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Sample records for introduction pollution atmospherique

  1. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  2. Air pollution and floristic biodiversity; Pollution atmospherique et biodiversite floristique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grub, A.; Bungener, P.; Contat, F.; Nussbaum, S.; Endtner, V.; Fuhrer, J. [Station Federale de Recherches en Agroecologie et Agriculture (FAL), Liebefeld-Berne (Switzerland). Institut de Recherches en Protection de l' Environnement et en Agriculture (IUL)

    1999-06-01

    The number of reports on negative effects of air pollution on biodiversity is increasing. Here, examples from the literature are presented which concern effects of fluoride, deposition of nitrogen, and ozone. Today, nitrogen loads and levels of tropospheric ozone seem to be most relevant forms of air pollution affecting species diversity of the flora. Results from recent investigations of ozone effects at Liebefeld indicate that the loss of floristic diversity in permanent meadows is possible because of the high relative sensitivity of some typical species. Further studies will be necessary to validate the results obtained from experiment with single plants at the level of the intact plant community in the field, and to identify the critical level of ozone to protect the floristic biodiversity of meadows. (authors)

  3. Pollution atmospherique par emission de gaz d'echappement des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present work is to study the air pollution generated by the gases of exhaust in the city of Porto-Novo to Benin. The quantification of the different pollutants or particles given out on the one hand by the vehicles, and the determination of the level of the pollution of every particle on the other hand, allowed us ...

  4. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  5. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  6. Gaseous atmospheric pollution. Gas measurement; Pollution atmospherique gazeuse. Mesure des gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupance, G [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France); Person, A [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Le Moullec, Y; Masclet, P; Perros, P E

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the majority of pollutants which are present in gaseous phase in the low layer of the troposphere, of the proximity of sources to the distant areas where are in weak traces persisting substances or sub-products induced by photochemical reactions. The compounds described in this article are of interest for various reasons: either they are source tracers, or they draw attention for their impact on health or/and ecosystem. Their follow-up can also be in other approaches such as the understanding of reactional mechanisms and the support to modeling of the phenomena. Thereby, the range of the covered concentrations is very large: if the preoccupations are in most of the cases to answer to detection limits of about the ppb, for some substances, the requirements can be harder and we have then to orient oneself to techniques able to quantify at the level of ppt, sometimes less. Some pollutants are qualified of 'semi-volatile', that is to say they are the property to be present in gaseous phase and in particles in suspension in air. (O.M.)

  7. Policemen exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Paris; Exposition des policiers aux polluants atmospheriques a Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugajny, Ch.; Coursimault, A.; Donati, J.; Vieillard, H. [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75 (France); Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of automotive pollution on police health in Paris, more particularly those that are working near streets and crossroads; police working indoors are included in measurements as a reference population. This work included individual exposure measurements to some urban pollution main indicators and biological determinations to estimate the impact of these pollutants on health. Biological measurements, including determinations of carboxyhemoglobin, lead in blood and trans, trans-muconic acid in urine were realised. Carbon monoxide and benzene individual exposure had been measured by the use of individual analysers and diffusive samplers respectively. Motorcycle policemen and policemen at crossroads are more exposed than reference population working indoor. CO mean exposure levels are 6, 8 mg/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 5, 4 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 3, 6 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen working indoors. Carboxyhemoglobin mean values before work are four to five times more important for smokers (4, 5 % HbCO) than no-smokers (1,0%HbCO). After work, these values are respectively 5,3 % and 1,1 %. Non-smokers agents don't reach the OMS value (2,5%HbCO), even after work. Smoking contributes to higher levels of CO in blood than car exhaust pollutants, even for high air pollutants concentrations. Lead blond levels, which average is 45{mu}g/l, are clearly smaller than the OMS value (200{mu}g/l). About non-smokers agents, benzene median exposures are 74 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 19 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for sedentary agents. If motorcycle agents filled up the tank with gasoline, benzene median exposure level is 229 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Differences between smokers and non-smokers benzene exposure are not significant. For non-smokers agents, median trans, trans muconic acid values after work are 0,06 mg/l for pollution exposed agents

  8. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution; L'utilisation des maquettes aeriennes et hydrauliques pour l'etude de la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facy, L; Perrin De Brichambaut, C; Doury, A; Le Quinio, R

    1962-07-01

    -Cyr. Les resultats obtenus sont essentiellement de deux natures: - le modele mathematique de diffusion turbulente dans l'atmosphere, deduit de la theorie de Sutton, et que nous utilisons generalement, s'est trouve correctement verifie, qualitativement et quantitativement, dans tous les cas ou les conditions de validite de la theorie etaient remplies par l'experience; - les essais qualitatifs de visualisations photographiques ou cinematographiques ont apporte des precisions interessantes sur des phenomenes pratiquement inaccessibles aux calculs, lies notamment a l'influence des obstacles et des conditions de rejet. D'une maniere generale, on peut affirmer que les etudes de pollution atmospherique peuvent etre menees a bien par des experimentations sur maquettes, et que dans certains cas ces experimentations ne pourront jamais etre remplacees par des modeles mathematiques purs. (auteurs)

  9. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

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    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  10. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  11. Introduction to pollution and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Y

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of photosynthesis, environmental conditions, and the chemical and biological significance of photosynthetic bacteria are discussed. Photosynthetic bacteria, which are extremely useful and important in the ecological system, can become a cause of pollution when excessively proliferated. The idea that pollution could be solved by planting vegetation is also a misconcept. Carbon dioxide is not the major source of pollution, and local increases of CO/sub 2/ partial pressure do not affect the environment in general. More important, green plants are sensitive to air pollutants and react faster than any other living things to pollutants such as fluorides, nitrate, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and sulfur dioxide. Only 1-3% of solar energy is used for photosynthesis. The use must be increased to maximum by effective planning of plant formation, density, and arrangements. Through genetic studies, production and proliferation of useful plants should be planned and developed. Pollution control must be programmed ecologically, suitable ecological systems must be developed in various geographical areas, in addition to the effort to eliminate pollution sources.

  12. Peaks of air pollution and public health. The place of epidemiology; Pics de pollution atmospherique et sante publique. La place de l'epidemiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The epidemiological surveillance of sanitary effects linked to the air pollution seems to be the best tool to estimate their impact and to keep a close eye on the short term effects of the ambient pollution on the populations health. In any case, the potential sanitary impact of pollution peaks does not conceal the importance of sanitary effects linked to the background pollution. These peaks constitute sanitary alert signals but are not inevitably the predominant risk for public health. A targeting on these peaks can lead to neglect actions of prevention and to induce these policies towards strategies that will not be the most efficient in term of reduction of mortality attributable to air pollution. (N.C.)

  13. The 1979 convention on long range transfrontier air pollution; La convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance de 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagusiewicz, A. [UNECE, Palais des Nations, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Applied in March 1983, the 1979 international Convention have induced five protocols related to sulfur, nitrogen oxide and VOC emissions. After 1994, three new protocols are under study, concerning the reduction of nitrogenous and related compounds, heavy metals and long-lasting organic pollutants. Works and organization of the European EMEP program for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the long range air pollution transport in Europe, are presented

  14. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  15. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Methodological guide.; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorennec, Ph.; Nourry, L [Cellule Inter-Regionale d' Epidemiologie (France); Quenel, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The institute of sanitary watch has setting up an epidemiological surveillance plan in nine french towns in order to quantify and to keep a close eye to the relations existing between the urban air pollution and the populations health.The method is detailed with its advantages and its limits. (N.C.)

  16. Is acidification still a major air pollution concern?; L`acidification est-elle encore un probleme majeur de pollution atmospherique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Although other forms of long-range air pollution are gaining attention, acidification remains an important issue in certain parts of Europe as well as in other continents. In spite of the European 88/609 directive limiting acid emissions from large fuel burning plants, a large part of Europe soils receives acid deposits superior to the tolerance threshold, known as critical loads. Thus, the European Union is considering several new measures, such as a more drastic 88/609 directive, the limitation of emissions country by country, the limitation of sulfur content in heavy fuels, etc. Emission inventories, evaluation tools, long range transfrontier pollution models, integrated assessment, etc. are presented, together with the positions of various French governmental departments, public authorities and industries concerning the european strategy against acidification

  17. Vocabulary of acid precipitation and air pollution. Terminology bulletin 175. Vocabulaire des precipitations acides et de la pollution atmospherique. Bulletin de terminologie 175

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, D

    1988-01-01

    This English-French vocabulary includes about 600 concepts on acid rain as well as general air pollution terminology. A large number of official names and their abbreviations have also been incorporated into the dictionary. The vocabulary is arranged alphabeticaly into a series of terminology files, each of which begins with a main entry in English and French. The main entry represents those terms selected as being of superior terminological quality. The main entry may be followed by sub-entries, which are synonyms, and may also be followed by a definition, an example of usage, a defining context, or a terminological observation. Sub-entries are in the same alphabetical sequence as the main entries, and refer the reader to the main entry. An index of French terms is also included. 243 refs.

  18. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  19. Mathematical study of chemical kinetics schemes. Application to air pollution models; Etude mathematique de schemas de cinetique chimique. Application a des modeles de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette, E.

    1997-06-23

    Complex chemical kinetics modelling is relevant in numerous fields related to the petroleum industry, for instance engine combustion, petrochemistry and atmospheric pollution. Many numerical difficulties are encountered in the computation of these models, mainly due to the large size, the non-linearity and the stiffness of the associated ordinary differential systems. We first studied systems that have an asymptotic behaviour which may be derived from an algebraic analysis. Then we reviewed different methods that make possible the reduction of size and stiffness for chemical kinetics-related differential systems, and suggest possible improvements for some of those methods. We also studied their application to atmospheric chemistry models. Finally, we started to extend those reduction methods to partial differential systems that include, in addition to chemical kinetics, other phenomena such as species emission, advection or diffusion. (author) 44 refs.

  20. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  1. Considering a point-source in a regional air pollution model; Prise en compte d`une source ponctuelle dans un modele regional de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipphardt, M.

    1997-06-19

    This thesis deals with the development and validation of a point-source plume model, with the aim to refine the representation of intensive point-source emissions in regional-scale air quality models. The plume is modelled at four levels of increasing complexity, from a modified Gaussian plume model to the Freiberg and Lusis ring model. Plume elevation is determined by Netterville`s plume rise model, using turbulence and atmospheric stability parameters. A model for the effect of a fine-scale turbulence on the mean concentrations in the plume is developed and integrated in the ring model. A comparison between results with and without considering micro-mixing shows the importance of this effect in a chemically reactive plume. The plume model is integrated into the Eulerian transport/chemistry model AIRQUAL, using an interface between Airqual and the sub-model, and interactions between the two scales are described. A simulation of an air pollution episode over Paris is carried out, showing that the utilization of such a sub-scale model improves the accuracy of the air quality model

  2. Approaches of health risk assessment in air pollution; Les approches de l'evaluation des risques sanitaires lies a la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festy, B. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France). Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Paris-Luxembourg

    1997-07-01

    The relationships between health and environment are often difficult to establish due to the large number of contaminants and routes of absorption, the low doses involved, the type of effects (acute or chronic), the lack of specificity, the time before the effects are observed and the low individual risks. A great deal of knowledge is required, beginning with the source of emission and ending up with the effect on health, passing by the quality of the environments, the exposure for the individual and the groups and their perception of the phenomena in pedagogical, social and (dis)comfort terms. The North-American approach to assess the risk tries to understand these different problems by means of an approach that is as scientific, coherent and clear as possible: identification of the danger, estimate of its probability, evaluation of the exposure (populations, conditions) and synthetic characterization of the risk. This procedure comes before the difficult management of the risk and is absolutely necessary to determine the reference values and the standards. The chemical aspects of air pollution (A.P.) raise difficult problems in this area. In practice, the assessment of the risk involves environmental and biological phenomena. The environmental approach involves products (ex. fuels), processes and sources of emissions and, above all, the quality of the atmospheric environments ('immissions') due to the characterization and quantification of more or less classic physico-chemical indicators (SO{sub 2}, particles, NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, metals, hydrocarbons, etc.) measured on the sites (monitoring networks) or in the laboratory, or more rarely, (eco)-toxicological, measured in the laboratory (cell models) or in the field (bio-indicators). The former provide a fairly exact idea of the external collective exposure of populations. The latter provide a more or less global and biological assessment of the quality of the air consisting of (geno)toxic potentialities

  3. Modeling of the air pollution on various scales; Modelisation de la pollution atmospherique a differentes echelles. confrontations simulations/mesures pour la preparation d'Escompte 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meleux, F.

    2002-11-15

    On June and July 2001, the campaign ESCOMPTE took place in the Marseille area in southern of France, with the aim of generating a detailed 3-D data base for the study of dynamics and chemistry of high pollution events so as to validate and improve air quality models. Previous to this field experiment, a pre-modelling exercise has been performed to document the dynamic interactions between sea and land breezes and orographic flows over this complex topographical area. This study was carried out using a nesting procedure at local and regional scales using the MESO-NH model (jointly developed by Laboratoire d'Aerologie and Meteofrance at Toulouse). Tracers emitted at various locations in the Marseille and Etang de Berre areas were first followed, then in a second step, full chemistry simulations have been run for two selected periods on June and July 1999, quite similar to the meteorological situations met during the IOP2a and the IOP4 in the 2001 campaign. The performance of the model has been assessed by comparing measured data with simulated data for meteorological parameters and ozone. The general ability of the model to correctly simulate these two situations allows to further study ozone plume developments. In particular, these studies bear upon the relative roles of O{sub 3} transport versus O{sub 3} chemical production, as a function of distance within the plume to anthropogenic emissions and biogenic emissions, together with ozone daily variations and peak values observed at rural sites. After that, ozone chemical production sensitivity is analysed in regards to its precursors. (author)

  4. Effects of urban air pollution on the inflammatory reaction: involvement of the chemokine pathways; Impact de la pollution atmospherique urbaine sur la reponse inflammatoire: implication des chimiokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahy, O.

    2000-12-01

    Urban air pollution is both gaseous and particulate, and diesel exhausts are now the main source of particles. Diesel particles consist of a carbon core with multiple adsorbed organic compounds, among witch poly-aromatic hydrocarbons. These diesel particles and associated poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are likely to play a role in the recent increase in allergic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diesel organic extracts on the initiation and the orientation of the allergen-dependent inflammatory reaction by analyzing the dis-regulation of a family of mediators involved in cellular recruitment: the chemokines. We demonstrated that mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages from normal subjects displayed a dis-regulation in pro-inflammatory chemokine expression and production (IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES) when exposed to diesel organic extracts. In addition we observed a synergy between the effects of diesel and allergen when cells from allergic patients were exposed to both simultaneously, leading to a strong over-production of chemokines, and to the increased capacity of recruiting effector cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils. The MAP kinase pathways seemed largely involved in the transduction of diesel and allergen stimulus, since a specific inhibition almost abolished the dis-regulation of chemokine production. Diesel and allergen also appeared to favour the establishment of a type 2 immune response (pro-allergenic), by preferentially recruiting Th2 lymphocytes via the dis-regulation of chemokine expression (MDC and IP-10). Finally, the humanized SCID mouse model grafted with autologous human skin allowed the in vivo evaluation of a local over-production of chemokine, by analyzing the cellular recruitment in the skin after intra-dermal injection of recombinant chemokines. This model appears useful for the study of the mechanisms of cellular recruitment by chemokines and the potential therapeutic approaches. In conclusion, our study underlines the

  5. Introduction to the treatment of polluted sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the large variety of remediation options for polluted sediments that are currently available. These include physico-chemical and biological techniques that can be applied in situ or ex site.

  6. Introduction to the DAPPLE Air Pollution Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.J.; ApSimon, H.; Colvile, R.N.; Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Wang, H. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Royal school of Mines Building, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Rd., South Kensington, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.; Belcher, S.; Dobre, A. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Bell, M.; Tate, J. [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Boddy, J.W.; Smalley, R.J.; Tomlin, A.S. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Britter, R.; Neophytou, M. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Cheng, H.; Lawton, T.; Robins, A. [EnFlo, Department of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Clark, R.; Walsh, P. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Dimitroulopoulou, S. [BRE, Environmental Engineering Centre, Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Greally, B.; Knights, A.; Makepeace, A.; Martin, D.; Nickless, G.; Price, C.; Shallcross, D.; Simmonds, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Neville, S. [Environmental Sciences, Westminster City Council House, Marylebone Rd, London, NW1 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The Dispersion of Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment (DAPPLE) project brings together a multidisciplinary research group that is undertaking field measurements, wind tunnel modelling and computer simulations in order to provide better understanding of the physical processes affecting street and neighbourhood-scale flow of air, traffic and people, and their corresponding interactions with the dispersion of pollutants at street canyon intersections. The street canyon intersection is of interest as it provides the basic case study to demonstrate most of the factors that will apply in a wide range of urban situations. The aims of this paper are to introduce the background of the DAPPLE project, the study design and methodology for data collection, some preliminary results from the first field campaign in central London (28 April-24 May 2003) and the future for this work. Updated information and contact details are available on the web site at http://www.dapple.org.uk.

  7. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  8. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  9. Development of multivariate and multi-sensors systems for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants; Developpement de systemes multicapteurs et multivariables pour la mesure en continu de polluants atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamionka, M.

    2005-04-15

    The purpose of this work was to measure the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants using sensors based on a metal semiconductor, tin dioxide. These sensors were tested with two reducing gases which are carbon monoxide (0-20 ppm), a mixture of hydrocarbons (0-10 ppm) and two oxidizing gases which is ozone (0-500 ppb) and nitrogen dioxide (0-500 ppb). One of the major disadvantages of this type of sensor is their lack of selectivity. Thus the association of several different sensors in multi-sensors system can be a solution. We have developed an automated test bench able to generate the suitable gas concentrations with a controlled humidity. It is then possible to carry out the acquisition of four devices (mono or multi-sensors) with cycles of temperature. We followed the evolution with their age of the performances of various sensors worked out by serigraphy. At the end of these experiments, we showed the interest of the use of some of these sensors for the evaluation of two major components of pollution: ozone and hydrocarbons. We could not prove that the capacitive effects and the effects of electrode were useful parameters for our application. Nevertheless, the measurement with increasing temperature give additional information. Thus, two multi-sensors systems were carried out. One associates three independent sensors and the other consists of three layers deposited on the same heating substrate. These three layers are initially identical (tin dioxide) but two are covered with a thin film, platinum for one and silica for the other. Moreover, one system made up of three commercial sensors used with a constant temperature was also tested. For each studied system, we built behavior models using a Neural Network algorithm. Whereas the models carried out using synthetic gas mixtures appeared unusable for measurements in real pollution, it was shown that a model calibrated directly with air bled in urban environment appears effective for the measurement of

  10. Inventory of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France - sectorial series and extensive analysis; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France - serie sectorielles et analyses etendues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The present report supplies an update of emissions into the atmosphere within the french metropolitan area in the frame of the CORALIE programme according to the 'SECTEN' format defined by CITEPA which raises to report emissions relating to usual economic entities such as industry residential/tertiary, agriculture, etc. Basically, results deal systematically with the period 1990 - 2001, but cover also more extended ranges of time, especially from 1980 for some substances to be considered in the frame of the protocols under the convention on the long range transboundary air pollution and from 1960 for some other substances traditionally inventoried by CITEPA for a long time. Data are presented for 28 different substances and various indicators such as those related to acidification or greenhouse effect. It is observed for most of substances that emissions have been drastically reduced over the ten or twenty last years. More especially for the period 1990 - 2000: The results are presented at the national level for each of the main sectors defined in the SECTEN format. A more detailed breakdown of each main sector is provided for 2000. Results are also given relating to different energy products and several analysis present additional highlights for NMVOCs, HFCs, PFCs and particular sources such as transports. The report contains indications regarding the targets committed by France in the frame of international conventions and directives from the European Union directives. These indications demonstrate that emission trends observed are generally encouraging. The table below summarizes total emissions over the period 1990 - 2001 for all substances mentioned above as well as indicators relating to the acidification and to the greenhouse effect. (author)

