Nos 05.45. ...... [7] A Nijenhuis and H S Wilf, Computational algorithms for computers and calculators (Academic. Press, New ...
Neutrinos as Probes of Lorentz Invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge S. Díaz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Neutrinos can be used to search for deviations from exact Lorentz invariance. The worldwide experimental program in neutrino physics makes these particles a remarkable tool to search for a variety of signals that could reveal minute relativity violations. This paper reviews the generic experimental signatures of the breakdown of Lorentz symmetry in the neutrino sector.
Testing Lorentz and CPT Invariance with Neutrinos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge S. Díaz
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Neutrino experiments can be considered sensitive tools to test Lorentz and CPT invariance. Taking advantage of the great variety of neutrino experiments, including neutrino oscillations, weak decays, and astrophysical neutrinos, the generic experimental signatures of the breakdown of these fundamental symmetries in the neutrino sector are presented.
Automatic invariant detection in dynamic web applications
Groeneveld, F.; Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.
2010-01-01
The complexity of modern web applications increases as client-side JavaScript and dynamic DOM programming are used to offer a more interactive web experience. In this paper, we focus on improving the dependability of such applications by automatically inferring invariants from the client-side and
Constitutive laws, tensorial invariance and chocolate cake
Rundle, John B.; Passman, S. L.
1982-04-01
Although constitutive modeling is a well-established branch of mathematics which has found wide industrial application, geophysicists often do not take full advantage of its known results. We present a synopsis of the theory of constitutive modeling, couched in terms of the ‘simple material’, which has been extensively studied and is complex enough to include most of the correct models proposed to describe the behavior of geological materials. Critical in the development of the theory are various invariance requirements, the principal ones being coordinate invariance, peer group invariance (isotropy), and frame-indifference. Each places distinet restrictions on constitutive equations. A noncomprehensive list of properly invariant and commonly used constitutive equations is given. To exemplify use of the equations, we consider two problems in detail: steady extension, which models the commonly performed constant strain rate triaxial test, and simple shearing. We note that each test is so restricted kinematically that only the most trivial aspects of material behavior are manifested in these tests, no matter how complex the material. Furthermore, the results of one test do not generally determine the results of the other.
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...
Joint local quasinilpotence and common invariant subspaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MS received 27 November 2005; revised 3 February 2006. Abstract. In this article we obtain some positive results about the existence of a common nontrivial invariant subspace for N-tuples of not necessarily commuting operators on. Banach spaces with a Schauder basis. The concept of joint quasinilpotence plays a basic.
Notes on the knot concordance invariant Upsilon
Livingston, Charles
2014-01-01
The knot concordance invariant Upsilon, recently defined by Ozsvath, Stipsicz, and Szabo, takes values in the group of piecewise linear functions on the closed interval [0,2]. This paper presents a description of one approach to defining Upsilon and of proving its basic properties related to the knot 3-genus, 4-genus, and concordance genus.
General relativity invariance and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.
1987-04-01
The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs
Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.
1977-01-01
We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables
Question of Lorentz invariance in muon decay
Noordmans, J.P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.
2014-01-01
Possibilities to test the Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction in muon decay are considered. We derive the general Lorentz-violating muon-decay rate and discuss measurements of the directional and boost dependence of the Michel parameters and of the muon lifetime as function of absolute
Adaptivity and group invariance in mathematical morphology
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2009-01-01
The standard morphological operators are (i) defined on Euclidean space, (ii) based on structuring elements, and (iii) invariant with respect to translation. There are several ways to generalise this. One way is to make the operators adaptive by letting the size or shape of structuring elements
Real object recognition using moment invariants
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
associative memory was used to create a system, recognizing objects regardless of changes in rotation or scale by Wechsler & Zimmerman (1998) 3-D object simulations were ..... Hu M 1962 Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-8: 179–187. Khotanzad A, Lu J-H 1990 Classification of ...
Invariant properties between stroke features in handwriting
Teulings, H L; Schomaker, L R
A handwriting pattern is considered as a sequence of ballistic strokes. Replications of a pattern may be generated from a single, higher-level memory representation, acting as a motor program. Therefore, those stroke features which show the most invariant pattern are probably related to the
Invariant Theory (IT) & Standard Monomial Theory (SMT)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-07-06
Jul 6, 2013 ... Introducing co-ordinate axes in the usual fashion (with origin at the central point), we can represent the points by ordered pairs (xred, yred), (xblue, yblue), (xgreen, ygreen),. (xyellow, yyellow). ..... What are the (polynomial) invariants in this case? The dot products x2 red + y2 red, . . . (of every point with itself) ...
Conformal branching rules and modular invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walton, M.A.
1989-01-01
Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)
Analogies between classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, M.
