Bliss, T. V. P.; Collingridge, G. L.; Morris, R. G. M.
We summarize the reviews and research papers submitted by speakers at a discussion meeting on Synaptic Plasticity in Health and Disease held at the Royal Society, London on 2–3 December 2013, and a subsequent satellite meeting convened at the Royal Society/Kavli Centre at Chicheley Hall on 4–5 December 2013. Together, these contributions give an overview of current research and controversies in a vibrant branch of neuroscience with important implications for the understanding of many forms of learning and memory, and a wide spectrum of neurological and cognitive disorders. PMID:24298133
Hirst, Jonathan D; Glowacki, David R; Baaden, Marc
Here we provide an introduction and overview of current progress in the field of molecular simulation and visualization, touching on the following topics: (1) virtual and augmented reality for immersive molecular simulations; (2) advanced visualization and visual analytic techniques; (3) new developments in high performance computing; and (4) applications and model building.
Dingsøyr, Torgeir; Dybå, Tore; Moe, Nils Brede
Agile software development is an important topic in software engineering and information systems. This chapter provides a characterization and definition of agile software development, an overview of research through a summary of existing overview studies, an analysis of the research literature so far, and an introduction to the main themes of this book. The first part of the book provides foundations and background of agile development. The second part describes findings from studies of agile methods in practice. The third part identifies principal challenges and discusses new frontiers that agile development methods will meet in the future.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations ＆ Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Introduction and Overview of the Symposium Anil Kumar (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore). Symposium on Quantum Computing and Quantum Information. Notes:
Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.
Youth suicidal behavior continues to be a significant national problem in need of urgent attention by school personnel. The purpose of this introductory article to the special series is to provide an overview of youth suicidal behavior, including research-based information on demographic data; risk factors and warning signs; and where, when, and…
Sobrido, María-Jesús; Cacheiro, Pilar; Carracedo, Angel; Bertram, Lars
The importance for research and clinical utility of mutation databases, as well as the issues and difficulties entailed in their construction, is discussed within the Human Variome Project. While general principles and standards can apply to most human diseases, some specific questions arise when dealing with the nature of genetic neurological disorders. So far, publically accessible mutation databases exist for only about half of the genes causing neurogenetic disorders; and a considerable work is clearly still needed to optimize their content. The current landscape, main challenges, some potential solutions, and future perspectives on genetic databases for disorders of the nervous system are reviewed in this special issue of Human Mutation on neurogenetics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Brault MW, Hootman J, Helmick CG, Theis KA, Armour BS. Prevalence and most common causes of disability ... Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ... JW, Dietz W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service- ...
Paquette, Kristen; Bassuk, Ellen L
This overview of parenting and homelessness includes the characteristics and needs of families who are homeless, with a focus on the unique challenges faced by mothers, fathers, and children. In addition, the authors discuss how homeless families are narrowly defined based on the family members who present at shelters and other service programs. In order to fully support parents and their children as they exit homelessness, homeless service programs should consider the broader context of the nontraditional family system and support networks. The overview also includes common challenges to parenting while homeless, a summary of the articles in the Special Section, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy.
Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences. PMID:21577292
Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.
Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)
Harman, Donna; Lunin, Lois F.
Discusses human-computer interfaces in information seeking that focus on end users, and provides an overview of articles in this section that (1) provide librarians and information specialists with guidelines for selecting information-seeking systems; (2) provide producers of information systems with directions for production or research; and (3)…
This book covers different aspects of the physics of iron-based superconductors ranging from the theoretical, the numerical and computational, to the experimental ones. It starts from the basic theory modeling many-body physics in Fe-superconductors and other multi-orbital materials and drreaches up to the magnetic and Cooper pair fluctuations and nematic order. Finally, it offers a comprehensive overview of the most recent advancements in the experimental investigations of iron based superconductors. .
Full Text Available When operating in confined waters such as ports, channels and canals, the ship’s master may not be familiar with the specific and up-to-date navigating conditions such as wind, current and tide. In this case, the master must rely on the knowledge and experience of local experts, the seaport and river pilots, to ensure the safety of the ship, crew and environment. This paper provides an overview of the initial and periodic training required by pilots directed by the China Maritime Safety Administration in accordance with IMO’s A.960 “Recommendation on Training and Certification and Operational Procedure Maritime Pilot Other Than Deep-Sea Pilot” and China’s pilot training requirements. The paper then goes into details describing how pilot training is implemented in Dalian Maritime University (DMU, taking into account the course setting, class hour arrangement, theory and practical class distribution of different class pilots, as well as examining the equipment requirements, trainer’s qualification, and trainee’s seagoing experiences. Based on the results of the China’s pilot training regime, recommendations will be made not only for improving China’s pilot training program, but also where DMU’s best practices may be implemented at other institutions engaged in pilot professional development.
A unique industrial panel covering the challenges and needs of various industries and how being innovative is important. The session involves two invited industry speakers (24 minutes each) who will set the stage for the interactive round table panel session. The Panel, led by moderator Mark Bernius (Morgan Advanced Materials), consists of the two invited speakers plus an additional five industry panelists. The first thirty minutes of the panel session has the five additional panelists introducing themselves and their work/company. These introductions could include what they or their company does, sharing one or two technical highlights, listing some challenges or needs for physicists, and what innovation breakthroughs are needed in their industries. The final hour of the session will be highly interactive with questions to the panel coming from the moderator, the audience, and the panelists themselves. Questions that might be addressed include: how physicists are or could be critical in advancing innovation; how can AIP/APS/FIAP help industry get the physics help they need to be innovative (knowledge, the right staff, etc.); what role can students and post docs play in advancing industry's mission; etc. We invite you to participate in this interactive session and ask our industry experts your own interesting and challenging questions. The invited speakers are George Thompson, Intel, and Rick Watkins, Nike. The panel members also include Jason Cleveland, Asylum Research; Robert Doering, Texas Instruments; William Gallagher, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center; James Hollenhorst, Agilent Technologies; and Martin Poitzsch, Schlumberger-Doll Research.
Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational and international initiatives, and efforts to promote sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. Suggestions for future research are also provided
Sarrif, A.; Wiegand, H.J.; Knudsen, L. E.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.; Šrám, Radim; Vrijhof, H.
Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 1-3 ISSN 0378-4274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : biomonitoring * children´s health * exposure assessment Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2007
Galaxy mergers encompass a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including cosmological considerations, gas and stellar dynamics, AGN evolution, and mergers of the central SMBHs. Astrophysical signatures of galaxy mergers can be observed across most of the electromagnetic spectrum and through gravitational radiation. This talk provides an introduction and overview of the meeting, highlighting the key aspects of galaxy mergers from large to small scales.
Senders, Joeky T; Zaki, Mark M; Karhade, Aditya V; Chang, Bliss; Gormley, William B; Broekman, Marike L; Smith, Timothy R; Arnaout, Omar
Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn from large complex datasets without being explicitly programmed. Although ML is already widely manifest in our daily lives in various forms, the considerable potential of ML has yet to find its way into mainstream medical research and day-to-day clinical care. The complex diagnostic and therapeutic modalities used in neurosurgery provide a vast amount of data that is ideally suited for ML models. This systematic review explores ML's potential to assist and improve neurosurgical care. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify all potentially relevant studies up to January 1, 2017. All studies were included that evaluated ML models assisting neurosurgical treatment. Of the 6,402 citations identified, 221 studies were selected after subsequent title/abstract and full-text screening. In these studies, ML was used to assist surgical treatment of patients with epilepsy, brain tumors, spinal lesions, neurovascular pathology, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and hydrocephalus. Across multiple paradigms, ML was found to be a valuable tool for presurgical planning, intraoperative guidance, neurophysiological monitoring, and neurosurgical outcome prediction. ML has started to find applications aimed at improving neurosurgical care by increasing the efficiency and precision of perioperative decision-making. A thorough validation of specific ML models is essential before implementation in clinical neurosurgical care. To bridge the gap between research and clinical care, practical and ethical issues should be considered parallel to the development of these techniques.
Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim
Introduction. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal......-factor models (e.g., excitation-inhibition, appetitive-consummatory) or more specific multifactorial models (in which the different components of sexual activity and their interaction are delineated). The etiology of the disorder is generally considered as multifactorial. Biomedical factors like diseases, drugs...... must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. Bitzer J, Giraldi A, and Pfaus J. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP part 1). J Sex Med **;**:**-**....
Pearson, J E
Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.
Within the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds,
Due to prevalence as well as serious health and social impacts, domestic violence against women is considered a problem of high relevance for victims themselves and for the society as a whole. Empirical data also prove this correlation for Germany. Nevertheless the extensive implications and their interdependency have hardly been examined. In this article, a definition of domestic violence is given followed by a brief introduction of the problem. Next an overview of the results from national and international surveys regarding the social consequences and the economic costs of domestic violence is presented. The burden for following generations becomes obvious, including the consequences for family and social relationship structures, for victims' occupational situations, productivity loss, high risk for poverty, homelessness and the interdependencies on health status. Estimations from international studies on the societal costs illustrate the economic dimension.
Zapata, F.; Garcia-Agudo, E.; Ritchie, J.C.; Appleby, P.G.
Soil erosion and associated sedimentation are natural processes caused by water, wind and ice. Several of man's activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, changes in land use, and non-sustainable farming practices tend to accelerate soil erosion. Soil erosion and sedimentation cause not only on-site degradation of a non-renewable natural resource, but also off-site problems such as downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water streams. These problems and concern over the degradation of the landscape by erosion, and their impacts on soil fertility and crop productivity in agricultural land, water pollution, and sedimentation in lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains are well documented. Global estimates of economic damage from soil erosion and sedimentation have also been made. Recent focus on sustainability issues has resulted in increased attention on soil-degradation problems, in particular soil erosion and sedimentation. In view of increasing water scarcity and limited land resources to feed an ever-growing world population, there is an urgent need to obtain reliable quantitative data on the extent and rates of soil erosion worldwide to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation remediation strategies, including assessment of their economic and environmental impacts. This chapter describes the use of fallout 137 Cs as a tracer for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation, and the potential use of other radionuclides such as 210 Pb, and 7 Be for these studies. It provides an overview of the 137 Cs technique describing key assumptions and requirements, and advantages and limitations of the technique. Also, applications, recent developments, and future trends of the technique are covered. The chapter is completed with an introduction to the handbook and a list of selected references
Kørnøv, Lone; Lund, Henrik; Remmen, Arne
The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development".......The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development"....
Klitgård, Ebbe; Bayer, Gerd
An introduction to "Narrative Developments from Chaucer to Defoe", including a review of recent research in the field.......An introduction to "Narrative Developments from Chaucer to Defoe", including a review of recent research in the field....
Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif
This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country.......This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country....
Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Mearin, Luisa
prompted ESPGHAN to revise these recommendations. OBJECTIVE: To provide updated recommendations regarding gluten introduction in infants and the risk of developing coeliac disease (CD) during childhood. SUMMARY: The risk of inducing CD through a gluten-containing diet exclusively applies to persons...
Georgin-Lavialle, S; Rodrigues, F; Hentgen, V; Fayand, A; Quartier, P; Bader-Meunier, B; Bachmeyer, C; Savey, L; Louvrier, C; Sarrabay, G; Melki, I; Belot, A; Koné-Paut, I; Grateau, G
Monogenic auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by genetic abnormalities coding for proteins involved in innate immunity. They were initially described in mirror with auto-immune diseases because of the absence of circulating autoantibodies. Their main feature is the presence of peripheral blood inflammation in crisis without infection. The best-known auto-inflammatory diseases are mediated by interleukines that consisted in the 4 following diseases familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrinopathies, TNFRSF1A-related intermittent fever, and mevalonate kinase deficiency. Since 10 years, many other diseases have been discovered, especially thanks to the progress in genetics. In this review, we propose the actual panorama of the main known auto-inflammatory diseases. Some of them are recurrent fevers with crisis and remission; some others evaluate more chronically; some are associated with immunodeficiency. From a physiopathological point of view, we can separate diseases mediated by interleukine-1 and diseases mediated by interferon. Then some polygenic inflammatory diseases will be shortly described: Still disease, Schnitzler syndrome, aseptic abscesses syndrome. The diagnosis of auto-inflammatory disease is largely based on anamnesis, the presence of peripheral inflammation during attacks and genetic analysis, which are more and more performant. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Renal cystic disease includes a group of lesions with extremely diverse clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings. The recent development of multiple imaging systems to study renal cystic disease has resulted in considerable interest in correlating the images obtained by different modalities with each other and with the underlying gross pathology. A thorough knowledge of the disturbed morphology and natural history of these diseases will lead to a better understanding of their appearance on radiologic imaging. This refresher course correlates disturbed morphology with appearances on diagnostic imaging, urography, US, angiography, CT, and MR imaging. The advantages and limitations of each imaging method are detailed. A practical classification emphasizing differential features is presented. The presentation is divided into two parts. In the first part typical and atypical cystic masses, including acquired cystic disease (from dialysis), Von Hippel-Lindau disease, and the cystic disease of tuberous sclerosis are discussed. In the second part, polycystic kidney disease (dominant and recessive), medullary cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, multicycle-dysplastic kidney, renal sinus cysts (peripelvic), and pluricystic kidney disease are discussed
Niels J Elbert
Full Text Available The role of timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction in the development of childhood allergic sensitization and atopic diseases is controversial.To examine whether timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction are associated with allergic sensitization, allergy and eczema in children until age 10 years.This study among 5,202 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort. Timing (age ≤6 months vs. >6 months and diversity (0, 1, 2 and ≥3 foods of allergenic food (cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, tree nuts, soy and gluten introduction were assessed by questionnaires at ages 6 and 12 months. At age 10 years, inhalant and food allergic sensitization were measured by skin prick tests, and physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy by questionnaire. Data on parental-reported physician-diagnosed eczema were obtained from birth until age 10 years.Children introduced to gluten at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of eczema (aOR (95% CI: 0.84 (0.72, 0.99, compared with children introduced to gluten at age >6 months. However, timing of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization or physician-diagnosed allergy. Children introduced to ≥3 allergenic foods at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (0.64 (0.42, 0.98, compared with children not introduced to any allergenic food at age ≤6 months. However, diversity of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization, physician-diagnosed food allergy or eczema.Neither timing nor diversity of allergenic food introduction was consistently associated with childhood allergic sensitization, allergy or eczema.
Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard
Introduction to anthology which provides the theoretical basis of an Erasmus+ project involving marginalised young people, practitioners, students and academics in co-creating a teaching module for the social professions....
Henkel, Anna; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context.......An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context....
Shaw, Ian; Høgsbro, Kjeld
This chapter presents an overview of social work in advanced welfare states, the direction of research on social work and the influence from different global trends in research and welfare technologies. It further draws some conclusions on the different aspects of social work and research addressed...
A brief overview of the fish immune system and the emerging or re-emerging bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases considered to currently have a negative impact on aquaculture is presented. The fish immune system has evolved with both innate (natural resistance) and adaptive (acquired) immu...
In this introduction, I present the main theme of the International Society of Religion, Literature and Culture's 14th conference that took place in Aarhus in October 2008. The theme of the conference was "Breaking the Norms. Reception, Transformation and Transgression in Religion, Literature...... of the story about Esau and Jacob. The rest of the introduction presents the six (revised) papers from the conference that are published in this special issue. The authors of these papers are Marie Vejrup Nielsen, James H. Thrall, Alyda Faber, Hans Jørgen Frederiksen, Stefanie Knauss og Hugh S. Pyper ....
Bandak, Andreas; Janeja, Manpreet Kaur
This introduction foregrounds waiting as a central analytical category to make way for ethnographic attention to uncertain interplays between doubting and hoping. Using a range of focused ethnographies which explore the centrality of waiting in social life, it offers a critical lens on understand......This introduction foregrounds waiting as a central analytical category to make way for ethnographic attention to uncertain interplays between doubting and hoping. Using a range of focused ethnographies which explore the centrality of waiting in social life, it offers a critical lens...... is negotiated in myriad ways, made more urgent in a neo-liberal era of simultaneous waiting and speeding up across scales....
Kadanali, Ayten; Karagoz, Gul
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus (EBOV) is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids of a person who contracted or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or bush meat. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection or further spreading of the virus. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. Its treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Clinicians should consider the possibility of EVD in persons with travel or exposure history with the incubation period presenting constitutional symptoms in order to promptly identify diseased patients, and prevent further spreading of the disease.
Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dehs, Jørgen
Introduction to When Architects and Designers Write / Draw / Build / ? This anthology highlights the potentials and challenges for research in architecture and design. The included essays are based on papers given at a symposium held at the Aarhus School of Architecture in 2011 and contain a numb...
Doreian, Patrick; Stokman, Frans N.
Introduction to: The proceedings of a conference that was held on the analysis of repeated cross sections at the University of Nijmegen on June 15±16, 2000. This two-days meeting was attended by 75 participants from seven different countries (AUS, B, F, GER, NL, USA, UK) and from a wide array of
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Rasiah, Rajah
This is a very interesting book. It is topical and is one of the few volumes that attempts to treat Southeast Asia as an integrated whole. The editors are methodologically ambitious, and they skillfully integrate a very large amount of diverse material in their introduction. I imagine that the bo...
Pop, Paul; Alistar, Mirela; Stuart, Elena
This chapter presents an introduction to the microfluidics field and microfluidic biochips. We discuss the main fluid propulsion principles used by modern microfluidic platforms, with a focus on “digital” microfluidic biochips, which are the topic of this book. Digital microfluidic biochips...
Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dehs, Jørgen
Introduction to When Architects and Designers Write / Draw / Build / ? This anthology highlights the potentials and challenges for research in architecture and design. The included essays are based on papers given at a symposium held at the Aarhus School of Architecture in 2011 and contain a number...
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni
An introduction is presented in which the editors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the shared value concept in the education and business, the role of corporate foundations in establishing cross-sector partnerships, and the mechanisms of governance in the cross...
Petersen, Nils Holger; Sandbeck, Lars; Solten, Therese Bering
Introduction to the Special Issue of Literature and Theology publishing articles based on selected papers from the international conference of the International Society for Religion, Literature and Culture (ISRLC) conference held at the Theological Faculty of the University of Copenhagen 19...
and transformation of the Bible in religious communities (Jewish and Christian). Each area is introduced by some general reflections. The following authors have contributed to the book: Kirsten Nielsen (Introduction and article), David Bugge (General reflections and article), Kirsten M. Andersen, Laura Feldt, Jakob...... Nissen, Marie Vejrup Nielsen (General reflections and article), Iben Damgaard, Maria Louise Odgaard Møller, Marianne Schleicher (General reflections and article), Johannes Nissen....
Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Lee, Hye-Seung; Liu, Edwin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Hummel, Sandra; Yang, Jimin; Hummel, Michael; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Toppari, Jorma; Ziegler, Anette-G; Krischer, Jeffrey; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M; Agardh, Daniel
The goal of this study was to determine whether age at introduction to gluten was associated with risk for celiac disease (CD) in genetically predisposed children. TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) is a prospective birth cohort study. Newborn infants (N = 6436) screened for high-risk HLA-genotypes for CD were followed up in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Information about infant feeding was collected at clinical visits every third month. The first outcome was persistent positive for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA), the marker for CD. The second outcome was CD, defined as either a diagnosis based on intestinal biopsy results or on persistently high levels of tTGA. Swedish children were introduced to gluten earlier (median: 21.7 weeks) compared with children from Finland (median: 26.1 weeks), Germany, and the United States (both median: 30.4 weeks) (P children developed tTGA and 307 (5%) developed CD. Swedish children were at increased risk for tTGA (hazard ratio: 1.74 [95% CI: 1.47-2.06]) and CD (hazard ratio: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.34-2.24]) compared with US children, respectively (P < .0001).Gluten introduction before 17 weeks or later than 26 weeks was not associated with increased risk for tTGA or CD, adjusted for country, HLA, gender, and family history of CD, neither in the overall analysis nor on a country-level comparison. In TEDDY, the time to first introduction to gluten introduction was not an independent risk factor for developing CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.
This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community
Felt-Bersma, R J F; Cazemier, M
Anorectal endosonography (AE), which was introduced 20 years ago, derives from the study of urology. It was first used to evaluate rectal tumours and later also to investigate benign disorders of the anal sphincters and pelvic floor. The technique is easy to perform, it has a short learning curve and causes no more discomfort than a routine digital examination. A rotating probe with a 360 degrees radius and a frequency between 5 and 16 MHz is introduced to the rectum and then slowly withdrawn so that the pelvic floor and subsequently the sphincter complex are seen. Recently, it has become possible to reconstruct three-dimensional images. AE has been used for almost every possible disorder in the anal region and has increased our insight into anal pathology. The clinical indications for AE are: 1. Faecal incontinence in patients when surgery is an option. AE can show sphincter defects with excellent precision. There is a perfect correlation with surgical findings. Studies comparing AE with endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have shown that both methods are equally good for demonstrating defects in the external anal sphincter; the internal anal sphincter is better visualized with AE. After sphincter repair, the effect is directly related to the decrease in the sphincter defect. 2. Perianal fistulae. AE has been shown to be accurate in staging perianal cryptoglandular fistulae and fistulae in Crohn's disease. When there is an external fistula opening, H2O2 can be introduced with a plastic infusion catheter. The tract then becomes visible as a hyperechoic lesion ("white"). It has been shown that this corresponds well with surgical findings. It is equally sensitive as endoanal MRI. Since recurrent cryptoglandular fistulae are complex in 50% and Crohn's fistula in 75%, it is mandatory to perform AE preoperatively in these patients to avoid missed tracts during surgery and subsequent recurrences. 3. Rectal tumors. In low tubulovillous adenomas or malignant polyps
The fact that French grand opera as a genre was closely connected to the institution of the Paris Opéra, and, more generally, to the contemporary urban context of Paris, has meant that scholars have often focussed specifically on understanding the phenomenon in relation to the original Parisian...... context. This introduction, however, argues that French grand opera, precisely because of the status of Paris as a centre of European operatic culture, contributed to a process of cultural Europeanization, as seminal works of the genre achieved European fame, often very rapidly, and were performed...