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bayonne impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bayonne impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bayonne according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 16 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Bayonne agglomeration, representing a study population of 148,742 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 20 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding 32 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution impact is non negligible even in a small agglomeration like Bayonne, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the everyday and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  12. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Perigueux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Perigueux impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Perigueux according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 5 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Perigueux agglomeration, representing a study population of 52,948 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 5 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 could allow avoiding 10 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have an impact even in a small agglomeration like Perigueux, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the every day and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  13. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bordeaux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bordeaux impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bordeaux area. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed were ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in 22 cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Bordeaux agglomeration, representing a study population of 604,238 inhabitants. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 56 anticipated deaths, including half for cardiovascular reasons and 7 for respiratory reasons. Regarding morbidity, 29 hospital admissions for respiratory disease were attributable to air pollution in 2002, including two-thirds among elderly people (aged 65 years and over). Further more, 81 hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases that occurred in 2002 were attributable to air pollution, including 27 for cardiac reasons. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could have allowed avoiding about half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, about 200 annual deaths are attributable to chronic exposure to air pollution, and a decrease by 5{mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding half of these deaths. The results have to be interpreted with care because of the limits of the H.I.A. method. However, they show that air pollution has a non negligible impact even in a city like Bordeaux where target values are mostly respected. They also show that reducing air pollution can have a significant impact in term of mortality and morbidity. However, a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction

  14. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Agen impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Agen impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Agen according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine to assess short term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001), and long-term effects on mortality. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in 8 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Agen agglomeration, representing a study population of 60,515 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution.Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 4 anticipated deaths, including 2 for cardiovascular reason. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 2 premature deaths per year among the 4 attributable to air pollution. Concerning long-term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 would allow avoiding 11 premature deaths per year. The results of this study should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have a health impact even in a small city like Agen, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. (author)

  15. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Avignon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in seven cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Vaucluse (Avignon, Le Pontet, Morieres les Avignon, Sorgues and Vedene) and two cities of the Gard department (les Angles and Villeneuve les Avignon) representing a study population of 153,624 inhabitants. Two period of study have been defined: period 1999-2000 for short and long term evaluations on the mortality and the year 2001 for the morbidity analysis. This study rests on methodological principles of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) of urban air pollution whom methodology is in four steps: identification of dangers, exposure estimation, choice of exposure-risk relationship and risk characterisation. The pollutions indicators are built from four pollutants nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and PM{sub 10}. The exposure-risk relationships used come from epidemiological studies realised in general population, by preferring the multi centers studies and European ones. The number of deaths by year due to air pollution is 23, whom 10 by cardiovascular diseases, 2 by respiratory diseases. The most efficient scenario are these ones corresponding to air pollution decreases of 25% in the considered pollutant. About the long term sanitary benefits, the different scenario show that the European norm forecasted for 2005 is respected. The respect of the European norm expected for 2010 should allow to avoid 10 deaths on the totality of registered

  16. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Montpellier area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone de Montpellier impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the health impact of urban atmospheric pollution in Montpellier agglomeration has been carried out as part of the development of atmosphere protection plan. The study, based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment, has two objectives. First of all, it aims at assessing the short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons). Second, the long-term impact is assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. On the other part, the computation of the expected health gain, as a function of different scenarios of atmospheric pollutants reduction, can allow to plan air quality improvement measures. The assessment of atmospheric pollution impact has been carried out in eleven cities, homogeneously exposed, belonging to Montpellier agglomeration (Castelnau-le-Lez, Clapiers, Le Cres, Grabels, Jacou, Juvignac, Montferrier-sur-Lez, Montpellier, Saint-Clement-de-Riviere, Saint- Jean-de-Vedas, Vendargues). It is based on the analysis of mortality figures during two years (1999 and 2000) and of hospital intakes during four years (from 1999 to 2002). The studied population is made up 288.059 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Every year, the atmospheric pollution is directly responsible in the studied area of 34 anticipated deaths, among including 13 for cardiovascular reason and 4 for respiratory reason. For morbidity, it generates every year 79 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason, 15 for cardiac reason, 9 for respiratory reason for older than 65 years old people and 4 for 15-64 years old people. Older than 65 years old people are proportionally more impacted. These events could theoretically be avoided with pollution levels in the order of those reached the less polluted days. Health

  17. Evaluation of urban air pollution impact. Agglomeration of Toulon impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Toulon impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Toulon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence-Alpes-Cote d Azur. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality and long-term effects on mortality were estimated. Four cities were included in the study area: Toulon, La Garde, La Seyne-sur-mer and La Valette-du-Var (population: 267.808 inhabitants. Two periods of study have been defined: 1999 for the mortality analysis and 2000 for the morbidity analysis and the long- term effects. For 1999, number of advanced deaths due to air pollution is around 84 for total mortality including 30 deaths due to cardio-vascular diseases and 10 deaths due to respiratory diseases. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Regarding long-term effects, the different scenario showed that the respect of the European Community limits value for the year 2010 would allow to avoid 118 deaths over one year. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution lower than current French limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  18. Study of short time effect on health of a local air pollution source. Epidemiological approach; Etude des effets a court terme sur la sante d'une source locale de pollution atmospherique. Approche epidemiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzo, J.Ch. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, Reseau National de Sante Publique, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-07-01

    This document applies to health professionals who are facing with a problem of risks evaluation relative to a local source of air pollution and envisage to realize an epidemiological study. In this document, only the short term effects are considered and the situations of accidental pollution are not treated. Without being a methodological treatise it can be a tool to better understand the constraints and the limits of epidemiology to answer the difficult question of the impact evaluation on health of populations living near a local source of air pollution. (N.C.)

  19. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Pau impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Pau impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Pau according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. Short-term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001) have been estimated. Long-term effect on mortality was also assessed. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in twenty-nine cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Pau agglomeration, i.e. a study population of about 150,000 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 17 anticipated deaths, including 7 for cardiovascular reason and 2 for respiratory reason. Concerning morbidity, it generated 20 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason in 2002, 11 for cardiac reason, and 7 for respiratory reason among elderly people. Regarding long-term health gains, an annually decrease according to the European standards levels of 2010 could allow avoiding 12 deaths per year, and a decrease by 30% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 33 premature deaths per year. This study shows that, even if the relative risks associated to air pollution are quite low, the number of attributable cases is non negligible since everyone is exposed to air pollution. It also shows that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view

  20. L'IIASA and the integrated simulation of the trans-border atmospheric pollution assessment and evaluation; L'IIASA et la modelisation integree de la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere. Bilan et evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Farret, R.; Landrieu, G.; Le Gall, A.C.; Rouil, L

    2003-09-15

    The RAINS model is an integrated evaluation model for many pollutants and many effects, developed by he IIASA. This model studies the emissions of 4 atmospheric pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds) and the necessary costs to reduce them and the dispersion of these pollutants and their effects (tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and eutrophication). The model can be used in activities scenario mode (energy, agriculture, transports...) to calculate the emissions and their effects or in optimization mode to calculate strategies of emissions control from environmental constraints. (A.L.B.)

  1. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph; Cassadou, S; Eilstein, D; Filleul, L; Le Goaster, C; Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Pascal, L; Prouvost, H; Saviuc, Ph; Zeghnoun, A [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  2. Ambient air pollution and hospitalization for congestive heart failure among elderly people in seven large US cities; Pollution atmospherique ambiante et hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive chez les personnes agees dans sept grandes villes des Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.D.; Naumova, E.N.; Munasinghe, R.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is the temporal associations between the urban atmospheric pollution, in particular the carbon monoxide, and the hospitalization for congestive heart failure in elderly people, in seven large US cities. (A.L.B.)

  3. Evaluation of urban air pollution impact. Brest and Nantes impact at long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Brest et Nantes impact a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment for Brest and Nantes of the health impact in 1999 of chronic exposure to air pollution relies on four stages: health outcome identification, the selection of exposure-response functions, exposure assessment and risk characterization. The study characterizes: - the health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels; - the expected health impact of a 15% rise in air pollution levels. The results give the number of deaths attributable to air pollution. As for the health gain, the gain in days of life expectancy is also calculated. The study for Brest relies on one single exposure-response function. Concerning Nantes, the air control network is more complete and allows to use four exposure-response functions. The health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels is interpreted as a prudent evaluation of the health impact of air pollution. The estimated number of deaths due to the impact is around 38 (23 - 53) for Brest and around 40 (14 - 65) for Nantes. It means a decrease in the lifespan of 48 (29 - 68) days for Brest and 51 (17 - 84) days for Nantes. The uncertainty about exposure evaluation, the use of American exposure-response functions and of strong hypotheses to calculate the lifespan reduction generate more errors and uncertainty than for short term health impact assessment. (author)

  4. Characterization of the atmospheric pollution level in Sfax (Tunisia): influence of sources and meteorological factors; Caracterisation du niveau de pollution atmospherique dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie): influence des sources et des facteurs meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch.; Maalej, A.; Medhioub, K. [Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs de Sfax, Unite de Recherche Etude et Gestion des Environnements Cotiers et Urbains (Tunisia); Tlili, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. de Geologie (Tunisia)

    2002-01-01

    This study held in Sfax City (Tunisia), showed that the atmospheric pollution level is strongly influenced by industrial sources, obstacles and meteorological factors. The factory of phosphate treatment 'SIAPE' displayed the main polluting source in the City. It is the principal issuing of SO{sub x} and toxic metals. The phosphogypsum deposit displayed an obstacle to the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. Their stagnation is accentuated under smoky conditions. Several episodes of SO{sub 2} and dust are attributed to the effect of marked thermal inversions and the sirocco wind. The limited influence of traffic was proved by the registration of NO{sub x}, which showed low concentrations. It is conditioned by the change of fashion life of people and their customs of work (Ramadan month, agricultural activities). As a result, the adequate treatment of atmospheric industrial emanations (notably those of SIAPE) and the evacuation of artificial obstacles have to be considered. (authors)

  5. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  6. Atmospheric pollution, eco-products, wastes management: some opinions and attitudes at the beginning of 2002; Pollution atmospherique, eco-produits, gestion des dechets: quelques opinions et attitudes au debut 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the results (statistical data) to the questions asked by the ADEME in the inquiry of the CREDOC concerning the ''French way of life and aspirations'' and realized in the beginning of the year 2002. The questions dealt with the following five topics: the french attitude facing the atmospheric pollution; the renouncing of the vehicle during the days of high urban pollution; the French and the remote-working; the consumption and the environment control. (A.L.B.)

  7. Opinions of the French on the atmospheric pollution, the wastes management and the eco-products; Opinions des francais sur la pollution atmospherique, la gestion des dechets et les eco-produits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Five main opinions can be presented from the answers analysis to the inquiry realized in 1999 by the ADEME on the French way of life and aspirations. The French think that the atmospheric pollution is dangerous for the health and that they are badly informed about the air quality of their town. 87% of the motorists are ready to leave their vehicles the days of high urban pollution level. In less of two years the green products credibility is worsening. Nevertheless the consumer believes sensitive to the ecological arguments. Finally the French are very favorable to the domestic wastes control. (A.L.B.)

  8. Opinions and attitudes on the wastes management, the eco-products consumption and the atmospheric pollution; Opinions et attitudes sur la gestion des dechets, sur la consommation des eco-produits et sur la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This document presents the results of the inquiry on the ''way of life and french aspiration'' concerning the energy. The inquiry was realized at the beginning of 2001 on a sample of 2000 people. The questions dealt with the three following topics: the french attitude facing the atmospheric pollution, consumption and the environment preservation, the opinion on the wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  9. A campaign to study atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: the Escompte programme; Une experience d'etude de la pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale. Le programme Escompte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, P. [Meteo-France - Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS URA 1357), 31 - Toulouse (France); Cros, B. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Lab. d' Aerologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS UMR 5560), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-02-01

    The Escompte programme was set up to improve and validate regional scale chemistry-transport numerical models. During summer 2001, an ambitious field campaign collected data on the meteorological and chemical parameters of the atmosphere during some photo-oxidant pollution events. Performed in the region of Marseille city and Berre lake, this campaign deployed a huge quantity of instruments, and constitutes one of the major operations in this field. (authors)

  10. Effects of air pollution from cars on police health in Paris; Effets de la pollution atmospherique d`origine automobile sur la sante des policiers affectes a la circulation a Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugajny, Ch.; Delaunay, C.; Viellard, H. [Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75 (France). Laboratoire Central; Petit-Coviaux, F.; Coiron, C.; Squinazi, F. [Laboratoire d`Ygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Lecomte, D. [Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75 (France). Dirt. Prevention des Risques Sanitaires

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of car pollution on police health in Paris, more particularly for policemen who are working near streets and crossroads. A population of non-exposed policemen has also been studied as a reference. This work included individual exposure measurements to some urban pollution main indicators and biological determinations to estimate the effects of these pollutants on health. Biological measurements in blood, including determinations of carboxyhemoglobin and lead, were realized on 204 men and women employed by the Prefecture de Police. Carbon monoxide and benzene individual exposure had been measured on 38 men among these policemen, by the use of individual analyzers or pump sampling. Three classes of exposure, which depends on police activities, could be characterized according to CO and benzene exposure levels and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations. Carboxyhemoglobin mean values before traffic exposure are four to five times more important for smokers (4.5 % HbCO) than for no-smokers (1.0 % HbCO). After work, these mean values are respectively 5.3 % and 1.1 % HbCO). We could conclude that no-smokers agents don`t reach the WHO value (2.5 % HbCO), which should not been exceeded, while average HbCO percentage for smokers after work is twice more important than OMS value. So, smoking contributes to higher levels of CO in blood than car exhaust pollutants, even for high air pollutants concentrations. CO exposure levels are lower than the WHO recommendations for all the durations, and therefore lower than limit values fixed in working places (55 mg.m{sup 3} for 8 hours). No level for airborne benzene is recommended by WHO, as this compound is carcinogenic to humans; WHO indicated that for an air concentration of 1 {mu}g.m{sup 3}, the estimated lifetime risk of leukaemia is 4.10{sup -6}. Individual benzene measurements are lower than limit concentrations for working place (16 mg.m{sup 3} for 8 hours). Lead blood levels, which

  11. Evaluation of the sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Update version of the methodological guide; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Version actualisee du guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    In order to bring a help to the evaluation of effects of air quality on health, the Institute of Sanitary surveillance published in 1999 a method guide for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations of the urban air pollution. This work to prepare to an update version of the guide presents the first recommendations that can be made today for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations at short and long term at a local level, taking into account the knowledge evolution. (N.C.)

  12. Heat wave during the summer 2003: relationship between temperature, air pollution and mortality in nine French towns; Vague de chaleur de l'ete 2003: relations entre temperatures, pollution atmospherique et mortalite dans neuf villes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate, by taking the a particular period of summer 2003, the relationship between the exposure to ozone and the mortality risk. This estimation has for aim to realize a more valid, scientifically, evaluation of sanitary impact, for the period of heat wave that this one that could has been lead from anterior results. This study searches also to estimate, for the period of heat wave, the excess of mortality risk linked with the exposure to temperature and air pollution and the relative part of each of these factors in this combined effect. The analysis searches to evaluate an eventual displacement of mortality at short term that is to say a period of under mortality occurring at the immediate declining of the heat wave. (N.C.)

  13. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  14. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I.

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  15. Detection, in real time, of metallic pollutants present in the industrial atmospheric effluents by inductively coupled plasma torch; Detection, en temps reel, d'elements metalliques presents dans les rejets atmospheriques industriels par torche a plasma a couplage inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacher, D.

    2001-12-15

    This work is devoted to the development of a process of detection in real time of metallic pollutants present in industrial atmospheric effluents. The method of measurement is the atomic spectrometry of emission coupled to an ICP torch (Inductively coupled Plasma). The technology of the fluidized beds is used as system of introduction of the metallic particles into the ICP torch, the interest of the principle of detection resting on the stamping from the usual procedure of calibration of the analytical system. The results are presented in two parts. The first relates to the diagnosis of plasmas formed with various mixtures of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} which one corresponds to pure air, the second presents the setting process of detection in real time starting from the intensities ratios of the spectral lines of the metallic element with those of the plasma-producing element (argon or pure air) The study of the diagnosis of plasmas made up of mixtures N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} relates to the determination of the atomic excitation temperature from the spectral lines of the copper element and the evaluation of the thermal disequilibrium q Te/Th. This last is obtained by considering the mass enthalpy of various mixtures N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}. The existence of a small thermal disequilibrium is highlighted. The study of detection in real time by ICP torch, without calibration of the system, is based on three points: - spectroscopic data processing to determine the values of the intensities ratios of spectral lines; - the insertion of the intensities ratios and the characteristics of plasma (argon or pure air) into a calculation code of plasma composition; - the comparison of the mass flux values of the metallic pollutants, in real time, obtained by experiments with those resulting from the elutriation calculation, term which defines the phenomenon of entrainment of the particles out of the fluidized bed. The results made it possible to show the similarity of the analytical system response

  16. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Garcia-Agudo, E.; Ritchie, J.C.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and associated sedimentation are natural processes caused by water, wind and ice. Several of man's activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, changes in land use, and non-sustainable farming practices tend to accelerate soil erosion. Soil erosion and sedimentation cause not only on-site degradation of a non-renewable natural resource, but also off-site problems such as downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water streams. These problems and concern over the degradation of the landscape by erosion, and their impacts on soil fertility and crop productivity in agricultural land, water pollution, and sedimentation in lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains are well documented. Global estimates of economic damage from soil erosion and sedimentation have also been made. Recent focus on sustainability issues has resulted in increased attention on soil-degradation problems, in particular soil erosion and sedimentation. In view of increasing water scarcity and limited land resources to feed an ever-growing world population, there is an urgent need to obtain reliable quantitative data on the extent and rates of soil erosion worldwide to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation remediation strategies, including assessment of their economic and environmental impacts. This chapter describes the use of fallout 137 Cs as a tracer for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation, and the potential use of other radionuclides such as 210 Pb, and 7 Be for these studies. It provides an overview of the 137 Cs technique describing key assumptions and requirements, and advantages and limitations of the technique. Also, applications, recent developments, and future trends of the technique are covered. The chapter is completed with an introduction to the handbook and a list of selected references

  17. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Lund, Henrik; Remmen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development".......The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development"....

  18. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country.......This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country....

  19. Introduction to Part 3 - Pollution and protection of the seas: radioactive materials, heavy metals and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinne, O.

    1984-01-01

    In the introduction to Vol 3. Pt 5. of Marine Ecology, the essentials of ocean management and pollution control are discussed. Human activities reducing the quality of life in the marine environment and causing negative effects on human health, resources and marine ecosystems must be controlled. In particular there must be international cooperation and control in the disposal of radioactive wastes, oils and pesticides and the discharge of organic chemicals. Long-term ecological research, monitoring and legislation are necessary to ensure the maximum degree of ecosystem protection. (U.K.)

  20. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Thybo; Moran, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    An introduction to a special issue of Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences dedicated to empathy and the direct perception approach to other minds......An introduction to a special issue of Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences dedicated to empathy and the direct perception approach to other minds...

  1. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to anthology which provides the theoretical basis of an Erasmus+ project involving marginalised young people, practitioners, students and academics in co-creating a teaching module for the social professions.......Introduction to anthology which provides the theoretical basis of an Erasmus+ project involving marginalised young people, practitioners, students and academics in co-creating a teaching module for the social professions....

  2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirov, A.Kh.; Khaydarov, K.Kh.; Giyosov, A.Sh.

    2000-01-01

    In the introduction authors describe book in general and in particular describe the ways and methods of direct synthesis on the base of different derivatives of cholanic acids and receiving of line of corresponding ethers which have practical properties

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Anna; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context.......An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context....

  4. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Angouleme, Niort et Poitiers impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Poitou- Charentes. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2001 and 2002) and mortality were estimated. Long-term effects due to air pollution on mortality were also evaluated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions due to air pollution are 19 in Angouleme, 11 in Niort and 19 in Poitiers. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 25 in Angouleme, 19 in Niort and 23 in Poitiers. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution lower than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  5. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward; Dumbrell, John

    2017-01-01

    The introduction sets a framework for subsequent chapters by considering theories of change and the extent to which there was consequential change during the Obama years. It draws upon earlier scholarship to suggest that although there certainly was no “transformation” (when new interests secure...... Congress. Nonetheless, although recent literature within historical institutionalism has stressed the importance of incrementalism, it is vulnerable to rollback. Against this background, the introduction sets questions about the character of change that are addressed in the case studies included...

  6. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which the editors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the shared value concept in the education and business, the role of corporate foundations in establishing cross-sector partnerships, and the mechanisms of governance in the cross...

  7. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Alistar, Mirela; Stuart, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to the microfluidics field and microfluidic biochips. We discuss the main fluid propulsion principles used by modern microfluidic platforms, with a focus on “digital” microfluidic biochips, which are the topic of this book. Digital microfluidic biochips...

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barwell, Richard; Clarkson, Philip; Halai, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides the introduction to this ICMI Study 21 volume. It includes: a discussion of the place of this study and its topic within ICME; a discussion of what is meant by the study title; and a brief historical account of research on this topic in mathematics education. The chapter also...