1986-01-01
Some analogies between nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at the level of the Liouville equation and at the kinetic level, are commented on. A theorem, related to the Vlasov equation applied to a plasma, is proved. The theorem presents an analogy with Ehrenfest's theorem of quantum mechanics. An analogy between the plasma kinetic theory and Bohm's quantum theory with 'hidden variables' is also shown. (Author) [pt
Finite quantum electrodynamics the causal approach
Scharf, Günter
2014-01-01
In this classic text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics, author Günter Scharf carefully analyzes the role of causality in quantum electrodynamics. His approach offers full proofs and detailed calculations of scattering processes in a mathematically rigorous manner. This third edition contains Scharf's revisions and corrections plus a brief new Epilogue on gauge invariance of quantum electrodynamics to all orders. The book begins with Dirac's theory, followed by the quantum theory of free fields and causal perturbation theory, a powerful method that avoids ultraviolet divergences and solves the infrared problem by means of the adiabatic limit. Successive chapters explore properties of the S-matrix — such as renormalizability, gauge invariance, and unitarity — the renormalization group, and interactive fields. Additional topics include electromagnetic couplings and the extension of the methods to non-abelian gauge theories. Each chapter is supplemented with problems, and four appe...
Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
establish that supersymmetry is a necessary ingradient for the unifying approach. In 1981, Witten [12] proposed (0 + 1)-dimensional limit of SUSY quantum field theory, where the supercharges of SUSY quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) generate transformation between two orthogonal eigenstates of a given Hamiltonian with.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder
2002-01-01
We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....
Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark A Atherton
Full Text Available Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.
Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.
Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato
2009-01-16
We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem.
Kinetics and Product Channels in Combustion Chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hershberger, John F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)
2017-02-28
We report study of the chemical kinetics and/or photochemistry of several chemical reactions of potential interest in understanding the gas phase combustion chemistry of nitrogen-containing molecules. Studies completed during the final grant period include determination of quantum yields of the photolysis of HCNO, fulminic acid, a kinetics and product channel study of the reaction of CN radicals with methyl bromide, and study of the products of the reaction of hydroxymethyl radical with nitric oxide.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1997-01-01
This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)
Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah
2008-12-05
We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Ahmadi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
Kinetic theory and transport phenomena
Soto, Rodrigo
2016-01-01
This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...
EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory
Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.
2010-02-01
and F Verstraete SIMULATION AND DYNAMICS A quantum differentiation of k-SAT instances B Tamir and G Ortiz Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits Joseph Geraci and Daniel A Lidar Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain S R Clark, J Prior, M J Hartmann, D Jaksch and M B Plenio Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition Tomaž Prosen and Bojan Žunkovič Quantum kinetic Ising models R Augusiak, F M Cucchietti, F Haake and M Lewenstein ENTANGLEMENT AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES Ground states of unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians satisfy an area law Niel de Beaudrap, Tobias J Osborne and Jens Eisert Correlation density matrices for one-dimensional quantum chains based on the density matrix renormalization group W Münder, A Weichselbaum, A Holzner, Jan von Delft and C L Henley The invariant-comb approach and its relation to the balancedness of multipartite entangled states Andreas Osterloh and Jens Siewert Entanglement scaling of fractional quantum Hall states through geometric deformations Andreas M Läuchli, Emil J Bergholtz and Masudul Haque Entanglement versus gap for one-dimensional spin systems Daniel Gottesman and M B Hastings Entanglement spectra of critical and near-critical systems in one dimension F Pollmann and J E Moore Macroscopic bound entanglement in thermal graph states D Cavalcanti, L Aolita, A Ferraro, A García-Saez and A Acín Entanglement at the quantum phase transition in a harmonic lattice Elisabeth Rieper, Janet Anders and Vlatko Vedral Multipartite entanglement and frustration P Facchi, G Florio, U Marzolino, G Parisi and S Pascazio Entropic uncertainty relations—a survey Stephanie Wehner and Andreas Winter Entanglement in a spin system with inverse square statistical interaction D Giuliano, A Sindona, G Falcone, F Plastina and L Amico APPLICATIONS Time-dependent currents of one-dimensional bosons
Time-invariant PT product and phase locking in PT -symmetric lattice models
Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Onanga, Franck Assogba; Harter, Andrew K.
2018-01-01
Over the past decade, non-Hermitian, PT -symmetric Hamiltonians have been investigated as candidates for both a fundamental, unitary, quantum theory and open systems with a nonunitary time evolution. In this paper, we investigate the implications of the former approach in the context of the latter. Motivated by the invariance of the PT (inner) product under time evolution, we discuss the dynamics of wave-function phases in a wide range of PT -symmetric lattice models. In particular, we numerically show that, starting with a random initial state, a universal, gain-site location dependent locking between wave-function phases at adjacent sites occurs in the PT -symmetry-broken region. Our results pave the way towards understanding the physically observable implications of time invariants in the nonunitary dynamics produced by PT -symmetric Hamiltonians.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1988-12-01
Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantization of a conformal invariant pure spinor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akdeniz, K.G.; Hortacsu, M.; Pak, N.K.; Arik, M.