Davies, L.M.; Ianko, L.
As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In the introduction the historic context is established, spanning a bow from the first sustained fission reactor in 1942 to contemporary developments. The subjects 'Irradiation Effects on Mechanical Properties', 'Neutron Fluence', 'Irradiation Effect Trends', 'Empirical Modelling of Irradiation Effects' and 'Mechanical Modelling' are addressed. There are also some remarks about the current state of the art, the migration of irradiation effects and about international programmes
mso-fareast-language:JA;} When W. T. Stead died on the 'Titanic' he was the most famous Englishman on board. A mass of contradictions and a crucial figure in the history of the British press, Stead was a towering presence in the cultural life of late-Victorian and Edwardian society. In this introduction, we consider Stead as a ‘mass of contradictions’ and offer a few ways in which his prodigious output and activity might be understood.
Petersen, Nils Holger; Sandbeck, Lars; Solten, Therese Bering
Introduction to the Special Issue of Literature and Theology publishing articles based on selected papers from the international conference of the International Society for Religion, Literature and Culture (ISRLC) conference held at the Theological Faculty of the University of Copenhagen 19-21 Oc......-21 October 2012 with the theme: Cultures of Transition: Presence, Absence,Memory. The conference was organised by Nils Holger Petersen, Lars Sandbeck and Therese Bering Solten who were invited as guest editors for a volume of Literature and Theology based on the conference....
Barwell, Richard; Clarkson, Philip; Halai, Anjum
This chapter provides the introduction to this ICMI Study 21 volume. It includes: a discussion of the place of this study and its topic within ICME; a discussion of what is meant by the study title; and a brief historical account of research on this topic in mathematics education. The chapter also...... recounts the various stages of the study, including the development of the discussion document, the study conference, and the preparation of this volume. The latter parts of the chapter include syntheses of some key research ideas emerging from the volume, implications for policy and practice and issues...
Barwell, Richard; Clarkson, Philip; Halai, Anjum
This chapter provides the introduction to this ICMI Study 21 volume. It includes: a discussion of the place of this study and its topic within ICME; a discussion of what is meant by the study title; and a brief historical account of research on this topic in mathematics education. The chapter also...... recounts the various stages of the study, including the development of the discussion document, the study conference, and the preparation of this volume. The latter parts of the chapter include syntheses of some key research ideas emerging from the volume, implications for policy and practice and issues...... for further research....
Høst, Jeppe Engset
This chapter introduces the notion and theme of market-based fisheries management. The introduction of market mechanisms to distribute and manage fishing quota has internationally occurred since the 1980s but is increasingly on the political agenda. As privatization and transferability are promoted...... internationally, and by big players, it becomes even more crucial to understand its social and environmental implications. This chapter looks at the broader lines in the fisheries research and discusses the diverging views on market-based fisheries management. On one side market mechanisms are promoted...... for efficiency and fleet adaptation, and on the other, quota markets are accused of causing concentration and disturbing social relations....
This forum opens a conversation between the history of technology and the history of capitalism by considering the "paper technologies of capitalism" of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries in England and the United States. Seth Rockman offers an overview, connecting a recent exhibition of quotidian business ephemera to scholarly efforts to historicize the economic past, to engage material artifacts as things, and to embed the production of social knowledge in communities of practice. Three essays follow: William Deringer considers the "computational technologies" available in England to calculate future values; Caitlin Rosenthal traces the "rule of three" in the everyday transactions of the "innumerate" in the U.S. Early Republic; Jonathan Senchyne examines the materiality of paper within the emerging "rags to riches" tropes of nineteenth-century capitalist culture. Finally, Barbara Hahn concludes the forum with reflections of the overlapping terrain of the history of technology and the history of capitalism.
Craig Cora L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION.
An overview of the five volume set of Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards is provided with information on its use. The overview covers description, objectives, key definitions, structure and application of the standards, and document structure decisions. These standards were created to provide consistent NASA-wide structures for coordinating, controlling, and documenting the engineering of an information system (hardware, software, and operational procedures components) phase by phase.
Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.
This is the third iteration of the National Wildlife Health Center's (NWHC) field guide developed primarily to assist field managers and biologists address diseases they encounter. By itself, the first iteration, “Field Guide of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds,” was simply another addition to an increasing array of North American field guides and other publications focusing on disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Collectively, those publications were reflecting the ongoing transition in the convergence of wildlife management and wildlife disease as foundational components within the structure of wildlife conservation as a social enterprise serving the stewardship of our wildlife resources. For context, it is useful to consider those publications relative to a timeline of milestones involving the evolution of wildlife conservation in North America.
Full Text Available Since its foundation as an independent Institute within the University of London fifty-three years ago, the Institute of Archaeology has contributed to research in many aspects of the developing discipline in many different parts of the world. For the first thirty years of its existence it was exclusively a postgraduate research institution, and it has continued to give high priority to postgraduate studies since the introduction of undergraduate teaching in 1968. Today, one third of the 300 students enrolled at the Institute are postgraduates, over 50 of whom are research students registered for MPhil/PhD degrees. Most of the MA and MSc students also undertake their own research projects as part of the Master's degree. Institute postgraduates are thus involved in a multitude of diverse investigations, in Britain, continental Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas, and each year they make, collectively, a very substantial contribution to archaeological knowledge.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Berg, Torsten Rødel
The chapter includes a discussion about the play by Henrik Ibsen from 1879, A Doll's House, how it still proves to be relevant today to gender relations not only in Denmark but in Nepal as well. The introduction explains how Ibsen's play inspired two theater directors from Denmark and Nepal......, respectively to use it as point of departure for the creation of a trans-civilizational and intercultural dialogue. The intention of this chapter is to introduce the background of the collection of chapters, give broader perspectives about globalization and social change linked with debates about changing...... values and cultures in development and social policy and then enters the specific context and development trajectory in Nepal in recent years....
Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years most advanced education programmes within Schools of Architecture have been questioning the parameters and requirements of doctoral research both in terms of content and form. This double issue of Footprint was motivated by the question of where the field stands today. Footprint 10|11 presents nine contributions from both recently defended and developing PhD candidates from a variety of institutions. The diversity of their work, as well as the similarities found in the submissions, offers a partial view into research topics currently addressed in PhD programmes within Schools of Architecture. In addition to the nine papers by PhD researchers, we have included a paper by Andrew Leach that we believe provides an overview of the general state of contemporary architecture research. Leach makes an appeal to refrain from making all research operational. At a time when the application of research and its economic value seem to form the primary criteria for judging value, this appeal should not be taken lightly.
Wotring, Virginia E.; Southern, Sarka O.; Mentzer, Mark A.; Rodriquez-Chavez, Isaac
The 2014 SPIE Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine and Environmental Monitoring conference embraced a wealth of state-of-the-art information in basic and applied science. This event covered the latest developments in the following areas: Non-invasive Disease Diagnostics for Global Health- This opening series of two consecutive sessions focused on oral biospecimen based rapid assays and point-of-care devices for the detection of pathogens causing infectious diseases, biomarkers for cancer, and analytes for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes. They also covered presentations on the human proteasome and microbiome with linkage to human diseases and diagnostic approaches. The sessions were built on the past experience and expertise of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Military Medicine I: Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD-This assembly covered oral-biomarker based diagnostics for brain damage and TBI as well as prevention and rehabilitation technologies. Neurorehabilitation and noninvasive neuromodulation were also discussed as critical approaches for effective functioning. Military Medicine II: Physiology and Medicine of Extreme Environments and Spaceflight-This scientific segment showcased physiological, pharmacological and diagnostic sensing methodologies during spaceflight per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as military-relevant toxicans and future sensing trends per the Department of Defense. It also included latest technologies to determine hydration status in warfighters, eye surgery using the latest laser technologies, and sensing tools for blood analysis. ? Sensing Technologies for Disease Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring-This closing series of two consecutive sessions provided the venues to learn and discuss more results on the next generation of diagnostic tools and field technologies for diseases, including biomarker detection by digital
Mendelsohn, Loren D.
Provides an overview of this section of the journal devoted to Perspectives on Chemistry Journals, based on papers presented at the Tri-Society Symposium on Chemical Information (Los Angeles, CA, June 9, 2002). Focuses on the impact of electronic journals on chemistry libraries, from publishers' and librarians' points of view. (LRW)
Weissberg, Roger P.; Kuster, Carol Bartels
This opening chapter provides an overview of the book. Chapter 2 of the book summarizes current data for problem behaviors among adolescents across five areas including: (1) substance abuse; (2) sexual behavior; (3) delinquency and violence; (4) depression and suicidal ideation; and (5) school failure. Next, chapter 3 addresses the efforts to stem…
Weissberg, Roger P.; Kuster, Carol Bartels; Gullotta, Thomas P.
This opening chapter provides an overview of the book, "Healthy Children 2010: Establishing Preventive Services." The article describes the purpose of the work, which is to provide strategies to establish and successfully implement effective prevention services in key socializing settings that powerfully affect the growth an development…
Mantovani, Susanna; Smith, Simon S; Gordon, Richard; O'Sullivan, John D
Sleep and circadian alterations are amongst the very first symptoms experienced in Parkinson's disease, and sleep alterations are present in the majority of patients with overt clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease. However, the magnitude of sleep and circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, and its influence on the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease remains often unclear and a matter of debate. In particular, the confounding influences of dopaminergic therapy on sleep and circadian dysfunction are a major challenge, and need to be more carefully addressed in clinical studies. The scope of this narrative review is to summarise the current knowledge around both sleep and circadian alterations in Parkinson's disease. We provide an overview on the frequency of excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs, obstructive apnea and nocturia in Parkinson's disease, as well as addressing sleep structure, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and circadian features in Parkinson's disease. Sleep and circadian disorders have been linked to pathological conditions that are often co-morbid in Parkinson's disease, including cognitive decline, memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Therefore, targeting sleep and circadian alterations could be one of the earliest and most promising opportunities to slow disease progression. We hope that this review will contribute to advance the discussion and inform new research efforts to progress our knowledge in this field. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.
Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim
Since the Atoms for Peace program in 1950s, peaceful applications of nuclear technology has been at the forefront of the development of many countries. In Malaysia, the development of nuclear technology began in earnest with the setting-up of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in 1972, then known as CRANE. More than thirty years later, today, the technology has gained footing and made impact to the development of the country. Her role in regional and international scenes in nuclear-related matters and nuclear technology was noticed and being given due attention. It is time to take stock of this development and assess its impact upon which further developments can be planned and strategized. That was the genesis of this study. This chapter presents a review of the status and development of nuclear technology globally and in Malaysia to provide a background for the report and the study. This is followed by an introduction to the study: its objectives, scope, methods of research, total population, sampling frame, selection procedures, target groups and data analysis. The chapter concludes with a guide to the organization of this report. The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact and contribution of nuclear technology to socio-economic development of the country. It is also expected to identify issues and challenges faced by users of this technology. Even though the applications of nuclear technology encompass diverse human endeavors, this study focuses only in industrial, medical and agriculture sectors. The applications of nuclear technology in both public agencies and private companies in those sectors are considered. This is the first time such a study is being undertaken in Malaysia, and as a starting point, the three year period spanning 2006-2008 are taken as the time frame for discerning trends of nuclear technology development in the country. This study was also in an indirect sense motivated by similar studies conducted in the USA
The present expert group review survey is timely: existing dengue fever control methods have not succeeded in halting the spread of the disease in either its classic form or its haemorrhagic form, in any of the three French départements of America (the FDAs: Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Martinique). The world picture is no more reassuring: dengue has been on the increase throughout the tropics and subtropics over the past forty years. An estimated two and a half billion people are at risk; t...
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Introduction to the special issue of Cosmos and History, 'The Italian Difference: Between Nihilism and Biopolitics'.
This volume brings together essays by different generations of Italian thinkers which address, whether in affirmative, problematizing or genealogical registers, the entanglement of philosophical speculation and political proposition within recent Italian thought. Nihilism and biopolitics, two concepts that have played a very prominent role within contemporary Italian thought, serve as the thematic foci around which the collection orbits, as it seeks to define the historical and geographical particularity of these notions as well their continuing impact on an international debate. The volume also covers the debate around ‘weak thought’ (pensiero debole, the feminist thinking of sexual difference, the re-emergence of political anthropology and the question of communism. The contributors provide contrasting narratives of the development of post
The purpose of this introduction is - after a few general words on ZnO - to inform the reader about the history of ZnO research, the contents of this book and the intentions of the authors. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a IIb-VI compound semiconductor. This group comprises the binary compounds of Zn, Cd and Hg with O, S, Se, Te and their ternary and quaternary alloys. The band gaps of these compounds cover the whole band gap range from E g ≈ 3. 94 eV for hexagonal ZnS down to semimetals (i.e., E g = 0 eV) for most of the mercury compounds. ZnO itself is also a wide gap semiconductor with E g ≈ 3. 436 eV at T = 0 K and (3. 37 ± 0. 01) eV at room temperature. For more details on the band structure, see Chaps. 4 and 6 or for a recent collection of data on ZnO, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17 B, 22, and 41B, 1999]. Like most of the compounds of groups IV, III-V, IIb-VI and Ib-VII, ZnO shows a tetrahedral coordination. In contrast to several other IIb-VI compounds, which occur both in the hexagonal wurtzite and the cubic zinc blende type structure such as ZnS, which gave the name to these two modifications, ZnO occurs almost exclusively in the wurtzite type structure. It has a relatively strong ionic binding (see Chap. 2). The exciton binding energy in ZnO is 60 meV [Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960], the largest among the IIb-VI compounds, but by far not the largest for all semiconductors since, for example, CuCl and CuO have exciton binding energies around 190 and 150 meV, respectively. See, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17B, 22, and 41B, 1999; Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960; Klingshirn and Haug, Phy. Rep. 70:315, 1981; Hönerlage et al., Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and references therein. More details on excitons will be given in Chap. 6. ZnO has a density of about 5. 6 g / cm3 corresponding to 4. 2 × 1022 ZnO molecules per cm3 [Hallwig and
Gövert, Felix; Schneider, Susanne A
The differential diagnosis of chorea syndromes may be complex and includes various genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease and mimicking disorders called Huntington's disease-like (HDL) phenotypes. To familiarize clinicians with these (in some cases very rare) conditions we will summarize the main characteristics. HDL disorders are rare and account for about 1% of cases presenting with a Huntington's disease phenotype. They share overlapping clinical features, so making the diagnosis purely on clinical grounds may be challenging, however presence of certain characteristics may be a clue (e.g. prominent orofacial involvement in neuroferritinopathy etc.), Information of ethnic descent will also guide genetic work-up [HDL2 in Black Africans; dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) in Japanese etc.], Huntington's disease, the classical HDL disorders (except HDL3) and DRPLA are repeat disorders with anticipation effect and age-dependent phenotype in some, but genetic underpinnings may be more complicated in the other chorea syndromes. With advances in genetics more and more rare diseases are disentangled, allowing molecular diagnoses in a growing number of choreic patients. Hopefully, with better understanding of their pathophysiology we are moving towards mechanistic therapies.
Klievink, B.; Zomer, G.
This paper is the introduction to the fourth Workshop on IT-enabled Resilient, Seamless and Secure Global Supply Chains (WITNESS 2015). In the paper, we present a synthesis of the innovation agendas of a series of international research, development and demonstration projects that seek to make
Cohen, E. G. D.
deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R
The terms innovation and entrepreneurship are commonly used – but not always with the same understanding. There is an obvious strong relationship of both areas, however, barely articulated. Moreover, so far there is few consensus among researchers regarding innovative and entrepreneurial activities...... in general, especially when it comes to precise definitions. Hence, this paper gives an overview of relevant literature in both areas. In this context, relevant terms and definitions and recent models linking innovation and entrepreneurship are discussed and presented. Finally, a comprehensive framework...
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is primarily considered to be an autoimmune pathological condition that is also referred to as "Hughes syndrome". It is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy pathologies in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant. APS can occur either as a primary disease or secondary to a connective tissue disorder, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Damage to the nervous system is one of the most prominent clinical constellations of sequelae in APS and includes (i) arterial/venous thrombotic events, (ii) psychiatric features and (iii) other non-thrombotic neurological syndromes. In this overview we compare the most important vascular ischemic (occlusive) disturbances (VIOD) with neuro-psychiatric symptomatics, together with complete, updated classifications and hypotheses for the etio-pathogenesis of APS with underlying clinical and laboratory criteria for optimal diagnosis and disease management. PMID:18159581
Soleimani, M; Pengpen, T
This paper presents a brief overview of some basic iterative algorithms, and more sophisticated methods are presented in the research papers in this issue. A range of algebraic iterative algorithms are covered here including ART, SART and OS-SART. A major limitation of the traditional iterative methods is their computational time. The Krylov subspace based methods such as the conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve linear systems of equations arising from large-scale CT with possible implementation using modern high-performance computing tools. The overall aim of this theme issue is to stimulate international efforts to develop the next generation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction software. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Hediger, Matthias A; Clémençon, Benjamin; Burrier, Robert E; Bruford, Elspeth A
The field of transport biology has steadily grown over the past decade and is now recognized as playing an important role in manifestation and treatment of disease. The SLC (solute carrier) gene series has grown to now include 52 families and 395 transporter genes in the human genome. A list of these genes can be found at the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) website (see www.genenames.org/genefamilies/SLC). This special issue features mini-reviews for each of these SLC families written by the experts in each field. The existing online resource for solute carriers, the Bioparadigms SLC Tables (www.bioparadigms.org), has been updated and significantly extended with additional information and cross-links to other relevant databases, and the nomenclature used in this database has been validated and approved by the HGNC. In addition, the Bioparadigms SLC Tables functionality has been improved to allow easier access by the scientific community. This introduction includes: an overview of all known SLC and "non-SLC" transporter genes; a list of transporters of water soluble vitamins; a summary of recent progress in the structure determination of transporters (including GLUT1/SLC2A1); roles of transporters in human diseases and roles in drug approval and pharmaceutical perspectives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases and its results must be interpreted with caution. In this overview, we provide some examples of studies of patterns in the scientific literature related to forest health and tree pathogens. Whilst research on ash dieback has increased rapidly over the last years, papers mentioning the Waldsterben have become rare in the literature. As with human health and diseases, but in contrast to plant health and diseases, there are consistently more publications mentioning “tree health” than “tree disease,” possibly a consequence of the often holistic nature of forest pathology. Scientometric tools can help balance research attention towards understudied emerging risks to forest trees, as well as identify temporal trends in public interest in forests and their health.
Bossart, P. [Swisstopo, Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Bernier, F. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control FANC, Brussels (Belgium); Birkholzer, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); and others
Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are designed as multi-barrier disposal systems that perform a number of functions including the long-term isolation and containment of waste from the human environment, and the attenuation of radionuclides released to the subsurface. The rock laboratory at Mont Terri (canton Jura, Switzerland) in the Opalinus Clay plays an important role in the development of such repositories. The experimental results gained in the last 20 years are used to study the possible evolution of a repository and investigate processes closely related to the safety functions of a repository hosted in a clay rock. At the same time, these experiments have increased our general knowledge of the complex behaviour of argillaceous formations in response to coupled hydrological, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biological processes. After presenting the geological setting in and around the Mont Terri rock laboratory and an overview of the mineralogy and key properties of the Opalinus Clay, we give a brief overview of the key experiments that are described in more detail in the following research papers to this Special Issue of the Swiss Journal of Geosciences. These experiments aim to characterise the Opalinus Clay and estimate safety-relevant parameters, test procedures, and technologies for repository construction and waste emplacement. Other aspects covered are: bentonite buffer emplacement, high-pH concrete-clay interaction experiments, anaerobic steel corrosion with hydrogen formation, depletion of hydrogen by microbial activity, and finally, release of radionuclides into the bentonite buffer and the Opalinus Clay barrier. In the case of a spent fuel/high-level waste repository, the time considered in performance assessment for repository evolution is generally 1 million years, starting with a transient phase over the first 10,000 years and followed by an equilibrium phase. Experiments dealing with initial conditions, construction, and waste
Why the need for antimicrobials in dental care? Mechanical control of dental plaque is not sufficient for all individuals, since diseases like caries and gingivitis which should be preventable by good mechanical oral hygiene measures are nevertheless all too prevalent in our society. If we accept that dental plaque microbes give rise to halitosis, caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease, it seems obvious to try antimicrobial agents in an attempt to combat them. However, it is difficult to ...
Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith
There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.
Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Gay, David A.; Morrison, Heather A.; Williams, Kathryn A.
The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land–water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. - Highlights: ► We describe a bi-national synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region. ► Emission controls have reduced Hg inputs to inland lakes about 20% since the 1980s. ► Wet and dry deposition and evasion are regionally important atmospheric Hg fluxes. ► Land use affects Hg inputs to surface waters and bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ► In some waters, Hg levels in yellow perch pose risks to fish, wildlife, and humans. - A synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region reveals the chronology of contamination; the importance of wet and dry deposition and evasion to Hg budgets; the influence of land–water linkages; bioaccumulation in aquatic foods webs; and risks associated with Hg in an important prey fish.
Kano, Rui; Matsumoto, Tadahiko
Protothecosis is an emerging infectious zoonotic disease caused by species of the genus Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), which are classified as achlorophyllous algae closely related to the green algal genus Chlorella. Prototheca lost the ability to photosynthesize and are widely distributed throughout the natural world in sewage, soil, lakes, and marshes. It is therefore necessary to build an interdisciplinary network connecting human medicine, veterinary medicine, microbiological taxonomy, clinical microbiology, and environmental microbiology to increase knowledge in this area. We have established the working group "Medical Phycology : Protothecosis and Chlorellosis" (approved on May 4, 2014) under the umbrella of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) to support all scientific aspects dealing with this topic. We report the current circumstances and future prospects of this working group for the group to become better known by scientists.
Molyneux, David H
The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and
Li, Michael Y
This text provides essential modeling skills and methodology for the study of infectious diseases through a one-semester modeling course or directed individual studies. The book includes mathematical descriptions of epidemiological concepts, and uses classic epidemic models to introduce different mathematical methods in model analysis. Matlab codes are also included for numerical implementations. It is primarily written for upper undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematical sciences who have an interest in mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. Although written in a rigorous mathematical manner, the style is not unfriendly to non-mathematicians.
von Karsa, L.; Patnick, J.; Segnan, N.; Atkin, W.; Halloran, S.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I.; Malila, N.; Minozzi, S.; Moss, S.; Quirke, P.; Steele, R. J.; Vieth, M.; Aabakken, L.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Antoljak, N.; Anttila, A.; Armaroli, P.; Arrossi, S.; Austoker, J.; Banzi, R.; Bellisario, C.; Blom, J.; Brenner, H.; Bretthauer, M.; Camargo Cancela, M.; Costamagna, G.; Cuzick, J.; Dai, M.; Daniel, J.; Dekker, E.; Delicata, N.; Ducarroz, S.; Erfkamp, H.; Espinàs, J. A.; Faivre, J.; Faulds Wood, L.; Flugelman, A.; Frkovic-Grazio, S.; Geller, B.; Giordano, L.; Grazzini, G.; Green, J.; Hamashima, C.; Herrmann, C.; Hewitson, P.; Hoff, G.; Holten, I.; Jover, R.; Kaminski, M. F.; Kuipers, E. J.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Lambert, R.; Launoy, G.; Lee, W.; Leicester, R.; Leja, M.; Lieberman, D.; Lignini, T.; Lucas, E.; Lynge, E.; Mádai, S.; Marinho, J.; Maučec Zakotnik, J.; Minoli, G.; Monk, C.; Morais, A.; Muwonge, R.; Nadel, M.; Neamtiu, L.; Peris Tuser, M.; Pignone, M.; Pox, C.; Primic-Zakelj, M.; Psaila, J.; Rabeneck, L.; Ransohoff, D.; Rasmussen, M.; Regula, J.; Ren, J.; Rennert, G.; Rey, J.; Riddell, R. H.; Risio, M.; Rodrigues, V.; Saito, H.; Sauvaget, C.; Scharpantgen, A.; Schmiegel, W.; Senore, C.; Siddiqi, M.; Sighoko, D.; Smith, R.; Smith, S.; Suchanek, S.; Suonio, E.; Tong, W.; Törnberg, S.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vignatelli, L.; Villain, P.; Voti, L.; Watanabe, H.; Watson, J.; Winawer, S.; Young, G.; Zaksas, V.; Zappa, M.; Valori, R.
Population-based screening for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) and precursor lesions, using evidence-based methods, can be effective in populations with a significant burden of the disease provided the services are of high quality. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in CRC screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project co-financed by the European Union. The 450-page guidelines were published in book format by the European Commission in 2010.They include 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, individually graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. Adoption of the recommendations can improve and maintain the quality and effectiveness of an entire screening process, including identification and invitation of the target population, diagnosis and management of the disease and appropriate surveillance in people with detected lesions. To make the principles, recommendations and standards in the guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community and to facilitate their use in the scientific literature, the original content is presented in journal format in an open-access Supplement of Endoscopy. The editors have prepared the present overview to inform readers of the comprehensive scope and content of the guidelines. PMID:23212726
Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)
Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi
Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)
Seimenis, Aristarhos M
Great concern is being expressed at the international level on the emergence and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, many of which are zoonoses, e.g. Rift Valley fever, highly pathogenic avian influenza, etc. Many aspects of globalisation, i.e. the movements of populations, increased urbanisation, greater production and trade in animals and animal products, close interaction between humans and animals, environmental degradation, inappropriate waste disposal, etc., are all determining factors in the prevalence of zoonoses. The Mediterranean and Middle East share similar ecological and epidemiological conditions and are affected by almost the same zoonoses (brucellosis, rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis, salmonellosis, etc.). National control programmes have given partial results or have failed due to weak infrastructures, insufficient financial resources, inadequate intersectoral collaboration and coordination, a lack of public health education, etc. There is an urgent need for the firm commitment of all parties involved on regional, national and international levels to ensure the success of zoonoses prevention and control programmes.
Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L
This paper introduces the concept of instrumental variables (IVs) as a means of providing an unbiased estimate of treatment effects in evaluating disease management (DM) programme effectiveness. Model development is described using zip codes as the IV. Three diabetes DM outcomes were evaluated: annual diabetes costs, emergency department (ED) visits and hospital days. Both ordinary least squares (OLS) and IV estimates showed a significant treatment effect for diabetes costs (P = 0.011) but neither model produced a significant treatment effect for ED visits. However, the IV estimate showed a significant treatment effect for hospital days (P = 0.006) whereas the OLS model did not. These results illustrate the utility of IV estimation when the OLS model is sensitive to the confounding effect of hidden bias.
Aristarhos M. Seimenis
Full Text Available Great concern is being expressed at the international level on the emergence and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, many of which are zoonoses, e.g. Rift Valley fever, highly pathogenic avian influenza, etc. Many aspects of globalisation, i.e. the movements of populations, increased urbanisation, greater production and trade in animals and animal products, close interaction between humans and animals, environmental degradation, inappropriate waste disposal, etc., are all determining factors in the prevalence of zoonoses. The Mediterranean and Middle East share similar ecological and epidemiological conditions and are affected by almost the same zoonoses (brucellosis, rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis, salmonellosis, etc.. National control programmes have given partial results or have failed due to weak infrastructures, insufficient financial resources, inadequate intersectoral collaboration and coordination, a lack of public health education, etc. There is an urgent need for the firm commitment of all parties involved on regional, national and international levels to ensure the success of zoonoses prevention and control programmes.
Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy
Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management industry for evaluating program effectiveness is the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Survival analysis allows for the inclusion of data from censored cases, those subjects who either "survived" the program without experiencing the event (e.g., achievement of target clinical levels, hospitalization) or left the program prematurely, due to disenrollement from the health plan or program, or were lost to follow-up. Additionally, independent variables may be included in the model to help explain the variability in the outcome measure. In order to maximize the potential of this statistical method, validity of the model and research design must be assured. This paper reviews survival analysis as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach.
The fourth and final issue of The Alan Guttmacher Institute's 1992 State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislation Proposals and Actions chronicles and summarized reproductive health-related legislation introduced and acted on in the 50 states in 1992, covering abortion, family planning services, sex education, teenage pregnancy, adoption, infertility, maternal and infant care, and sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS. Arkansas, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, and Texas did not convene. Abortion legislation involved parental consent/notice, informed consent and waiting periods, funding, abortion/reproductive rights, abortion bans, RU-486, clinic harassment, insurance coverage, reporting requirements, fetal research/remains, postviability abortion, sex selection, clinic licensing, spousal notification, conscience clauses, counseling and referrals, feticide, and proposals for promoting "alternatives to abortion." Family planning services, sex education, teenage pregnancy, Norplant welfare reform, infertility services, surrogacy contracts, perinatal drug and alcohol abuse and family and medical leave was also covered as was HIV testing, consent, and notification, education and prevention strategies, treatment, insurance coverage, and discrimination.
INTRODUCTION: Since the first case of HIV/AIDS appeared in USA and Africa more than two decades ago, the incidence of HIV/AIDS has continuously been increasing worldwide. It is estimated that 42 million people lived with HIV/AIDS in 2009 among whom 29.4 million (70%) were in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since there is no ...
Furthermore, the review attempts to identify gaps in information and the way forward. Thirteen poverty-promoting diseases have recently been designated as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases include visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, hookworm infection, ...
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases which contribute significantly to the burden of non-communicable diseases. With the increasing prevalence of COPD in developing countries a good knowledge of disease burden and process is essential.
J.C. Douma; M. Pautasso; R.C. Venette; C. Robinet; L. Hemerik; M.C.M. Mourits; J. Schans; W. van der Werf
Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative estimates of introduction risks and effectiveness of management options....
Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.
Ecological theory suggests that pathogens are capable of regulating or limiting host population dynamics, and this relationship has been empirically established in several settings. However, although studies of childhood diseases were integral to the development of disease ecology, few studies show population limitation by a disease affecting juveniles. Here, we present empirical evidence that disease in lambs constrains population growth in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) based on 45 years of population-level and 18 years of individual-level monitoring across 12 populations. While populations generally increased (λ = 1.11) prior to disease introduction, most of these same populations experienced an abrupt change in trajectory at the time of disease invasion, usually followed by stagnant-to-declining growth rates (λ = 0.98) over the next 20 years. Disease-induced juvenile mortality imposed strong constraints on population growth that were not observed prior to disease introduction, even as adult survival returned to pre-invasion levels. Simulations suggested that models including persistent disease-induced mortality in juveniles qualitatively matched observed population trajectories, whereas models that only incorporated all-age disease events did not. We use these results to argue that pathogen persistence may pose a lasting, but under-recognized, threat to host populations, particularly in cases where clinical disease manifests primarily in juveniles.
Kronborg-White, Sissel; Folkersen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Torben Riis
Introduction: Transbronchial cryobiopsies (cTBB) has emerged as a new method for obtaining lung tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Until now, it has been used in a few highly specialized interventional centers and has shown promising results in obtaining...
Asha R. Patil Varsha I.Pati; B.S.Panchbhai
Analysis of plants disease is main goal for increase productivity of grain, fruits, vegetable. Detection of proper disease of plants using image processing is possible by different steps of it. Like image Acquisition, image enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification.RGB image is acquire and translate for processing and diagnosis of plant disease by CR-Network. Segmentation is used for which and how many areas are affected by disease using k-clustering. Future extraction...
Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)
Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira
Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)
Full Text Available Medial degeneration associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection was originally described by Erdheim as a noninflammatory lesion related to the loss of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibre fragmentation in the media. Recent evidences propose the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in aneurysm evocation and progression. The coexistence of inflammatory cells with markers of apoptotic vascular cell death in the media of ascending aorta with aneurysms and type A dissections raises the possibility that activated T cells and macrophages may contribute to the elimination of smooth muscle cells and degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, several inflammatory pathways (including TGF-β, TLR-4 interferon-γ, chemokines, and interferon-γ seem to be involved in the medial degeneration related to aged and dilated aorta. This is an overview on thoracic aortic aneurysm as an emerging inflammatory disease.
Lee, Yo Han; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Young Ae; Yeom, Ji Won; Oh, In-Hwan
This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.
Sankaran, K V; Bridge, P D; Gokulapalan, C
The species of Ganoderma recorded from India as causing diseases of perennial crops are listed, and their host range and taxonomy discussed. Four new hosts of G. lucidum are also reported. A decline in productivity and the death of trees are the main economic impacts due to Ganoderma diseases, and the fungus is identified as a serious pathogen of cash crops, forest plantations and trees in natural forests in the country. Ganoderma diseases have been recorded on 144 hosts in India, the major pathogens being G. lucidum and G. applanatum. G. lucidum has been recorded on 91 hosts, and appears to cause the most widespread diseases. Identification has largely been made from morphological and cultural characters, and the names currently in use should therefore be treated with caution. Cultural methods of disease control are largely inefficient in minimising inoculum pressure and in reducing the disease incidence. Chemical methods in combination with soil amendments form short-term solutions for managing the disease and improving productivity. The immediate priorities for developing an efficient management system for Ganoderma diseases in India are: (1) a thorough understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of the diseases on different hosts, (2) clarifying current ambiguity in species names, (3) assessing the inter-relationships between populations of Ganoderma on different hosts and (4) developing tools for early detection of diseases in important crops.
Montanari, A.; Shoemaker, C.A.; Van de Giesen, N.C.
This paper introduces the Water Resources Research special section on Uncertainty Assessment in Surface and Subsurface Hydrology. Over the past years, hydrological literature has seen a large increase in the number of papers dealing with uncertainty. In this article, we present an overview of the
Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T
Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A
Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
Castro, R.; Rivera, I.; Blom, H.J.; Jakobs, C.; Almeida, I.T. de
Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been regarded as a new modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis and vascular disease. Homocysteine is a branch-point intermediate of methionine metabolism, which can be further metabolised via two alternative pathways: degraded irreversibly through the transsulphuration
Robson , Anthony ,
International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Non-communicable disease is a global epidemic because of the combined effect of the modern diet (including drug abuse) and a sedentary lifestyle. A low energy dense, drug-free diet rich in bioavailable nutrients-plus-exercise is most effective for preventing non-communicable disease throughout life. Nanoc...
Stephanie Smooke Praw
Full Text Available Stephanie Smooke Praw1, Anthony P Heaney1,21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cushing's disease, due to pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH hypersecretion, is the most common etiology of spontaneous excess cortisol production. The majority of pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease measure <1 cm and the excess morbidity associated with these tumors is mostly due to the effects of elevated, nonsuppressible, ACTH levels leading to adrenal steroid hypersecretion. Elevated circulating cortisol levels lead to abnormal fat deposition, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and psychological disturbances. At experienced centers, initial surgical remission rate via transnasal, transphenoidal resection approaches 80% for tumors less than 1 cm, but may be as low as 30% for larger lesions and long-term recurrence in all groups approaches 25%. Residual disease may be managed with more radical surgery, pituitary-directed radiation, bilateral adrenalectomy, or medical therapy. This paper addresses current and novel therapies in various stages of development for Cushing’s disease.Keywords: Cushing's disease, treatment, pasireotide, PPAR-γ, 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors, dopamine agonists
Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar; Klinge, Björn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hansen, Peter Riis
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared inflammatory pathways are likely to contribute to this association, but distinct causal mechanisms remain to be defined. Some of these comorbid conditions may improve by periodontal treatment, and a bidirectional relationship may exist, where, for example, treatment of diabetes can improve periodontal status. The present article presents an overview of the evidence linking periodontitis with selected systemic diseases and calls for increased cooperation between dentists and medical doctors to provide optimal screening, treatment, and prevention of both periodontitis and its comorbidities. PMID:28748036
Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism, which affect the liver are a large, continuously increasing group of diseases. Their clinical onset can occur at any age, from intrauterine period presenting as liver failure already at birth to late adulthood. Inherited metabolic disorders must be considered in differential diagnosis of every unexplained liver disease. Specific diagnostic work-up for either their confirmation or exclusion should start immediately since any postponing can result in delayed diagnosis and death or irreversible disability. This can be particularly painful while many inherited metabolic liver diseases are relatively easily treatable if diagnosed on time, for instance galactosemia or hereditary fructose intolerance by simple dietary means. Any unexplained liver disease, even one looking initially benign, should be considered as a potential liver failure and therefore should deserve proper attention. Diagnosis in neonates is additionally complicated because of the factors which can mask liver disease, such as physiological neonatal jaundice, normally relatively enlarged liver and increased transaminases at that age. In everyday practice, in order to reveal the etiology, it is useful to classify and distinguish some clinical patterns which, together with a few routine, widely available laboratory tests (aminotransferases, prothrombine time, albumin, gammaGT, total and conjugated bilirubin, ammonia, alkaline phosphatase and glucose make the search for the cause much easier. These patterns are isolated hyperbilirubinemia, syndrome of cholestasis in early infancy, hepatocellular jaundice, Reye syndrome, portal cirrhosis and isolated hepatomegaly. Despite the fact that some diseases can present with more than one pattern (for instance, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as infantile cholestasis, but also as hepatocellular jaundice, and that in some disesases one pattern can evolve into another (for instance, Wilson disease from hepatocellular
AlKhater, S A
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease that encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data related to survival in children are scarce, but these data firmly associate NAFLD with higher risks of hepatic and non-hepatic morbidities and mortalities compared with the general population. More recently, the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease among children has increasingly been recognized. Given that obesity is a major risk factor for the disease, paediatric NAFLD is becoming a global issue, paralleling the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide. NASH, which is more common in obese children, has the potential to advance to liver fibrosis and failure. It is unclear why certain patients undergo such transformation but this susceptibility is likely related to an interaction between a genetically susceptible host and the surrounding environment. Currently, treatment is largely conservative and includes lifestyle modification, attainable through healthy weight reduction via diet and exercise. In this review, current knowledge about NAFLD in children is summarized. This review aims to increase the awareness of the medical community about a hidden public health issue and to identify current gaps in the literature while providing directions for future research. © 2015 World Obesity.
Puppala, Jharna; Siddapuram, Siva Prasad; Akka, Jyothy; Munshi, Anjana
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world today. Its incidence in adults and children is rising rapidly due to the ongoing epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hence, it has become a global public health issue. Environmental factors have been found to play a major role in the etiology of NAFLD, especially for genetically susceptible populations. Among these, one of the most important factors is junk food, especially the typical "Western-style" diet rich in simple carbohydrates, saturated fat, and highly processed food materials. Genetic predisposition to NAFLD does occur; however, a precise definition of genetic factors responsible for NAFLD is still lacking. Specific variants of different genes have been shown to present a risk for NAFLD. Genetic studies might be helpful in the management of the disease by developing novel treatment strategies based on individual's genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hudson, T Warner; Fortuna, Joseph
International business travel to under-developed and developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Most of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, many of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both and the nonimmune, unprepared corporate traveler is at risk. Comprehensive pretravel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including regions of endemicity, assessment of risk, and available means of prevention. In addition, we discuss data concerning current practices and attitudes of travelers, along with some of the issues surrounding the counseling of corporate travelers.
In the 1930s Dutch elm disease (DED) was accidentally introduced from Europe into the United States. It had a devastating impact on American elm (Ulmus americana) and its relatives in urban and riparian environments. In the United States, the three-part pathosystem for DED is unique in that the affected elm species are North American, the pathogen originated in Asia,...
The way we treat inflammatory bowel disease is rapidly changing. Biologics have accounted for the biggest change in recent years, and they are being used on a more regular basis, on more indications and at earlier stages. However, primary response failure and, above all, secondary response failure and cost represent serious limitations for their use. Combination immunosuppressant therapy, individualization depending on levels and response, increasing compliance and a more suitable choice of cases can all enhance effectiveness. However in many cases, new alternatives will be necessary. Recently, 2 new antibodies have been approved: golimumab is a new option for ulcerative colitis and with another more selective mechanism of action; vedolizumab could be useful for ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn's disease. Ustekinumab is an alternative treatment option for refractory Crohn's disease. In addition to biologics, autologous bone marrow transplants and, anecdotally, the use of immunoglobulins have been suggested as alternatives in some carefully selected cases. Although effective for Clostridium difficile infection, the potential role of fecal transplants in inflammatory bowel disease is still to be determined, without initially observing very promising results. The use of probiotics has not produced significant positive results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Danon disease, a rare glycogen storage disease, is a dominant X-linked disorder. It is due to mutation in gene for lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP 2. The LAMP 2 gene is located on Xq24, and its mutation causes primary deficiency of LAMP 2 and myocyte hypertrophy by accumulations of vacuoles containing glycogen. Danon disease is clinically characterized by the triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, proximal myopathy and mental retardation. Myopathy and mental retardation can be absent, and cardiomyopathy is usually hypertrophic. This is a case report of the patient with genetically confirmed Danon disease and mixed cardiomyopathy, but without myopathy and mental retardation. ECG showed typical Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW pattern while echocardiography demonstrated hypertrophy and dilatation of all cardiac chambers with impaired systolic and diastolic function. Male sex, early onset of symptoms, massive hypertrophy of the myocardium and ventricular preexcitation indicate a genetic basis for HCM. Therapeutic measures, except heart transplantation, do not improve prognosis substantially. Only an accurate diagnosis in patients with unexplained HCM helps in establishing of the appropriate treatment strategies and adequate genetic consultation. .