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Berg, Torsten Rødel

    2012-01-01

    The chapter includes a discussion about the play by Henrik Ibsen from 1879, A Doll's House, how it still proves to be relevant today to gender relations not only in Denmark but in Nepal as well. The introduction explains how Ibsen's play inspired two theater directors from Denmark and Nepal...

  10. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.

    1975-01-01

    The introduction to this monography gives a brief survey of the history of the MHD generator, outlines the fundamental questioning of the research concerned and then deals with the combustion gas MHD generator research programme of the working society MPI for plasma physics (IPP)/Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg AG (M.A.N.). (GG/LH) [de

  11. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieci, R.; He, X.-Z.; Hommes, C.; Dieci, R.; He, X.-Z.; Hommes, C.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction summarises the main contributions of 18 chapters in this book, in addition to two articles (Part I) reflecting Carl's view on a broad range of research-related issues originally published in Italian. The contributed chapters cover the latest developments in Nonlinear Economic

  12. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doreian, Patrick; Stokman, Frans N.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to: The proceedings of a conference that was held on the analysis of repeated cross sections at the University of Nijmegen on June 15±16, 2000. This two-days meeting was attended by 75 participants from seven different countries (AUS, B, F, GER, NL, USA, UK) and from a wide array of

  13. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides the introduction to a collection of 11 comparative chapters and a concluding chapter which, based on 30 country studies (25 European, USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Korea; reported in the companion volume Nolan et al. 2013), look at the evolution of inequalities, their social

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger; Sandbeck, Lars; Solten, Therese Bering

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Special Issue of Literature and Theology publishing articles based on selected papers from the international conference of the International Society for Religion, Literature and Culture (ISRLC) conference held at the Theological Faculty of the University of Copenhagen 19...

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas; Janeja, Manpreet Kaur

    2018-01-01

    This introduction foregrounds waiting as a central analytical category to make way for ethnographic attention to uncertain interplays between doubting and hoping. Using a range of focused ethnographies which explore the centrality of waiting in social life, it offers a critical lens...

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Rasiah, Rajah

    2010-01-01

    This is a very interesting book. It is topical and is one of the few volumes that attempts to treat Southeast Asia as an integrated whole. The editors are methodologically ambitious, and they skillfully integrate a very large amount of diverse material in their introduction. I imagine that the bo...... working on the economics and development of Southeast Asia....

  17. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    1997-01-01

    An introduction to the symposium on nuclear fusion and the CEA researches on magnetic confinement, is presented, with a review of the future energy capacities that fusion could deliver, the technological developments on superconductors, robots, etc. that will assist fusion development, and the european and international cooperation programs on the subject

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction to the annual report 2006 of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN highlights the reorganisation of SCK-CEN that became effective in 2006. An overview is given of the principal activities of Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, the Institute for Advanced Nuclear Systems, the Institute for Environment, Health and Safety and the Institute for Communication, Services and Administration

  19. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    The various components of the environment are described briefly, and the effect on these of the pollution or contamination arising from differing energy technologies (in particular from nuclear energy) is discussed. Several estimates of the growth of nuclear power by the year 2000 are tabulated. A summary is presented of the nuclear fuel cycle, including: types of reactors; the LWR fuel cycle; other fuel cycles. (U.K.)

  20. Application of the 'CORINAIR' method for the estimation of atmospheric pollution due to the Park ONE thermal power plants in Morocco; Application de la methode 'CORINAIR' pour l'evaluation de la pollution atmospherique due au centrales thermiques du parc ONE du Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzha, F.; Tahiri, M.; Souabi, S.; Darif, A.; Khatami, A. [University of Hassan 2, Mohammadia (Morocco)

    2009-07-01

    Burning oil, gas, coal and pet coke are the main source of gaseous and particulate emissions. In Morocco, the production of electricity is largely dependent on fossil fuels that are highly polluting. In this work the authors assess the impact of these pollutants on the environment, a study which aims to know the emission levels from the power stations of the National Office of Electricity (ONE) in Morocco.

  1. Programme of air surveillance and health 9 towns. Synthesis review. Surveillance of effects on the health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Revue de synthese. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  2. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Orleans and Tours impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Orleans et de Tours impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Orleans and Tours according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Centre. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002 and 2003) and mortality. Long-term mortality was also estimated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations are: Orleans: 11 [2-23]* for respiratory admissions and 26 [16-36]* for cardiovascular admissions; Tours: 11 [3-22]* for respiratory admissions and 34 [20-48]* for cardiovascular admissions. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 59 [36-84]* in Orleans and 61 [37-86]* in Tours. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  3. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  4. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    states, the Introduction emphasizes the continued relevance of focusing on a repoliticized MENA reality. The Middle East is still on the move away from the established image of unshakeable authoritarianism attributed to the region, which made the upgrading authoritarianism paradigm seem forever relevant......The Introduction briefly presents the ideas behind this collection of articles, namely to analyze popular mobilization and the role of civil society, political parties, and regional organizations in relation to the developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the last years......, and to discuss theoretical approaches and paradigms of relevance for the analysis of these new regional dynamics. The MENA region experienced, in connection with and following the Arab uprisings, a hitherto unseen popular mobilization. Despite the recent highly problematic situation in several Middle Eastern...

  5. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Refractory explores identity in the Penny Dreadful.The introduction introduces the show, themes and the six articles. In Season Two of television horror-drama, Penny Dreadful (Showtime/Sky, 2014-16), Ethan Chandler (Josh Hartnett), American sharpshooter and werew......This special issue of the journal Refractory explores identity in the Penny Dreadful.The introduction introduces the show, themes and the six articles. In Season Two of television horror-drama, Penny Dreadful (Showtime/Sky, 2014-16), Ethan Chandler (Josh Hartnett), American sharpshooter...... and werewolf, asks Vanessa Ives (Eva Green), a British heiress with supernatural powers and a troubled past, what happens when the monsters inside of them are released? She says: “We’re most who we are. Unrestrained. Ourselves.” Summing up a central concern of the series, she confirms the view of its creator...

  6. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Brake, Laurel; Mussell, James

    2013-01-01

    When W. T. Stead died on the Titanic he was the most famous Englishman on board. A mass of contradictions and a crucial figure in the history of the British press, Stead was a towering presence in the cultural life of late-Victorian and Edwardian society. In this introduction, we consider Stead as a ‘mass of contradictions’ and offer a few ways in which his prodigious output and activity might be understood.

  7. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Brake

    2013-04-01

    mso-fareast-language:JA;} When W. T. Stead died on the 'Titanic' he was the most famous Englishman on board. A mass of contradictions and a crucial figure in the history of the British press, Stead was a towering presence in the cultural life of late-Victorian and Edwardian society. In this introduction, we consider Stead as a ‘mass of contradictions’ and offer a few ways in which his prodigious output and activity might be understood.

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion and theme of market-based fisheries management. The introduction of market mechanisms to distribute and manage fishing quota has internationally occurred since the 1980s but is increasingly on the political agenda. As privatization and transferability are promoted...... internationally, and by big players, it becomes even more crucial to understand its social and environmental implications. This chapter looks at the broader lines in the fisheries research and discusses the diverging views on market-based fisheries management. On one side market mechanisms are promoted...... for efficiency and fleet adaptation, and on the other, quota markets are accused of causing concentration and disturbing social relations....

  9. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.; Ianko, L.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In the introduction the historic context is established, spanning a bow from the first sustained fission reactor in 1942 to contemporary developments. The subjects 'Irradiation Effects on Mechanical Properties', 'Neutron Fluence', 'Irradiation Effect Trends', 'Empirical Modelling of Irradiation Effects' and 'Mechanical Modelling' are addressed. There are also some remarks about the current state of the art, the migration of irradiation effects and about international programmes

  10. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dehs, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to When Architects and Designers Write / Draw / Build / ? This anthology highlights the potentials and challenges for research in architecture and design. The included essays are based on papers given at a symposium held at the Aarhus School of Architecture in 2011 and contain a number...... of topical positions ranging from the activist and academic to practice-based and artistically-based research by international and Danish researchers. The anthology is aimed at architects and designers, as well as others with an interest in the discussion of the concept of research in the fields...

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Goede, Marieke; Leander, Anna; Sullivan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This articles introduces the special issue on ‘The Politics of the List.’ We observe that lists proliferate as a technique of governance across multiple domains, including health, security, and commerce. We argue that it is important to take seriously the form and technique of the list itself...... and engage the knowledge practices, governance effects and ways of ordering the world that the list format enables. In other words, the special issue seeks to ‘remain in the register of the list,’ to unpack its technological arrangements and juridical power. This introduction sets out the key themes...

  12. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  13. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Introduction a brief review on application of high-current electron beams (HEB) and powerful pulse ion beams (PPB) is given. It is noted that at present the following principal trends on HEB and PPB application in technologies are formed: production of super-dense plasma for controlled thermonuclear synthesis; implantation and annealing of semiconductors; modification of metals and alloys properties: strength, tribo-technical and anticorrosion ones; synthesis of new composite materials, including metastable phases and compounds; manufacture of thin films and coverings with preset structure and properties by means of ablation plasma deposition; cleaning, polishing and glancing of surfaces; synthesis of ultra-disperse and nano-sized powders; destruction and cutting of solid materials

  14. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies are excellent laboratories of chemical evolution. Many dwarf galaxies have simple star formation histories with very low average star formation rates. These conditions simplify models of chemical evolution and facilitate the identification of sites of nucleosynthesis. Dwarf galaxies also host extremely metal-poor stars, which sample the ejecta of the first generations of supernovae in the universe. This meeting-in-a-meeting, "Stellar Abundances in Dwarf Galasxies," will recognize the importance of dwarf galaxies in learning about the creation and evolution of the elements. Topics include: * the most metal-poor stars * the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo * dwarf galaxies as the paragons of r-process nucleosynthesis * modern techniques in stellar abundance measurements * recent advances in chemical evolution modelingI will give a very brief introduction to set the stage for the meeting.

  15. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Introduction a common data about the monograph are presented. It is noted that results of α-particles elastic and inelastic scattering angular distribution with energies 40.0 and 50.1 MeV on 90,94 Zr carried out on the Kazakhstan isochronous cyclotron U-150M. A new data on total reaction cross sections at α-particles energies 96(1) MeV and 3 He ions 95(1) MeV on 90 Zr isotope, obtained on the Kiev isochronous cyclotron U-240 are given. Within framework of unified approach the experimental data analysis for α-particles quasi-elastic scattering with energies 35.4, 40.0 and 50.1, 65.0 MeV on odd zirconium isotopes as well as their reaction total cross sections is carried out. With use of α-particles scattering at low and middle energies the excited states transitions isospin character for odd tin isotopes is studied in detail with application of up-to date analysis methods. The monograph consists of introduction, four chapters and Conclussion. The chapters are as follows: (1) Experimental measurement methods of differential and total reaction cross sections with complicated particles at low and middle energies; (2) Macroscopic and semi-microscopic optical-potential approaches; (3) Peculiarities of experimental angular distribution of alpha particles at energies up to 12.5 MeV/nucleon, total reaction cross sections and results their optical potential analysis; (4) Structure characteristics of odd-odd nuclei and their comparative analysis

  16. Short term effect of urban air pollution on respiratory disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Analysis of studies published from 1962 to january 2000; Impact a court terme de la pollution atmospherique urbaine sur l'insuffisance respiratoire par bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive (BPCO). Synthese des etudes, publiees de 1962 a janvier 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desqueyroux, H.; Momas, I. [Universite Rene Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Lab. d' Hygiene et de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    This review presents a synthesis of studies published from 1962 to 2000 on the relations between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 12 ecological epidemiological studies, 6 epidemiological panel studies, and 11 controlled human exposure trials. The controlled trials, ecological time-based epidemiological studies and panels are examined successively followed by a discussion of their methodology and results. The controlled trials either do no highlight effects or show effects having no clinical significance since variations are similar to physiological variability. For epidemiological studies reporting individual data, the results point to a particle effect (two studies). This effect of particles is found in ecological studies which also describe an impact of ozone, sometimes of sulfur dioxide and less often of nitrogen dioxide. In conclusion, patients suffering from COPD are generally regarded as a group sensitive to air pollution, as suggested by the results of numerous ecological epidemiological studies. Rare individual studies provide a few arguments supporting this assumption. (authors)

  17. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution; Bilan des plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires. Bilan des etudes d'impact de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helf, M.; Cassadou, S

    2005-07-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  18. Indoor air pollution: measurement campaign in six dwellings occupied by elderly. Relation between indoor air quality and declared symptoms; Pollution atmospherique interieure: campagne de mesures dans six logements occupes par des personnes agees, relation entre qualite de l'air et symptomes declares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, C.

    2004-10-15

    The objective of this work was to analyse the indoor air quality in dwellings occupied by old people and to correlate pollutants with life habits and health statement. A sociological survey on 96 elderly people living in social housing was firstly undertaken in order to determine risk factors responsible for poor health. Then measurements of several pollutants (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub X}, O{sub 3}, COVT, PM2,5, PS>0,3 and aero-biological counts) were carried out during five days in six typical dwellings. Results were analyzed in the light of activities and reported symptoms by the old people. Besides discomfort due to CO{sub 2} accumulation, several pollutants with levels near or over guidelines were identified in particular particulate matter under 1 {mu}m, airborne microbiological counts, permanent TVOC levels. Dust was at the origin of cough, eyes and throat irritations and flows of the nose, and fungi and bacteria seem to be responsible for skin irritations, digestive disorders, sneezes and rhinitis. However, most symptoms appeared after 10 hours of exposure time for people of all ages. The risks factors were amplified by ignorance about the hazard of inadequate ventilation. Experiences in laboratory were also performed to complement some observations and introduce further research. (author)

  19. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this introduction to The Third Radiobiological Conference author give a short retrospective review of reactor accidents (26 th April 1986, Chernobyl NPP, 1979 in Three Mile Island). In former Czechoslovakia an attention has been paid to the questions of the effects of radiation on organism from the 1950's. After discharge of Commonwealth the Radiobiological Association. that facilitated interchange of the results of research work among various national and foreign institutions. was also abolished. After establishment of the autonomous Slovak Republic the University of Veterinary Medicine (UVM) in Kosice in collaboration with Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice linked to tradition of radiobiology and organized the the First Radiobiological Conference in Slovakia. At this conference 37 lectures of home and 9 of Czech authors were presented. At the end of conference the agreement was made to held this conference every second year. The 2 nd Radiobiological Conference was held in 2004 at the occasion of the 55 st anniversary of the UVM establishment in Kosice. The 3 rd Conference held on 25 tb May 2006 in UVM in Kosice was inscribed to the 20 th anniversary of Chernobyl disaster. Selected articles dealing with this problem create contents of Supplement inscribed to the 50 th anniversary of the scientific journal Folia Veterinaria

  20. The distribution, atmospheric transfer, and assessment of krypton-85; Distribution, transfert atmospherique et bilan du krypton-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannetier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Techniques for sampling and measuring krypton-85 have been developed which allowed to determine its geographical distribution. From its use as a tracer, an evaluation of the air masses which cross over the subtropical fronts has been derived. Besides, the stratospheric character of air pollution by krypton-85 at the level of the antarctic soil has been shown out. Levels of krypton-85 seem to point out to an underestimation of the assessment of nuclear explosion fission energies as adopted by the United Nations Scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation and emphasize the need to set limits as soon as possible to the amounts of krypton-85 released to the atmosphere by fuel-reprocessing plants. (author) [French] La mise au point de techniques de prelevement et de mesure du krypton-85 atmospherique a permis de determiner sa repartition geographique. De son utilisation comme traceur on deduit une evaluation des masses d'air qui traversent les fronts subtropicaux. Par ailleurs, le caractere stratospherique de la pollution de l'air par le krypton-85 au niveau du sol antarctique est mis en evidence. Le bilan du krypton-85 semble reveler une sous-estimation du bilan des energies de fission des explosions adopte par le Comite scientifique des Nations Unies et souligne la necessite de limiter des que possible les quantites de krypton-85 rejetees dans l'atmosphere par les usines de traitement de combustibles irradies. (auteur)

  1. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Written as Carson & Miller, collaborative artists who explore narrative and the places where narrative intersects with material culture and everyday experience, this introduction presents the stakes of the larger project that entails the exhibition The Story of Things (2009, the conference The Story of Things: reading narrative in the visual (2010 and the double issue of Image (& Narrative. It mainly focuses on the interdisciplinary approaches to the relationship between object and storytelling.

     

    Résumé: Portant la double signature de Carson & Miller, un duo d'artistes avec un intérêt particulier pour la narration et les rapports entre les interaction entre culture ordinaire et  manières de raconter, cette introduction présente les enjeux du projet plus large qui regroupe une exposition

  2. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuparna Mukherjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The city as a mosaic of anarchic diversity and messy contradictions has always been a rich source of inspiration for practitioners of creative arts. Writers, painters, planners, photographers, performers have deemed the city as the loci of their desire, conflict, passion and memory to chart the minutes of quotidian life in various intricate forms and configurations. “The city came into being when a surplus of food allowed a diversity of tasks”, Lehan asserts in his introduction to The City in Literature. “Diversity is a key to urban beginnings and continuities, and diversity is also the snake in the urban garden, challenging systems of order and encouraging disorder and chaos” (8. As an eclectic site of cultural friction and contamination that simultaneously oscillates between polarities of belonging and non-belonging, order and chaos, the city unlocks myriad windows to the chroniclers of urban realities. The cities in their perpetual making and dismantling, bear an impression of what Amit Chaudhuri terms in a recent talk as the “unfinished-ness” in the context of modern cities[1]. The “unfinished” is a slippery term as Chaudhuri explains, while it may suggest the Modernist artists’ proclivity towards dereliction, ruin or fragmentation in metropolitan landscape, it also speaks of the “half-made”[2], the backward, or the liminal spaces within an urban conurbation. However, this “unfinished-ness” or the fact that “cities are not finished products” as Chaudhuri posits, is also indicative of their “radical openness” and their inexhaustible potentials for reinventing themselves.

  3. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to the monographic section Italy-Ireland: Cultural Inter-Relations, gives a brief account of how this part of the journal tries to fill a gap in transcultural studies by investigating the hitherto relatively underexplored relationship of Ireland with Italy. The editors argue that the topic deserves special attention because throughout the centuries, owing to a shared religion and Ireland’s colonial and postcolonial status, a special relationship was established. Without neglecting the many contributions published on this topic over the past thirty years, the papers collected in this first issue of SIJIS offer an overall view of the relations between Italy and Ireland from the Middle Ages to the present day demonstrating this special relationship. The opening essay, drawing an ample and interdisciplinary panorama of the representations of Ireland in Italy over the centuries, and  the concluding one, introducing new issues and suggestions for further investigations, frame seven papers organized thematically in subsections.  The translation studies section highlights some specific problems presented to the translator because of the Irish nature of the translated texts. Exploration of the links between some major figures and Italy opens up new perspectives even regarding much studied figures such as Joyce while  the time-honoured comparative method of studying influences yields ground-breaking insights as in the study of links between Commedia dell’Arte and Clarke or Mahon and Pasolini. Representations of Italy and  the presence of Italian settings and characters acquire  a specific Irish edge in the writings of Synge, Lady Morgan and Edward Maturin especially when both countries were still in search  of their identities.