1982-08-01
The Gursey model, a conformally invariant pure spinor model in four dimensions, is shown to yield a renormalizable field theory, which is asymptotically free in the phase which has discrete ν 5 -invariance. (author)
1980-01-01
This report on kinetic bridges is essentially a state-of-the-art study on two types of bridges whose location or physical characteristics are designed to be time dependent. The first type, called a "relocatable bridge", is essentially for use as a te...
A scale invariant covariance structure on jet space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
This paper considers scale invariance of statistical image models. We study statistical scale invariance of the covariance structure of jet space under scale space blurring and derive the necessary structure and conditions of the jet covariance matrix in order for it to be scale invariant. As part...... results where we estimate the scale invariant jet covariance of natural images and show that it resembles that of Brownian images....
How to Find Invariants for Coloured Petri Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kurt
1981-01-01
This paper shows how invariants can be found for coloured Petri Nets. We define a set of transformation rules, which can be used to transform the incidence matrix, without changing the set of invariants.......This paper shows how invariants can be found for coloured Petri Nets. We define a set of transformation rules, which can be used to transform the incidence matrix, without changing the set of invariants....
Piecewise linear loop quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engle, Jonathan [MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2010-02-07
We define a modification of loop quantum gravity (LQG) in which graphs are required to consist of piecewise linear edges, which we call piecewise linear LQG (plLQG). At the diffeomorphism-invariant level, we prove that plLQG is equivalent to standard LQG, as long as one chooses the class of diffeomorphisms appropriately. That is, we exhibit a unitary map between the diffeomorphism-invariant Hilbert spaces that maps physically equivalent operators into each other. In addition, using the same ideas as in standard LQG, one can define a Hamiltonian and master constraint in plLQG, and the unitary map between plLQG and LQG then provides an exact isomorphism of dynamics in the two frameworks. Furthermore, loop quantum cosmology (LQC) can be exactly embedded into plLQG. This allows a prior program of the author to embed LQC into LQG at the dynamical level to proceed. In particular, this allows a formal expression for a physically motivated embedding of LQC into LQG at the diffeomorphism-invariant level to be given.
The gauge invariant Lagrangian for Seiberg-Witten topological monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianvittorio, R.; Martin, I.; Restuccia, A.
1995-04-01
A topological gauge invariant Lagrangian for Seiberg-Witten monopole equations is constructed. The actions is invariant under a huge class of gauge transformations which after BRST fixing leads to the BRST invariant actin associated to Seiberg-Witten monopole topological theory. The supersymmetric transformation of the fields involved in the construction is obtained from the nilpotent BRST algebra. (author). 6 refs
Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. The obtained invariants ..... where α, β, α1,α2,β1,β2,δ3 and δ4 are arbitrary constants of integration. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... An invariant for a shifted harmonic oscillator in complex plane can be derived by substi- tuting δ3 = 0,δ2 = −1.
Invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces
Chen, Zhiqi; Nikonorov, Yuriĭ; Nikonorova, Yulia
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces $F^m/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$. In particular, we classify invariant Einstein metrics on $F^4/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$ and estimate the number of invariant Einstein metrics on general Ledger-Obata spaces $F^{m}/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$.
Image indexing using composite color and shape invariant features
Gevers, Th.; Smeulders, A.W.M.
1998-01-01
New sets of color models are proposed for object recognition invariant to a change in view point, object geometry and illumination. Further, computational methods are presented to combine color and shape invariants to produce a high-dimensional invariant feature set for discriminatory object
The need for invariant assessments in South African education
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Even though we cannot conclude at this stage that the Marko-D satisfies the requirements of invariance and unidimensionality com- pletely, this study provides an elucidation of the need for invariant assessments in South African education. Keywords: foundation phase learners; invariance; mathematical competence; ...
Quantum chromodynamics as dynamics of loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makeenko, Yu.; Migdal, A.A.
1980-01-01
The problem of a possibility of reformulating quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of colourless composite fields instead of coloured quarks and gluons is considered. The role of such fields is played by the gauge invariant loop functionals. The Shwinger equations of motion is derived in the loop space which completely describe dynamics of the loop fields. New manifestly gauge invariant diagram technique in the loop space is developed. These diagrams reproduce asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet range and are consistent with the confinement law in the infrared range
Black hole entropy and quantum information
Duff, M J
2006-01-01
We review some recently established connections between the mathematics of black hole entropy in string theory and that of multipartite entanglement in quantum information theory. In the case of N=2 black holes and the entanglement of three qubits, the quartic [SL(2)]^3 invariant, Cayley's hyperdeterminant, provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of tripartite entanglement. In the case of N=8 black holes and the entanglement of seven qubits, the quartic E_7 invariant of Cartan provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of a particular tripartite entanglement encoded in the Fano plane.