Kang, Somang; Lee, Yong Ho; Lee, Jong Eun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia. AD is characterized by the extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal deposits of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, as aging has become a familiar phenomenon around the world, patients with AD are increasing in number. Thus, many researchers are working toward finding effective therapeutics for AD focused on Aβ hypothesis, although there has been no success yet. In this review paper, we suggest that AD is a metabolic disease and that we should focus on metabolites that are affected by metabolic alterations to find effective therapeutics for AD. Aging is associated with not only AD but also obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). AD, obesity, and T2DM share demographic profiles, risk factors, and clinical and biochemical features in common. Considering AD as a kind of metabolic disease, we suggest insulin, adiponectin, and antioxidants as mechanistic links among these diseases and targets for AD therapeutics. Patients with AD show reduced insulin signal transductions in the brain, and intranasal injection of insulin has been found to have an effect on AD treatment. In addition, adiponectin is decreased in the patients with obesity and T2DM. This reduction induces metabolic dysfunction both in the body and the brain, leading to AD pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is known to be induced by Aβ and NFTs, and we suggest that oxidative stress caused by metabolic alterations in the body induce brain metabolic alterations, resulting in AD. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.
Full Text Available The long term consequences of iron toxicity are mostly reversible with effective iron chelation therapy. Recommendations for use of chelation therapy in transfusion dependent thalassaemia (TDT, sickle cell disease (SCD and non transfusion dependent thalassaemia (NTDT continue to evolve as our knowledge and clinical experience increases. Improved chelation options including drug combinations and a better understanding of condition specific factors may help to improve efficiency of chelation regimens and meet the needs of patients more effectively.
Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus
Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Perkovic, Vlado; Woodward, Mark; Stirnadel-Farrant, Heide; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Seong, Hooi Lai; Monaghan, Helen; Jha, Vivekanand
The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world. However, there is limited information on the overall regional prevalence of CKD, as well as the prognostic implications and treatment patterns in Asian region. We have established the Asian Renal Collaboration (ARC) with the goal of consolidating region-wide data regarding CKD. This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses. This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Full Text Available Tatiana Mancini1, Teresa Porcelli2, Andrea Giustina21Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, San Marino Hospital, San Marino, Republic of San Marino, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Endogenous Cushing syndrome is an endocrine disease caused by excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin hormone in approximately 80% of cases, usually by a pituitary corticotroph adenoma (Cushing disease [CD]. It is a heterogeneous disorder requiring a multidisciplinary and individualized approach to patient management. The goals of treatment of CD include the reversal of clinical features, the normalization of biochemical changes with minimal morbidity, and long-term control without recurrence. Generally, the treatment of choice is the surgical removal of the pituitary tumor by transsphenoidal approach, performed by an experienced surgeon. Considering the high recurrence rate, other treatments should be considered. Second-line treatments include more radical surgery, radiation therapy, medical therapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy. Drug treatment has been targeted at the hypothalamic or pituitary level, at the adrenal gland, and also at the glucocorticoid receptor level. Frequently, medical therapy is performed before surgery to reduce the complications of the procedure, reducing the effects of severe hypercortisolism. Commonly, in patients in whom surgery has failed, medical management is often essential to reduce or normalize the hypercortisolemia, and should be attempted before bilateral adrenalectomy is considered. Medical therapy can be also useful in patients with CD while waiting for pituitary radiotherapy to take effect, which can take up to 10 years or more. So far, results of medical treatment of CD have not been particularly relevant; however, newer tools promise to change this scenario. The aim of this review is to analyze the results and experiences with old and new medical
Kalra, Ankur; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Suri, Kunal; Mishra, Sundeep; Iqbal, Romaina; Virani, Salim S
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors. The PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP), the Kerala Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and Trivandrum Heart Failure registries have focused on secondary prevention of CVD and performance measurement in both outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS), and other epidemiologic and genetic studies have focused on primary prevention of CVD and evaluated variables such as environment, smoking, physical activity, health systems, food and nutrition policy, dietary consumption patterns, socioeconomic factors, and healthy neighborhoods. The international cardiovascular community has been responsive to a burgeoning cardiovascular disease burden in South Asia. Several collaborations have formed between the West (North America in particular) and South Asia to catalyze evidence-based and data-driven changes in the federal health policy in this part of the world to promote cardiovascular health and mitigate cardiovascular risk.
Jones, Timothy F; Yackley, Jane
Understanding the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) is important for informing investigation, control, and prevention methods. We examined annual summary FBDO data in the United States from 1938 to 2015, to help understand the epidemiology of outbreaks over time. Due to changes in reporting procedures, before 1998, the mean number of annual outbreaks was 378, and after that, it was 1062. A mean of 42% had a known etiology during 1961-1998; since then the etiology has been identified in ∼65%, with a marked increase in the number of norovirus outbreaks. From 1967 to 1997, a mean of 41% of FBDOs occurred in restaurant settings, increasing to 60% in 1998-2015. Concurrently, the proportion of outbreaks occurring at a home decreased from 25% to 8%. The mean size of outbreaks has decreased over time, and the number of multistate outbreaks has increased. Many social, economic, environmental, technological, and regulatory changes have dramatically affected the epidemiology of foodborne disease over time.
Vieira, Antonio; Hofacre, C.L.; Smith, J.A.
As highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to circulate in the world, poultry farm biosecurity and timely reporting of morbidity and mortality among commercial poultry farms in the United States are major concerns. To assess the vulnerability of poultry farms to the introduction an...... county. Data obtained in this study support the observations of published poultry disease outbreak investigations and highlight the differences in farm vulnerability to disease introduction within areas of different poultry densities and management practices.......As highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to circulate in the world, poultry farm biosecurity and timely reporting of morbidity and mortality among commercial poultry farms in the United States are major concerns. To assess the vulnerability of poultry farms to the introduction...... and spread of a highly infectious pathogen, such as the currently circulating H5N1 influenza virus, a survey was administered to growers in two counties in Georgia representing areas of low and high poultry densities. Survey questions regarding horizontal contacts and management were sent to commercial...
Full Text Available ParticipACTION is the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization first launched in the fall of 1971 and then ceased operations in 2001. ParticipACTION was relaunched in 2007. Framed as a public health natural experiment, evidence was collected from a population-based survey of knowledge, awareness, understanding of physical activity, and physical activity levels among Canadians (individual level, and key informant surveys and interviews examining capacity, readiness and advocacy for physical activity promotion among physical activity organizations (organizational level. The purpose of this paper is to first provide an overview of some of the major initiatives undertaken by the ‘new’ ParticipACTION that may have contributed to any changes at these individual or organizational levels. Second, the paper sets the stage for the three empirical papers in this special series reporting follow-up results.
Kennicutt, M. C.; Montagna, P.; Roscigno, P. F.
An overview of a three-phase study to evaluate the range of biological, biochemical and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities in the Gulf of Mexico associated with oil and gas exploration and production, was provided. The basic program comprises four activities stretching over a two-year period, and is designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out of each of three sites. Sampling design includes a radial pattern with stations at intervals up to 3000 meters distant from the platform. The design employs a dose-response model to test the hypothesis that biological, biochemical and chemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Detailed analysis of the contaminants includes analysis of sediments, pore waters and biological tissue, and assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs
Rautiainen, Susanne; Manson, JoAnn E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Sesso, Howard D
Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address these issues, dietary supplements and/or food fortification could help meet requirements for individuals at risk of deficiencies. For example, supplementation with vitamin A and iron in developing countries, where women of reproductive age, infants and children often have deficiencies; with folic acid among women of reproductive age and during pregnancy; with vitamin D among infants and children; and with calcium and vitamin D to ensure bone health among adults aged ≥65 years. Intense debate surrounds the benefits of individual high-dose micronutrient supplementation among well-nourished individuals because the alleged beneficial effects on chronic diseases are not consistently supported. Daily low-dose multivitamin supplementation has been linked to reductions in the incidence of cancer and cataracts, especially among men. Baseline nutrition is an important consideration in supplementation that is likely to modify its effects. Here, we provide a detailed summary of dietary supplements and health outcomes in both developing and developed countries to help guide decisions about dietary supplement recommendations.
Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.; Adegbola, Claire A.; Agocs, Mary; Ampofo, Krow; Andrews, Nick; Barton, Theresa; Benito, Javier; Broome, Claire V.; Bruce, Michael G.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Byington, Carrie L.; Camou, Teresa; Cook, Heather; Cotter, Suzanne; Dagan, Ron; de Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Denham, Barbara; Edwards, Giles; Eskola, Juhani; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Garcia-Gabarrot, Gabriela; Garcia-Garcia, Juan J.; Gene, Amadeu; Gomez, Borja; Heffernan, Helen; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Heuberger, Sigrid; Hilty, Markus; Ingels, Helene; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Kellner, James D.; Klein, Nicola P.; Kormann-Klement, Andrea; Kozakova, Jana; Krause, Vicki; Kriz, Paula; Lambertsen, Lotte; Lepoutre, Agnès; Lipsitch, Marc; Lopez-Vega, Mariana; Lovgren, Marguerite; Maraki, Sofia; Mason, Edward O.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Menzies, Robert; Messina, Allison; Miller, Elizabeth; Mintegi, Santiago; Motlova, Jitka; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Murdoch, David R.; Park, Daniel E.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Sa-Leao, Raquel; Sanyal, Abanti; Smith, Peter G.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Thompson, Richard E.; Thoon, Koh C.; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; van der Ende, Arie; Vanderkooi, Otto G.; van der Linden, Mark P. G.; Varon, Emmanuelle; Verhaegen, Jan; Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Vickers, Imelda; von Gottberg, Anne; von Kries, Rüdiger; Waight, Pauline; Weatherholtz, Robert; Weiss, Susanne; Yee, Arnold; Zaidi, Anita K. M.
Background: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccineserotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably
Martelli, Nicolas; Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; van den Brink, Helene
Local health technology assessment (HTA) to determine whether new health technologies should be adopted is now a common practice in many healthcare organizations worldwide. However, little is known about hospital-based HTA activities in France. The objective of this study was to explore hospital-based HTA activities in French university hospitals and to provide a picture of organizational approaches to the assessment of new and innovative medical devices. Eighteen semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists were conducted from October 2012 to April 2013. Six topics were discussed in depth: (i) the nature of the institution concerned; (ii) activities relating to innovative medical devices; (iii) the technology assessment and decision-making process; (iv) the methodology for technology assessment; (v) factors likely to influence decisions and (vi) suggestions for improving the current process. The interview data were coded, collated and analyzed statistically. Three major types of hospital-based HTA processes were identified: medical device committees, innovation committees, and "pharmacy & management" processes. HTA units had been set up to support medical device and innovation committees for technology assessment. Slow decision making was the main limitation to both these committee-based approaches. As an alternative, "pharmacy & management" processes emerged as a means of rapidly obtaining a formal assessment. This study provides an overview of hospital-based HTA initiatives in France. We hope that it will help to promote hospital-based HTA activities in France and discussions about ways to improve and harmonize practices, through the development of national guidelines and/or a French mini-HTA tool, for example.
Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello
Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD brought about much pressure in modern aging society both economically and psychologically, so it is meaningful to carry out AD research. Being considered as the most successful multi-center, inter-disciplinary and longitudinal research in AD field, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI has obtained outstanding achievements. In this review, we attempt to introduce the research plan of ADNI project for reference. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.003
Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M; Causton, Charlotte E; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D Cruz; Goodman, Simon J
Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos.
van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E
Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.
Clinical overview is explored at four emergency departments (EDs) during the introduction of a new IT system to support hereof. Important aspects of clinical overview are described for the clinical practice and for the further development of the IT system....
The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies
Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N
Culture-independent nucleic acid technologies have been extensively applied to the analysis of oral bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased conditions. These methods have confirmed and substantially expanded the findings from culture studies to reveal the oral microbial inhabitants and candidate pathogens associated with the major oral diseases. Over 1000 bacterial distinct species-level taxa have been identified in the oral cavity and studies using next-generation DNA sequencing approaches indicate that the breadth of bacterial diversity may be even much larger. Nucleic acid technologies have also been helpful in profiling bacterial communities and identifying disease-related patterns. This chapter provides an overview of the diversity and taxonomy of oral bacteria associated with health and disease.
Schaik, van G.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Benedictus, G.
A 2-year cohort study was conducted to investigate the probability of disease introduction into Dutch dairy farms. The farms were tested regularly for diseases and were visited biannually to collect management data. Ninety-five specific pathogen-free (SPF) dairy farms were selected from a database
Feller, Liviu; Ballyram, Raoul; Khammissa, Razia Ag; Altini, Mario; Lemmer, Johan
Pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid (mucous membrane pemphigoid), lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme are a group of immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorders characterised clinically by the formation of blisters, erosions or ulcers. The oral mucosa is often affected, and sometimes the disease is limited to the mouth. The target antigens, autoreactive immune responses, microscopic features, treatment and prognosis vary from one disease to the other. Treatment aims to eliminate exogenous risk factors, suppress the pathogenic immuno-inflammatory reactions, promote healing and prevent infection. The aim of this article is to provide the general dental practitioner with a succinct overview of the diagnostic, clinical, aetiopathogenic features and characteristics of, as well as treatment guidelines for oral pemphigus vulgaris and oral mucosal pemphigoid. Early diagnosis and treatment could prevent severe consequences of the disease in their full-blown forms.
Two journalists wrote a book on HPU (haemopyrrol-lactamuria), a hitherto unknown metabolic disease that was alleged to cause a whole range of complaints. The book is based on the ideas of a biochemist who is also the director of a commercial organisation that offers a diagnostic test as well as a therapy (nutrition supplement) for HPU. The release of the book was accompanied by a press release that provoked various publications in both biomedical journals and the lay press. In response to these reports, the director sometimes registered a complaint with the Dutch Council for Journalism, but on other occasions he did not. The content of this book is in no way based on scientific research. In retrospect, it is obvious that the authors, the biochemist and the publishing company have joint commercial ties. All professional standards of scientific research and journalistic decency are thus being violated. In this way, they are doing harm to the independence and integrity of researchers and journalists in the public image. All the activities of the press seem to have been an essential part of a deliberate marketing strategy for the introduction of a non-disease.
Garrod, Rachel; Lasserson, Toby
Four Cochrane respiratory reviews of relevance to physiotherapeutic practice are discussed in this overview. Physiotherapists aim to improve ventilation for people with respiratory disease, and approach this using a variety of techniques. As such, the reviews chosen for discussion consider a wide range of interventions commonly used by physiotherapists: breathing exercises, bronchopulmonary hygiene techniques and physical training for peripheral and respiratory muscles. The reviews show that breathing exercises may have beneficial effects on health-related quality of life in asthma, and that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may improve inspiratory muscle strength. However, the clinical relevance of increased respiratory muscle strength per se is unknown, and the longer-term effects of breathing exercises on morbidity have not been considered. One review clearly shows that bronchopulmonary hygiene techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis increase sputum production. Frequent exacerbation is associated with increased sputum and high bacterial load, suggesting that there may be important therapeutic benefit of improved sputum clearance. Future studies evaluating the long-term effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene techniques on morbidity are recommended. In the third review, the importance of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of COPD is once again reinforced. Physiotherapists are crucial to the delivery of exercise training programmes, and it is likely that the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation extend to other important outcomes, such as hospital admission and re-admission. On the basis of the evidence provided by these Cochrane reviews, this overview highlights important practice points of relevance to physiotherapy, and recommendations for future studies.
Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++
James, Frederick E
1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.
Hirata, Makoto; Nagai, Akiko; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Muto, Kaori; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Mushiroda, Taisei; Murakami, Yoshinori; Yuji, Koichiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Yozo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi
We established a patient-oriented biobank, BioBank Japan, with information on approximately 200,000 patients, suffering from any of 47 common diseases. This follow-up survey focused on 32 diseases, potentially associated with poor vital prognosis, and collected patient survival information, including cause of death. We performed a survival analysis for all subjects to get an overview of BioBank Japan follow-up data. A total of 141,612 participants were included. The survival data were last updated in 2014. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed after categorizing subjects according to sex, age group, and disease status. Relative survival rates were estimated using a survival-rate table of the Japanese general population. Of 141,612 subjects (56.48% male) with 1,087,434 person-years and a 97.0% follow-up rate, 35,482 patients died during follow-up. Mean age at enrollment was 64.24 years for male subjects and 63.98 years for female subjects. The 5-year and 10-year relative survival rates for all subjects were 0.944 and 0.911, respectively, with a median follow-up duration of 8.40 years. Patients with pancreatic cancer had the least favorable prognosis (10-year relative survival: 0.184) and patients with dyslipidemia had the most favorable prognosis (1.013). The most common cause of death was malignant neoplasms. A number of subjects died from diseases other than their registered disease(s). This is the first report to perform follow-up survival analysis across various common diseases. Further studies should use detailed clinical and genomic information to identify predictors of mortality in patients with common diseases, contributing to the implementation of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Polyzos, Stergios A; Kountouras, Jannis; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Katsiki, Evangelia; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Zafeiriadou, Efthimia; Papadopoulou, Evridiki; Zavos, Christos; Terpos, Evangelos
Insulin resistance (IR), adipocytokines, oxidative stress and hepatic apoptosis play a pathogenetic role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The evaluation of specific adipocytokines and markers of IR, oxidative stress and apoptosis in NAFLD patients; the introduction of a combined non-invasive index for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Thirty patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (15 with simple nonalcoholic fatty liver [NAFL], 15 with NASH) and 24 controls were recruited. Blood samples for total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the apoptotic by-product cytokeratin (CK)-18, the reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and standard biochemical tests were measured. Homeostatic model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Total and HMW adiponectin were significantly lower and TNF-α higher in either NAFL or NASH group compared to control group; CK-18 was significantly higher in NASH compared to either NAFL or control group. CHAI (an acronym of CK-18, HOMA-IR, AST Index) was calculated as the product of parameters being significantly different between NAFL and NASH groups. CHAI was significantly higher in NASH (24.2 [15.1-214.0]) compared to either NAFL (15.7 [6.8-22.7]) or control (5.1 [2.4-7.6]) group (p validation study is needed before introducing CHAI in clinical practice.
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...
Lang, T.; Mellergaard, Stig
General information on the rationale and objectives of the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea" (25 November to 8 December 1994), as well as cruise and methodological information, is presented as an introduction to a set of right contributions that describe...
Full Text Available Hanna Rhee1, Daniel J Cameron21Medicine, San Diego, CA, 2Northern Westchester Hospital, Mount Kisco, NY, USAAbstract: Lyme disease (LD is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS, a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed.Keywords: neuroborreliosis, infection, obsessive-compulsive disorder, tic disorder, Borrelia burgdorferi, strep throat
Miracles which can be observed in different religions are often closely connected to medicine. These miraculous cures, considered to be inexplicable by medical science, have been documented in Christian religion and in occidental culture for more than 2000 years. These miraculous healings are also reported in the field of dermatology. The miraculous bulletins documented by the Catholic Church take their beginning in the Old Testament and extend to the miraculous cures of Lourdes in present time. We provide an overview of miraculous healings of skin diseases, whereby accounts documented in the Bible, reports during the Middle Ages, and cases documented throughout the last century are discussed. In view of modern medicine, most of the miraculous healings do not meet modern demands of science, but remain important as milestones in medical and religious history.
Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index
Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.
The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease . In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv . However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.
Fishta, Alba; Backé, Eva-Maria
Based on information reported in systematic reviews (SRevs), this study aimed to find out whether psychosocial stress at work leads to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. A systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE (until 2014) used a string based on PICOS components. A manual search was followed. Applying the predefined criteria, two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, selected full texts, and validated their quality. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between reviewers. Studies of low quality were excluded. Contents of enrolled SRevs were extracted by one reviewer; a second reviewer evaluated their accurateness. The search resulted in 462 records. Six SRevs based on 81 studies (total population: ~1,468,670) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, four of "very good" (++) and two of "good" (+) quality. Excluded records were filed, and reasons for exclusion were documented in all cases. Different stress models were used to measure the work-related stress; the "demand-control model" was most commonly used. The two enrolled meta-analysis confirmed a modest (1.32, 95 % CI 1.09-1.59; Virtanen et al. 2013) to moderate evidence (1.45, 95 % CI 1.15-1.84; Kivimäki et al. 2006), predominantly among men, for the association between psychosocial stress at work and CV outcomes. Due to lacking information, it was not possible to give evidence on the dose-response relationship. Same to a SRev, an overview of SRev is used to summarize literature and identify areas in which research is needed. This overview can be used to: (a) Disseminate an up-to-date information on work-related stress as a risk factors for CV morbidity and mortality to government, health care providers, workers, and other stakeholders; (b) Encourage governments to better regulate the working conditions and consider work-related psychosocial stress as a hazardous factor that leads to CV diseases or mortality; and (c) Analyze gaps in the literature and provide a summary of research
Full Text Available The use of aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has dramatically grown in recent decades, with an increased need in understanding of comparative pathology. The Unionids freshwater mussels are a group of worldwide distributed bivalves residing small ditches and ponds, lakes, canals and rivers, often used as animal test in eco-toxicological studies. Once one of the most abundant bivalve molluscs in ancient rivers around the world, now many of them are declining in many countries and consequently are nearly extinct in many areas. The causes of this decline are not fully understood but alteration and degradation of the freshwater habitat seemed to play a central role. To date, link causality to the observed losses during episode of mussel die-offs has been more difficult to establish, and disease and pathogen presence have been scarcely considered. In this article we provide a brief overview of unionids freshwater mussel conservation status, also describing reported diseases and pathogens and illustrating a few relatively well-documented studies.
Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro
Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
... spread of communicable diseases. 1271.145 Section 1271.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... diseases. You must recover, process, store, label, package, and distribute HCT/Ps, and screen and test cell... diseases. ...
Vieira, Antonio; Hofacre, C.L.; Smith, J.A.
As highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to circulate in the world, poultry farm biosecurity and timely reporting of morbidity and mortality among commercial poultry farms in the United States are major concerns. To assess the vulnerability of poultry farms to the introduction...
Daniel R Feikin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65 and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68. Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71. Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not
Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
Full Text Available Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD has a tremendous psychological burden, which sometimes is overlooked or underestimated in the daily clinical routine practice, since in the health care process physicians prefer to focus on the objective aspects of the pathology. In this contribution, we make a systematic overview of the relationship between spirituality/religiosity and CKD, an emerging theme which only recently has raised interest from the scientific community despite its importance. We investigate different variables, axis and categories (from the quality of life to customer’s satisfaction, treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, clinical parameters, as well as overall survival, and coping strategies adopted by the patient. Moreover, we underpin the principal clinically relevant implications (like the possibility of psycho-therapeutic interventions based on the spiritual and religious attitudes of the patient and we discuss the main gaps, methodological barriers and difficulties in the field, fostering and advocating further research and clinical studies. This last aspect, together with the quality assessment of the studies, will be further explored in the second part of the study.
Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Puente, Giovanni Del
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has a tremendous psychological burden, which sometimes is overlooked or underestimated in the daily clinical routine practice, since in the health care process physicians prefer to focus on the objective aspects of the pathology. In this contribution, we make a systematic overview of the relationship between spirituality/religiosity and CKD, an emerging theme which only recently has raised interest from the scientific community despite its importance. We investigate different variables, axis and categories (from the quality of life to customer’s satisfaction, treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, clinical parameters, as well as overall survival, and coping strategies adopted by the patient). Moreover, we underpin the principal clinically relevant implications (like the possibility of psycho-therapeutic interventions based on the spiritual and religious attitudes of the patient) and we discuss the main gaps, methodological barriers and difficulties in the field, fostering and advocating further research and clinical studies. This last aspect, together with the quality assessment of the studies, will be further explored in the second part of the study. PMID:26973911
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this overview was to evaluate and summarize Cochrane reviews of traditional Chinese herbal products (TCHPs as the treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods. We searched the Cochrane Database that was concerned with the effectiveness of TCHPs for CHD. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews and primary studies of TCHP as the treatment of any type of CHD were included. Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. Six Cochrane reviews were included. They related to a wide range of TCHPs for different types of CHD. Four reviews were concerned with angina pectoris (unstable or stable, one review was concerned with heart failure, and for acute myocardial infarction. No reviews concluded that TCHPs were definitely effective for CHD because of the weak evidence. Eight primary studies were TCHPs from CHD. These studies also maybe result in bias, but better than before. Conclusion. Several Cochrane reviews of TCHPs for the treatment of different types of CHD have recently been published. None of these reviews got definite conclusion favoring the effectiveness of TCHPs due to the weak evidence. With the improved quality of the new registered RCTs. The potential role of TCHPs in treating CHD is anticipated to be detected.
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Johnston, C. Conrad; Slemenda, Charles
An overview of osteoporosis, its types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment is presented. Risk factors and bone mass measurement are also discussed. This article serves as an introduction to a symposium on osteoporosis containing five other articles in this issue. (MT)
Coates, Ralph J; Stanbury, Martha; Jajosky, Ruth; Thomas, Kimberly; Monti, Michele; Schleiff, Patricia; Singh, Simple D
With this 2016 Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, CDC is publishing official statistics for the occurrence of nationally notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks for the second time in the same volume of MMWR as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions (1). As was the case for the 2015 Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks (2), this joint publication is the result of a request by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to provide readers with information on all nationally notifiable conditions and disease outbreaks in a single publication.
Chu, Shao-Yin; Weng, Chun-Ying
Genetic disease or hereditary disease is a group of disorders that is caused by mutations in an individual's genome. The mutated genome or gene may be transmitted through the germ line during reproduction, causing certain recurrence risk in offspring and other family members. The heritability of these disorders is thus an important issue to deal with clinically. In Taiwan, a rare disease is defined as a disease that is prevalent in fewer than 1 in 10,000 individuals. As up to 80% of rare disease cases in Taiwan are genetic disease disorders, genetic disease may not rare. The pathophysiology of genetic/ rare disease is very complicated. Individual disorders may have their own unique mechanisms (such as Fragile X syndrome), with most of these mechanisms still unclear or unknown. The symptoms and signs of genetic/rare disease thus present the greatest variabilities and cause difficulties in making diagnoses. Most related patients may present multiple congenital anomalies, metabolic disorders, growth and developmental delays, defects in cognition, neuromuscular abnormalities, and defects in vision, hearing or other organ functions. Symptomatic and supportive treatment still comprise a major component of treatment of genetic/rare disease (with the exception of special formulae for several inborn errors of metabolic disease and enzyme replacement therapy in some lysosomal storage disease). Poor self-care ability is common and the burden on caregivers is huge. Most rare disease patients are treated using a comprehensive rehabilitation program that begins during very early childhood, receive individual educational programs, and are continuously monitored with regard to their growth, developmental, and nutritional status. Inter-professional patient care, genetic counseling, and the creation of family support networks play an important role in family management. Public awareness and the creation of appropriate social systems and resources allocation are mandatory for proper
Yu, Y; Wang, Y L; Ma, Y D
There are plenty of names of disease-syndrome from the four kinds of unearthed Qin bamboo slips, namely Fangmatan, Shuihudi, Zhoujiatai, and Liye. Altogether, these names number to 85. According to statistics, nomenclature of 34 disease-syndromes are derived from the location of the lesion, 8 from symptoms, 1 from etiology, 12 from location of lesion plus symptom, 3 from location plus etiology, and 25 are for special diseases. Through comparison of these names, with those from oracle bones and Han bamboo slips, Prescriptions for Hundred Kinds of Disease, it is summarized that, as time passes, nomenclature simply named by the location of the lesion was gradually reduced, and named by etiology and special diseases gradually increased. To some extent, it reflects the historical process of knowledge of the disease gradually deepened in ancient times.
Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... from each unaffected farm. The resulting numbers of cases and controls used for statistical analyses were 16 and 61, respectively. Statistically significant associations were seen between the initial 16 Danish cases of acute clinical IBD in 1998 and certain hatcheries, age of parent birds and a certain...
Halkier, Barbara Ann
will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....
Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in
Harboe, Zitta B; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Ingels, Helene
A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction...... of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one...... of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F...
Zitta B Harboe
Full Text Available A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number and 105 (55% caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F. One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark.
Stefanelli, P; Fazio, C; Neri, A; Boros, S; Renna, G; Pompa, M G
In Italy, the incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was around 0.28 per 100,000 over the last years. Since the risk IMD is usually high among infants aged less than 1 year, we decided to evaluate the trend of IMD cases reported between 2006 and 2014 in this age group. In particular, the study aim was to describe the main characteristics of IMD cases in infants following the introduction of MCC vaccine (2005) and to estimate the number of cases which are potentially preventable through early vaccination. The National Surveillance System of Bacterial Meningitis was established in 1994 and in 2007 was extended to all invasive bacterial diseases. Clinical data and isolates and/or clinical samples are collected from hospitalized patients throughout the country. IMD cases are reported by clinicians to the local health authorities, and samples are sent to the Reference Laboratory at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità for further characterization and storage at -80°C. In particular, serogroup identification is obtained by agglutination with commercial antisera or by multiplex PCR. The annual incidence for infants B was more frequently detected among infants aged B was the most commonly detected over time. The long-term impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine and the effect of the introduction of meningococcal B vaccination among infants need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quick, J C; Camara, W J; Johnson, J V; Sauter, S L; Hurrell, J J; Piotrkowski, C S; Spielberger, C D
This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted to the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology following their presentation in an earlier form at the 3rd APA/NIOSH conference in September 1995. This article provides a brief history of the APA/NIOSH collaboration forged at the turn of this decade.
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
Performance objectives are stated for each of the five secondary school units included in this package of instructional guides prepared for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. All five units are concerned with aspects of physiology; three require no prerequisite study of biology ("Introduction to the Human Body,""Man and…
Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.
Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases
Kaper, Tasso J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kramer, Mark A., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rotstein, Horacio G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)
Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.
Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.
Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.
covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.
Zanforlin, Enrico; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Ribaudo, Giovanni
Dementias and all related neurodegenerative diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are a current issue arousing a great deal of interest in the international scientific community. This is due to the increasing number of patients suffering from these diseases. These pathologies represent a serious problem, not only concerning the quality of life of the patient, but in addition, the enormous economic efforts that society has to do for their treatment. There are currently a few strategies that are available in order to prevent the progression or to mitigate symptoms of the aforementioned diseases. This consideration is particularly true if we consider the specific pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We performed a literature search for peer-reviewed articles using different databases, such as PubMed or Scopus, and exploiting different keywords and different logical operators. Ninety-eight papers were included in the review. Four papers give an overview of the background of the dementias all over the world. The remaining papers are focused on new possibilities of treatment with natural and semi-synthetic compounds for AD. The aim of this review is to give an overview of new and promising natural products and semi-synthetic compounds which could represent a source of "lead compounds" for the development of new potential drugs that could be a valid therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Ridley, David B; Sánchez, Alfonso Calles
Every year 1 billion people worldwide are affected by traditionally neglected diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis, which impose tremendous public health burdens. Governments, foundations, and drug manufacturers have, however, started to support development of new treatments. European Union Member States have been leaders in implementing so-called push mechanisms (payment for drug development) and pull funding (reward for output), such as the advance market commitment, which creates a market for vaccines by guaranteeing prices. We propose an additional step that could be taken to encourage development of medicines for neglected diseases. A priority review voucher scheme, as is already in place in the USA, would reward a manufacturer that developed a new medicine for neglected diseases with a voucher that could be redeemed for priority review of a future medicine, probably a potential blockbuster drug. Unlike the US system a European voucher would also accelerate pricing and reimbursement decisions. This scheme would be likely to provide substantial benefits to voucher holders, society, and public health organisations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L
Disease management (DM) programmes have long been promoted as a major medical cost-saving mechanism, even though the scant research that exists on the topic has provided conflicting results. In a 2004 literature review, the Congressional Budget Office stated that 'there is insufficient evidence to conclude that disease management programs can generally reduce the overall cost of health care services'. To address this question more accurately, a meta-analysis was warranted. Meta-analysis is the quantitative technique used to pool the results of many studies on the same topic and summarize them statistically. This method is also quite suitable for individual DM firms to assess whether their programmes are effective at the aggregate level. This paper describes the elements of a rigorous meta-analytic process and discusses potential biases. A hypothetical DM organization is then evaluated with a specific emphasis on medical cost-savings, simulating a case in which different populations are served, evaluation methodologies are employed, and diseases are managed.
Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
Reynaert, Niki L; Gopal, Poornima; Rutten, Erica P A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schalkwijk, Casper G
Age-related, non-communicable chronic inflammatory diseases represent the major 21st century health problem. Especially in Western countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis are exponentially rising as the population ages. These diseases are determined by common risk factors and share an age-related onset. The affected organs display evidence of accelerated ageing, and are hallmarked by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases and plays a central role in amplifying inflammatory responses. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and accumulation is accelerated under these conditions. Advanced glycation end products are not only linked to RAGE signaling and inflammation, but to various hallmarks of the ageing process. In addition to these biological functions, circulating levels of the soluble form of RAGE and of advanced glycation end products are candidate biomarkers for many age-related inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic connections between RAGE and advanced glycation end products and the processes of inflammation and ageing. Furthermore, through the presented overview of AGE-RAGE alterations that have been described in clinical studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis, and insight obtained from mechanistic in vitro and animal studies, it can be concluded that these AGE-RAGE disturbances are a common contributing factor to the inflammatory state and pathogenesis of these various conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tropea, Thomas F; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S
First described 200 years ago, Parkinson Disease (PD) exhibits considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation, as well as trajectory of motor and non-motor decline. This heterogeneity, in turn, complicates the planning of clinical research, particularly trials of disease-modifying therapies, as well as the care of PD patients. While clinical features have been used to delineate subgroups of PD patients, clinical subtyping is hampered by change in features over time, and clinical subtyping may fail to capture the biological processes underlying heterogeneity. In contrast, biomarkers - objective measures that serve as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to therapeutic interventions - have promise to delineate molecularly-defined subgroups of PD patients who may be most likely to benefit from specific therapeutic interventions. Here we review the present role of genetic and biochemical biomarkers in PD. Moreover, we highlight areas where the use of biomarkers may benefit clinical trial planning, as well as clinical care through the application of a "precision medicine" approach, in the near term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDermott, Jason E.; Braun, Pascal; Bonneau, Richard A.; Hyduke, Daniel R.
Pathogenic infections are a major cause of both human disease and loss of crop yields and animal stocks and thus cause immense damage to the worldwide economy. The significance of infectious diseases is expected to increase in an ever more connected warming world, in which new viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens can find novel hosts and ecologic niches. At the same time, the complex and sophisticated mechanisms by which diverse pathogenic agents evade defense mechanisms and subvert their hosts networks to suit their lifestyle needs is still very incompletely understood especially from a systems perspective . Thus, understanding host-pathogen interactions is both an important and a scientifically fascinating topic. Recently, technology has offered the opportunity to investigate host-pathogen interactions on a level of detail and scope that offers immense computational and analytical possibilities. Genome sequencing was pioneered on some of these pathogens, and the number of strains and variants of pathogens sequenced to date vastly outnumbers the number of host genomes available. At the same time, for both plant and human hosts more and more data on population level genomic variation becomes available and offers a rich field for analysis into the genetic interactions between host and pathogen.
Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.
Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy
Although disease management (DM) has been in existence for over a decade, there is still much uncertainty as to its effectiveness in improving health status and reducing medical cost. The main reason is that most programme evaluations typically follow weak observational study designs that are subject to bias, most notably selection bias and regression to the mean. The regression discontinuity (RD) design may be the best alternative to randomized studies for evaluating DM programme effectiveness. The most crucial element of the RD design is its use of a 'cut-off' score on a pre-test measure to determine assignment to intervention or control. A valuable feature of this technique is that the pre-test measure does not have to be the same as the outcome measure, thus maximizing the programme's ability to use research-based practice guidelines, survey instruments and other tools to identify those individuals in greatest need of the programme intervention. Similarly, the cut-off score can be based on clinical understanding of the disease process, empirically derived, or resource-based. In the RD design, programme effectiveness is determined by a change in the pre-post relationship at the cut-off point. While the RD design is uniquely suitable for DM programme evaluation, its success will depend, in large part, on fundamental changes being made in the way DM programmes identify and assign individuals to the programme intervention.
Thompson, J.W.; Austman, G.; Iglesias, F.; Schmeing, H.; Elliott, C.; Archinoff, G.
The concept of criticality for operating reactor staff, particularly in a natural uranium-fuelled reactor, is relatively benign - the reactor is controlled at the critical condition by the regulating system. That is, issues related to criticality exist only within the reactor, in a set of carefully managed circumstances. With the introduction of enriched Low Void Reactivity Fuel (LVRF) into this operating environment comes a new 'concept of criticality', one which, although physically the same, cannot be treated in the same fashion. It may be the case that criticality can be achieved outside the reactor, albeit with a set of very pessimistic assumptions. Such 'inadvertent criticality' outside the reactor, should it occur, cannot be controlled. The consequences of such an inadvertent criticality could have far-reaching effects, not only in terms of severe health effects to those nearby, but also in terms of the negative impact on Bruce Power, and the Canadian nuclear industry in general. Thus the introduction of LVRF in the Bruce B reactors, and therefore the introduction of this new hazard, inadvertent criticality, warrants the development of a governance structure for its management. Such a program will consist of various elements, including the establishment of a framework to administer the criticality safety program, analytical assessment to support the process design, the development of operational procedures, the development of enhanced emergency procedures if necessary, and the implementation of a criticality safety training program. The entire package must be sufficient to demonstrate to station management, and the regulator, that the criticality safety risks associated with the implementation of enriched fuel have been properly evaluated, and that all necessary steps have been taken to effectively manage these risks. A well-founded Criticality Safety Program will offer such assurance. In this paper, we describe the establishment of a Criticality Safety
C. N. Hewitt
Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.
Barlow, J H; Ellard, D R
The role of psycho-educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease has received growing recognition and is in keeping with policy developments advocating greater involvement of patients in their own care. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current literature regarding the effectiveness of psycho-educational interventions for children and adolescents with chronic disease, their parents and siblings. Electronic searches were conducted using AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, DARE, HTA, MEDLINE, NHS EED, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and PubMED. Inclusion criteria were systematic reviews, meta-analyses and overviews based on traditional reviews of published literature. The titles of papers were reviewed, abstracts were obtained and reviewed, and full copies of selected papers were obtained. No reviews of psycho-educational interventions were found for either parents or siblings. Twelve reviews of interventions for children and adolescents were identified: chronic disease in general (three); chronic pain (one); asthma (three); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) (one); diabetes (two); juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (one) and one informational intervention for paediatric cancer patients. The main focus was on disease management (particularly in asthma and diabetes) with less attention being paid to psychosocial aspects of life with a chronic condition. Overall, there is evidence of effectiveness for interventions incorporating cognitive-behavioural techniques on variables such as self-efficacy, self-management of disease, family functioning, psychosocial well-being, reduced isolation, social competence, knowledge, hope, pain (for chronic headache), lung function (asthma), days absent from school (asthma), visits to A & E (asthma), fatigue (CFS), and metabolic control (diabetes). A number of gaps and limitations were identified across all disease categories, such as inadequate description of interventions
Rossi, Marcos A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R; Campos, Erica C; Blefari, Valdecir; Prado, Cibele M
This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease.
Marcos A Rossi
Full Text Available This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC, an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease.
Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A
Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as
Shrihari, T G
The role of periodontal disease remains a headline-generating topic. Periodontal disease, caused chiefly by bacteria, is characterized by inflammation, bacteremia, a strong immune response, and loss of connective tissue attachment and bone. It is speculated that a continuous long-term exposure to oral bacteremia and bacterial toxins induces immune responses that could contribute to coronary atherosclerosis and, in conjunction with other risk factors, lead to coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. Periodontal disease might initiate pathological changes in blood vessel walls and act as a precursor of atherosclerosis in susceptible hosts. Many causal factors can play a role in heart diseases. Periodontal disease caused by pathogen bacteria as a low-grade inflammation could represent one of several possible causal factors of heart disease.
This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)
Dietel, Harvey M
An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte
Caroline Zocatelli de Paula
Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide. Progressive damage or loss of neurons, neurodegeneration, has severe consequences on the mental and physical health of a patient. Despite all efforts by scientific community, there is currently no cure or manner to slow degeneration progression. We review some treatments that attempt to prevent the progress of some of major neurodegenerative diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Huntington’s disease.
Full Text Available John Y Fang, Christopher Tolleson Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neuronal dopamine production in the brain. Oral therapies primarily augment the dopaminergic pathway. As the disease progresses, more continuous delivery of therapy is commonly needed. Deep brain stimulation (DBS has become an effective therapy option for several different neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including PD. It currently has US Food and Drug Administration approval for PD and essential tremor, as well as a humanitarian device exception for dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. For PD treatment, it is currently approved specifically for those patients suffering from complications of pharmacotherapy, including motor fluctuations or dyskinesias, and a disease process of at least 4 years of duration. Studies have demonstrated superiority of DBS and medical management compared to medical management alone in selected PD patients. Optimal patient selection criteria, choice of target, and programming methods for PD and the other indications for DBS are important topics that continue to be explored and remain works in progress. In addition, new hardware options, such as different types of leads, and different software options have recently become available, increasing the potential for greater efficacy and/or reduced side effects. This review gives an overview of therapeutic management in PD, specifically highlighting DBS and some of the recent changes with surgical therapy. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, deep brain stimulation, functional neurosurgery
Prabhu, V; Shivani, A
Peptic ulcer disease including both gastric and duodenal ulcer form a substantial part of patients seeking surgical opinion world-wide. The concept of acid in peptic ulcer disease, which was the basis of treatment of peptic ulcer was revolutionized by the discovery of H2-receptor antagonists, that led to the principle of acid suppression therapy for duodenal ulcer which followed decades of preference for surgical interventions in the form of gastric resections, vagotomy etc., After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori organism as the causative factor a triple drug regime was identified to treat peptic disease which was further modified to sequential therapy to avoid antibiotic resistance. This recognition has not concluded the chapter on peptic ulcers. The management of ulcer disease and its complications remain a surgical challenge. All the materials for this review have been accessed from various internet search engines. The references have been narrowed down to 34 by excluding cross references, duplicated citations, pediatric studies, case reports, iatrogenic and malignant perforations and including microbiological, immunohistochemistry references and studies with more than a sample size of ten. Case control, cohort studies, prospective/retrospective, metaanalytical studies were preferred in that order. This article attempts to take an overview of all aspects of the management of peptic ulcer.