  4. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    Since the Atoms for Peace program in 1950s, peaceful applications of nuclear technology has been at the forefront of the development of many countries. In Malaysia, the development of nuclear technology began in earnest with the setting-up of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in 1972, then known as CRANE. More than thirty years later, today, the technology has gained footing and made impact to the development of the country. Her role in regional and international scenes in nuclear-related matters and nuclear technology was noticed and being given due attention. It is time to take stock of this development and assess its impact upon which further developments can be planned and strategized. That was the genesis of this study. This chapter presents a review of the status and development of nuclear technology globally and in Malaysia to provide a background for the report and the study. This is followed by an introduction to the study: its objectives, scope, methods of research, total population, sampling frame, selection procedures, target groups and data analysis. The chapter concludes with a guide to the organization of this report. The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact and contribution of nuclear technology to socio-economic development of the country. It is also expected to identify issues and challenges faced by users of this technology. Even though the applications of nuclear technology encompass diverse human endeavors, this study focuses only in industrial, medical and agriculture sectors. The applications of nuclear technology in both public agencies and private companies in those sectors are considered. This is the first time such a study is being undertaken in Malaysia, and as a starting point, the three year period spanning 2006-2008 are taken as the time frame for discerning trends of nuclear technology development in the country. This study was also in an indirect sense motivated by similar studies conducted in the USA

  5. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R

  6. Bulky PAH-DNA induced by exposure of a co-culture model of human alveolar macrophages and embryonic epithelial cells to atmospheric particulate pollution; Adduits encombrants a l'ADN dans des cocultures de cellules pulmonaires humaines exposees a une pollution atmospherique particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Imane; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France - Lille (France); Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, MREI, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Andre, Veronique; Le Goff, Jeremie; Sichel, Francois [GRECAN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie et centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Roy Saint-Georges, Francoise; Mulliez, Philippe [Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Philibert, GHICL, Lille (France)

    2012-01-15

    Because of their deep penetration in human lungs, fine airborne particulate matter were described as mainly responsible for the deleterious effects of exposure to air pollution on health. Organic constituents are adsorbed on particles surface and, after inhalation, some (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) can be activated into reactive metabolites and can bind to DNA. The formation of bulky DNA adducts has been researched after exposure of mono-and co-cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and human embryonic human lung epithelial (L132), to fine air pollution particulate matter Air samples have been collected with cascade impactor and characterized: size distribution (92.15% < 2.5{mu}.m), specific surface area (1 m{sup 2}/g), inorganic (Fe, AI, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic compounds (PAHs, etc.). {sup 32}P post-labeling method was applied to detect bulky DNA adducts in AM and L132, in mono-and co-cultures, 72 h after their exposure to atmospheric particles at their Lethals and Effects concentrations or (LC or CE) to 50% (i.e. MA: EC{sub 50} = 74.63 {mu}g/mL and L132: LC-5-0 = 75.36 {mu}g/mL). Exposure to desorbed particles (MA: C1= 61.11 {mu}g/mL and L132 : C2 = 61.71 {mu}g/mL) and B[a]P (1 {mu}M) were included. Bulky PAH-DNA adducts were detected in AM in mono-culture after exposure to total particles (Pt), to B[a]P and desorbed particles (Pd). Whatever the exposure, no DNA adduct was detected in L132 in mono-culture. These results are coherent with the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 l Al in AM and L132. Exposure of co-culture to Pt, or Pd induced bulky adducts to DNA in AM but not in L132. Exposure to B[a]P alone has altered the DNA of AM and L132, in co-culture. Exposure to Pt is closer to the environmental conditions, but conferred an exposure to amounts of genotoxic agents compared to studies using organic extracts. The formation of bulky DNA adducts was nevertheless observed in AM exposed to Pt, in mono- or co-culture, indicating that

  7. Preface and introduction to 'The Response of Western Forests to Air Pollution'. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Boehm, M.; Brinkley, D.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forests in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed by photolytic reactions involving nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stressors

  8. Pollutants in soil. An introduction to their analysis and evaluation, with practical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Leitschuh, S.; Koss, V.

    1997-01-01

    The book goes into soil pollutant mobility and analysis and into the interpretation of measured data. The authors took pains to present their subject in an easy-to-read manner. Practical exercises at the end of each chapter help the student to check up on his knowledge. In view of the Universities' current trend towards a more practice-oriented education, the detailed theoretical section is supplemented by a variety of experiments. The book addresses students of chemistry, geosciences, biology, engineering sciences etc. who are interested in environmental science. (orig.). 120 figs [de

  9. Is acidification still a major air pollution concern? The analysis from the French Agriculture and Fishing Department; Le probleme de l`acidification d`origine atmospherique est-il toujours d`actualite? l`analyse du Ministere de l`agriculture et de la peche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landmann, G. [Ministere de l`Agriculture et de la Peche, 75 - Paris (France). Direction de l`espace rural et de la foret

    1997-12-31

    The acidification issues related to agriculture and their effects on ecosystems are analyzed: through ammonium emissions, agriculture is largely contributing to acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems; enhancements of cultivation and fertilization techniques have been achieved in order to decrease these emissions; natural soils and waters, and more especially forests, are still affected by acid and nitrogenous pollution, leading to modifications with soil degradation and eutrophication of forest soils and waters

  10. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  11. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in France. Sectoral series and extended analyses - SECTEN Format, April 2011; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques et de gaz a effet de serre en France. Series sectorielles et analyses etendues - Format SECTEN, avril 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Serveau, Laetitia; Allemand, Nadine; Jeannot, Coralie; Andre, Jean-Marc; Joya, Romain; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Martinet, Yann; Druart, Ariane; Mathias, Etienne; Gavel, Antoine; Nicco, Laetitia; Gueguen, Celine; Prouteau, Emilie; Jabot, Julien; Tuddenham, Mark; Jacquier, Guillaume; Vincent, Julien

    2011-04-15

    This report supplies an update of emissions into the atmosphere in mainland France under the SNIEPA in accordance with the 'SECTEN' format defined by CITEPA. This report aims to reconstitute emissions broken down in accordance with the traditional economic sectors such as industry, residential/tertiary sector, agriculture, etc. (cf. Annex 2 for the corresponding links between SECTEN sectors and sub-sectors, and the SNAP nomenclature). Unless otherwise indicated, the results cover the period 1990-2010 (estimations for 2010 are preliminary), but also go back further in time: to 1980 for certain substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. For other substances traditionally monitored by CITEPA for many years, the results go back to 1960 (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO). Data are presented for 28 different substances in total and various indicators such as those concerning acidification or the greenhouse effect. The report shows that for most substances, emissions have been drastically reduced over the last 10 or 20 years, especially during the period 1990-2009: Very sharp decrease (over 40%) SO{sub 2}, NMVOCs, CO, SF{sub 6}, PFCs in CO{sub 2} equivalent, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, dioxins and furans, PAHs, HCB, PCBs, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 1.0}, Sharp decrease (between 20 and 40%) NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, Se, TSP, PM{sub 10} and acid equivalent index, Considerable decrease (between 5 and 20%) NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4} without LULUCF, CO{sub 2} without LULUCF, Cu and the global warming potential index without LULUCF, Stabilisation (between -5 and +5%) No substance, Very sharp increase (over 40%) HFCs in CO{sub 2} equivalent. For more than 2/3 of substances, emission levels in 2009 were the lowest since records began (1960 to 1990 depending on the substances). For the most part of atmospheric pollutants (except the greenhouse gases), the preliminary estimations for year 2010 look

  12. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  13. Measurement of spatial and temporal variation in volatile hazardous air pollutants in Tacoma, Washington, using a mobile membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Nicholas G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Etzkorn, Jacob M; Martinsen, Morten; Crampton, Robert S; Onstad, Gretchen D; Larson, Timothy V; Yost, Michael G; Krogh, Erik T; Gilroy, Michael; Himes, Kathy H; Saganić, Erik T; Simpson, Christopher D; Gill, Christopher G

    2014-09-19

    The objective of this study was to use membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), implemented on a mobile platform, in order to provide real-time, fine-scale, temporally and spatially resolved measurements of several hazardous air pollutants. This work is important because there is now substantial evidence that fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations are important determinants of exposure to air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The study took place in Tacoma, WA during periods of impaired air quality in the winter and summer of 2008 and 2009. Levels of fine particles were higher in winter compared to summer, and were spatially uniform across the study area. Concentrations of vapor phase pollutants measured by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), notably benzene and toluene, had relatively uniform spatial distributions at night, but exhibited substantial spatial variation during the day-daytime levels were up to 3-fold higher at traffic-impacted locations compared to a reference site. Although no direct side-by-side comparison was made between the MIMS system and traditional fixed site monitors, the MIMS system typically reported higher concentrations of specific VOCs, particularly benzene, ethylbenzene and naphthalene, compared to annual average concentrations obtained from SUMA canisters and gas chromatographic analysis at the fixed sites.

  14. Impacts of large-scale introduction of hydrogen in the road transport sector on urban air pollution and human exposure in Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.S.; Ketzel, M.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M.; Winther, M.; Nielsen, O.K. (Aarhus Univ.. National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, K.; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Dept. of System Analysis, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the project 'Environmental and Health Impact Assessment of Scenarios for Renewable Energy Systems with Hydrogen' (HYSCENE) is to improve modelling of the environmental impacts and related socio-cultural and welfare economic impacts of a proposed hydrogen/renewable energy system with focus on large-scale introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in the road transport sector (http://hyscene.dmu.dk). This extended abstract will focus on the impacts on urban air pollution and human exposure. (Author)

  15. Introduction of the land snail Eobania vermiculata as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial pollution using a battery of biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itziou, A., E-mail: itziou@bio.auth.gr; Dimitriadis, V.K., E-mail: vdimitr@bio.auth.gr

    2011-02-15

    The present study aimed to enrich the group of sentinel organisms of terrestrial pollution biomonitoring, by investigating the efficacy of the land snail Eobania vermiculata. For this reason, a package of biomarkers was performed on land snails E. vermiculata collected from polluted areas in the field or treated with heavy metals in the laboratory. The biomarkers used were neutral red lysosomal retention assay of the haemocytes, acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive gland and the haemolymph, and metallothionein content of the digestive gland. Moreover, the morphometric changes in the lysosomal system and the morphometric alterations of the neutral lipids were also investigated. In addition, the content of cadmium, lead and copper was evaluated in the digestive gland of the snails. The results revealed appreciable alterations in the biomarker values both in field- and laboratory-conditions, accompanied by significant correlations among the biomarkers. Therefore, this exploratory study suggests the utility of E. vermiculata as a sentinel organism for biomonitoring the biologic impact of terrestrial pollution, and supports the package's efficacy of the selected biomarkers. - Research Highlights: {yields} Significant changes were noted in the values of the applied biomarkers. {yields} A package of biomarkers is supported to be an efficient tool for biomoniroting studies. {yields} The land snail Eobania vermiculata is proposed to be a good bioindicator organism in terrestrial pollution studies.

  16. Short-Term Introduction of Air Pollutants from Fireworks During Diwali in Rural Palwal, Haryana, India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S.; Yadav, A.; Pillarisetti, A.; Smith, K.; Arora, N.

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of firework-related air pollutants into the rural atmosphere was monitored by measuring ambient air concentrations of PM2.5, CO, and metals over Mitrol- Aurangabad, Haryana, India, before, during, and after the 2015 Diwali celebration. PM2.5 concentrations were observed to be approximately 5 times and 12 times higher than Indian and WHO 24-h standards, respectively. CO concentrations on the day of Diwali were found to be nearly 7.5 times and nearly 1.5 times higher than Indian standards and WHO 8-h standards, respectively. Increased concentrations of SO4, K, N3, Al, and Na were observed. SO4, K, N3, Al, and Na were found between approximately 2 and 5 times higher on festival days than on a normal, non-festival day in November. Use of firecrackers during Diwali and surrounding celebrations thus contribute to decreased air quality and elevated levels of air pollutants associated with adverse health impacts. Optimization or controlled use of firecrackers during Diwali is suggested in rural areas.

  17. No.3605 report realized by the name of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project (no. 3156), authorizing the approbation of the protocol to the 1979 convention on the long distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution relative to the reduction of the acidification, the eutrophication and the tropospheric ozone (nine annexes); No. 3605 rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi (no. 3156), autorisant l'approbation du protocole a la convention de 1979 sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance relatif a la reduction de l'acidification, de l'eutrophisation et de l'ozone tropospherique (ensemble neuf annexes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the 1979 convention (of Geneva), eight specific protocols have been adopted, amongch the Goteborg protocol on the long distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution. It aims to reduce of 40% to 2010, the emissions of three pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds). In this context this report presents the reinforcement of the international tools of fight against the atmospheric pollution and the Goteborg protocol in the existing devices of the air pollution abatement. (A.L.B.)

  18. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  19. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  20. Caracterisation environnementale des emissions atmospheriques d'une source fixe et creation d'un outil de gestion dynamique =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Claude

    Une caracterisation des emissions atmospheriques provenant des sources fixes en operation, alimentees au gaz et a l'huile legere, a ete conduite aux installations visees des sites no.1 et no.2. La caracterisation et les calculs theoriques des emissions atmospheriques aux installations des sites no.1 et no.2 presentent des resultats qui sont en dessous des valeurs reglementaires pour des conditions d'operation normales en periode hivernale et par consequent, a de plus fortes demandes energetiques. Ainsi, pour une demande energetique plus basse, le taux de contaminants dans les emissions atmospheriques pourrait egalement etre en dessous des reglementations municipales et provinciales en vigueur. Dans la perspective d'une nouvelle reglementation provinciale, dont les termes sont discutes depuis 2005, il serait souhaitable que le proprietaire des infrastructures visees participe aux echanges avec le Ministere du Developpement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs (MDDEP) du Quebec. En effet, meme si le principe de droit acquis permettrait d'eviter d'etre assujetti a la nouvelle reglementation, l'application de ce type de principe ne s'inscrit pas dans ceux d'un developpement durable. L'âge avance des installations etudiees implique la planification d'un entretien rigoureux afin d'assurer les conditions optimales de combustion en fonction du type de combustible. Des tests de combustion sur une base reguliere sont donc recommandes. Afin de supporter le processus de suivi et d'evaluation de la performance environnementale des sources fixes, un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale a ete developpe. Dans ce contexte, la poursuite du developpement d'un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale faciliterait non seulement le travail des personnes affectees aux inventaires annuels mais egalement le processus de communication entre les differents acteurs concernes tant intra- qu'inter-etablissement. Cet outil serait egalement un bon

  1. Protection of personnel against atmospheric contamination by plutonium in the laboratory (1963); Protection du personnel contre la contamination atmospherique par le plutonium, dans les laboratoires (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliers, P; Pomarola, J; Risselin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Various problems about measurement of atmospheric contamination by plutonium in laboratories are considered. In particular are studied sampling methods, continuous measurement for alarm, criteria used for fixation of the concentrations to be measured, sensitivity of apparatus and effects of natural atmospheric contamination. The means actually available for measurement of contamination and their limits of use are briefly analysed. (authors) [French] Les differents problemes a resoudre pour realiser un controle satisfaisant de la contamination atmospherique par le plutonium, dans les laboratoires, sont abordes. On etudie en particulier les differents modes d'echantillonnage, le controle continu en vue de l'alarme, les criteres qui servent a la fixation des concentrations a mesurer, la sensibilite a donner aux moyens de mesure, les difficultes provenant de la contamination atmospherique naturelle. Les moyens actuellement disponibles pour le controle de la contamination et leurs moyens limites d'emploi sont analyses sommairement. (auteurs)

  2. Atmospheric corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys; Corrosion atmospherique des alliages uranium-carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, P; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors study the corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys having compositions close to that of the mono-carbide; they show that the extent of the observed corrosion effects increases with the water vapour content of the surrounding gas and they conclude that the atmospheric corrosion of these alloys is due essentially to the humidity of the air, the effect of the oxygen being very slight at room temperature. They show that the optimum conditions for preserving U-C alloys are either a vacuum or a perfectly dry argon atmosphere. The authors have also established that the type of corrosion involved is a corrosion which 'cracks under stress' and is transgranular (it can also be intergranular in the case of sub-stoichiometric alloys). They propose, finally, two hypotheses for explaining this mechanism, one of which is illustrated by the existence, at the fissure interface, of corrosion products which can play the role of 'corners' in the mono-carbide grains. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient la corrosion des alliages uranium-carbone de composition voisine du monocarbure; ils montrent que l'importance des effets de la corrosion observee augmente avec la teneur en vapeur d'eau du milieu gazeux ambiant et concluent que la corrosion atmospherique de ces alliages est due essentiellement a l'humidite de l'air, l'action de l'oxygene de l'air etant tres faible a la temperature ambiante. Ils indiquent que les conditions optimales de conservation des alliages U-C sont le vide ou une atmosphere d'argon parfaitement desseches. D'autre part, les auteurs etablissent que le type de corrosion mis en jeu est une corrosion 'fissurante sous contrainte', transgranulaire (pouvant egalement etre intergranulaire dans le cas d'alliages sous-stoechiometriques). Ils proposent enfin deux hypotheses pour rendre compte de ce mecanisme, dont l'une est illustree par la mise en evidence, a l'interface des fissures, de produits de corrosion pouvant jouer le role de 'coins' dans les grains de

  3. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  5. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed

  6. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  7. Is acidification still a major air pollution concern?; L`acidification est-elle encore un probleme majeur de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bellac, C. [INES, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The issue of acid emissions from district space heating systems, which burn heavy fuels and coal, is discussed: it is shown that nitrogen oxide emissions are relatively low; for sulfur dioxide, three solutions are possible: switching to natural gas, but peak periods would require stored fuels; reducing the sulfur content in fuels, but its prices are too erratic; and de-sulfurizing the combustion smokes, but it does not appears as economically sustainable, as the prices for quality fuels and difficult fuels are close and low. It is reminded that district space heating is more especially aimed at council buildings

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  9. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  10. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Pollutants in soil. An introduction to their analysis and evaluation, with practical experiments; Schadstoffe im Boden. Eine Einfuehrung in Analytik und Bewertung mit Versuchsanleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, J.; Leitschuh, S.; Koss, V.

    1997-08-01

    The book goes into soil pollutant mobility and analysis and into the interpretation of measured data. The authors took pains to present their subject in an easy-to-read manner. Practical exercises at the end of each chapter help the student to check up on his knowledge. In view of the Universities` current trend towards a more practice-oriented education, the detailed theoretical section is supplemented by a variety of experiments. The book addresses students of chemistry, geosciences, biology, engineering sciences etc. who are interested in environmental science. (orig.). 120 figs. [Deutsch] Die Mobilitaet von Bodenschadstoffen, ihre Analyse sowie die Interpretation von Messergebnissen sind die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte dieses Lehrbuchs. Die Autoren haben besonderen Wert auf eine anschauliche Darstellung der Thematik gelegt. Uebungsaufgaben am Ende der einzelnen Kapitel dienen der Ueberpruefung des Wissens. Neben einem umfangreichen theoretischen Teil enthaelt das Buch auch eine Vielzahl detaillierter Versuchsanleitungen. Damit wird dem in den letzten Jahren gewachsenen Beduerfnis nach einer eher praxisorientierten Ausbildung an den Universitaeten Rechnung getragen. Das Buch eignet sich fuer umweltwissenschaftlich orientierte Studiengaenge in den Fachbereichen Chemie, Geowissenschaften, Biologie, Ingenieurwissenschaften o.ae. (orig.)

  12. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium

  13. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  14. ADAMS - Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Cheol Gi

    2003-06-01

    This book introduces ADAMS, which is composed of 20 modules ; stamping mechanism, ADAMS introduction, GUI overview failing stone project motion one DOF pendulum inclined plane lift mechanism I mechanism II mechanism III suspension subsystem suspension-steering system spring-damper I spring-damper II hatchback I hatchback II hatchback III cam-rocker-valve target practice recommended practice and switch mechanism workshop.

  15. Introduction; Vvedenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    Introduction describes the present book. Its includes seven chapters. First four from them touch with glycerin of acetylene line-their receiving, studying their oxidation reactions, transformations under the influence of dehydrating methods. Last three chapters dedicated to glycerin of ethylen line-synthesis, their cyclization into substituted dihydropyran.

  16. 1. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Heike

    2017-01-01

    This volume is situated at the intersection of communication, environment, and media. Communication here is not understood as the pure exchange of information, or as dialogue, but instead in a more general sense, as the core element that constitutes society. Without communicating about our environment, meaning here especially the non-human environment, we have no knowledge about dangers such as climate change, pollution, deforestation, etc., and therefore cannot react to them. German sociolog...

  17. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  18. 40 CFR 62.02 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 62.02 Section 62.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.02 Introduction...

  19. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  20. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  1. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  2. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Modelling and numerical simulation of the General Dynamic Equation of aerosols; Modelisation et simulation des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debry, E.

    2005-01-15

    Chemical-transport models are now able to describe in a realistic way gaseous pollutants behavior in the atmosphere. Nevertheless atmospheric pollution also exists as fine suspended particles, called aerosols, which interact with gaseous phase, solar radiation, and have their own dynamic behavior. The goal of this thesis is the modelling and numerical simulation of the General Dynamic Equation of aerosols (GDE). Part I deals with some theoretical aspects of aerosol modelling. Part II is dedicated to the building of one size resolved aerosol model (SIREAM). In part III we perform the reduction of this model in order to use it in dispersion models as POLAIR3D. Several modelling issues are still opened: organic aerosol matter, externally mixed aerosols, coupling with turbulent mixing, and nano-particles. (author)

  5. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Wood

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ. Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06, PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28 and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78, all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  6. dispersion characteristics of settleable and dissolvable pollutants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implication of this in waste stabilization pond design was also discussed. KEYWORDS: Dispersion, settleable pollutants, waste stabilization ponds. INTRODUCTION. A waste ...... and Soil Pollution 52, 237-245. Agunwamba, J. C., 1991.