The geometric Hopf invariant and surgery theory
Crabb, Michael
2017-01-01
Written by leading experts in the field, this monograph provides homotopy theoretic foundations for surgery theory on higher-dimensional manifolds. Presenting classical ideas in a modern framework, the authors carefully highlight how their results relate to (and generalize) existing results in the literature. The central result of the book expresses algebraic surgery theory in terms of the geometric Hopf invariant, a construction in stable homotopy theory which captures the double points of immersions. Many illustrative examples and applications of the abstract results are included in the book, making it of wide interest to topologists. Serving as a valuable reference, this work is aimed at graduate students and researchers interested in understanding how the algebraic and geometric topology fit together in the surgery theory of manifolds. It is the only book providing such a wide-ranging historical approach to the Hopf invariant, double points and surgery theory, with many results old and new. .
Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence
Lesne, Annick
2012-01-01
During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...
Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoshige Uchida
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.
Role of Lifshitz Invariants in Liquid Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amelia Sparavigna
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The interaction between an external action and the order parameter, via a dependence described by a so-called Lifshitz invariant, is very important to determine the final configuration of liquid crystal cells. The external action can be an electric field applied to the bulk or the confinement due to free surfaces or cell walls. The Lifshitz invariant includes the order parameter in the form of an elastic strain. This coupling between elastic strains and fields, inserted in a Landau-Ginzburg formalism, is well known and gives rise to striction effects causing undulations in the director configuration. We want to discuss here the role of Lifshitz coupling terms, following an approach similar to that introduced by Dzyaloshinskii for magnetic materials. Case studies on nematics in planar and cylindrical cells are also proposed.
CP invariance: a point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, Gyan
1983-01-01
That the longlived component L of K 0 has both CP = +1 and CP = -1 modes of decay is often cited as evidence of violation of CP invariance. The careful ones find the compelling evidence to be the non-dilution of the regeneration interference pattern when the incident K 0 beam is mixed even substantially with anti-K 0 . However the two phenomena comprehensively imply that L has a CP = +1 component Lsub(+) and CP = -1 component Lsub(-) and that the longlived component of both K 0 and anti-K 0 are one and the same L. This does not demand abandoning CP invariance. It does imply that anti-K 0 is not the CP conjugate of K 0 . (author)
Gauge-invariant variables and entanglement entropy
Agarwal, Abhishek; Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V. P.
2017-12-01
The entanglement entropy (EE) of gauge theories in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed using manifestly gauge-invariant variables defined directly in the continuum. Specifically, we focus on the Maxwell, Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS), and non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories. Special attention is paid to the analysis of edge modes and their contribution to EE. The contact term is derived without invoking the replica method and its physical origin is traced to the phase space volume measure for the edge modes. The topological contribution to the EE for the MCS case is calculated. For all the Abelian cases, the EE presented in this paper agrees with known results in the literature. The EE for the non-Abelian theory is computed in a gauge-invariant Gaussian approximation, which incorporates the dynamically generated mass gap. A formulation of the contact term for the non-Abelian case is also presented.
Revisiting R-invariant direct gauge mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Cheng-Wei [Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics andDepartment of Physics, National Central University,Taoyuan, Taiwan 32001, R.O.C. (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Taipei, Taiwan 11529, R.O.C. (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, R.O.C. (China); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); ICRR, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ibe, Masahiro [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); ICRR, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
2016-03-21
We revisit a special model of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, the “R-invariant direct gauge mediation.” We pay particular attention to whether the model is consistent with the minimal model of the μ-term, i.e., a simple mass term of the Higgs doublets in the superpotential. Although the incompatibility is highlighted in view of the current experimental constraints on the superparticle masses and the observed Higgs boson mass, the minimal μ-term can be consistent with the R-invariant gauge mediation model via a careful choice of model parameters. We derive an upper limit on the gluino mass from the observed Higgs boson mass. We also discuss whether the model can explain the 3σ excess of the Z+jets+E{sub T}{sup miss} events reported by the ATLAS collaboration.
Monopoles, Abelian projection, and gauge invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonati, Claudio; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lepori, Luca; Pucci, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
A direct connection is proved between the non-Abelian Bianchi Identities (NABI's) and the Abelian Bianchi identities for the 't Hooft tensor. As a consequence, the existence of a nonzero magnetic current is related to the violation of the NABI's and is a gauge-invariant property. The construction allows us to show that not all Abelian projections can be used to expose monopoles in lattice configurations: each field configuration with nonzero magnetic charge identifies its natural projection, up to gauge transformations which tend to unity at large distances. It is shown that the so-called maximal-Abelian gauge is a legitimate choice. It is also proven, starting from the NABI, that monopole condensation is a physical gauge-invariant phenomenon, independent of the choice of the Abelian projection.