Vagner de Souza Vargas
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the characteristics of early supplementary feeding and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of families of children aged 0-59 months with respiratory diseases. Methods: A comparison of data from two population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Rio Grande / RS, in 1995 and 2004 in order to observe changes in prevalence. Results: In both studies we perceived that the majority of children received water, teas, juices, soups and fruits before six months. In contrast, powdered milk, cow milk, meats and bean were introduced after the sixth month of life to most children. In both studies, there was greater proportion of families with incomes up to 5.9 minimum wages, with up to 8 completed years of schooling, adequate housing conditions, married women, with a son and birth intervals longer than 3 years. Conclusions: We observed, in both studies, that the introduction of food before the sixth month of life is still common in this population, although during this period the children should be under exclusive breastfeeding.
Harboe, Zitta B.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas
We evaluated the effectiveness of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 1 year after PCV7's introduction in the childhood immunization programme through a nationwide cohort study based on laboratory surveillance data. There was a decline...... in the overall incidence of IPD from 19.4 to 17.1 cases per 100,000 population (incidence rate ratios (IRR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.81-0.96]), and of meningitis from 1.56 to 1.16 (IRR 0.74; 95% CI [0.57-0.97]) comparing pre-PCV7 (years 2000-2007) and PCV7 (year 2008) periods. In children ..., the incidence decreased from 54 to 23 cases per 100,000 (IRR 0.43; 95% CI [0.29-0.62]) and for vaccine-serotypes from 36.7 to 7.7 (IRR 0.20; 95% CI [0.09-0.38]). The incidence of IPD declined approximately 10% (IRR 0.90; 95% CI [0.84-0.97]) in patients aged >or=2 years. The case fatality was 17% in both periods...
Studies of German health policy often highlight institutional constraints to reform. However, based on a case study of the introduction of clinical standards as part of the Disease Management Programmes for chronic illnesses, this article suggests that negotiating reform at an arm's length from the state can also lead to governance change, although the strengthening of hierarchy is not as prominent as that in some of the countries studied in this special issue. As such, the case of Germany offers interesting insights into the politics of governance change that occur in the shadow, but largely without the direct involvement of the state, which is typical of a corporatist health-care state. In this respect, the analysis identifies three leverages for change. First, the change in medical governance explicitly builds on earlier reforms and gives the reform alliance a competitive edge. Second, the organisations of the joint self-administration, as a more or less open ally of the state, play an influential role throughout the reform process. Importantly and third, this is complemented by the state steering at a distance.
Hernández-Jover, Marta; Schembri, Nicole; Holyoake, Patricia K; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Martin, Peter Anthony Julian
Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks is poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) through different sectors of the pig industry: (1) large-scale pig producers; (2) small-scale producers (traceability in the event of a disease outbreak. This study suggests that producers' awareness on and engagement with legislative and industry requirements in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease management needs to be improved. Results from this study could be used by decision-makers to prioritize resource allocation for improving animal biosecurity in the pig industry.
Rhee, Connie M.
Purpose of Review Hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, including those receiving dialysis. This review examines potential mechanistic links between thyroid and kidney disease; current evidence for hypothyroidism as a risk factor for de novo CKD and CKD progression; and studies of thyroid functional disorders, cardiovascular disease, and death in the CKD population. Recent Findings Epidemiologic data have demonstrated an incrementally higher prevalence of hypothyroidism with increasing severity of kidney dysfunction. Various thyroid functional test abnormalities are also commonly observed in CKD, due to alterations in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, and regulation. While the mechanistic link between thyroid and kidney disease remains unclear, observational studies suggest hypothyroidism is associated with abnormal kidney structure and function. Previously thought to be a physiologic adaptation, recent studies show that hypothyroidism is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD. Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that hypothyroidism is a risk factor for incident CKD, CKD progression, and higher death risk in kidney disease patients. Rigorous studies are needed to determine impact of thyroid hormone replacement upon kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, which may shed light into the causal implications of hypothyroidism in CKD. PMID:27428519
Arthur J. Cordell; Prabir K. Neogi
Internet Governance: An Introduction offers a complete guide to the “ins and outs” of Internet governance. Drawing on a range of international authors Internet Governance is best suited for those seeking an overview of the range of issues involved as the Internet becomes increasingly important to bu siness and to society in general, affecting the daily lives of millions of people around the world.
Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.
This manual presents an overview of the Q data-acquisition system. Its purposes are to assist an experimenter in determining whether the system is suited to his needs and to provide an introduction to the more detailed manuals. This system employs a powerful technique for dealing with multiprocessor systems by generating code and communication protocol for two processors from a single source program in a high-level language. Some details of experimental event buffering and distribution are discussed
M O Odubanjo
Full Text Available There is paucity of information on the magnitude of the burden of renal disease in our environment. Obtaining accurate data is hampered by the poor socioeconomic status of most patients with lack of access to specialized care in tertiary institutions, where most of the data is generated. The incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF and end-stage renal disease (ESRD in any specified area is known to be influenced by the prevalence of specific disease entities resulting in CRF. Hypertension, glomerulonephritis (GN, sickle cell disease, quartan malaria nephropathy, urinary tract schistosomiasis and other parasite-related forms of chronic GN are known to contribute significantly to the incidence of CRF in Nigeria. As is the situation in other parts of the world, diabetic nephropathy appears to be of increasing importance in the causation of ESRD in Nigeria. Even though the underlying cause of renal disease can often not be treated, extensive studies in experimental animals and preliminary studies in humans suggest that progression in chronic renal disease may largely be due to secondary factors, attention to which may be important in the prevention and/or control of renal disease.
Hanan A. Alkozi
Full Text Available Sight for mammals is one of the most appreciated senses. In humans there are several factors that contribute to the increment in all kind of eye diseases. This mini-review will focus on some diseases whose prevalence is steadily increasing year after year for non-genetic reasons, namely cataracts, dry eye, and glaucoma. Aging, diet, inflammation, drugs, oxidative stress, seasonal and circadian style-of-live changes are impacting on disease prevalence by epigenetics factors, defined as stable heritable traits that are not explained by changes in DNA sequence. The mini-review will concisely show the data showing epigenetics marks in these diseases and on how knowledge on the epigenetic alterations may guide therapeutic approaches to have a healthy eye.
Kenyon Ault, Steven; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Licenciado en Ciencias, Máster en Ciencias, Especialista registrado en Salud Ambiental.; Catalá Pascual, Laura; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública y Medicina Preventiva, Máster en Salud Pública.; Grados-Zavala, Maria Elena; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Bachiller en Administración de Empresas y Bachiller en Economía.; Gonzálvez García, Guillermo; Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina, Máster en Salud Pública; Castellanos, Luis Gerardo; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU.
Neglected infectious diseases (NID) affect mainly isolated populations living in isolation and in poor socioeconomic conditions. These diseases, by their chronic and silent nature, often affect communities with a weak political voice. This translates into very little attention or political priority; which is reflected in minimal and insufficient preventive measures, monitoring and control. However, there is evidence this situation is changing favorably in some countries of the Americas. In re...
Chenchen Wang; Yifan Tu; Zongliang Yu; Rongzhu Lu
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly and the ambient concentration of PM2.5 has been associated with several cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We describe the present state of planetary air pollution, analyze epidemiological studies linking PM2.5 and CVD, and discuss multiple pathophysiological mechanisms linking PM2.5 and CVD. Results: A few epidemiological studies show that the elderly appear specifically susceptible to adve...
Full Text Available The nose together with the paranasal sinuses is the main part of the upper airway, which is lined with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. There are several important physiological functions such as conditioning and filtration of the inspired air and the provision of end organ for the sense of smell. Besides the nose also fulfills a physical and immunological barrier as the nasal epithelium is the first site of interaction between the host tissue and foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, allergens, and harmful particulates. Hence, nasal diseases such as rhinitis (allergic and infectious and rhinosinusitis are the most common health problems worldwide, affecting millions of people of all ages. In the past 10 to 20 years, our understanding of the immuno-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the common nasal diseases has been significantly enhanced by in vivo and in vitro studies. This allows the development of novel therapeutic strategies designed to improve the physiological and immune defense functions of the nose, as well as for other common airway diseases. Since the dynamically external changes of atmosphere, environment (pollution and susceptible population, we are now facing some of new features on epidemiology and the types of upper airway diseases that require us to in-deep study the diseases through basic and clinical researches, so as to further understand the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. DOI: 10.118555/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.01
Carbonell, Felix; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Evans, Alan C
Protein misfolding refers to a process where proteins become structurally abnormal and lose their specific 3-dimensional spatial configuration. The histopathological presence of misfolded protein (MP) aggregates has been associated as the primary evidence of multiple neurological diseases, including Prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. However, the exact mechanisms of MP aggregation and propagation, as well as their impact in the long-term patient's clinical condition are still not well understood. With this aim, a variety of mathematical models has been proposed for a better insight into the kinetic rate laws that govern the microscopic processes of protein aggregation. Complementary, another class of large-scale models rely on modern molecular imaging techniques for describing the phenomenological effects of MP propagation over the whole brain. Unfortunately, those neuroimaging-based studies do not take full advantage of the tremendous capabilities offered by the chemical kinetics modeling approach. Actually, it has been barely acknowledged that the vast majority of large-scale models have foundations on previous mathematical approaches that describe the chemical kinetics of protein replication and propagation. The purpose of the current manuscript is to present a historical review about the development of mathematical models for describing both microscopic processes that occur during the MP aggregation and large-scale events that characterize the progression of neurodegenerative MP-mediated diseases.
Sirugo, Giorgio; Hennig, Branwen J; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Matimba, Alice; Newport, Melanie J; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Ryckman, Kelli K; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Novelli, Giuseppe; Soodyall, Himla; Rotimi, Charles N; Ramesar, Raj S; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Williams, Scott M
Africa is the ultimate source of modern humans and as such harbors more genetic variation than any other continent. For this reason, studies of the patterns of genetic variation in African populations are crucial to understanding how genes affect phenotypic variation, including disease predisposition. In addition, the patterns of extant genetic variation in Africa are important for understanding how genetic variation affects infectious diseases that are a major problem in Africa, such as malaria, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, and HIV/AIDS. Therefore, elucidating the role that genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases plays is critical to improving the health of people in Africa. It is also of note that recent and ongoing social and cultural changes in sub-Saharan Africa have increased the prevalence of non-communicable diseases that will also require genetic analyses to improve disease prevention and treatment. In this review we give special attention to many of the past and ongoing studies, emphasizing those in Sub-Saharan Africans that address the role of genetic variation in human disease.
Gutierrez, Juan B.; Galinski, Mary R.; Cantrell, Stephen; Voit, Eberhard O.
Since their earliest days, humans have been struggling with infectious diseases. Caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or even higher organisms like worms, these diseases depend critically on numerous intricate interactions between parasites and hosts, and while we have learned much about these interactions, many details are still obscure. It is evident that the combined host-parasite dynamics constitutes a complex system that involves components and processes at multiple scales of time, space, and biological organization. At one end of this hierarchy we know of individual molecules that play crucial roles for the survival of a parasite or for the response and survival of its host. At the other end, one realizes that the spread of infectious diseases by far exceeds specific locales and, due to today's easy travel of hosts carrying a multitude of organisms, can quickly reach global proportions. The community of mathematical modelers has been addressing specific aspects of infectious diseases for a long time. Most of these efforts have focused on one or two select scales of a multi-level disease and used quite different computational approaches. This restriction to a molecular, physiological, or epidemiological level was prudent, as it has produced solid pillars of a foundation from which it might eventually be possible to launch comprehensive, multi-scale modeling efforts that make full use of the recent advances in biology and, in particular, the various high-throughput methodologies accompanying the emerging –omics revolution. This special issue contains contributions from biologists and modelers, most of whom presented and discussed their work at the workshop From within Host Dynamics to the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, which was held at the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at Ohio State University in April 2014. These contributions highlight some of the forays into a deeper understanding of the dynamics between parasites and their hosts, and the
Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.
Kedibone M Ndlangisa
Full Text Available We determined the sequence types of isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD prior to routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in South Africa. PCV-13 serotypes and 6C isolates collected in 2007 (1 461/2 437, 60% from patients of all ages as part of on-going, national, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD, were selected for genetic characterization. In addition, all 134 non-PCV isolates from children <2 years were selected for characterization. Sequence type diversity by serotype and age category (children <5 years vs. individuals ≥5 years was assessed for PCV serotypes using Simpson's index of diversity. Similar genotypes circulated among isolates from children and adults and the majority of serotypes were heterogeneous. While globally disseminated clones were common among some serotypes (e.g., serotype 1 [clonal complex (CC 217, 98% of all serotype 1] and 14 [CC230, 43%], some were represented mainly by clonal complexes rarely reported elsewhere (e.g., serotype 3 [CC458, 60%] and 19A [CC2062, 83%]. In children <2 years, serotype 15B and 8 were the most common serotypes among non-PCV isolates (16% [22/134] and 15% [20/134] isolates, respectively. Sequence type 7052 and 53 were most common among serotypes 15B and 8 isolates and accounted for 58% (7/12 and 64% (9/14 of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 19F, 14, 19A and 15B had the highest proportions of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Genotypes rarely reported in other parts of the world but common among some of our serotypes highlight the importance of our data as these genotypes may emerge post PCV introduction.
Alageel, Samah; Wright, Alison J; Gulliford, Martin C
A population-based programme of health checks was introduced for adults in England in 2011 for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and risk factors management. The aim was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk and behavioural risk factors in a health check eligible population in England from 1994 to 2013, by using repeated cross-sectional design using seven surveys of the Health Survey for England. Measures included traditional CVD risk factors and behavioural risk factors. Linear trends were estimated allowing for sampling design. The surveys comprised 49,805 adults aged 45 to 74years; 30,639 were free from cardiovascular comorbidity; 16,041 (52%) had complete data for quantitative risk factors. Between 1994 and 2013, systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 3.6) mmHg per decade in men and 5.0 (4.5 to 5.5) in women. Total cholesterol decreased by 0.20 (0.16 to 0.24) mmol/l per decade in men; 0.23 (0.19 to 0.26) in women. Smoking declined by 6% (5% to 8%) per decade in men; 7% (6% - 8%) in women. The proportion with CVD-risk ≥20% declined by 6.8% per decade in men; 2.4% in women. Multiple behavioural risk factors were strongly associated with estimated CVD-risk, but improving trends in traditional CVD risk factors were inconsistent with increasing indicators of adiposity. Long-term declines in traditional risk factors contributed to reductions in estimated CVD-risk prior to the introduction of a health check programme. Behaviour change interventions for multiple risk factor exposures remain a key area for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mukhopadhyay, Amiya Kumar
Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Āyurveda of the later period.
Amiya Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Full Text Available Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Βyurveda of the later period.
Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Nicolajsen, Nicole
with focus on the listed diseases but also including other diseases of interest. 3. Laboratory data from the NRLs and other laboratories, including number of samples examined, diagnoses of fish diseases made. A new part was included for 2011 as a deliverable for the EFSA project CFP/EFSA/AHAW/2011/03: Risk...... categorisation for Aquatic Animal Health Surveillance: 4. Status on implementation of the new fish health surveillance legislation. The data on the European aquaculture production were obtained from the FIGIS database. Unfortunately this database does not include information on the number and size of fish farms...... of farms in Germany produced tonnes, and for Spain the number of farms producing tonnes, 5-100 tonnes and > 100 tonnes is nearly equal. The Atlantic salmon production has increased significantly while the rainbow trout production slightly decreased in Europe in 2010. The carp production is still...
Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly and the ambient concentration of PM2.5 has been associated with several cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We describe the present state of planetary air pollution, analyze epidemiological studies linking PM2.5 and CVD, and discuss multiple pathophysiological mechanisms linking PM2.5 and CVD. Results: A few epidemiological studies show that the elderly appear specifically susceptible to adverse cardiovascular effects triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Plausible pathophysiological mechanisms include inflammatory dysfunction, oxidative stress, abnormal activation of the hemostatic system and disturbance of the autonomic nervous system. Conclusions: An in-depth knowledge of the chemical compounds, pathophysiological mechanisms, and epidemiological studies of PM2.5 are recommended to understand this important and modifiable factor contributing to geriatric CVD burden. We offer public health recommendations to reduce this preventable cause of disease and death.
Wang, Chenchen; Tu, Yifan; Yu, Zongliang; Lu, Rongzhu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly and the ambient concentration of PM2.5 has been associated with several cardiovascular diseases. We describe the present state of planetary air pollution, analyze epidemiological studies linking PM2.5 and CVD, and discuss multiple pathophysiological mechanisms linking PM2.5 and CVD. A few epidemiological studies show that the elderly appear specifically susceptible to adverse cardiovascular effects triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Plausible pathophysiological mechanisms include inflammatory dysfunction, oxidative stress, abnormal activation of the hemostatic system and disturbance of the autonomic nervous system. An in-depth knowledge of the chemical compounds, pathophysiological mechanisms, and epidemiological studies of PM2.5 are recommended to understand this important and modifiable factor contributing to geriatric CVD burden. We offer public health recommendations to reduce this preventable cause of disease and death.
Hannah Claire Jeffery
Full Text Available The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes, that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg. The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients.Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases, chronic rejection and post-transplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases (GVHD and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the autoimmune liver diseases for more than three decades; thus the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.
Sharma, Kamlesh Kumar; Ranka, Pankaj; Goyal, Pushpa; Dabi, D R
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is overwhelmingly described as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis that overshadows other causes; thereby, there is a need to develop an elaborate and comprehensive classification. We present the same and establish a new disease called primary acquired gastric outlet obstruction during infancy and childhood that was reported for the first time by us in 1997, reviewing the literature published since then, with report of our new cases. Eight patients of this disease presented at our center from 1996 to May 2008, and these were analyzed epidemiologically and clinically. Other reports published in literature were compared, and all reported patients were compiled. All 8 cases presented at age ranging from 1 month to 6 years, with mean age of 2.9 years; there was predilection for male sex (male, 7; female, 1). Presenting symptoms and signs were nonbilious vomiting, weight loss, dehydration, dyselectrolytemia, abdominal pain, and visible gastric peristalsis. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed large stomach and increased gastric emptying time. Endoscopy displayed normal stomach without intraluminal lesion. Exploration revealed a dilated stomach, without any pyloric muscular hypertrophy, scarring, inflammation, or obstruction externally or intraluminally. Result of histopathologic examination was normal. All patients except 1 (died of unrelated cause) were cured by Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty. These patients represent a new disease entity designated as primary acquired gastric outlet obstruction during infancy and childhood. Author's classification is complete and scientific, encompassing all rare causes of GOO. We nickname this idiopathic variety of GOO the Jodhpur disease, the place of the first cases.
Diarrhoea disease is the second leading cause of death amongst Nigerian children (after malaria) with a prevalence rate in Nigeria of 18.8% which is one of the worst in sub-Sahara Africa. A major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality, causes 4 million deaths each year in under-fives with each child experiencing ...
Cnossen, W.R.; Drenth, J.P.H.
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is the result of embryonic ductal plate malformation of the intrahepatic biliary tree. The phenotype consists of numerous cysts spread throughout the liver parenchyma. Cystic bile duct malformations originating from the peripheral biliary tree are called Von Meyenburg
incidence of acute diarrhoea among infants less than. 1 year old was 26.7 ... the intestinal lumen. This usually results from intracellular accumulation of cyclic Adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic Guanosine monophosphate which is stimulated by ... celiac disease, tuberculosis, and cancer of the colon has also be ...
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Niels Lyhne
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong direct (positive) association between the intake of trans fatty acids (TRA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA). However, comparisons, between ruminant TEA (R-TFA) and IP-TFA and risk...
Full Text Available Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global ‘One Health’ movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015.
Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed
Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015.
incidence of acute diarrhoea among infants less than. 1 year old was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per. 6 month. ... celiac disease, tuberculosis, and cancer of the colon has also be implicated. Other pathophysiologic ... and food contamination with faecal materials, poor food storage techniques, poor hand hygiene in both.
Full Text Available Luisa Guidi1, Giammarco Mocci1, Manuela Marzo1, Sergio Rutella21Department of Internal Medicine, Operative Unit of Gastroenterology, and 2Department of Hematology, Laboratory of Immunology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Current treatments for Crohn’s disease are aimed at suppressing excessive immune activation in the bowel walls. However, alternative strategies can be drawn. These involve the augmentation of the innate immune response, in the hypothesis that patients affected with Crohn’s disease are characterized by a relative immunodeficiency, with failure of the defensive barrier to luminal microbes and microbial products, resulting in a chronic inflammatory process sustained by T-cells. Alternatively, therapy could act by enhancing the number or the activity of subpopulations of T regulatory cells, able to reduce T-cell activation. Colony-stimulating factors are substances that could be efficacious in these settings. In fact, besides in vitro and animal studies, some human studies have been conducted in recent years with both granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the results of which are reported here.Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease treatment, G-CSF, GM-CSF
Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.; Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.