  7. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.Z. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The book provides an introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere. It then discusses five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems and over 200 color illustrations and photographs.

  8. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  9. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  10. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  11. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  12. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  13. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  14. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  15. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  16. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  17. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  18. Lichens and air pollution: effect of SO'' on the growth of Hypogymnia physodes (L. ) Nyl. Lichens et pollution atmospherique: l'effet du SO/sub 2/ sur les soredies k Hypogymnia physodes (l. ) Nyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margot, J

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative susceptibility of lichens to the effect of sulfur dioxide. Attention was focused on Hypogymnia physodes, with brief studies on several other species. Evernia prunastri and Parmeliopsis ambigua were more sensitive to sulfur dioxide than Hypogymnia physodes. 145 references, 33 figures, 43 tables.

  19. The research for a method for controlling atmospheric pollution in a plutonium treatment cell; Recherche d'une methode de controle de la pollution atmospherique dans une cellule traitant le polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouteiller, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aerosols likely to contain {sup 210}Po are trapped by bubbling through an acid solution. The problem of determining the polonium concentration of the solution has been solved by combining it with telluric acid. The reduction is carried out at pH = 0 using a solution of stannous chloride. We have studied the factors influencing coprecipitation; nature of the medium, pH, amounts of telluric acid and of stannous chloride. The average yield for the precipitation is 93 per cent. After precipitation, the polonium is filtered on paper and its activity is measured by means of a scintillation counter. The method makes it possible to measure 1/20 of the maximum permissible dose with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [French] Les aerosols susceptibles de contenir du {sup 210}Po sont captes par barbotage dans une solution acide. Le probleme de la concentration de la solution en polonium a ete resolu en entrainant celui-ci avec de l'acide tellurique. La reduction est effectuee a pH = 0 par une solution de chlorure stanneux. Nous avons etudie les facteurs influencant la coprecipitation: nature du milieu, pH, quantite d'entraineur, quantite de chlorure stanneux. Le rendement moyen de la precipitation est de 93 pour cent. Apres precipitation, le polonium est filtre sur papier et son activite mesuree au compteur a scintillations. La methode permet de mesurer le 1/20 de la dose maximum permise avec une precision de 20 pour cent. (auteur)

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  1. Introduction to IBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Search Introduction to IBS Details What is IBS? Last Updated: ... tax-deductible donation. Make Donation What is IBS? Introduction to IBS Symptoms of IBS What Causes IBS? ...

  2. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  3. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  4. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  5. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  6. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  7. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  8. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1994-01-01

    Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or

  9. Bayesian Networks An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Koski, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian Networks: An Introduction provides a self-contained introduction to the theory and applications of Bayesian networks, a topic of interest and importance for statisticians, computer scientists and those involved in modelling complex data sets. The material has been extensively tested in classroom teaching and assumes a basic knowledge of probability, statistics and mathematics. All notions are carefully explained and feature exercises throughout. Features include:.: An introduction to Dirichlet Distribution, Exponential Families and their applications.; A detailed description of learni

  10. Introduction to imprecise probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Thomas; de Cooman, Gert; Troffaes, Matthias C M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the theory has become widely accepted and has been further developed, but a detailed introduction is needed in order to make the material available and accessible to a wide audience. This will be the first book providing such an introduction, covering core theory and recent developments which can be applied to many application areas. All authors of individual chapters are leading researchers on the specific topics, assuring high quality and up-to-date contents. An Introduction to Imprecise Probabilities provides a comprehensive introduction to imprecise probabilities, includin

  11. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  12. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure; Etude des transferts du tritium atmospherique chez la laitue: Etude cinetique, etat d'equilibre et integration du tritum sous forme organique lors d'une exposition atmospherique continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.

    2009-11-30

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author) [French] Ce travail de these a concerne l'etude des phenomenes d'absorption et d'incorporation sous forme organique du tritium dans un vegetal de consommation courante, la laitue (Lactuca sativa L.), en reponse a une exposition atmospherique. Il apparait que la voie foliaire joue un role primordial dans l'absorption du tritium au sein de l'eau tissulaire des plants. Quels que soient le stade de developpement des plants et les conditions d'eclairement, le temps necessaire pour atteindre l'equilibre des concentrations dans l'eau libre et dans la vapeur d'eau de l'air est de plusieurs heures; le rapport des concentrations est alors de

  13. Development of Laboratory Model Ecosystems as Early Warning Elements of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    AD-AOll 851 DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORY MODEL ECOSYSTEMS AS EARLY WARNING ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf... ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf, Ph. D. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois INTRODUCTION Problems of environmental pollution with...house dust is unsafe to breathe (Ewing and Pearson, 1974). Most of the source of our concern about environmental pollution by trace substances relates

  14. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  15. Introduction to Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume.......A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume....

  16. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  17. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  19. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  2. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  3. Introduction to quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, A C

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Quantum Mechanics is an introduction to the power and elegance of quantum mechanics. Assuming little in the way of prior knowledge, quantum concepts are carefully and precisely presented, and explored through numerous applications and problems. Some of the more challenging aspects that are essential for a modern appreciation of the subject have been included, but are introduced and developed in the simplest way possible.Undergraduates taking a first course on quantum mechanics will find this text an invaluable introduction to the field and help prepare them for more adv

  4. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  5. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  6. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  7. MOOC Introduction to Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, Franciscus; Piersma, Kristien

    Interview met Margriet Hidding, Birgit Lijmbach en Jeroen van Engen, medewerkers van het Talencentrum en de makers van de Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Introduction to Dutch over het grote succes van deze cursus

  8. Radiation Protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2005-01-01

    The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

  9. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  10. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  11. Introduction: perspectives on Porter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Relevance of Strategy research: focus on Michael Porter's contributions Strategy is a fascinating field of enquiry, both for managers looking for a sustainable competitive advantage and for academic researchers looking for the reasons behind superior firm performance.

  12. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robin J

    1985-01-01

    Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.

  13. Introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, F B

    1987-01-01

    Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.

  14. General introduction to glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....

  15. Stochastic processes an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Peter Watts

    2009-01-01

    Some Background on ProbabilityIntroduction Probability Conditional probability and independence Discrete random variables Continuous random variables Mean and variance Some standard discrete probability distributions Some standard continuous probability distributions Generating functions Conditional expectationSome Gambling ProblemsGambler's ruin Probability of ruin Some numerical simulations Duration of the game Some variations of gambler's ruinRandom WalksIntroduction Unrestricted random walks The probability distribution after n steps First returns of the symmetric random walkMarkov ChainsS

  16. Introduction to elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2008-01-01

    This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

  17. Introduction to Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.

    1997-05-01

    Introduction to Geostatistics presents practical techniques for engineers and earth scientists who routinely encounter interpolation and estimation problems when analyzing data from field observations. Requiring no background in statistics, and with a unique approach that synthesizes classic and geostatistical methods, this book offers linear estimation methods for practitioners and advanced students. Well illustrated with exercises and worked examples, Introduction to Geostatistics is designed for graduate-level courses in earth sciences and environmental engineering.

  18. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  19. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  20. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  1. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  2. The Roles of Environmental Pollutants in the Pathogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Toxic chemicals in pollutants may destroy or cause mutation ... Keywords: Diabetes, Pathogenesis, Pancreas, Mutation, Insulin, Blood vessel. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when .... alter insulin metabolism.

  3. The Impacts of Organic Pollution on the Hydrochemistry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The greater percentage of these pollutants is organic in origin. ... Introduction of large volumes of biodegradable wastes both reduced the dissolved ... The relatively low abundance of the filter- .... Analysis of Water Samples : Air and Water.

  4. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  5. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  7. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal pollution of water has become a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and today most water resources are still being contaminated with ... remain in the ecosystem and eventually move from one compartment ..... Technical Document Guidelines on metals and alloys used .... Methods for measuring the toxicity and.

  8. Reducing Marine Pollution: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Saffache

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConsidered in times gone by as a hostile environment and visited by only sailors and fishermen (Saffache, 2003. Later on as a place of healing, today, the marine environment serves as a receptacle for the most toxic effluents.  In an effort to evaluate such a phenomenon, and above all, the impact it has on the environment, two forms of pollution will be highlighted, oil discharge and nitrogen and phosphorus-based products.I. Oil Pollution: scope, consequences and anti-pollution e...

  9. In situ airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties during photochemical pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Cachier, H.

    2005-02-01

    Dry aerosol optical properties (scattering, absorbing coefficients, and single scattering albedo) were derived from in situ airborne measurements during two photochemical pollution events (25 and 26 June) observed during the Experience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Two flights were carried out during daytime (one during the morning and one at noon) over a domain, allowing the investigation of how an air pollution event affects the particle optical properties. Both horizontal distribution and vertical profiles are presented. Results from the horizontal mapping show that plumes of enhanced scattering and absorption are formed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the day in the sea breeze-driven outflow of the coastal urban-industrial area of Marseille-Fos de Berre. The domain-averaged scattering coefficient (at 550 nm) over land σs changes from 35 (28) Mm-1 during land breeze to 63 (43) Mm-1 during sea breeze on 25 June (26 June), with local maxima reaching > 100 Mm-1. The increase in the scattering coefficient is associated with new particle formation, indicative of secondary aerosol formation. Simultaneously, the domain-averaged absorption coefficient increases from 5.6 (3.4) Mm-1 to 9.3 (8.0) Mm-1. The pollution plume leads to strong gradients in the single scattering albedo ωo over the domain studied, with local values as low as 0.73 observed inside the pollution plume. The role of photochemistry and secondary aerosol formation during the 25 June case is shown to increase ωo and to make the aerosol more `reflecting' while the plume moves away from the sources. The lower photochemical activity, observed in the 26 June case, induces a relatively higher contribution of black carbon, making the aerosol more absorbing. Results from vertical profiles at a single near-urban location in the domain indicate that the changes in optical properties happen almost entirely within

  10. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  11. Biophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cotteril, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Biophysics: An Introduction, is a concise balanced introduction to this subject. Written in an accessible and readable style, the book takes a fresh, modern approach with the author successfully combining key concepts and theory with relevant applications and examples drawn from the field as a whole. Beginning with a brief introduction to the origins of biophysics, the book takes the reader through successive levels of complexity, from atoms to molecules, structures, systems and ultimately to the behaviour of organisms. The book also includes extensive coverage of biopolymers, biomembranes, biological energy, and nervous systems. The text not only explores basic ideas, but also discusses recent developments, such as protein folding, DNA/RNA conformations, molecular motors, optical tweezers and the biological origins of consciousness and intelligence.

  12. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  13. Introduction to magnetochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Earnshaw, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Magnetochemistry provides an introduction to the more important aspects of magnetochemistry. The measurement of magnetic moment has been one of the most consistently useful to coordination chemists. For teaching purposes it provides a simple method of illustrating the ideas of electronic structure, and in research it can provide fundamental information about the bonding and stereochemistry of complexes. The book contains six chapters covering topics such as free atoms and ions, transition metal complexes, crystal field theory, second and third row transition metal complexes, a

  14. An Introduction to Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed.......These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed....

  15. An Introduction to Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2017-01-01

    These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed.......These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed....

  16. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  17. Introduction to quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade there has been an extemely rapid growth in the interest and development of quantum group theory.This book provides students and researchers with a practical introduction to the principal ideas of quantum groups theory and its applications to quantum mechanical and modern field theory problems. It begins with a review of, and introduction to, the mathematical aspects of quantum deformation of classical groups, Lie algebras and related objects (algebras of functions on spaces, differential and integral calculi). In the subsequent chapters the richness of mathematical structure

  18. Introduction to nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int

  19. Introduction to fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    Introduction to Fuzzy Systems provides students with a self-contained introduction that requires no preliminary knowledge of fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy control systems theory. Simplified and readily accessible, it encourages both classroom and self-directed learners to build a solid foundation in fuzzy systems. After introducing the subject, the authors move directly into presenting real-world applications of fuzzy logic, revealing its practical flavor. This practicality is then followed by basic fuzzy systems theory. The book also offers a tutorial on fuzzy control theory, based mainly on th

  20. Introduction to information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dietel, Harvey M

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte

  1. Game theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2013-01-01

    An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

  2. Acoustics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuttruff, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

  3. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  4. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two ...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project.......In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...

  5. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  6. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  7. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  8. Comparative assessment of air pollution tolerance index (APTI) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lalita

    Key words: Air pollution tolerance indices (APTI), biochemical parameters, Ficus bengalensis, roadside plants. INTRODUCTION. Air pollution has ... aspects of the quality of the urban environment and the cleanliness of life in a city .... chlorophyll content in variety of crop plant due to NO2,. SO2 and O3 exposure have also ...

  9. Principles of successful market introduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.; Jahn, K.

    1997-01-01

    Renewable energies are understood to comprise all forms of energy whose use and applications do not draw on the Earth's fossil energy reserves and only cause a minor degree of environmental pollution (where this is entailed in the conversion technique employed). That this energy option will continue to develop and find increasing use over the long term is an absolute certainty. The profitability problems of many renewable energy options call for political support in the form of funds for promoting their market introduction and diffusion. The paper addresses the question which promotion instruments are suitable for this purpose and what problems each of them entails [de

  10. Environmental science: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book is divided into 5 major parts: Humans and Nature--An Overview, Some Concepts of Ecology, Population, Resources, and Pollution. It discusses both sides of major environmental issues and offers possible solutions to the problems humans--intentionally or unwittingly--create.

  11. Introduction to quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Marco A.R.

    1994-01-01

    An elementary introduction to quantum groups is presented. The example of Universal Enveloping Algebra of deformed SU(2) is analysed in detail. It is also discussed systems made up of bosonic q-oscillators at finite temperature within the formalism of Thermo-Field Dynamics. (author). 39 refs

  12. Introduction to nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1975-01-01

    After a short introduction on stellar evolution, the physical foundations of nucleosynthesis are exposed: H, He, C and O fusion, Si burning and the equilibrium process. The effect of neutrinos in the last stages of stellar evolution and Supernova explosions are treated too. Afterwards the neutron capture process, fast and slow, are considerated concluding with cosmic nucleogenesis and nucleosynthesis in overmasive objects. (author)

  13. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  14. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project....

  15. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  16. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  17. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  18. Introduction to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Bert

    1990-01-01

    Highly regarded for its exceptional clarity, imaginative and instructive exercises, and fine writing style, this concise book offers an ideal introduction to the fundamentals of topology. It provides a simple, thorough survey of elementary topics, starting with set theory and advancing to metric and topological spaces, connectedness, and compactness. 1975 edition.

  19. Introduction to statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The three lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  20. Introduction to Statistics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The four lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  1. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  2. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  3. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  4. An introduction to radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nias, A.H.W.; Dimbleby, R.

    1990-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to quantitative radiobiology with emphasis on practical aspects of the subject. Among the topics considered are reparable damage, densely ionizing radiation, normal and malignant cells, and whole body regulation. These and other aspects of radiation biology are described in detail

  5. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  6. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented

  7. Introduction to HACCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  8. An Introduction to Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Robin

    2017-01-01

    These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed.

  9. Introduction to statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The three lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  10. Introduction to ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, C.A.; Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    An elementary introduction to ROC analysis illustrates how ROC curves depend on observer threshold levels and discusses the relation between ROC curve parameters and other measures of observer performance including accuracy sensitivity specificity true positive fraction, true negative fraction, false positive fraction and false negative fraction

  11. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  12. Labour and Passion. : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Joke Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this introduction to the themed section on ‘Labour and passion’, it is argued that work has bled into all areas of life. Political economists and media production researchers have shown how both paid and unpaid labour are singularly important and build upon one another. The set of

  13. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  14. Introduction to superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1988-01-01

    This tutorial introduces the development of, and current trends in, superstring theory, a significant and still controversial attempt to unify general relatively and quantum field theory. Stressing current areas of research activity, Introduction to Superstrings addresses topics including string field theory, multi-loops and Teichmuller spaces, conformal field theory, and four-dimensional superstrings

  15. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  16. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  17. Introduction to Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  18. Introduction to Film Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  19. Introduction to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitoun, R.

    2000-01-01

    This book proposes an introduction to particle physics that requires only a high-school level mathematical knowledge. Elementary particles (leptons, quarks, bosons) are presented according to a modern view taking into account of their symmetries and interactions. The author shows how physicists have elaborated the standard model and what are its implications in cosmology. (J.S.)

  20. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  1. Successful introduction of innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Jeeninga, H.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technology is sometimes troubled by discontinuity in incentive schemes. By making prior assessments of the necessary means, the real time span for the incentive scheme and by maintaining this scheme until the technology is mature enough to enter the market, the success of innovation trajectories can be increased significantly. [mk] [nl

  2. Successful introduction of innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Jeeninga, H.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technology sometimes proceeds sluggishly due to discontinuity in incentive schemes. Estimating in advance which means are required, what a realistic time span is for the incentive scheme and continuing this scheme until the technology is marketable can significantly increase the success of innovation trajectories. [mk] [nl

  3. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  4. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  5. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  6. Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.

  7. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  8. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  9. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  10. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  11. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  12. Guest Editor's Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article’s point of departure is the transformation processes that have taken place in theMiddle East since 2011. It presents perspectives in the academic discussions following the surprising events in a post-‘Arab Spring’ scenario. The Introduction emphasizes that it is the ambi......This introductory article’s point of departure is the transformation processes that have taken place in theMiddle East since 2011. It presents perspectives in the academic discussions following the surprising events in a post-‘Arab Spring’ scenario. The Introduction emphasizes...... that it is the ambition of this collection of articles to discuss and make sense of the significant differences in the developments,where newgeopolitical dynamics reshape theMENA-region’s post-‘Arab Spring’ reality....

  13. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  14. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  15. Introduction to group theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canals B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is a concise mathematical introduction into the algebra of groups. It is build up in the way that definitions are followed by propositions and proofs. The concepts and the terminology introduced here will serve as a basis for the following chapters that deal with group theory in the stricter sense and its application to problems in physics. The mathematical prerequisites are at the bachelor level.1

  16. Introduction to superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS 5 x S5. (author)

  17. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  18. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  19. Introduction to minimax

    CERN Document Server

    Dem'yanov, V F; Louvish, D

    2014-01-01

    This user-friendly text offers a thorough introduction to the part of optimization theory that lies between approximation theory and mathematical programming, both linear and nonlinear. Written by two distinguished mathematicians, the expert treatment covers the essentials, incorporating important background materials, examples, and extensive notes.Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematical programming, the text explores best approximation by algebraic polynomials in both discrete and continuous cases; the discrete problem, with and without constraints; the gene

  20. Introduction to Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Feynman Diagrams provides Feynman diagram techniques and methods for calculating quantities measured experimentally. The book discusses topics Feynman diagrams intended for experimental physicists. Topics presented include methods for calculating the matrix elements (by perturbation theory) and the basic rules for constructing Feynman diagrams; techniques for calculating cross sections and polarizations; processes in which both leptons and hadrons take part; and the electromagnetic and weak form factors of nucleons. Experimental physicists and graduate students of physics will

  1. Combinatorics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Faticoni, Theodore G

    2014-01-01

    Bridges combinatorics and probability and uniquely includes detailed formulas and proofs to promote mathematical thinking Combinatorics: An Introduction introduces readers to counting combinatorics, offers examples that feature unique approaches and ideas, and presents case-by-case methods for solving problems. Detailing how combinatorial problems arise in many areas of pure mathematics, most notably in algebra, probability theory, topology, and geometry, this book provides discussion on logic and paradoxes; sets and set notations; power sets and their cardinality; Venn diagrams; the multip

  2. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  3. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  4. Introduction to nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers an introduction to the current status of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials that have potential applications in theranostics. Above all, it highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of metallic (e.g. Au, Ag), semiconducting quantum dots (e.g. CdSe, CdTe), magnetic (e.g. Fe3O4, FePt, Co), and multifunctional (combination of two or three) nanoparticles. .

  5. Introduction to biomechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Biomechatronics provides fundamental knowledge of mechanical and electronic (mechatronic) components and systems and their interaction with human biology to assist or replace limbs, senses, and even organs damaged by trauma, birth defects, or disease. The first half of the book provides the engineering background to understand all the components of a biomechatronic system: the human subject, stimulus or actuation, transducers and sensors, signal conditioning elements, recording and display, and feedback elements.

  6. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  7. Introduction to Accelerators Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variola, A.