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-01-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511
Adiabatic invariants for field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.
1982-01-01
Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are characterized by azimuthal symmetry, so two exact constants of the particle motion are the total particle energy E and the canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/. For many purposes it is desirable to construct a third (diabatic) constant of the motion if this is possible. It is shown that for parameters characteristic of current FRCs that the magnetic moment μ is a poor adiabatic invariant, while the radial action J is conserved rather well
Liaison, Schottky Problem and Invariant Theory
Alonso, Maria Emilia; Mallavibarrena, Raquel; Sols, Ignacio
2010-01-01
This volume is a homage to the memory of the Spanish mathematician Federico Gaeta (1923-2007). Apart from a historical presentation of his life and interaction with the classical Italian school of algebraic geometry, the volume presents surveys and original research papers on the mathematics he studied. Specifically, it is divided into three parts: linkage theory, Schottky problem and invariant theory. On this last topic a hitherto unpublished article by Federico Gaeta is also included.
3D rotation invariants by complex moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan; Boldyš, Jiří
2015-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 11 (2015), s. 3516-3526 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-29225S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Complex moment * spherical harmonic * group representation theory * 3D rotation invariant Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/suk-0445882.pdf
Invariant dependence structures and Archimedean copulas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Durante, F.; Jaworski, P.; Mesiar, Radko
2011-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 12 (2011), s. 1995-2003 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Archimedean copula * Tail dependence * Clayton model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.498, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/mesiar-invariant dependence structures and archimedean copulas.pdf
Coordinate invariant conservation laws in Schwarzschild geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burghardt, R.
1983-01-01
Einstein's field equations can be written in a special way to give expressions free of any quantities which cannot be measured. These expressions are fully coordinate invariant but observer dependent. Generalized Lorentz transformations according to Treder's theory serve as connecting links between the measured values of different observer systems. The field equations contain expressions for gravitational energy stresses which satisfy covariant conservation laws.
Affine Moment Invariants Generated by Graph Method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan
2011-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 9 (2011), 2047 – 2056 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image moments * Object recognition * Affine transformation * Affine moment invariants * Pseudoinvariants * Graph representation * Irreducibility * Independence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.292, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/ZOI/suk-0359752.pdf
Invariance and inconsistency in utility ratings.
Bravata, Dena M; Nelson, Lorene M; Garber, Alan M; Goldstein, Mary K
2005-01-01
To assess utilities of composite health states for dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs) for invariance (i.e., when subjects provide a utility of 1 for all health states) and order inconsistency (i.e., when subjects order their utilities such that their utility for a combination of ADL dependencies is greater than their utility for any subset of the combination). Each of the 400 subjects, age 65 y and older, enrolled in one of several regional medical centers of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California and provided standard-gamble utilities for single ADL dependencies (e.g., bathing, dressing, continence) and for dependence in 8 other combinations of ADL dependencies. For order-inconsistent responses, the authors calculated the maximum magnitude of inconsistency as the maximum difference between the utility for the combined ADL dependence health state and that of its inconsistent subset. A total of 76 subjects (19%) gave a utility of 1.0 for all health states presented to them; 19 (5%) gave the same utility other than 1.0 for all health states; 130 (33%) gave at least 1 utility Invariance was associated with a Mini-Mental Status Examination score invariant (0.88 [0.24]) was higher than among inconsistent subjects (0.80 [0.27]; P = 0.01). Invariance and order inconsistencies in utility ratings for complex health states occur frequently. Utilities of consistent subjects may differ from those of inconsistent subjects. Utility assessments should attempt to measure and report these patterns.
Visual Distinctness Determined by Partially Invariant Features
2000-03-01
DISTINCTNESS DETERMINED BY PARTIALLY INVARIANT FEATURES. J.A. Garcia, J. Fdez-Valdivia Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A. Univ. de Granada...constant, independently of the viewing distance.The perceptual organization capabilities of human in a complex rural background. vision seem to exhibit...designed and 5.1.2. Clarity of separation at stage j organized by NVESD (Night Vision & Electro-optic Sensors Here we introduce the criterion by which we
O(3)-invariant tunneling in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezin, V.A.; Tkachev, I.I.; Kuzmin, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)
1987-12-01
We derived a general formula for the action for any O(3)-invariant tunneling processes in false vacuum decay in general relativity. The general classification of the bubble Euclidean trajectories is elaborated and explicit expressions for bounces for some processes like the vacuum creation of a double bubble, in particular in the vicinity of a black hole; the subbarrier creation of the Einstein-Rosen bridge, creation from nothing of two Minkowski worlds connected by a shell etc., are given. (orig.)