Species of Calonectria and their cylindrocladium-like asexual morphs are important plant pathogens of agronomic and forestry crops, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Calonectria species have been associated with a wide range of disease symptoms on a large number of
M A Siddiqui
Full Text Available In developed countries, coronary heart disease (CHD accounts for 40-50% of all deaths, while 1 5-35% of all cardiac admissions in hospitals in our country are due to coronary heart disease1. The prevalence of CHD in our country varies from 1.7% to 6.5%2 and is rising, affecting young and middle aged persons in prime of their life and career 3a and it is said that CHD will replace infectious diseases as the major killer in India by year 2015 A.D.3b. Indian immigrants settled abroad have higher incidence and higher mortality as compared to native population. 4jb. The famous cardiologist Paul Dudley White has said "Heart disease before the age 80 is not God's will but due to our own faults" and it is the same message as given by Charaka about 30 centuries back, in 1000 B.C., who emphasized the role of overeating, heavy and fatty meals , worries and sedentary habits in causation of heart disease5. The human and economic costs of such a situation are very heavy.Atherosclerosis, the term introduced by Marchand in 1904, is the lipid rich lesion in the innermost layer of the arteries which is responsible for the majority of cases of myocardial and cerebral infarction. The endothelial lining of the artery is in direct and continuous contact with blood and interaction of blood cells & other constituents with the endothelium gives rise to atherosclerosis. This lesion presents as either fatty streak which is made up of foam cells, lipids & T lymphocytes and occurs early, commonly in children or fibrous plaque consisting of dense connective tissue, lipid droplets, smooth muscle cells, macrophages & T lymphocytes. Platelets adhere and aggregate to ulcerated or fissured plaques.
... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...
Full Text Available Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death for men and women in Turkey as it is in Europe and US. The prevalence of the disease is 3.8% in Turkey and 200,000 patients are added to the pool of CHD annually Because of genetic predis¬position and high proportions of physical inactivity, smoking habit, and obesity, CHD is encountered in earlier ages in our country So, the economic burden of the disease is expected to be relatively high, but the amount of health expenditure is not always parallel to the prevalence of a disease in the community. This article was written to overview CHD statistics to make a comparison between Turkey and some European countries and to investigate the value of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS as a gatekeeper in diagnosing CHD before invasive coronary angiography (ICA. The consequences were evaluated for Turkey In diagnosis; noninvasive testing gains impor¬tance in connection with the new approaches in treatment strategies, because a direct ICA strategy results in higher rates of revascu¬larization without improvement in clinical outcomes. A "gatekeeper" is needed to select the patients who are not required to under¬go angiography. MPS with its proved power in diagnosis and predicting prognosis, provides a cost-effective solution, and is accepted in some extensive analyses as a "gatekeeper" particularly in intermediate and high risk patients and in patients with known CHD. In conclusion, MPS may provide an optimal solution better than the ongoing situation in Turkey as well, when it is approved as a "gatekeeper in an algorithm before ICA. (MIRT 2011;20:75-93
Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P.
[ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 [-octreotide is a new radiopharmaceutical with a great potential for the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, granulomas, and diseases in which activated leukocytes play a role. The overall sensitivity of [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 [-octreotide scintigraphy to localize neuroendocrine tumors is high. In several neuroendocrine tumor types, inclusion of somatostatin receptor imaging in the localization or staging procedure may be very rewarding, either in terms of cost-effectiveness, patient management, or quality of life. In our opinion, this holds true for patients with carcinoids, gastrinomas, paragangliomas, small-cell lung carcinoma, and selected cases of patients with insulinomas. The value of [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 [-octreotide scintigraphy in patients with other tumors, such as breast cancer, malignant lymphomas, or in patients with granulomatous diseases, has to be established. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab
Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon R; Glass, Roger I
A critical observation in understanding immunity to rotavirus is that children infected with wild virus or vaccinated with oral live vaccines develop a humoral immune response and are protected against severe disease upon reinfection. Nevertheless, much controversy exists as to whether these serum antibodies are directly involved in protection or merely reflect recent infection, leaving the protective role to mucosal or cell-mediated immunity or to other as-yet-undefined mechanisms. We have reviewed data from a variety of studies in humans, including challenge experiments in adult volunteers, longitudinal studies of rotavirus infection in young children, and clinical trials of animal and animal-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines in infants. These data suggest that serum antibodies, if present at critical levels, are either protective themselves or are an important and powerful correlate of protection against rotavirus disease, even though other host effectors may play an important role as well.
Slesak, Günther; Gabriel, Martin; Domingo, Cristina; Schäfer, Johannes
History and physical examination A 56-year-old man developed high fever with severe headaches, fatigue, impaired concentration skills, and an exanthema 5 days after a yellow fever (YF) vaccination. Laboratory tests Liver enzymes and YF antibody titers were remarkably elevated. YF vaccine virus was detected in urine by PCR. Diagnosis and therapy Initially, severe YF vaccine-associated visceral disease was suspected and treated symptomatically. Clinical Course His fever ceased after 10 days in total, no organ failure developed. However, postencephalitic symptoms persisted with fatigue and impaired concentration, memory, and reading skills and partly incapability to work for over 3 months. A diagnosis was made of suspected YF vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. Conclusion Severe vaccine-derived adverse effects need to be considered in the indication process for YF vaccination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Gomersall, Judith Streak; Canuto, Karla; Aromataris, Edoardo; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Brown, Alex
To describe the main characteristics of systematic reviews addressing questions of chronic disease and related risk factors for Indigenous Australians. We searched databases for systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed quality and extracted characteristics using pre-defined tools. We identified 14 systematic reviews. Seven synthesised evidence about health intervention effectiveness; four addressed chronic disease or risk factor prevalence; and six conducted critical appraisal as per current best practice. Only three reported steps to align the review with standards for ethical research with Indigenous Australians and/or capture Indigenous-specific knowledge. Most called for more high-quality research. Systematic review is an under-utilised method for gathering evidence to inform chronic disease prevention and management for Indigenous Australians. Relevance of future systematic reviews could be improved by: 1) aligning questions with community priorities as well as decision maker needs; 2) involvement of, and leadership by, Indigenous researchers with relevant cultural and contextual knowledge; iii) use of critical appraisal tools that include traditional risk of bias assessment criteria and criteria that reflect Indigenous standards of appropriate research. Systematic review method guidance, tools and reporting standards are required to ensure alignment with ethical obligations and promote rigor and relevance. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Miyahara, Shunsuke; Okita, Yutaka
Marfan syndrome is a heritable, systemic disorder of the connective tissue with a high penetrance, named after Dr. Antoine Marfan. The most clinically important manifestations of this syndrome are cardiovascular pathologies which cause life-threatening events, such as acute aortic dissections, aortic rupture and regurgitation of the aortic valve or other artrioventricular valves leading to heart failure. These events play important roles in the life expectancy of patients with this disorder, especially prior to the development of effective surgical approaches for proximal ascending aortic disease. To prevent such catastrophic aortic events, a lower threshold has been recommended for prophylactic interventions on the aortic root. After prophylactic root replacement, disease in the aorta beyond the root and distal to the arch remains a cause for concern. Multiple surgeries are required throughout a patient's lifetime that can be problematic due to distal lesions complicated by dissection. Many controversies in surgical strategies remain, such as endovascular repair, to manage such complex cases. This review examines the trends in surgical strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with Marfan syndrome, and current perspectives in this field.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of curcumin on patients with Alzheimer′s disease (AD. Curcumin (Turmeric, an ancient Indian herb used in curry powder, has been extensively studied in modern medicine and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, haemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, colon cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, liver diseases and arthritis. It has been used in various types of treatments for dementia and traumatic brain injury. Curcumin also has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD. A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress, free radicals, beta amyloid, cerebral deregulation caused by bio-metal toxicity and abnormal inflammatory reactions contribute to the key event in Alzheimer′s disease pathology. Due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with AD has improved. This paper reviews the various mechanisms of actions of curcumin in AD and pathology.
There are different types of information on men's health in older age. High morbidity burden is offset by subjective assessments of "very good" and "good" health by 52% of men over 65 years. The aim of this study is to assess the health situation of seniors from official publications and public health reports. How can the quality of life in our male population be positively influenced so that they can actively participate in society in old age. Information on the health of seniors and burden of disease were taken from men's health reports and official publications from the Robert-Koch-Institute, the Federal Statistical Office, and the IHME Institute of the USA according to age groups and gender. Burden of disease in seniors is influenced by one's own health behavior and the social situation. The increase in life expectancy of seniors is characterized by longer life with chronic conditions. Official statistics indicate that about 50% of seniors are affected by disease or severe disability, while 50% assess their health status as "very good" or "good". Aging of the population requires diverse health promotion activities. Parallel with the inevitable increased multimorbidity in the elderly, maintaining and increase of physical fitness is required so that seniors have a positive "subjective health" or "wellbeing".
Huarcaya, Erick; Maguiña, Ciro; Torres, Rita; Rupay, Joan; Fuentes, Luis
Bartonellosis, or Carrion's Disease, is an endemic and reemerging disease in Peru and Ecuador. Carrion's Disease constitutes a health problem in Peru because its epidemiology has been changing, and it is affecting new areas between the highland and the jungle. During the latest outbreaks, and previously in endemic areas, the pediatric population has been the most commonly affected. In the pediatric population, the acute phase symptoms are fever, anorexia, malaise, nausea and/or vomiting. The main signs are pallor, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathies, cardiac murmur, and jaundice. Arthralgias and weight loss have also commonly been described. The morbidity and mortality of the acute phase is variable, and it is due mainly to superimposed infections or associated respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological or gastrointestinal complications. The eruptive phase, also known as Peruvian Wart, is characterized by eruptive nodes (which commonly bleed) and arthralgias. The mortality of the eruptive phase is currently extremely low. The diagnosis is still based on blood culture and direct observation of the bacilli in a blood smear. In the chronic phase, the diagnosis is based on biopsy or serologic assays. There are nationally standardized treatments for the acute phase, which consist of ciprofloxacin, and alternatively chloramphenicol plus penicillin G. However, most of the treatments are based on evidence from reported cases. During the eruptive phase the recommended treatment is rifampin, and alternatively, azithromycin or erythromycin.
Full Text Available Bartonellosis, or Carrion's Disease, is an endemic and reemerging disease in Peru and Ecuador. Carrion's Disease constitutes a health problem in Peru because its epidemiology has been changing, and it is affecting new areas between the highland and the jungle. During the latest outbreaks, and previously in endemic areas, the pediatric population has been the most commonly affected. In the pediatric population, the acute phase symptoms are fever, anorexia, malaise, nausea and/or vomiting. The main signs are pallor, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathies, cardiac murmur, and jaundice. Arthralgias and weight loss have also commonly been described. The morbidity and mortality of the acute phase is variable, and it is due mainly to superimposed infections or associated respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological or gastrointestinal complications. The eruptive phase, also known as Peruvian Wart, is characterized by eruptive nodes (which commonly bleed and arthralgias. The mortality of the eruptive phase is currently extremely low. The diagnosis is still based on blood culture and direct observation of the bacilli in a blood smear. In the chronic phase, the diagnosis is based on biopsy or serologic assays. There are nationally standardized treatments for the acute phase, which consist of ciprofloxacin, and alternatively chloramphenicol plus penicillin G. However, most of the treatments are based on evidence from reported cases. During the eruptive phase the recommended treatment is rifampin, and alternatively, azithromycin or erythromycin.
This Technical Report concerns to some relevant concepts in Cartography and GIS. We will define terms and functions as scale, projection, cartographic syntaxes. We'll specify some Geographic Information, formats, sources... Finally, we will study about GIS applications and, specially, how CIEMAT is working with that, and what is the future of this technology. (Author) 71 refs
Campbell, D.K.; Kostelecky, V.A.
Some of the basic concepts in Lie Algebra and superalgebra theory are reviewed, and then an elementary summary of each of the areas in which supersymmetry has already been applied is given. These areas include nuclear physics, condensed matter and statistical physics, and particle physics and supergravity
Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, Andrew L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jiucai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Laboratory; Bloom, Ira [Argonne National Laboratory; Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andrew N. [Argonne National Laboratory; Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Laboratory; Michelbacher, Christopher [Idaho National Laboratory; Carlson, Barney [Idaho National Laboratory; Dias, Fernando [Idaho National Laboratory; Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Laboratory; Mohanpurkar, Manish [Idaho National Laboratory; Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory; Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory; Tanim, Tanvir [Idaho National Laboratory; Vijayagopal, Ram [Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.
For more than two centuries progress in the study of water waves proved to be interdependent with innovative and deep developments in theoretical and experimental directions of investigation. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the understanding of waves of large amplitude. Within this setting one cannot rely on linear theory as nonlinearity becomes an essential feature. Various analytic methods have been developed and adapted to come to terms with the challenges encountered in settings where approximations (such as those provided by linear or weakly nonlinear theory) are ineffective. Without relying on simpler models, progress becomes contingent upon the discovery of structural properties, the exploitation of which requires a combination of creative ideas and state-of-the-art technical tools. The successful quest for structure often reveals unexpected patterns and confers aesthetic value on some of these studies. The topics covered in this issue are both multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary: there is a strong interplay between mathematical analysis, numerical computation and experimental/field data, interacting with each other via mutual stimulation and feedback. This theme issue reflects some of the new important developments that were discussed during the programme `Nonlinear water waves' that took place at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK) from 31st July to 25th August 2017. A cross-section of the experts in the study of water waves who participated in the programme authored the collected papers. These papers illustrate the diversity, intensity and interconnectivity of the current research activity in this area. They offer new insight, present emerging theoretical methodologies and computational approaches, and describe sophisticated experimental results. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
Carell, T.; Vrábel, Milan
Roč. 374, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 9. ISSN 2365-0869 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bioorthogonal reactions * click chemistry * biomolecule labeling * 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition * Diels-Alder reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2016
Full Text Available The National Grapevine Trunk Disease Survey was conducted in France from 2003 to 2008 to monitor grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs, eutypa dieback and esca/black dead arm (BDA. Data collected from seven regions, 329 vineyards and 12 cultivars were analysed. There were great variations amongst regions in the incidence of GTDs. For esca/BDA, two groups were distinguished: vineyards in Jura and Charentes had greater incidence (93–95% than those of Bordeaux, Alsace and Bourgogne (54–82%. Incidence increased in Charentes over the 6-year survey, with the highest values being recorded during the last 2 years. For eutypa dieback, all vineyards of Charentes were affected, with 17 to 25% of vines expressing symptoms; for the other regions, 52 to 80% of vineyards were affected, with incidences below 3%. Cultivars Savagnin and Trousseau in Jura were especially affected by esca/BDA. Instead, Ugni Blanc in Charentes was most affected by eutypa dieback. One cultivar could be significantly more affected in one region than in another. The global health status of the vineyards was also investigated. (i For four regions, 82% (Jura to 87% (Alsace of the grapevines were healthy, but this percentage decreased steadily (67% in Charentes. (ii Plants infected by GTDs were 32 and 18% in Jura and Charentes respectively, and only 2.9% in the Bourgogne region. (iii The unproductive plants, i.e. dead, missing, replanted or restored, represented a significant part of the losses (6.6% in Charentes to 9.9% in Jura. The extension of GTDs is discussed with regard to the abiotic and biotic factors that may favour the diseases.
Onicio B Leal-Neto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the digital disease detection and participatory surveillance in different countries. The systems or platforms consolidated in the scientific field were analyzed by describing the strategy, type of data source, main objectives, and manner of interaction with users. Eleven systems or platforms, developed from 1996 to 2016, were analyzed. There was a higher frequency of data mining on the web and active crowdsourcing as well as a trend in the use of mobile applications. It is important to provoke debate in the academia and health services for the evolution of methods and insights into participatory surveillance in the digital age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although alcohol consumption has long been considered as a risk factor for chronic disease, the relationship to cardiovascular disease (CVD is complex and involves at least two dimensions: average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. The objective of this contribution was to estimate the burden of CVD mortality caused by alcohol consumption. Methods Risk assessment modelling with alcohol-attributable CVD mortality as primary outcome. The mortality burden of ischaemic heart disease (IHD and ischaemic stroke (IS attributable to alcohol consumption was estimated using attributable-fraction methodology. Relative Risk (RR data for IHD and IS were obtained from the most comprehensive meta-analyses (except for Russia and surrounding countries where alcohol RR data were obtained from a large cohort study. Age-group specific RRs were calculated, based on large studies. Data on mortality were obtained from the World Health Organization’s Global Health Estimates and alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Risk of former drinkers was modelled taking into account global differences in the prevalence of sick quitters among former drinkers. Alcohol-attributable mortality estimates for all other CVD causes except IHD and IS were obtained from the 2014 Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. Results An estimated 780,381 CVD deaths (441,893 and 338,490 CVD deaths among men and women respectively were attributable to alcohol consumption globally in 2012, accounting for 1.4 % of all deaths and 26.6 % of all alcohol-attributable deaths. This is in contrast to the previously estimated 1,128,273 CVD deaths attributable to alcohol consumption globally, and represents a decrease of 30.8 % in alcohol-attributable CVD mortality and of 10.6 % in the global burden of all alcohol-attributable deaths. Conclusions When the most comprehensive and recent systematic reviews
Gregory, N; Harris, AL; Robinson, CR; Dougherty, PM; Fuchs, PN; Sluka, KA
Pain is ultimately a perceptual phenomenon. It is built from information gathered by specialized pain receptors in tissue, modified by spinal and supraspinal mechanisms, and integrated into a discrete sensory experience with an emotional valence in the brain. Because of this, studying intact animals allows the multidimensional nature of pain to be examined. A number of animal models have been developed, reflecting observations that pain phenotypes are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Animal models of pain are designed to mimic distinct clinical diseases to better evaluate underlying mechanisms and potential treatments. Outcome measures are designed to measure multiple parts of the pain experience including reflexive hyperalgesia measures, sensory and affective dimensions of pain and impact of pain on function and quality of life. In this review we discuss the common methods used for inducing each of the pain phenotypes related to clinical pain syndromes, as well as the main behavioral tests for assessing pain in each model. PMID:24035349
Louka, Michael N.
This paper is a brief introduction to virtual reality technology. It discusses the meaning of the term 'Virtual Reality', introduces common hardware and software technology, and provides a brief overview of applications and research areas (author) (ml)
Full Text Available Terms as knowledge discovery or KnowledgeDiscovery from Databases (KDD, Data Mining (DM, ArtificialIntelligence (AI, Machine Learning (ML, Artificial Neuralnetworks (ANN, decision tables and trees, gain from day to day,an increasing significance in medical data analysis. They permitthe identification, evaluation, and quantification of some lessvisible, intuitively unpredictable, by using generally large sets ofdata. Cardiology represents an extremely vast and importantdomain, having multiple and complex social and humanimplications. These are enough reasons to promote theresearches in this area, becoming shortly not just national orEuropean priorities, but also world-level ones. The profoundand multiple interwoven relationships among the cardiovascularrisk factors and cardiovascular diseases – but still far to becompletely discovered or understood – represent a niche forapplying IT&C modern and multidisciplinary tools in order tosolve the existing knowledge gaps.This paper’s aim is to present, by emphasizing their absoluteor relative pros and cons, several opportunities of applying DMtools in cardiology, more precisely in endothelial dysfunctiondiagnostic and quantification the relationships between theseand so-called “classical” cardiovascular risk factors.
García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Arredondo Waldmeyer, María Teresa; Fico, Giuseppe; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda
We provide a brief review and appraisal of recent and current virtual reality (VR) technology for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) applications. We categorize them according to their intended purpose (e.g., diagnosis, patient cognitive training, caregivers’ education, etc.), focus feature (e.g., spatial impairment, memory deficit, etc.), methodology employed (e.g., tasks, games, etc.), immersion level, and passive or active interaction. Critical assessment indicates that most of them do not yet take full advantage of virtual environments with high levels of immersion and interaction. Many still rely on conventional 2D graphic displays to create non-immersive or semi-immersive VR scenarios. Important improvements are needed to make VR a better and more versatile assessment and training tool for AD. The use of the latest display technologies available, such as emerging head-mounted displays and 3D smart TV technologies, together with realistic multi-sensorial interaction devices, and neuro-physiological feedback capacity, are some of the most beneficial improvements this mini-review suggests. Additionally, it would be desirable that such VR applications for AD be easily and affordably transferable to in-home and nursing home environments. PMID:26029101
Full Text Available Background: Less invasive treatment methods for intervertebral disc disease and decompression of neural structures as a consequence of contained disc herniation represent an alternative to surgical procedure. Percutaneus nucleotomy uses a percutaneous approach to the intervertebral disc. The article presents the evolution of numerous procedureds in clinical practice.Methods: Percutaneous nucleoplasty is a fluoroscopy-guided procedure which enables controlled and safe entrance into the intervertebral disc. The procedure is performed under strict aseptic conditions, using a local anaesthesia with the patient under analgosedation. Based on the principle of therapeutic intradiscal action, the procedures can be divided into three groups: chemical (chemonucleolysis with chimopapain, alcohol, ozone, mechanical (automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy – APLD, arthroscopic discectomy and thermical methods (laser, radiofrequency ablation, intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty – IDET, Coblation®.Results: Percutaneous nucleotomy by the majority of the mentioned procedures results in a therapeutic effect (reduction of pain and decompression of neural structures. Fast recovery represents a major advantage of less invasive treatment.Conclusions: Less invasive method (nucleotomy using different procedures represents a successful alternative approach to surgical discectomy. Proper patient selection and safe technique are mandatory in order to achieve a good clinical outcome.