    2007-01-01

    This short course aims at giving to high energy physics students a preliminary introduction to accelerators basics. The arguments and the style were selected in this perspective. Consequently, topics such as the definition of beam parameters and luminosity were preferred to much more technical aspects. The calculation details were neglected to allow more important highlights on concepts and definitions. Some examples and exercises were suggested to summarize the different topics of the lessons

  8. Introduction to parallel programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brawer, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming. The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race

  9. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  10. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  11. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  12. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  13. Accounting Applications---Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Ronen

    1980-01-01

    Introduction to special issue on accounting applications. By publishing these papers together in one issue of Management Science we wish to accomplish the dual purpose of exposing management scientists to the application of their discipline to important accounting problems and of allowing management scientists and accountants to interact in areas of research and problem-solving, thus stimulating the interest of readers who are concerned with the problems of accounting.

  14. Introduction: Righting Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Sara R.

    2017-01-01

    This is the introduction to a special issue on Righting Feminism. In recent years, we have witnessed the multifarious ways in which feminism as an emancipatory project dedicated to women's liberation has increasingly “converged” with non-emancipatory/racist, conservative, and neo-liberal economic and political agendas. Today, feminist themes are not only being "mainstreamed" but are also increasingly being mobilized to bolster existing power hierarchies as well as neo-liberal and right-wing x...

  15. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  16. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  17. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  18. Introduction to QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    These lectures were originally given at TASI and are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), focusing on collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into five main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) fixed-order pertu...

  19. Introduction to Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1978-06-01

    This manual presents an overview of the Q data-acquisition system. Its purposes are to assist an experimenter in determining whether the system is suited to his needs and to provide an introduction to the more detailed manuals. This system employs a powerful technique for dealing with multiprocessor systems by generating code and communication protocol for two processors from a single source program in a high-level language. Some details of experimental event buffering and distribution are discussed

  20. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  1. Introduction to microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Franssila, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Microfabrication is the key technology behind integrated circuits, microsensors, photonic crystals, ink jet printers, solar cells and flat panel displays. Microsystems can be complex, but the basic microstructures and processes of microfabrication are fairly simple. Introduction to Microfabrication shows how the common microfabrication concepts can be applied over and over again to create devices with a wide variety of structures and functions.Featuring:* A comprehensive presentation of basic fabrication processes* An emphasis on materials and microstructures, rather than devic

  2. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  3. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  4. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  5. Introduction to environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalić, Anita; Zelić, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays we can easily say that environmental engineering is truly an interdisciplinary science. Combining biology, ecology, geology, geography, mathematics, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, economy, etc. environmental engineering strives to use environmental understanding and advancements in technology to serve mankind by decreasing production of environmental hazards and the effects of those hazards already present in the soil, water, and air. Major activities of environmental engineer involve water supply, waste water and solid management, air and noise pollution control, environmental sustainability, environmental impact assessment, climate changes, etc. And all this with only one main goal - to prevent or reduce undesirable impacts of human activities on the environment. To ensure we all have tomorrow.

  6. Introduction to the ROOT System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++

  7. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  8. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Human Drug Metabolism, An Introduction, Second Edition provides an accessible introduction to the subject and will be particularly invaluable to those who already have some understanding of the life sciences...

  9. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff; Hitz, C Breck; John Wiley & Sons

    2001-01-01

    Electrical Engineering Introduction to Laser Technology , Third Edition. Would you like to know how a laser works, and how it can be modified for your own specific tasks? This intuitive third edition-previously published as Understanding Laser Technology , First and Second Editions-introduces engineers, scientists, technicians, and novices alike to the world of modern lasers, without delving into the mathematical details of quantum electronics. It is the only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasers. A unique combinatio.

  10. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  11. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2003-01-01

    The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,

  12. Introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This text forms a bridge between courses in calculus and real analysis. It focuses on the construction of mathematical proofs as well as their final content. Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students of real analysis, it also provides a vital reference book for advanced courses in mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with an introduction to basic logical structures and techniques of proof, including discussions of the cardinality concept and the algebraic and order structures of the real and rational number systems. Part Two presents in-depth examinations of the compl

  13. Fourier analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2003-01-01

    This first volume, a three-part introduction to the subject, is intended for students with a beginning knowledge of mathematical analysis who are motivated to discover the ideas that shape Fourier analysis. It begins with the simple conviction that Fourier arrived at in the early nineteenth century when studying problems in the physical sciences--that an arbitrary function can be written as an infinite sum of the most basic trigonometric functions.The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as th

  14. Introduction to dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y

    1981-01-01

    Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark

  15. Introduction to modern cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition:""This book is a comprehensive, rigorous introduction to what the authors name 'modern' cryptography. … a novel approach to how cryptography is taught, replacing the older, construction-based approach. … The concepts are clearly stated, both in an intuitive fashion and formally. … I would heartily recommend this book to anyone who is interested in cryptography. … The exercises are challenging and interesting, and can benefit readers of all academic levels.""-IACR Book Reviews, January 2010""Over the past 30 years, cryptography has been transformed from a mysterious

  16. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  17. An introduction to optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Edwin K P

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "". . . guides and leads the reader through the learning path . . . [e]xamples are stated very clearly and the results are presented with attention to detail.""  -MAA Reviews  Fully updated to reflect new developments in the field, the Fourth Edition of Introduction to Optimization fills the need for accessible treatment of optimization theory and methods with an emphasis on engineering design. Basic definitions and notations are provided in addition to the related fundamental background for linear algebra, geometry, and calculus.  This new

  18. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  19. Cartesian tensors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, G

    2004-01-01

    This undergraduate text provides an introduction to the theory of Cartesian tensors, defining tensors as multilinear functions of direction, and simplifying many theorems in a manner that lends unity to the subject. The author notes the importance of the analysis of the structure of tensors in terms of spectral sets of projection operators as part of the very substance of quantum theory. He therefore provides an elementary discussion of the subject, in addition to a view of isotropic tensors and spinor analysis within the confines of Euclidean space. The text concludes with an examination of t

  20. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  1. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, A C

    1978-01-01

    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  2. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  3. Introduction to Econophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  4. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  5. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  6. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th

  7. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    2002-01-01

    The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.

  8. Introduction to cardinal arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Holz, M; Weitz, E

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction into modern cardinal arithmetic in the frame of the axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory together with the axiom of choice (ZFC). A first part describes the classical theory developed by Bernstein, Cantor, Hausdorff, König and Tarski between 1870 and 1930. Next, the development in the 1970s led by Galvin, Hajnal and Silver is characterized. The third part presents the fundamental investigations in pcf theory which have been worked out by Shelah to answer the questions left open in the 1970s.Reviews:'The authors aim their text at beginners in set theory. They start

  9. Introduction to EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John

    1997-01-01

    This is the clear guide for non-specialists to electromagnetic compatability (EMC), the effects of electromagnetic radiation and the European EMC Directive which is now in force. This book helps by explaining the basic principles of EMC, how it may be controlled in practice through filtering, shielding, appropriate printed circuit board design, and other means. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surge protection are discussed. The growing concern about the effects of electromagnetic waves and fields on health are examined in detail.This introduction provides beginners, technical and

  10. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Introduction to combinatorial designs

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, WD

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the e

  12. Statistics a biomedical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Byron Wm

    2009-01-01

    CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1 CHAPTER 2: Elementary Rules of Probability 13 CHAPTER 3: Populations, Samples, and the Distribution of the Sample Mean 37 1. Populations and Distributions 38 2. Sampling from Finite Populations 64 3. The Distribution of the Sample Mean 72 CHAPTER 4: Analysis of Matched Pairs Using Sample Means 85 1. A Confidence Interval for the Treatment Effect 86 2. A Hypothesis Test for the Treatment Effect 96 3. Determining the Sample Size 102 CHAPTER 5: Analysis of the Two-Sample Location Problem Using Sample Means 109 1. A Confidence Interval for the Diffe

  13. Game Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental introduction to modern game theory from a mathematical viewpoint. Game theory arises in almost every fact of human and inhuman interaction since oftentimes during these communications objectives are opposed or cooperation is viewed as an option. From economics and finance to biology and computer science, researchers and practitioners are often put in complex decision-making scenarios, whether they are interacting with each other or working with evolving technology and artificial intelligence. Acknowledging the role of mathematics in making logical and advantageous decisions, Game

  14. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasersAlthough lasers are becoming increasingly important in our high-tech environment, many of the technicians and engineers who install, operate, and maintain them have had little, if any, formal training in the field of electro-optics. This can result in less efficient usage of these important tools. Introduction to Laser Technology, Fourth Edition provides readers with a good understanding of what a laser is and what it can and cannot do. The book explains what types of las.

  15. Introduction to differentiable manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Louis

    2009-01-01

    The first book to treat manifold theory at an introductory level, this text surveys basic concepts in the modern approach to differential geometry. The first six chapters define and illustrate differentiable manifolds, and the final four chapters investigate the roles of differential structures in a variety of situations.Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary diff

  16. Introduction: Mirrors of Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge; Willerslev, Rane

    How is death, time, and materiality interconnected? How to approach an understanding of the world of the dead? In this introduction, we seek to understand how the experience of material decay, of the death of those around us, makes us aware of the passing of time. Through the literary lens of Neil...... Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, we explore how the world of the dead and the world of the living can intersect; how time and materiality shifts and changes depending on who experiences it. These revelations, based on fiction, provide a mirror through which the reader can experience the varied chapters...

  17. Introduction to functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddeev, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)

  18. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures

  19. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  20. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  1. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  2. Introduction to data technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Providing key information on how to work with research data, Introduction to Data Technologies presents ideas and techniques for performing critical, behind-the-scenes tasks that take up so much time and effort yet typically receive little attention in formal education. With a focus on computational tools, the book shows readers how to improve their awareness of what tasks can be achieved and describes the correct approach to perform these tasks. Practical examples demonstrate the most important pointsThe author first discusses how to write computer code using HTML as a concrete example. He th

  3. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  4. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  5. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  6. Light Pollution: The Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    al.), an overview of the work on radio frequency protection of sites (Cohen et al.) and the excellent introduction to the topic from the Chilean point of view (Daud). Related topics in the book are light pollution education, aircraft contrails, space advertising (with an added document provided by the relevant UN commission), and an experiment on involving the population of an entire country in measuring sky brightness, by using the internet and the media. The text is aimed at professionals from a wide range of disciplines related to lighting and its effects on the night-time environment in the broadest sense of the word. Lay persons interested in this emerging multi-disciplinary field can also find much of interest in this book. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1174-1

  7. Introduction to bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field mainly involving molecular biology and genetics, computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Data intensive, large-scale biological problems are addressed from a computational point of view. The most common problems are modeling biological processes at the molecular level and making inferences from collected data. A bioinformatics solution usually involves the following steps: Collect statistics from biological data. Build a computational model. Solve a computational modeling problem. Test and evaluate a computational algorithm. This chapter gives a brief introduction to bioinformatics by first providing an introduction to biological terminology and then discussing some classical bioinformatics problems organized by the types of data sources. Sequence analysis is the analysis of DNA and protein sequences for clues regarding function and includes subproblems such as identification of homologs, multiple sequence alignment, searching sequence patterns, and evolutionary analyses. Protein structures are three-dimensional data and the associated problems are structure prediction (secondary and tertiary), analysis of protein structures for clues regarding function, and structural alignment. Gene expression data is usually represented as matrices and analysis of microarray data mostly involves statistics analysis, classification, and clustering approaches. Biological networks such as gene regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, and protein-protein interaction networks are usually modeled as graphs and graph theoretic approaches are used to solve associated problems such as construction and analysis of large-scale networks.

  8. Introduction to nonlinear acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the basic principles of fluid mechanics needed for development of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic concepts will be given. The fundamental equations of nonlinear ultrasonics will be derived and their physical properties explained. It will be shown how an originally monochromatic finite-amplitude ultrasonic wave, due to nonlinear effects, will distort during its propagation in time and space to form higher harmonics to its fundamental frequency. The concepts of shock formation will be presented. The material nonlinearity, described by the nonlinearity parameter B/A of the material, and the convective nonlinearity, described by the ultrasonic Mach Number, will be explained. Two procedures for determination of B/A will briefly be described and some B/A-values characterizing biological materials will be presented. Shock formation, described by use of the Goldberg Number,and Ultrasonic Saturation will be discussed.. An introduction to focused ultrasonic fields will be given and it will be shown how the ultrasonic intensity will vary axially and laterally in and near the focal region and how the field parameters of interest to biomedical applications may be described by use of the KZK-Model. Finally, an introduction will be given to the parametric acoustic array formed by mixing and interaction of two monochromatic, finite-amplitude ultrasonic waves in a liquid and the potentials of this mixing process in biomedical ultrasound will briefly be mentioned.

  9. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  10. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  11. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  12. Source, flux and balance of atmospheric deposition of metals at Ile-de-France; Source, flux et bilan des retombees atmospheriques de metaux en Ile de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S

    2004-07-15

    The urban atmosphere is submitted to large inputs of anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries, etc.) and mobile (road traffic) sources. These small particles may be transported over long distances and affect ecosystems. Significant dry and wet atmospheric deposition also occurs locally and contributes to the contamination of urban runoff. The aim of this study is to compare heavy metal and hydrocarbon atmospheric deposition fluxes to other input ways on agricultural and urban areas to assess their importance. Moreover, a source investigation has been done to identify the main origins of these pollutants. Before the quantification of pollutant fluxes, a comparison of several sampling procedures was performed. As a result, the sampling of total atmospheric deposition is not affected by the funnel material (Teflon and polyethylene) or by the sampling duration (7 and 28 days). However, the rinsing step of the funnel walls showed a higher relative importance during short sampling periods. The relative amount contained in these solutions reached 24 to 40 % of the total flux during weekly sampling periods and 8 to 18 % during monthly sampling periods, whatever the element considered. The temporal evolution of atmospheric deposition showed no seasonal influence on flux variations during the 2001-2002 period. Considering an 8-year period behaviour, between 1994 and 2002, a significant decrease of the deposition fluxes of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn occurred at the Creteil site which is placed in an industrialized area of the Paris suburb. The decreasing factor reached 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 for these elements respectively. At the Ile-de-France scale, the deposition flux levels on urban and semi-urban areas were of the same order of magnitude (?20 tonnes per year for Ba, Cu, Pb and Sr). Since semi-urban surface area is four times higher than urban ones, the important influence of anthropogenic activities on atmospheric deposition of urban areas is

  13. Introduction to Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Edward S.; Grossman, Peter Z.

    1999-01-01

    Energy issues such as pollution, resource depletion, global warming, nuclear power and waste are problems demanding timely solutions. This book provides a critical examination of the resources, market forces, and social impacts of modern energy production. The book addresses the dilemmas that have arisen due to society's crucial dependence on energy, particularly fossil fuels, and explores the available alternative energy producing technologies. The second edition has increased emphasis on those issues at the forefront of the current energy debate: energy sustainability, climate change, and the radical restructuring of the power industry due to deregulation. Assuming no prior technical expertise and avoiding complex mathematical formulation. The second edition, like the first, will be especially useful as a textbook for undergraduate programs in Science, Technology and Society (STS), and as a supplementary text in a variety of courses that touch on energy studies, including environmental and technology policy, environmental, mineral and business law, energy and resource economics.

  14. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  15. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  16. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  17. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  18. Introduction and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The author introduces a collection of papers by US scientists concerned with the need for a regime to control global warming. The papers were prepared in the interest of stimulating the widest possible consideration of the choices that may be faced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June of 1992. Several papers present the argument that a climate regime will take the form of a general framework convention followed by implementing protocols, following the model of the Vienna convention and its subsequent Montreal protocol. Subsequent papers shift the focus from the form of specific agreements to the continuing process of which treaties are a part. The author follows this introduction with her own viewpoint of strategies for a regime to control greenhouse warming

  19. Introduction to dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This concise textbook for students preferably of a postgraduate level, but also for engineers in practice, contains the basic kinematical and kinetic structures of dynamics together with carefully selected applications. The book is a condensed introduction to the fundamental laws of kinematics and kinetics, on the most important principles of mechanics and presents the equations of motion in the form of Lagrange and Newton-Euler. Selected problems of linear and nonlinear dynamics are treated, as well as problems of vibration formation. The presented selection of topics gives a useful basis for stepping into more advanced problems of dynamics. The contents of this book represent the result of a regularly revised course, which has been and still is given for masters students at the Technische Universität München. .

  20. Introduction to computer ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is becoming one of the most often used but also misinter­preted words. It is often taken as an additional, corrective parameter to the policies and strategies that has to be adopted in the area of political works, environment, business, and medicine. Computer ethics thus makes the latest ethical discipline in the scientific sky. But its roots, as it was the case with environmental ethics, ranging decades; only the speech and the use of the same, as well as discussions on the postulates of computer ethics, are the results of rapid IT development in the last decade or two. In this paper, according to the title, will be shown introduction to computer ethics-its basis, the most important representatives, as well as the most important succession.

  1. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  2. An introduction to superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Etheridge, Alison M

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the study of superprocesses has expanded into a major industry and can now be regarded as a central theme in modern probability theory. This book is intended as a rapid introduction to the subject, geared toward graduate students and researchers in stochastic analysis. A variety of different approaches to the superprocesses emerged over the last ten years. Yet no one approach superseded any others. In this book, readers are exposed to a number of different ways of thinking about the processes, and each is used to motivate some key results. The emphasis is on why results are true rather than on rigorous proof. Specific results are given, including extensive references to current literature for their general form.

  3. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...

  4. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  5. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of thermoelectric energy conversion. It covers both theory and practice. The book is timely as it refers to the many improvements that have come about in the last few years through the use of nanostructures. The concept of semiconductor thermoelements led to major advances during the second half of the twentieth century, making Peltier refrigeration a widely used technique. The latest materials herald thermoelectric generation as the preferred technique for exploiting low-grade heat. The book shows how progress has been made by increasing the thermal resistivity of the lattice until it is almost as large as it is for glass. It points the way towards the attainment of similar improvements in the electronic parameters. It does not neglect practical considerations, such as the desirability of making thermocouples from inexpensive and environmentally acceptable materials. The second edition was extended to also include recent advances in thermoelectric ener...

  6. Introduction to biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Introduction to morphogenetic computing

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano; Xu, Guanglin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to morphogenetic computing, showing that its use makes global and local relations, defects in crystal non-Euclidean geometry databases with source and sink, genetic algorithms, and neural networks more stable and efficient. It also presents applications to database, language, nanotechnology with defects, biological genetic structure, electrical circuit, and big data structure. In Turing machines, input and output states form a system – when the system is in one state, the input is transformed into output. This computation is always deterministic and without any possible contradiction or defects. In natural computation there are defects and contradictions that have to be solved to give a coherent and effective computation. The new computation generates the morphology of the system that assumes different forms in time. Genetic process is the prototype of the morphogenetic computing. At the Boolean logic truth value, we substitute a set of truth (active sets) values with...

  8. Introduction to bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, E.

    2003-01-01

    This is a pedagogical introduction to the general technique of bosonization of one-dimensional systems starting from scratch and assuming very little besides basic quantum mechanics and second quantization. The formalism is developed in a self-contained fashion and applied to the spinless and spin-1/2 Luttinger models, working out both single and two particle correlation functions. The implications of these results for the specific cases of the (anisotropic) Heisenberg and the Hubbard models are discussed. Although everything in these notes can be found in the published literature, detailed and explicit calculations of most of the results are given, which may prove useful to beginning graduate students or researchers in this area. (author)

  9. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  10. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  11. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John D; Blanchard, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of John Enderle, Susan Blanchard and Joe Bronzino, leaders in the field have contributed chapters on the most relevant subjects for biomedical engineering students. These chapters coincide with courses offered in all biomedical engineering programs so that it can be used at different levels for a variety of courses of this evolving field. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the biomedical field. Also contained within are the fundamental principles underlying biomedical engineering design, analysis, and modeling procedures. The numerous examples, drill problems and exercises are used to reinforce concepts and develop problem-solving skills making this book an invaluable tool for all biomedical students and engineers. New to this edition: Computational Biology, Medical Imaging, Genomics and Bioinformatics. * 60% update from first edition to reflect the developing field of biomedical engineering * New chapters o...