An application of Lorentz-invariance violation in black hole thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)
2017-10-15
In this paper, we have applied the Lorentz-invariance violation (LIV) class of dispersion relations (DRs) with the dimensionless parameter n = 2 and the ''sign of LIV'' η{sub +} = 1, to a phenomenological study of the effect of quantum gravity in a strong gravitational field. Specifically, we have studied the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity on the Schwarzschild black hole thermodynamics. The result shows that the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity speeds up the black hole evaporation, and its corresponding black hole entropy undergoes a leading logarithmic correction to the ''reduced Bekenstein-Hawking entropy'', and the ill-defined situations (i.e. the singularity problem and the critical problem) are naturally bypassed when the LIV-DR effect is present. Also, to put our results in a proper perspective, we have compared results with the earlier findings by another quantum-gravity candidate, i.e. the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Finally, we conclude from the inert remnants at the final stage of the black hole evaporation that, the GUP as a candidate for describing quantum gravity can always do as well as the LIV-DR by adjusting the model-dependent parameters, but in the same model-dependent parameters the LIV-DR acts as a more suitable candidate. (orig.)
On local invariants of singular symplectic forms
Domitrz, Wojciech
2017-04-01
We find a complete set of local invariants of singular symplectic forms with the structurally stable Martinet hypersurface on a 2 n-dimensional manifold. In the C-analytic category this set consists of the Martinet hypersurface Σ2, the restriction of the singular symplectic form ω to TΣ2 and the kernel of ω n - 1 at the point p ∈Σ2. In the R-analytic and smooth categories this set contains one more invariant: the canonical orientation of Σ2. We find the conditions to determine the kernel of ω n - 1 at p by the other invariants. In dimension 4 we find sufficient conditions to determine the equivalence class of a singular symplectic form-germ with the structurally smooth Martinet hypersurface by the Martinet hypersurface and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to it. We also study the singular symplectic forms with singular Martinet hypersurfaces. We prove that the equivalence class of such singular symplectic form-germ is determined by the Martinet hypersurface, the canonical orientation of its regular part and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to its regular part if the Martinet hypersurface is a quasi-homogeneous hypersurface with an isolated singularity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Xiaoyong; Ren, Xiaobin; Wang, Gangzhi; Peng, Jie
2014-01-01
We investigate the impact of a time-reversal invariant external field on the topological phases of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator. By taking the momentum k z as a parameter, we calculate the spin-Chern number analytically. It is shown that both the quantum spin Hall phase and the integer quantum Hall phase can be realized in our system. When the strength of the external field is varied, a series of topological phase transitions occurs with the closing of the energy gap or the spin-spectrum gap. In a tight-binding form, the surface modes are discussed numerically to confirm the analytically results. (paper)
Superconformal quantum mechanics and the discrete light-cone quantisation of SUSY Yang-Mills
Dorey, Nick; Singleton, Andrew
2015-02-01
We study the quantum mechanical σ-model arising in the discrete light-cone quantisation of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The target space is a certain torus fibration over a scale-invariant special Kähler manifold. We show that the expected SU(1, 1 |4) light-cone superconformal invariance of the theory emerges in a limit where the volume of the fibre goes to zero and give an explicit construction of the generators. The construction given here yields a large new family of superconformal quantum mechanical models with SU(1, 1 |4) invariance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasgupta, I.
1998-01-01
We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)
Testing Lorentz invariance emergence in Ising Model using lattice Monte Carlo simulations
Stojku, Stefan
2017-01-01
All measurements performed so far at the observable energy scales show no violation of Lorentz invariance. However, it is yet impossible to check experimentally whether this symmetry holds at high energies such as the Planck scale. Recently, theories of gravitation with Lorentz violation, known as Horava-Lifshitz gravity [1, 2] have gained signiﬁcant attention by treating Lorentz symmetry as an emergent phenomenon. A Lif-shitz type theory assumes an anisotropic scaling between space and time weighted by some critical exponent. In order for these theories to be viable candidates for quantum gravity description of the nature, Lorentz symmetry needs to be recovered at low energies.
Testing Lorentz Invariance Emergence in the Ising Model using Monte Carlo simulations
Dias Astros, Maria Isabel
2017-01-01
In the context of the Lorentz invariance as an emergent phenomenon at low energy scales to study quantum gravity a system composed by two 3D interacting Ising models (one with an anisotropy in one direction) was proposed. Two Monte Carlo simulations were run: one for the 2D Ising model and one for the target model. In both cases the observables (energy, magnetization, heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility) were computed for different lattice sizes and a Binder cumulant introduced in order to estimate the critical temperature of the systems. Moreover, the correlation function was calculated for the 2D Ising model.
Perfect routing of quantum information in regular cavity QED networks
Behzadi, Naghi; Rudsary, Sobhan Kazemi; Salmasi, Bahram Ahansaz
2013-12-01
We introduce a scheme for perfect routing of quantum states and entanglement in regular cavity QED networks. The couplings between the cavities are quasi-uniform and each cavity is doped with a two-level atom. Quasi-uniform couplings leads the system to evolve in invariant subspaces. Combination the evolutions of the system in its invariant subspaces with quite simple local operations on atoms in the networks, gives the perfect routing of quantum states and entanglement through the network. To provide the protocol be robust due to decoherence arisen from photon loss, the field mode of the cavities are only virtually excited.
Experimentally freezing quantum discord in a dephasing environment using dynamical decoupling
Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita
2017-06-01
The discovery of the intriguing phenomenon that certain kinds of quantum correlations remain impervious to noise up to a specific point in time and then suddenly decay, has generated immense recent interest. We exploit dynamical decoupling sequences to prolong the persistence of time-invariant quantum correlations in a system of two NMR qubits decohering in independent dephasing environments. We experimentally prepare two-qubit Bell-diagonal quantum states that interact with individual noise channels and demonstrate that we are able to freeze quantum correlations over long time scales via dynamical decoupling. Our results have important implications for experimental quantum control and for quantum information processing protocols.
On Liapunov and Exponential Stability of Rossby-Haurwitz Waves in Invariant Sets of Perturbations
Skiba, Yuri N.
2018-01-01
In this work, the stability of the Rossby-Haurwitz (RH) waves from the subspace H1\\oplus Hn is considered (n≥2 ) where Hk is the subspace of the homogeneous spherical polynomials of degree k. A conservation law for arbitrary perturbations of the RH wave is derived, and all perturbations are divided into three invariant sets M-n , M0n and M+n in which the mean spectral number χ (ψ ^' }) of any perturbation ψ ^' } is less than, equal to or greater than n(n+1) , respectively. In turn, the set M0n is divided into the invariant subsets Hn and M0n{\\setminus } Hn . Quotient spaces and norms of the perturbations are introduced, a hyperbolic law for the perturbations belonging to the sets M-n and M+n is derived, and a geometric interpretation of variations in the kinetic energy of perturbations is given. It is proved that any non-zonal RH wave from H1\\oplus Hn (n≥2 ) is Liapunov unstable in the invariant set M-n . Also, it is shown that a stationary RH wave from H1\\oplus Hn may be exponentially unstable only in the invariant set M0n{\\setminus } Hn , while any perturbation of the invariant set Hn conserves its form with time and hence is neutral. Since a Legendre polynomial flow aPn(μ ) and zonal RH wave - ω μ +aPn(μ ) are particular cases of the RH waves of H1\\oplus Hn , the major part of the stability results obtained here is also true for them.
Quantum periods of Calabi–Yau fourfolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhardus, Andreas, E-mail: gerhardus@th.physik.uni-bonn.de; Jockers, Hans, E-mail: jockers@uni-bonn.de
2016-12-15
In this work we study the quantum periods together with their Picard–Fuchs differential equations of Calabi–Yau fourfolds. In contrast to Calabi–Yau threefolds, we argue that the large volume points of Calabi–Yau fourfolds generically are regular singular points of the Picard–Fuchs operators of non-maximally unipotent monodromy. We demonstrate this property in explicit examples of Calabi–Yau fourfolds with a single Kähler modulus. For these examples we construct integral quantum periods and study their global properties in the quantum Kähler moduli space with the help of numerical analytic continuation techniques. Furthermore, we determine their genus zero Gromov–Witten invariants, their Klemm–Pandharipande meeting invariants, and their genus one BPS invariants. In our computations we emphasize the features attributed to the non-maximally unipotent monodromy property. For instance, it implies the existence of integral quantum periods that at large volume are purely worldsheet instanton generated. To verify our results, we also present intersection theory techniques to enumerate lines with a marked point on complete intersection Calabi–Yau fourfolds in Grassmannian varieties.
New Hamiltonian constraint operator for loop quantum gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinsong Yang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A new symmetric Hamiltonian constraint operator is proposed for loop quantum gravity, which is well defined in the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states up to non-planar vertices with valence higher than three. It inherits the advantage of the original regularization method to create new vertices to the spin networks. The quantum algebra of this Hamiltonian is anomaly-free on shell, and there is less ambiguity in its construction in comparison with the original method. The regularization procedure for this Hamiltonian constraint operator can also be applied to the symmetric model of loop quantum cosmology, which leads to a new quantum dynamics of the cosmological model.
The kinetic theory of open systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimontovich, Yu.L.