  12. I-Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this report, each sector starts with an introduction presenting the state of each sector in Lebanon, followed by the methodology adopted in order to compute emissions of greenhouse gases by sources and removals by sinks, in accordance with IPCC guidelines, complemented by experts' assumptions in estimating greenhouse gases and finally accompanied by the IPCC sectoral tables which present the result obtained in each sector. The report ends with an 'Appendices' chapter which includes all worksheets, showing the computations made resulting in emitted or removed greenhouse gas quantities. This executive summary described in the IPCC summary presents the main results obtained in each sector. In the last paragraph, the global warming potential of the greenhouse gases emitted in Lebanon in 1994 is provided for three calculated time horizons, based on the '1995 IPCC technical summary of working group I' report. (au)

  13. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  14. Photonics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Georg A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...

  15. Introduction to transonic aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics.  Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter.  The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...

  16. Introduction to representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a "holistic" introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic k...

  17. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  18. Introduction to supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tanii, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical introduction to supergravity, a gravitational field theory that includes supersymmetry (symmetry between bosons and fermions) and is a generalization of Einstein's general relativity. Supergravity provides a low-energy effective theory of superstring theory, which has attracted much attention as a candidate for the unified theory of fundamental particles, and it is a useful tool for studying non-perturbative properties of superstring theory such as D-branes and string duality. This work considers classical supergravities in four and higher spacetime dimensions with their applications to superstring theory in mind. More concretely, it discusses classical Lagrangians (or field equations) and symmetry properties of supergravities. Besides local symmetries, supergravities often have global non-compact symmetries, which play a crucial role in their applications to superstring theory. One of the main features of this book is its detailed discussion of these non-compact symmetries. The aim...

  19. History and General Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In the domain of analytical mass spectrometry (MS), FT-ICR's place is established as combining particular advantages of extraordinary mass resolution and accuracy, a wide array of sample-ionization techniques, and a uniquely wide range of methods for structure characterization of the primary sample ions. Costs are already attractive compared with other high-performance alternatives, and as both magnets and computers (which comprise much of the expense of FT-ICR hardware) become cheaper and more powerful, the performance/cost ratio for the technique will continue to improve. This paper will provide an introduction to those who have little previous knowledge of the technique; provide an overview of the technique's outstanding areas of scientific and analytical application; and provide some historical perspective on how we reached the present state of the art

  20. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes a thorough introduction for a varied audience. The reader will master London theory and the Pippard equations, and go on to understand type I and type II superconductors (their thermodynamics, magnetic properties, vortex dynamics, current transport…), Cooper pairs and the results of BCS theory. By studying coherence and flux quantization he or she will be lead to the Josephson effect which, with the SQUID, is a good example of the applications. The reader can make up for any gaps in his knowledge with the use of the appendices, follow the logic behind each model, and assimilate completely the underlying concepts. Approximately 250 illustrations help in developing a thorough understanding. This volume is aimed towards masters and doctoral students, as well as advanced undergraduates, teachers and researchers at all levels coming from a broad range of subjects (chemistry, physics, mechanical and electrical engineering, materials science…). Engineers working in industry will have a useful ...

  1. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  2. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Thermoelectricity is the latest work by Professor Julian Goldsmid drawing on his 55 years experience in the field. The theory of the thermoelectric and related phenomena is presented in sufficient detail to enable researchers to understand their observations and develop improved thermoelectric materials. The methods for the selection of materials and their improvement are discussed. Thermoelectric materials for use in refrigeration and electrical generation are reviewed. Experimental techniques for the measurement of properties and for the production of thermoelements are described. Special emphasis is placed on nanotechnology which promises to yield great improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Chapters are also devoted to transverse thermoelectric effects and thermionic energy conversion, both techniques offering the promise of important applications in the future.

  3. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  4. Introduction to sympersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, O.A. de.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, supersymmetry is motivated via the Coleman-Mandula Theorem. Next, we build SUSY' algebra and representations (particularly, field representation). We then introduce the conceots of superspace and superfield, as well as supermultiplets and their invariants. Our next step is to examine simple models, in order to study auxiliary fields and the off-shell representations, to calculate the super-current and to show with super-graphs the loops cancelation (Wess-Zumino) and SUSY breaking (O'Raifeartaigh). Next, we obtain the supersymetric extension of the QED Lagrangean in to different ways, and them we are able to investigate symmetry breaking in supersymmetric gauge theories, and the appearance of Goldstone fermions. Finally, we study n-extended SUSY and the role of central charges, and examine SUSY in d > 4 dimensions and dimensional reduction. We end up with an introduction to Lie groups. (author) [pt

  5. Introduction to variance estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Kirk M

    2007-01-01

    We live in the information age. Statistical surveys are used every day to determine or evaluate public policy and to make important business decisions. Correct methods for computing the precision of the survey data and for making inferences to the target population are absolutely essential to sound decision making. Now in its second edition, Introduction to Variance Estimation has for more than twenty years provided the definitive account of the theory and methods for correct precision calculations and inference, including examples of modern, complex surveys in which the methods have been used successfully. The book provides instruction on the methods that are vital to data-driven decision making in business, government, and academe. It will appeal to survey statisticians and other scientists engaged in the planning and conduct of survey research, and to those analyzing survey data and charged with extracting compelling information from such data. It will appeal to graduate students and university faculty who...

  6. Introduction to special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is intended as a text for an introductory course on special relativity; it assumes no prior knowledge of relativity. It is intended for the upper undergraduate level and upwards. The first three chapters take a three-dimensional viewpoint for a simple introduction to topics such as the relativity of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, the twin paradox and the appearance of moving objects. For the remaining chapters the strongest possible use is made of four-dimensional techniques. Chapter four deals with space-time, chapters five and six with mechanics and electromagnetism. In these a purely synthetic four-tensor approach is adopted. Pure tensor theory is covered in an appendix. The last chapter is on the mechanics of continua. (U.K.)

  7. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  8. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  9. Modelling the long-range transport. Atmospheric model from the Oslo EMEP-W center; Modelisation du transfert a longue distance modele atmospherique du centre Emep-W- a Oslo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, S. [Institut Meteorolique de Finlande Geographical Research Vuorikatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) concerning transfrontier air pollution in Europe, a model has been developed which gives, based on pollution emission and meteorological data, monthly and annual values for the atmospheric content of ten major pollutants, the deposited dry and wet compounds, and the source allocations. Physical principles of the model and its validation are described

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegl, B.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  12. Environmental pollution and world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Ravi; Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  13. Environmental pollution and world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Ravi [Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0496 (United States); Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph [Department of Economics and Finance, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2240 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  14. An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nappo, Carmen J

    2012-01-01

    Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...

  15. Introduction: Learning about Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue "Learning about Risk" draws on the launch conference of the ESRC "Social Contexts and Responses to Risk" network (SCARR held at 28th – 29th January 2005 in Canterbury. The SCARR network is an interdisciplinary network on risk which examines perceptions of and responses to risk in a range of areas, including sexual behaviour and partnering choices, the mass media, faith and ethnicity, pensions and financial planning, industrial pollution, crime, transport, energy policy and environmental hazards. The network's launch conference reflected the interdisciplinary character of risk research including a range of different methods and approaches to risk, directed at diverse objects of interest. The idea of the special issue is to link together this diversity and interdisciplinarity in risk research, and to encourage perspectives that look beyond the boundaries of single disciplines and methodological approaches. The papers in this publication demonstrate the value of insights from different disciplinary backgrounds in this area and point to the opportunities and challenges in the work that remains to be done in drawing these several perspectives more closely together. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601246

  16. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  17. Statistical theory a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preamble Likelihood Sufficiency Minimal sufficiency Completeness Exponential family of distributionsPoint Estimation Introduction Maximum likelihood estimation Method of moments Method of least squares Goodness-of-estimation. Mean squared error. Unbiased estimationConfidence Intervals, Bounds, and Regions Introduction Quoting the estimation error Confidence intervalsConfidence bounds Confidence regionsHypothesis Testing Introduction Simple hypothesesComposite hypothesesHypothesis testing and confidence intervals Sequential testingAsymptotic Analysis Introduction Convergence and consistency in MSE Convergence and consistency in probability Convergence in distribution The central limit theorem Asymptotically normal consistency Asymptotic confidence intervals Asymptotic normality of the MLE Multiparameter case Asymptotic distribution of the GLRT. Wilks' theorem.Bayesian Inference Introduction Choice of priors Point estimation Interval estimation. Credible sets. Hypothesis testingElements of Statisti...

  18. Introduction: The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Lars; Bandak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It is the contention of this introduction that examples are important prisms through which both reality and anthropological analysis are thought and, equally importantly, reconfigured. The aim of the introduction is to redress the theoretical disregard for exemplification by exploring the persuas....... The introduction further proposes that the example serves to confuse ontological divides, such as the one between theory and ethnography, and also draws attention to the fact that theory is as much suggestive as descriptive....

  19. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  20. Introduction to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1986-01-01

    These lectures are dedicated to the study of the recent progress and implications of anomalies in quantum field theory. In this introduction the author recapitulates some of the highlights in the history of the subject. The outline of these lectures is as follows: Section II contains a quick review of spinors in Euclidean and Minkowski space, some other group theory results relevant for the computation of anomalies in various dimensions, and an exposition of the index theorem. Section III starts the analysis of fermion determinants and chiral effective actions by deriving the non-Abelian anomaly from index theory. Using the results of Section II, the anomaly cancellation recently discovered by Green and Schwarz will be presented in Section IV as well as the connection of these results of Section III with the descent equations and the Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangians. Section V contains the generalization of anomalies to σ-models and some of its application in string theory. Section VI will deal with the anomalies from the Hamiltonian point of view. An exact formula for the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in the presence of arbitrary external gauge and gravitational fields will be derived in Section VII, and used in Section VIII for the study of global anomalies. 85 references

  1. Supraconductivité introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    La supraconductivité fait rêver, surtout depuis la découverte de son existence à des températures relativement accessibles. Ses applications sont déjà notables (Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique, futur ITER, NEUROSPIN, SQUID...) et des projets plus futuristes se développent (transport de courant, train en lévitation, moteurs). Le présent ouvrage propose une introduction solide, pour un public assez large. Le lecteur pourra s'initier à la théorie de London et aux équations de Pippard, puis étudier les supraconducteurs de type I et de type II (thermodynamique, magnétisme, dynamique de vortex, transport de courant...), les paires de Cooper et les résultats de la théorie BCS. L'étude de la cohérence et de la quantification du flux conduit à l'effet Josephson qui, avec le SQUID. est un bon exemple d'application. Le lecteur pourra combler certaines de ses lacunes grâce aux compléments, suivre le cheminement d'un modèle et s'approprier les concepts. Environ 250 illustrations en facilitent la...

  2. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-09-01

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  3. Chief Editors’ Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Carrington

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been a great year for the journal:  our most successful ever. This edition marks three years of publication of the International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy. In 2015 the journal was selected for inclusion into Scopus and Web of Science data bases. This is a terrific success story and testimony to the high quality of the articles, the editorship, the reviewing and the international readership of the journal. We are grateful as ever to our distinguished International Editorial Board and all our reviewers who are anonymous to readers and authors due to the norms of blind peer reviewing. We also thank the out-going foundational co-editor-in-chief Reece Walters for his efforts in making this journal the success it is. The journal has now surpassed 150,000 abstract views and 100,000 full PDF downloads. This journal is one of only a few in the world of criminology to support fully on-line free-to-download articles, and to promote creative commons copyright: that is, authors’ rights to reproduce their own material. We support the democratisation of knowledge and are delighted to be leaders in high quality international journal publishing.Download the PDF file here for the Chief Editors’ introduction to this issue and be motivated by the eclectic and impressive range of topics offered by our contributors to read further.

  4. Introduction to supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.U.

    1987-09-01

    The Dirac equation as a relativistic quantum mechanical equation describing spin-half particles in higher-dimensional space-time is discussed. Clifford algebra in d-dimensional space-time is considered. Also discussed are the discrete symmetries of the Dirac equation, namely: charge conjunction, time reversal and parity or reflection symmetry. The Majorana and Weyl conditions which require the particle wavefunctions to be invariant under particle ↔ antiparticle exchange and left-handed particle ↔ right-handed antiparticle exchange respectively, are investigated. The Poincare group, consisting of the Lorentz group of space rotations, Lorentz boosts and the group of space-time translations, is examined, along with its irreducible representations. The concept of supersymmetry arises out of the generalisation of Lie algebras. An introduction to supersymmetry, as well as the immediate consequences of supersymmetry algebra, is given. Finally, the superspace-superfield approach is introduced. Superspace is a mathematical object which allows a simplification of the formulation of supersymmetry. The advantage of this formulation is that now supersymmetry becomes manifest: it arises naturally just like the Poincare symmetry arises naturally in four-dimensional Minkowski space. 46 refs., 9 figs., 23 tabs

  5. Chemical thermodynamics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keszei, Ernoe [Budapest Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Eminently suitable as a required textbook comprising complete material for or an undergraduate chemistry major course in chemical thermodynamics. Clearly explains details of formal derivations that students can easily follow and so master applied mathematical operations. Offers problems and solutions at the end of each chapter for self-test and self- or group study. This course-derived undergraduate textbook provides a concise explanation of the key concepts and calculations of chemical thermodynamics. Instead of the usual 'classical' introduction, this text adopts a straightforward postulatory approach that introduces thermodynamic potentials such as entropy and energy more directly and transparently. Structured around several features to assist students' understanding, Chemical Thermodynamics: - Develops applications and methods for the ready treatment of equilibria on a sound quantitative basis. - Requires minimal background in calculus to understand the text and presents formal derivations to the student in a detailed but understandable way. - Offers end-of-chapter problems (and answers) for self-testing and review and reinforcement, of use for self- or group study. This book is suitable as essential reading for courses in a bachelor and master chemistry program and is also valuable as a reference or textbook for students of physics, biochemistry and materials science.

  6. Introduction to safety theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyna, A.

    1982-01-01

    After a general introduction to safety theory, safety characteristics are defined and quantified. This is followed by a calculation of the safety characteristics of simple, safety-relevant systems in general and in consideration of common-mode errors. The qualitative and quantitative role of human errors is discussed for various models, and a simple man-machine model is developed for investigation of common-mode errors and human error. The main part of the paper deals with safety analysis in complex systems. After a general review, the common inductive and deductive methods of analysis are presented and commented on and their fields of application discussed. Analytical and simulation codes are presented as methods of evaluation for big, complex event trees - i.e. ''hazard trees in the sense of safety engineering (as a subset of safety relevance). After a basic classification and mathematical formulation of Markovian processes, the author shows that these may be used successfully for calculation of safety characteristics if transition rates are constant and if the number of system states is limited. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Introduction to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the first topic in this book, more on introduction to nondestructive testing, also a little bit on another technique such as magnetic testing, liquid penetrated, ultrasonic testing and others. This book mentions more on radiographic testing and for that, more details on this topic such as history, definition and devices that use in this technique. This radiography testing firstly started with the discovering of x-ray by Wilhelm Roentgen (1895). So, on 1913, David Coolidge successfully invented and developed x-ray tube that could made x-ray more intensified and produced highly penetration forces. Radiography in Malaysia firstly started two years after the discovery made by Wilhelm Roentgen when one hospital here used the x-ray machine for medical purposes. Besides using x-ray, radiography also used gamma rays, and for these purpose, they used Co-60 and Ir-192. Now, more company based on NDT established to provide a service on inspection pipe and others. For filled these requirement, radiographer must take an exam to make them expert and trained well to work in this field. There is no advantage using this technique or other technique. So that's why this book was published to make people understand what is radiographic testing truly.

  8. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  9. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.

  10. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  12. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  13. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  14. Caracterisation, modelisation et validation du transfert radiatif d'atmospheres non standard; impact sur les corrections atmospheriques d'images de teledetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, Shems

    This study is based on data acquired with an airborne multi-altitude sensor on July 2004 during a nonstandard atmospheric event in the region of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. By non-standard atmospheric event we mean an aerosol atmosphere that does not obey the typical monotonic, scale height variation employed in virtually all atmospheric correction codes. The surfaces imaged during this field campaign included a diverse variety of targets : agricultural land, water bodies, urban areas and forests. The multi-altitude approach employed in this campaign allowed us to better understand the altitude dependent influence of the atmosphere over the array of ground targets and thus to better characterize the perturbation induced by a non-standard (smoke) plume. The transformation of the apparent radiance at 3 different altitudes into apparent reflectance and the insertion of the plume optics into an atmospheric correction model permitted an atmospheric correction of the apparent reflectance at the two higher altitudes. The results showed consistency with the apparent validation reflectances derived from the lowest altitude radiances. This approach effectively confirmed the accuracy of our non-standard atmospheric correction approach. This test was particularly relevant at the highest altitude of 3.17 km : the apparent reflectances at this altitude were above most of the plume and therefore represented a good test of our ability to adequately correct for the influence of the perturbation. Standard atmospheric disturbances are obviously taken into account in most atmospheric correction models, but these are based on monotonically decreasing aerosol variations with increasing altitude. When the atmospheric radiation is affected by a plume or a local, non-standard pollution event, one must adapt the existing models to the radiative transfer constraints of the local perturbation and to the reality of the measurable parameters available for ingestion into the model. The

  15. Introduction: Victorian Theatricalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dobson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a barrage of manipulative fan-letters from Sir Merton and Annie Russell-Cotes, Sir Henry Irving, titan of the Victorian stage and the first actor to be knighted, eventually came to stay, briefly, at East Cliff Hall in Bournemouth. A peculiar but attractive compound of Scots baronial castle, Italian villa, French château and Bournemouth seaside bungalow, complete with lavish Art Nouveau interiors and a fountain in the entrance lobby, the house was always designed in and of itself as a dramatic location and was also intended as a magnet for theatrical celebrities. Sir Merton and Annie amply stuffed it with nineteenth-century British paintings, miscellaneous sculptures, and souvenirs of their extensive overseas holidays. Today the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum remains the late Victorian treasure house par excellence, and I can imagine few more vivid short-cuts into the culture and mindset of the late nineteenth-century haute bourgeoisie than an afternoon spent marvelling at the tons of accumulated trophies and bibelots cluttering its rooms or the acres of tastefully-exposed nipples adorning its walls. What the Russell-Cotes Museum also makes clear, even at its gloomiest, is the key place of drama in the Victorian imagination. After Irving's death in 1905, the Russell-Cotes bought many of Irving's personal effects at auction. Adding these to their existing collection of Irving memorabilia and other theatrical paintings and souvenirs, they converted the bedroom in which Irving had stayed into a permanent shrine to his memory. The Henry Irving Room would make an ideal introduction to most of the contents of this volume.

  16. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  17. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  18. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  19. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  1. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  2. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  3. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  4. Bestseller and Blockbuster Culture. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    In cultural communication, the bestseller concept has become a ubiquitous factor – often unnoticed, but ever present. The corresponding concept in feature films is the blockbustster. Introduction to the whole volume.......In cultural communication, the bestseller concept has become a ubiquitous factor – often unnoticed, but ever present. The corresponding concept in feature films is the blockbustster. Introduction to the whole volume....

  5. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  6. Pollutant materials and pollution control at Cupertino de Miranda Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mosca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr. António Cupertino de Miranda Foundation is the owner of a toy automobile, trains and boats collection, mainly constituted of zinc alloy (zamac.The characteristics of the displayed materials used in the exhibition, essentially wood composites and carpeting, reads to foreseeing a certain vulnerability and consequent future alteration and decay of the existing collection. This work aimed to identify some of the pollutant materials and to characterize their emissions, to develop low cost monitoring methods easily performed by the museum staff members and to propose new solutions in order to delay a possible degradation of the collection, keeping the current exhibition conditions. Among the solutions proposed are the replacement of the existing MDF with MDF free from moisture or flame resistant treatments and the introduction of RB4 activated charcoal.