2001-01-01
This paper begins with a survey of recently obtained results in the statistical theory of open systems, including quantum open systems. Then the definition of the thermal flux in the kinetic theory is considered, further the collision nature of the Landau damping. Finally the Lamb shift and Bethe's formula are analyzed. (orig.)
Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
1986-01-01
This monograph deals with the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of molecules physisorbed on solid surfaces. Although frequent and detailed reference is made to experiment, it is mainly concerned with the theory of the subject. In this, we have attempted to present a unified picture based on the master equation approach. Physisorption kinetics is by no means a closed and mature subject; rather, in writing this monograph we intended to survey a field very much in flux, to assess its achievements so far, and to give a reasonable basis from which further developments can take off. For this reason we have included many papers in the bibliography that are not referred to in the text but are of relevance to physisorption. To keep this monograph to a reasonable size, and also to allow for some unity in the presentation of the material, we had to omit a number of topics related to physisorption kinetics. We have not covered to any extent the equilibrium properties of physisorbed layers such as structures, phase tr...
The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor
Lorcé, Cédric
2016-03-01
The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum.
The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorce, C.
2016-01-01
The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictated in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMD and GPD). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive 3 similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum. (author)
Quantum computers and quantum computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, Kamil' A
2005-01-01
This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Hidden Quantum Processes, Quantum Ion Channels, and 1/ f θ-Type Noise.
Paris, Alan; Vosoughi, Azadeh; Berman, Stephen A; Atia, George
2018-03-22
In this letter, we perform a complete and in-depth analysis of Lorentzian noises, such as those arising from [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channel kinetics, in order to identify the source of [Formula: see text]-type noise in neurological membranes. We prove that the autocovariance of Lorentzian noise depends solely on the eigenvalues (time constants) of the kinetic matrix but that the Lorentzian weighting coefficients depend entirely on the eigenvectors of this matrix. We then show that there are rotations of the kinetic eigenvectors that send any initial weights to any target weights without altering the time constants. In particular, we show there are target weights for which the resulting Lorenztian noise has an approximately [Formula: see text]-type spectrum. We justify these kinetic rotations by introducing a quantum mechanical formulation of membrane stochastics, hidden quantum activated-measurement models, and prove that these quantum models are probabilistically indistinguishable from the classical hidden Markov models typically used for ion channel stochastics. The quantum dividend obtained by replacing classical with quantum membranes is that rotations of the Lorentzian weights become simple readjustments of the quantum state without any change to the laboratory-determined kinetic and conductance parameters. Moreover, the quantum formalism allows us to model the activation energy of a membrane, and we show that maximizing entropy under constrained activation energy yields the previous [Formula: see text]-type Lorentzian weights, in which the spectral exponent [Formula: see text] is a Lagrange multiplier for the energy constraint. Thus, we provide a plausible neurophysical mechanism by which channel and membrane kinetics can give rise to [Formula: see text]-type noise (something that has been occasionally denied in the literature), as well as a realistic and experimentally testable explanation for the numerical values of the spectral
Noncommutative Wess-Zumino-Witten actions and their Seiberg-Witten invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Sarrion, Justo; Polychronakos, Alexios P.
2008-01-01
We analyze the noncommutative two-dimensional Wess-Zumino-Witten model and its properties under Seiberg-Witten transformations in the operator formulation. We prove that the model is invariant under such transformations even for the noncritical (non-chiral) case, in which the coefficients of the kinetic and Wess-Zumino terms are not related. The pure Wess-Zumino term represents a singular case in which this transformation fails to reach a commutative limit. We also discuss potential implications of this result for bosonization
Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara
2008-01-01
We give an introduction into quantum cosmology with emphasis on its conceptual parts. After a general motivation we review the formalism of canonical quantum gravity on which discussions of quantum cosmology are usually based. We then present the minisuperspace Wheeler--DeWitt equation and elaborate on the problem of time, the imposition of boundary conditions, the semiclassical approximation, the origin of irreversibility, and singularity avoidance. Restriction is made to quantum geometrodyn...
Fractional Spin and Josephson Effect in Time-Reversal-Invariant Topological Superconductors
Camjayi, Alberto; Arrachea, Liliana; Aligia, Armando; von Oppen, Felix
2017-07-01
Time-reversal-invariant topological superconducting (TRITOPS) wires are known to host a fractional spin ℏ/4 at their ends. We investigate how this fractional spin affects the Josephson current in a TRITOPS-quantum dot-TRITOPS Josephson junction, describing the wire in a model that can be tuned between a topological and a nontopological phase. We compute the equilibrium Josephson current of the full model by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations and interpret the results within an effective low-energy theory. We show that in the topological phase, the 0-to-π transition is quenched via formation of a spin singlet from the quantum-dot spin and the fractional spins associated with the two adjacent topological superconductors.