  7. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2014-03-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and

  9. INTRODUCTION: GRADUATE STUDENT SCHOLARSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laverne Jacobs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice is proud to publish issue 32 (1. This issue features a special section highlighting the scholarship of graduate students. While it is always a pleasure to read promising work by newer scholars in the fields of law and social justice, we are certain that this collection of articles represents some of the finest and thought-provoking scholarship stemming from current graduate students in law. The articles stem from a graduate student essay contest that WYAJ held in 2013 and for which we received many submissions. The collection of selected papers offers a view of legal and interdisciplinary research examining issues that are topically diverse but which are all of deep, long-term importance to the world of access to justice. A reader of the special section on Graduate Student Scholarship will find explorations of access to justice from the perspectives of equality rights, discretion, adjudication and methods of legal service delivery, to name a few. A prize was offered to two papers judged to be of exceptional quality. I am very pleased to announce that the winners of those two prizes are Andrew Pilliar, for his article “Exploring a Law Firm Business Model to Improve Access to Justice” and Blair A. Major, for his contribution, “Religion and Law in R v NS: Finding Space to Re-think the Balancing Analysis”. The Editorial Board thanks all those who submitted papers to the contest and to this final special issue of the Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice. Another notable feature of this issue is the introduction of a section called Research Notes. The Yearbook will periodically publish peer-reviewed research notes that present the findings of empirical (quantitative, qualitative or mixed method research studies. This section aims to contribute to the growing and important body of empirical scholarship within the realm of access to justice socio-legal research. We hope that you enjoy

  10. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental

  11. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  12. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  13. An introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Derek G

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Real Analysis presents the concepts of real analysis and highlights the problems which necessitate the introduction of these concepts. Topics range from sets, relations, and functions to numbers, sequences, series, derivatives, and the Riemann integral. This volume begins with an introduction to some of the problems which are met in the use of numbers for measuring, and which provide motivation for the creation of real analysis. Attention then turns to real numbers that are built up from natural numbers, with emphasis on integers, rationals, and irrationals. The chapters tha

  14. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  15. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  16. Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity

  17. Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group

  18. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  19. An introduction to electrooptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan P

    1974-01-01

    An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices aims to present an introduction to the electrooptic effect and to summarize work on devices employing the electrooptic effect. The book provides the necessary background in classical crystal optics. The text then discusses topics including crystal symmetry, the tensor description of linear dielectric properties, propagation in anisotropic media, and passive crystal optic devices. The book also describes the phenomenological description of tensor nonlinear dielectric properties of crystals, with emphasis on the electrooptic effect; device design and appli

  20. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  1. Perspective of environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, B.B.; Thompson, D. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Spears, D.A. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This article aims to stimulate interest in pollution problems that are associated with the minerals industries. Because this subject is so broad, this study has concentrated on a limited number of topics that have been studied by the authors. After a brief survey indicating major sources of pollution through gaseous emissions, contamination of waterways and land fill sites, attention is focused on some of the methods of predicting, monitoring and limiting emissions together with remediation of polluted sites. (Author)

  2. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  3. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education » Light Pollution Light Pollution Preserving Dark Skies: Efforts to measure light pollution and work with the local

  4. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals pollution of Nokoue Lake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(3), pp. 255-261, March ... Key words: Nokoue Lake, pollution, heavy metal, texture. INTRODUCTION ... certain anthropogenic trace metals released by industries and domestic .... storage on ice, complete filling containers, use of plastic materials for storage ...

  6. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    H. Biabi; H. Mohammadi; L. Abolhassani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic siz...

  7. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  8. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  9. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  10. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  11. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  12. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  13. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  14. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  15. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  16. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  17. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  19. An introduction to gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, J.

    1977-01-01

    The CERN-JINR School of Physics is meant to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. This paper presents an introduction to gauge theories: the systematics of Yang-Mills theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and Higgs mechanism. The treatment is simple, stressing the general principles rather than detailed calculations. The author presents the Weinberg-Salam model as an example of a renormalizable theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons, and it is shown that the extension of these ideas into the hadronic world requires the introduction of charm and colour. Finally, an attempt is made to include strong interactions into the scheme, guided by the experimental results of deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. The Callan-Symanzik equation, and the concepts of asymptotic freedom and quark confinement are introduced. (Auth.)

  20. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  1. Introduction to applied algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Norman R

    2009-01-01

    This upper-level undergraduate textbook provides a modern view of algebra with an eye to new applications that have arisen in recent years. A rigorous introduction to basic number theory, rings, fields, polynomial theory, groups, algebraic geometry and elliptic curves prepares students for exploring their practical applications related to storing, securing, retrieving and communicating information in the electronic world. It will serve as a textbook for an undergraduate course in algebra with a strong emphasis on applications. The book offers a brief introduction to elementary number theory as

  2. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  3. An introduction to fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Drysdale, Dougal

    2011-01-01

    "Drysdale's book is by far the most comprehensive - everyone in the office has a copy...now including me. It holds just about everything you need to know about fire science."(Review of An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition) After 25 years as a bestseller, Dougal Drysdale's classic introduction has been brought up-to-date and expanded to incorporate the latest research and experimental data.  Homework problems are included, with solutions, and others are available on the accompanying website at www.wiley.com/go/drysdale. Essential reading for all involved in the field from undergraduate

  4. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  5. An Introduction to TTCN-3

    CERN Document Server

    Willcock, Colin; Tobies, Stephan; Keil, Stefan; Engler, Federico; Schulz, Stephan; Wiles, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This unique book provides a fully revised and up-to-date treatment of the TTCN-3 language TTCN-3 is an internationally standardised test language with a powerful textual syntax which has established itself as a global, universal testing language. Application of TTCN-3 has been widened beyond telecommunication systems to areas such as the automotive industry, internet protocols, railway signalling, medical systems, and avionics.An Introduction to TTCN-3 gives a solid introduction to the TTCN-3 language and its uses, guiding readers though the TTCN-3 standards, methodologies and tools with examp

  6. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  8. Establishing exposure limits for chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosselmeyer, E.

    1979-05-01

    In addition to toxic effects, chemical pollutants may produce cancer and genetic damage as radiation does. Some of these effects have been known since a very long time. Inspite of this fact, the knowledge of the basic processes in damage formation, of dose-effect relationships, and of possible threshold values seem to be at least comparable in the field of radiation protection. The attempt is made to give an introduction into the problems by a literature survey of the effects on man of heavy metals, especially of lead. Subsequently the exposure limits for different groups of the population and the legal national and international standards are considered. Efforts to quantify the relationship existing between different pollutants by the definition of a 'radiation equivalent' dose for chemicals deserve particular interest. (orig.) [de

  9. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  10. Introduction: Birds and the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard G. B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses marine adaptations of seabirds, feeding/breeding methods, and their vulnerability to predators. Also considers dangers from new "predators," such as hunting, environmental factors (pollution/pesticides), and loss of natural environments. Future prospects for the survival of these organisms are considered. (JN)

  11. Mitigation of the effects of sulphur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Wilson, R.

    1976-07-05

    As an introduction to the discussion of mitigation of the effects of SO/sub 2/, its health effect on man and the use of sulfates as indicators of the health hazard are first considered. The use of tall chimney stacks and intermittent control and other schemes to reduce the SO/sub 2/ release to the atmosphere are discussed. The problems of administration and forecasting are analyzed and legal problems associated with SO/sub 2/ control are reviewed. In an appendix an analysis of federal jurisdiction over interstate pollution and possible avenues of litigation open to the states is presented. (JSR)

  12. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Hauptmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years most advanced education programmes within Schools of Architecture have been questioning the parameters and requirements of doctoral research both in terms of content and form. This double issue of Footprint was motivated by the question of where the field stands today. Footprint 10|11 presents nine contributions from both recently defended and developing PhD candidates from a variety of institutions. The diversity of their work, as well as the similarities found in the submissions, offers a partial view into research topics currently addressed in PhD programmes within Schools of Architecture. In addition to the nine papers by PhD researchers, we have included a paper by Andrew Leach that we believe provides an overview of the general state of contemporary architecture research. Leach makes an appeal to refrain from making all research operational. At a time when the application of research and its economic value seem to form the primary criteria for judging value, this appeal should not be taken lightly.

  13. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Kerr, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Introduktion til special issue om hvordan kunstneriske processer kan bidrage til udvikling af ledelse, management, læring og uddannelse......Introduktion til special issue om hvordan kunstneriske processer kan bidrage til udvikling af ledelse, management, læring og uddannelse...

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty often seems to be articulated as doubts about the interior make-up of things. Suspecting that persons, objects, institutions and ideologies are not what they seem, critical voices accuse them of emptiness and they are thus laid open to new investments of meaning and value. Ethnographi...

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gisle; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades of research in linguistics have seen a shift towards empirical methods and an increased use of data from corpora as a basis for making claims about language (Sampson 2005). This trend has made its mark on research on the Nordic languages also, and the current special issue aims to ...

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Gardetti, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    This special issue has chosen to zoom in on new business models as one component in promoting a more sustainable fashion industry. The business model concept has recently come to the fore as a new, popular metaphor for explaining how companies create, deliver and capture value (Osterwalder and Pi...

  17. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Newland

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain events divide moments in time into ‘before’ and‘after’. Hiroshima ushered in the age of the nuclearthreat; the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end ofthe Cold War.

  18. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Hvid

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes six articles where we start off by Abrahamsson and Johansson, who give us a short but comprehensive presentation of how psychosocial work environment has been understood in research and policy over 100 years, with Sweden as the focal point. Short, because they write in the format of an article. Comprehensive, because the authors take a broad understanding of the psychosocial work environment comprising “health/illness,” where factors such as stress and burnout are central, “management and development,” where employee involvement, learning, and innovation are central, and “problematization,” which includes critically oriented research on the nature of work. The article not only provides an overview of the research that has been done in this area in the last 100 years but also relates research to policy and practice. The article thus provides a valuable perspective on today’s research and public debate on the works, with a Nordic perspective (...

  19. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, R.H.A.; Werff, H. van der; Nagel, S.; Breuer, C.; Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Sport clubs have a long tradition in nearly all European countries. They play an important role in the sporting activities of the population, not only for elite and competitive sport but also for sport for all. During the period of over a century in which sport clubs have been existent in Europe,

  20. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian; Munteán, László

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian memorials to the Cambodian genocide between 1975 and 1979 can in numerous ways be termed monstrous. Not so much in that they deal with atrocities monstrous in scale and character, as in the monstrous visual means they employ and the imprecise, monster-ridden explanations they delive...

  1. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of preparing and the chemical properties of different boron compounds including simple and complex boron halides, boron oxides and sulfides, boron organic compounds are briefly described. The main features of their crystal and molecular structure, as well as the effect of structure their properties and stability of boron compounds are discussed

  2. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooke, J.; Barberá, G.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Castillo, V.; Poesen, J.; Torri, D.; van Wesemael, B.; Hooke, J.; Sandercock, P.

    2017-01-01

    This book explains the methods and results of a major research project, RECONDES, that was undertaken to develop strategies of effective use of vegetation to combat desertification and land degradation by water. The research approach combined understanding of the processes of erosion and land

  3. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1972, Nuclear Fuels Divisions of Sumitomo and Furukawa Electric Industries merged and became a subsidiary of Sumitomo and Furukawa Industries which is now called Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. We design and manufacture various kinds of nuclear fuels. As for research reactor fuel, we began our development activities in 1956. Since then we have spent over 2 million dollars for development of nuclear fuels and plant facilities including complete manufacturing and testing capabilities. Now we are the only supplier of the research reactor fuel in Japan. Our fabrication process starts with the melting, alloying, and casting of U-Al. The uranium billets are prepared by foreign fabricators. The uranium content varies from 13 to 22 wt % according to the purchaser's specifications. In making fuel plates, the picture frame method is applied. In this case, our original procedure is sufficiently effective in avoiding dogboning. The plates are finished by hot and cold roll milling and inspected dimensionally, metallurgically, and mechanically, and at the same time the blister test and X-ray radiographic tests are performed. Fuel elements are assembled by rolling flat or curved plates into side plate grooves and end-fit welding. Finished elements are tested dimensionally and hydraulically. Nominal losses during operation are less than 1% of the uranium metal. Our present capacity licensed by the Japanese Government is approximately 950 fuel elements a year. About 35 employees including engineers are engaged in development and manufacturing of fuels. Owing to the small limited demand of the research reactor fuels in Japan during the past 20 years (mostly in last 10 years), we processed only about 350 kg of highly enriched uranium and supplied approximately 1000 fuel elements to JAERI, Kyoto University, and others, and we have been suffering red-ink balance of budget every year

  4. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, C.; Bryson, A.

    2017-01-01

    These essays arose from a conference, organized as part of the "Early Modern Manuscript Poetry" project, which was funded by the U.K.'s Arts and Humanities Research Council and led by Steven W. May. From his 1968 PhD thesis—an edition of Henry Stanford's anthology, under the guidance of William A. Ringler Jr.—Steve has been in the forefront of early modern manuscript studies, as the author of numerous influential articles and books, including The Elizabethan Courtier Poets (1991), and as the ...

  5. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    referred to as “everyday life” provides a useful starting point for research into media use. It guides us towards a number of considerations, from how we structure our day through certain habits and patterns of media consumption; to the development of technology and the formation of new rituals...... century history. Indeed, a quick Google Scholar search of “everyday life” takes us on whirlwind interdisciplinary tour of academia, from sociology to cultural studies, psychology to political science, anthropology to economics. There is good reason for this, in that thinking through consistency and change...... – patterns and disruptions – across the passage of time forms the analytic foundation for much scientific research. But while “everyday life” adorns the cover of many a noted book (e.g. Goffman 1959; de Certeau 1984), a comparable term is almost nowhere to be found. “Everywhere life” not only draws...

  6. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En guise de préambule, nous voudrions cerner rapidement l’objet dont il sera question et proposer quelques pistes de réflexion.Brève histoire problématique de la biographieLa biographie est un genre ancien, même si le mot n’apparaît en France qu’à la fin du xviie siècle. Ce genre est consacré à retracer des vies authentiques, dans des récits dont le sujet et l’auteur ne se confondent pas. On peut appeler « biographique » l’ensemble des genres donnant des « récits de vie » (biographie mais aus...

  7. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Sippola, Eeva; Bakker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a semantics-driven lexical comparison of 20 creole languages and five European lexifier languages. Breaking new ground into understanding creole semantics, it utilizes insights from both cognitive semantics (in particular, the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach) and phylog......This study presents a semantics-driven lexical comparison of 20 creole languages and five European lexifier languages. Breaking new ground into understanding creole semantics, it utilizes insights from both cognitive semantics (in particular, the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach...

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    and governments' policy responses have also been widening labour market inequalities between different groups within countries, the authors argue, as illustrated by the disproportionate growth of youth employment and their specific focus on gender inequality. Cross-national variations in the content and structure...

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore; Sandøy, Helge

    2010-01-01

    1. Background: the laboratory As is well-known from the literature on language contact (e.g. Weinreich 1953; Thomason and Kaufman 1988) the factors and forces that are in play in close and longstanding contact between (speakers of ) two languages are both linguistic and social in nature......, and involve both quantitative and qualitative relationships. Indeed, the outcome of language contact is a question of numbers and frequencies in terms of use and users, of sameness vs. differencein terms of linguistic structure, of dominance vs. subordination in terms of socio-historical contexts, etc...... in Norway, the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland — eastwards in the case of Sweden and Swedish with a long history in Finland. And we may add the linguistic and socio-historical complexities that relate the Sami people in the far north to the southern majority populations of Norway, Sweden and Finland...

  10. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angathevar

    2013-01-01

    African countries, taken separately, or grouped together as a unit, still largely remain resource-based economies. The challenge is to change the resource-based economic structure into a science, technology, engineering and innovation driven knowledge based economic system. Taking this challenge...... head on means African countries have to organise their science, technology, engineering and innovation for a development agenda systematically, more in collaboration than in competition with one another. What appears to remain a deficit is the vast collaborative distance that still exists on matters...

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    What if value is neither an intrinsic quality of an object, nor a reflection of a subjects preferencesbut rather something that is organized and brought into existence through mechanisms, technologies and practices of valuation? This edited book addresses the question of valuation theoretically a...

  12. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    In this book about research on Facilities Management (FM) leading researchers from the Nordic countries present their ideas and findings: • Past: The historical development and current trends in FM research in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. • Present: Ongoing FM research within the followin...

  13. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduktion til Religion in the 21st Century, der indeholder bidrag fra den afsluttende konference i Københavns Universitets satsningsområde 2003-2007 om Religion i det 21. århundrede. Bidrag om 'Political and Intellectual Challenge', 'The Religion and Science Debate', 'Islam and State Politics......', 'Secularism and State Politics' of 'Denmark and the Cartoons'....

  14. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Allen E.

    1985-01-01

    Political science departments were surveyed to determine the extent of course offerings on any aspect of the Vietnam War or its legacy. Survey results are discussed. Provided is a chart indicating the name of the university, course title, professor(s) teaching course, level and enrollment, and when offered. (RM)

  15. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroetmann, C.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody who takes an interest in environmental policy knows about the difficulties involved at all levels in reaching the generally accepted goal of integrating environmental protection in other political fields - and the difficulties are even greater in a period of emerging economic recession, since many still mistakenly view environmental protection as an unnecessary extravagance. This holds true for policies not only et EC level but also at the national level. It has been clear now for some time that the task of protecting the natural environment largely transcends individual fields of policy. The cross-section clause in Article 130 r paragraph 2 s. 2 of the EEC Treaty, according to which the demands of environmental protection are an integral part of the other policies of the Community, is a genuine legal innovation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Herrmann, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    therefore continues to move the discourse of polar security beyond – but not excluding – the conventional debates of military capabilities and state sovereignty towards a more comprehensive definition of security, including its interacting environmental, economic, political, health and cultural dimensions....

  17. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagodic; Sandberg, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzebski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University is a 'User type' facility, providing heavy ion beams to a number of Polish and foreign research groups and, to limited extent, for its own research programme. In 2006 the Warsaw cyclotron has operated during about 2500 hours of beam on target. 18 experiments, all recommended by the Program Advisory Committee, have been performed by more than one hundred facility users. Their scientific achievements are presented in this Report. This year the publication harvest was slightly smaller as compared to previous years. However, the first Phys. Rev. Letters paper, based completely on the HIL data, should be noticed. The important part of the Laboratory team effort was devoted to educational and science popularization activities, described in details in the following pages of this report. Here, I would like to especially mention the Workshop on Heavy Ion Acceleration and its Application, devoted to physics students of Universities outside Warsaw. The 2006 Workshop was organized for the second time. We do hope, that this workshop will contribute to establishing in Poland more formal recognition for inter-university students and tutors exchange. This, as we hope, will benefit in the Ministry funding of this programme in the future. In 2006 the Laboratory equipment was further developed. The ICARE particle multidetector system was installed on the beam line D and was tested using 16 O beam. Work is in progress on improving its characteristics (signal processing and acquisition) and on expanding possible applications by adding the Time-of-Flight components. The project of a new gamma-ray spectrometer with up to 30 Ge detectors was prepared, discussed and preliminary accepted for realization, when necessary funds are available. In the mean time a new particle detector chamber was tested in coincidence with the OSIRIS II set-up, demonstrating a substantially higher efficiency and lower background in the Coulomb excited gamma-ray spectra. An irradiation facility for radiobiological studies described in details in the last year Annual Report was also presented in a recent publication. Finally, after many years of unsuccessful applications, 50% of funds necessary for the acquisition of a new ECR ion source were allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education at the end of 2006. At present commercial offers are evaluated. Besides running of the U-200P cyclotron, educational activity, development of new experimental tools, and participation in experiments using local and European facilities, the Laboratory team is strongly involved in many new projects. Basing on funds allocated by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Ministry of Health, the project of the installation in the Laboratory building of a second p/d cyclotron for the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals is in progress. The short history and current situation of this project is presented in the following pages of this report. The Laboratory is also involved in the Polish Hadron-Therapy Consortium, contributing to the preparation of the project of the National Hadron-Therapy Center in Warsaw. European Structural Funds allocated to Poland for 2007-2013 open a possibility to acquire funds for realization of such an initiative. Basing on the same source of funding, plus the resources of 7FP, the Laboratory launched the idea of the preparatory program for constructing in Poland a demonstration facility for High Temperature Nuclear Reactor in synergy with coal. The Consortium of Polish Universities and industrial partners was organized. The project was accepted by Polish Government and placed in the first place of the list of Large Projects in the '' Innovative Economy Programme ''. It will be discussed with European Commission. More information on this project can be found on the Laboratory web pages. (author)

  19. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is more than 10 years since we have published our first special issue devoted to the Computer Algebra. For us it was a starting point for the development of Computer Algebra in Moldova. Looking back we can say that this was a period during which we have found our own place in this very important part of modern Computer Science. It was, of course, impossible without the help of our colleagues from other countries, without the financial support from INTAS and Swedish Academy of Science. In fact the most part of articles, published in this issue was supported by INTAS project Nr 05-104-7553 and we are very grateful for this important help.

  20. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Baumert, Nicolas; Guichard-Anguis, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Le séisme du 11 mars 2011 qui a frappé le Japon a provoqué une catastrophe majeure dont les images, largement diffusées dans les médias, ont rappelé par la violence de l’aléa (évalué à 9 sur l’échelle de Richter), la vulnérabilité des sociétés humaines face à l’enchainement des risques naturels et humains. À la succession de destructions ayant fait près de 20 000 victimes, et à l’accident nucléaire de la centrale de Fukushima n° 1 près d’Iwaki, s’est ajoutée une crise alimentaire sévère qui a...