Soriano, Joan B; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem during the 20th century, and will remain a challenge for the foreseeable future. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, because its high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality create formidable challenges for healthcare systems. However, there remain many ongoing, contentious issues in COPD, including the definition and staging of COPD itself. Similarly, it appears that there is no consensus as yet on how, when, and where spirometry and other tools (symptoms assessment, imaging, biomarkers, and so on) should be conducted and implemented to screen, label, and treat for COPD, if any. Our current knowledge on the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical presentation of COPD has been reasonably well documented in several previous reviews. We aim to summarize new developments surrounding the epidemiology of COPD, both at the population and at the clinical level, in comparison with other major burden contributors, while debating old and novel risk factors. Cigarette smoking is the principal causal factor, but other factors play a role in causing and triggering COPD. Likely, the clinical presentation of COPD and its contributing phenotypes within the remainder of the 21st century will be different than the "blue bloaters" and "pink puffers" observed one or two generations ago. Hopefully, the COPD clinical course will shift to better outcomes and prognosis than in the past.
García-Betances, Rebeca I; Arredondo Waldmeyer, María Teresa; Fico, Giuseppe; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda
We provide a brief review and appraisal of recent and current virtual reality (VR) technology for Alzheimer's disease (AD) applications. We categorize them according to their intended purpose (e.g., diagnosis, patient cognitive training, caregivers' education, etc.), focus feature (e.g., spatial impairment, memory deficit, etc.), methodology employed (e.g., tasks, games, etc.), immersion level, and passive or active interaction. Critical assessment indicates that most of them do not yet take full advantage of virtual environments with high levels of immersion and interaction. Many still rely on conventional 2D graphic displays to create non-immersive or semi-immersive VR scenarios. Important improvements are needed to make VR a better and more versatile assessment and training tool for AD. The use of the latest display technologies available, such as emerging head-mounted displays and 3D smart TV technologies, together with realistic multi-sensorial interaction devices, and neuro-physiological feedback capacity, are some of the most beneficial improvements this mini-review suggests. Additionally, it would be desirable that such VR applications for AD be easily and affordably transferable to in-home and nursing home environments.
Morrison, Deborah; Mair, Frances S; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike
Long-term respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common, and cause high levels of morbidity and mortality. Supporting self-management is advocated for both asthma and increasingly so for COPD, and there is growing interest in the potential role of a range of new technologies, such as smartphone apps, the web or telehealth to facilitate and promote self-management in these conditions. Treatment goals for both asthma and COPD include aiming to control symptoms, maintain activities, achieve the best possible quality of life and minimize risks of exacerbation. To do this, health professionals should be (a) helping patients to recognize deteriorating symptoms and act appropriately; (b) promoting adherence to maintenance therapy; (c) promoting a regular review where triggers can be established, and strategies for managing such triggers discussed; and (d) promoting healthy lifestyles and positive self-management of symptoms. In particular, low uptake of asthma action plans is a modifiable contributor to morbidity and possibly also to mortality in those with asthma and should be addressed as a priority. Using technology to support self-management is an evolving strategy that shows promise. This review provides an overview of self-management support and discusses how newer technologies may help patients and health professionals to meet key treatment goals.
Full Text Available Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013 including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.
Dasti, Javid I; Tareen, A Malik; Lugert, Raimond; Zautner, Andreas E; Gross, Uwe
Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a cause of bacterial food-borne illness, and surprisingly, it remains the most prevalent bacterial food-borne pathogen in the industrial world to date. Natural reservoirs for this Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium are wild birds, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of C. jejuni Chickens become colonized shortly after birth and are the most important source for human infection. In the last decade, effective intervention strategies to limit infections caused by this elusive pathogen were hindered mainly because of a paucity in understanding the virulence mechanisms of C. jejuni and in part, unavailability of an adequate animal model for the disease. However, recent developments in deciphering molecular mechanisms of virulence of C. jejuni made it clear that C. jejuni is a unique pathogen, being able to execute N-linked glycosylation of more than 30 proteins related to colonization, adherence, and invasion. Moreover, the flagellum is not only depicted to facilitate motility but as well secretion of Campylobacter invasive antigens (Cia). The only toxin of C. jejuni, the so-called cytolethal distending toxin (CdtA,B,C), seems to be important for cell cycle control and induction of host cell apoptosis and has been recognized as a major pathogenicity-associated factor. In contrast to other diarrhoea-causing bacteria, no other classical virulence factors have yet been identified in C. jejuni. Instead, host factors seem to play a major role for pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis of man. Indeed, several lines of evidence suggest exploitation of different adaptation strategies by this pathogen depending on its requirement, whether to establish itself in the natural avian reservoir or during the course of human infection. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Nardin, Matteo; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) represents the basis of pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular prevention. However, several patients are excluded from the benefits of ASA for hypersensitivity problems, and controversies still exist on their management. The aim of present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ASA desensitization protocols in patients requiring dual antiplatelet therapy for coronary artery disease. Literature archives and main scientific sessions' abstracts were scanned for studies describing desensitization protocols for patients with ASA hypersensitivity. Primary endpoint was the tolerance of ASA maintenance therapy (protocol success). Secondary endpoints were: 1) the occurrence of hypersensitivity symptoms during the protocol, 2) the rate of ASA discontinuation at follow-up; 3) recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events. We finally selected 14 studies out of 335 initially screened citation, reporting complete data on protocol desensitization strategies, with a total of 256 patients. Among them 213 (83.2%) underwent an oral desensitization protocol, while 43 received endovenous ASA. The protocol was successfully completed in 238 out of 256 patients (92.9%), who were subsequently kept on chronic daily therapy with ASA. The weighted success proportion was wP [95%CI] = 93[89.8–96.1]%. Hypersensivity symptoms occurred during the desensitization protocol in 29 patients, with a pooled events rate of 11.3[7.5–15.2]%. All adverse reactions were safely faced with pharmacological interventions. In 11 of these patients, slowing the protocol or restarting another ASA challenge could successfully achieve the tolerance. The rate of ASA discontinuation and major cardiovascular events was extremely low (6.1 and 2.3% respectively). Aspirin desensitization protocols represent a safe and effective option for the management of patients with a cardiovascular indication to ASA and history of allergy to ASA. Future randomized trials are certainly needed to
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Networks: a brief introduction. Wireless communication: What? Why? How many types? What is cell? Is it different from fixed landline structure? 1G systems: FDMA/FDD and Analog FM [voice comm]. (Introduced in 1983 in Chicago by AMPS). 2G systems: 3 ...
Peter J Hotez
Full Text Available The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional
Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goodenow, Maureen M; AbuBakar, Sazaly
The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines
Sanchez-Vizcaino, Fernando; Perez, Andres; Lainez, Manuel; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose Manuel
Newcastle disease (ND) causes large economic losses in poultry production worldwide. Spain has reported two ND epidemics in poultry farms since 1993, the most recent in 2009. The recent increase in the number of ND epidemics reported in Spain and in other European Union (EU) member countries along with the failure to identify the source of the Spanish epidemics caused concern over the vulnerability that Spain has to the disease. Some of the epidemics recently reported in EU member states were associated with legal introduction of live poultry; the large number of susceptible species annually imported by Spain from the EU suggests that legal imports of poultry may impose a risk for the introduction of virulent ND virus (v-NDV) into the country. This article presents the results of the first quantitative assessment of the risk for v-NDV introduction into an ND-free country via legal trade of live poultry. The geographical variation of the risk and the relative contribution of exporting countries and susceptible poultry species to the risk were also estimated. The model here estimated that if prevailing conditions persist, then it would be expected that ND epidemics caused by legal trade of live poultry will occur, on average, once every 196 years in Spain. These results suggest that the risk for ND epidemics in Spain, and probably the sources of recent epidemics reported in the country, were associated with routes of entry other than legal trade of poultry.
Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y
Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark
Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey
Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E
Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o
Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the e
Mycobacterium bovis infects multiple wildlife species and domesticated cattle across South Africa, and negatively impacts on livestock trade and movement of wildlife for conservation purposes. M. bovis infection was first reported in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa during the 1990s, and has since spread to infect numerous animal host species throughout the park and across South Africa. Whole genome sequencing data of 17 M. bovis isolates were analyzed to investigate the genomic diversity among M. bovis isolates causing disease in different animal host species from various locations in South Africa. M. bovis strains analyzed in this study are geographic rather than host species-specific. The clonal expansion of M. bovis in the KNP highlights the effect of an introduction of a transmissible infectious disease leading to a rising epidemic in wildlife, and emphasizes the importance of disease control and movement restriction of species that serve as disease reservoirs. In conclusion, the point source introduction of a single M. bovis strain type in the KNP ecosystem lead to an M. bovis outbreak in this area that affects various host species and poses an infection risk in neighboring rural communities where HIV prevalence is high.
Dippenaar, Anzaan; Parsons, Sven David Charles; Miller, Michele Ann; Hlokwe, Tiny; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius; Adroub, Sabir Abdu; Abdallah, Abdallah Musa; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin Mark; Michel, Anita Luise; van Helden, Paul David
Mycobacterium bovis infects multiple wildlife species and domesticated cattle across South Africa, and negatively impacts on livestock trade and movement of wildlife for conservation purposes. M. bovis infection was first reported in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa during the 1990s, and has since spread to infect numerous animal host species throughout the park and across South Africa. Whole genome sequencing data of 17 M. bovis isolates were analyzed to investigate the genomic diversity among M. bovis isolates causing disease in different animal host species from various locations in South Africa. M. bovis strains analyzed in this study are geographic rather than host species-specific. The clonal expansion of M. bovis in the KNP highlights the effect of an introduction of a transmissible infectious disease leading to a rising epidemic in wildlife, and emphasizes the importance of disease control and movement restriction of species that serve as disease reservoirs. In conclusion, the point source introduction of a single M. bovis strain type in the KNP ecosystem lead to an M. bovis outbreak in this area that affects various host species and poses an infection risk in neighboring rural communities where HIV prevalence is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa
Author Summary Dengue disease is a tropical and subtropical mosquito-borne viral illness, and is a major public health concern in all endemic countries. Our aim was to determine the impact of dengue disease on the Mexican population over time, and to identify future research priorities and challenges of the surveillance system. To do this, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the knowledge and gaps in the epidemiology of dengue disease. We used well-defined methods to searc...
Authier, Jacqueline; Meunier, Andre
An introduction to this issue of "Langue Francaise," which is devoted to a study of the crisis in grammar instruction in French where French is the native language. The issue deals with grammar exercises from linguistic, psycholinguistic and pedagogical points of view. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
residential areas in the town.The need to consider users' household-size, among other relevant socio-cultural parameters in the design and development of qualitative housing in Nigeria is emphasized. Keywords: Housing quality; household-size; socio-cultural parameters; Osogbo; Nigeria. Introduction t has been asserted ...
Diawara, Idrissa; Zerouali, Khalid; Katfy, Khalid; Zaki, Bahija; Belabbes, Houria; Najib, Jillali; Elmdaghri, Naima
The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence rate of invasive pneumococcal disease, the rates of antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution among children ≤5 years old before and after PCVs introduction in Casablanca, Morocco. This study was conducted at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca during two periods encompassing pre-and post-implementation of PCVs, respectively from January 2007 to October 2010 and from January 2011 to December 2014. All the non-duplicate invasive S. pneumoniae isolates recovered during the study periods were included. There were 136 cases of IPD, 91 before and 45 after PCVs introduction. The greatest decrease in incidence rate of IPD occurred in children ≤ 2 years of age declining from 34.6 to 13.5 per 100,000 populations (p<0.0001) before and after vaccination, respectively. The incidence rate of PCV-7, PCV-10 non-PCV-7 and PCV-13 non-PCV-10 serotypes decrease significantly from 18.0 to 4.6, from 5.7 to 1.3 and from 5.7 to 0.8/100,000 population (p<0.001) in the same age, respectively. Shifts in the distribution of IPD serotypes and reductions in the incidence rate of disease suggest an effective reduction of the burden of IPD in children, but continued high quality surveillance is critical to assess the changes in serotype distributions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hviid, Karen Pernille
This editorial introduction frames the special issue by highlighting its choices: examining transitions in the educational process, so as to highlight common features of many educational phenomena, often considered separately; and conceptualise transitions as time-embedded processes. Such theoret...... are thus presented through its specific methodological choices. Finally, two transversal characteristics of transitions are highlighted: the person-and-environment mutual responsiveness, and their inherent playfulness; some consequenses for education are suggested.......This editorial introduction frames the special issue by highlighting its choices: examining transitions in the educational process, so as to highlight common features of many educational phenomena, often considered separately; and conceptualise transitions as time-embedded processes....... Such theoretical choices raise methodological questions. among which, that of preserving the dynamics of education. Three main methodological options for doing so are considered: time construction (verbal or graphic); real-time data gathering; and focus on the individual-social articulation. Each of the papers...
Müller-Wille, Staffan; Kronfeldner, Maria
This paper summarizes the results from the first European Advanced Seminar in the Philosophy of the Life Sciences, which was held at the Brocher Foundation in Hermance (Switzerland) 6-10 September 2011. The Advanced Seminar brought together philosophers of the life sciences to discuss the topic of "Causation and Disease." The search for causes of disease in the biomedical sciences, we argue on the basis of the contributions to this conference, has not resulted in a simplification and unification of biomedical knowledge, as once hoped for by philosophers of science, but rather in its "complexification."
These lectures are intended as an introduction to the 'spectator' or 'Gross' formalism. It is a covariant framework based on relativistic quantum field theory, which was developed in particular, although not exclusively, for applications in few-hadron systems. After a more general introduction, a first part develops some basic ideas within a scalar field theory. Then, a brief overview over relativistic two-body equations is given. The final part is devoted to the Gross equation in the two- and three-nucleon problem and presents some recent results. (author)
A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll
Introduction to THz Wave Photonics examines the science and technology related to terahertz wave technologies, taking a dual approach between presenting the field 's history while simultaneously providing an overview of existing technology. The latest research in developing THz areas such as electromagnetic waves are presented, along with an introduction to continuous wave THz technology. Authors X.-C. Zhang and Jingzhou Xu place particular emphasis on pulsed THz technology, among many other facets of THz technology including: Complete coverage of THz wave spectroscopy and imagingA discussion
van der Plas, Evelyn M.; van den Tweel, Xandra W.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Heijboer, Harriët; Biemond, Bart J.; Peters, Marjolein; Fijnvandraat, Karin
This study analyzed the mortality and causes of death in sickle cell disease patients in the Netherlands, to provide a baseline for monitoring the effect of the recently introduced neonatal screening programme and to indicate areas of improvement in the care for these patients. All children ( <18
Mate, Karen; Sim, Alistair; Weidenhofer, Judith; Milward, Liz; Scott, Judith
A blended approach encompassing problem-based learning (PBL) and structured inquiry was used in this laboratory exercise based on the congenital disease Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), to introduce commonly used techniques in biomolecular analysis within a clinical context. During a series of PBL sessions students were presented with several…
Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S
Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children
Full Text Available Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD is a serious bacterial disease. Vaccination can prevent disease for many of the current serotypes. The aim of this investigation was to describe the notification rates of IPD in a regional area of Australia, explore changes in rates since the introduction of the population vaccine programmes in 2005 and to describe changes in the distribution of serotypes in relation to the available vaccines after three years.Methods: Annualized IPD notification rates were calculated for residents of a regional area in northern New South Wales. Rates were analysed according to serotypes covered by available vaccines. Changes in serotypes were compared for the periods 2002–2004 and 2008–2010.Results: The annualized notification rate of IPD in all ages for the period 2002–2004 was 13.7 per 100 000 population and 8.3 per 100 000 population for the period 2008–2010 (rate ratio [RR], 0.61, confidence interval [CI]: 0.51–0.72. The largest decline was observed in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV types across all age groups (RR, 0.17, CI: 0.12–0.24 and in the zero to four year age group (RR, 0.03, CI: 0.01–0.11. The six serotypes included in the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, but not in the 7vPCV, accounted for 40.6% of IPD cases in the zero to four year age group during the period of 2008–2010.Discussion: The introduction of 7vPCV significantly reduced the overall notification rate of IPD caused by the serotypes contained in this vaccine. This decline in IPD rates in children can be directly attributed to the use of 7vPCV, and in adults it is most likely an indirect effect of the 7vPCV programme in children.
Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaia, O V; Demina, Iu V; Taran, T V; Pakskina, N D; Kharchenko, T V; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Savel'ev, V N; Orobeĭ, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Brukhanova, G D
To assess the epidemiological risk of introduction of serious infectious diseases in the pre-Olympic period defined list of dangerous and exotic infections and held assessment of potential danger threatening. Initial external information to assess the potential risk of skidding were reports, forecasts, posted on the official websites. The risk of skidding and epidemiological complications conditionally designated as high, moderate and minimal risk importation of measles virus-Rate was considered as high. In confirmation of the forecast for the period of the Olympic Games in Sochi have been registered about 100 cases of measles. Moderate risk of importation was determined for poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus, Lassa fever, cholera, plague, and the minimal--for Dengue fever, yellow fever, the Middle East and respiratory syndrome, diseases caused by viruses Marburg and Ebola. Based on of analysis of previous Olympic Games and subsequent co-events related to the activity of the infectious diseases in the world, mate-cluded that even a slight risk of importation of infectious diseases requires maximum alertness and readiness to conduct adequate epidemiological issues incorporated.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of information about the impact of mood and anxiety disorders on Canadians and the approaches used to manage them. To address this gap, the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component (SLCDC-MA was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology of the 2014 SLCDC-MA and examine the sociodemographic characteristics of the final sample. Methods: The 2014 SLCDC-MA is a cross-sectional follow-up survey that includes Canadians from the 10 provinces aged 18 years and older with mood and/or anxiety disorders diagnosed by a health professional that are expected to last, or have already lasted, six months or more. The survey was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC through an iterative, consultative process with Statistics Canada and external experts. Statistics Canada performed content testing, designed the sampling frame and strategies and collected and processed the data. PHAC used descriptive analyses to describe the respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, produced nationally representative estimates using survey weights provided by Statistics Canada, and generated variance estimates using bootstrap methodology. Results: The final 2014 SLCDC-MA sample consists of a total of 3361 respondents (68.9% response rate. Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, close to two-thirds (64% were female, over half (56% were married/in a common-law relationship and 60% obtained a post-secondary education. Most were young or middle-aged (85%, Canadian born (88%, of non-Aboriginal status (95%, and resided in an urban setting (82%. Household income was fairly evenly distributed between the adequacy quintiles; however, individuals were more likely to report a household income adequacy within the lowest (23% versus highest (17% quintile. Forty-five percent reported having a mood disorder only, 24% an anxiety disorder only and 31
Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation techniques, also called likelihood-free methods, are one of the most satisfactory approach to intractable likelihood problems. This overview presents recent results since its introduction about ten years ago in population genetics.
Full Text Available colonies, demonstrated in his investigation of the Calcutta water supplies, the presence of Vibrio comma which caused the cholera epidemic 2 It is apparent from modern reporting that the con siderations applied in deciding on whether or not a disease...-borne pathogenic :teria are the cholera Vibrio comma, the Salmonella up, the Singe/la group, the spiroehaete Leprospira, leurella tularensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The raeteristics and properties of these bacteria and their urrence in water will be dealt...
Sánchez, José C
Many investigators from diverse perspectives focus their studies on the area of entrepreneurship due to its important role as an engine of economic and social development. The aim of this monograph is to provide an overview of the state of entrepreneurship research. It presents the controversy about the domain of the study and whether entrepreneurship can be considered a legitimate field of knowledge. We study the aspects that differentiate people who are entrepreneurs from those who are not from the perspective of cognitive psychology and we discuss the role of entrepreneurial education. The work is also an attempt to understand the factors that determine the durability of a company such as resources, location, personality traits, strategies, organizational systems, etc. Lastly, we examine the reality of entrepreneurship research in Spain.
Davis, Morton D
""A lucid and penetrating development of game theory that will appeal to the intuition . . . a most valuable contribution."" - Douglas R. Hofstadter Fascinating, accessible introduction to enormously important intellectual system with numerous applications to social, economic, political problems. Newly revised edition offers overview of game theory, then lucid coverage of the two-person zero-sum game with equilibrium points; the general, two-person zero-sum game; utility theory; other topics. Problems at start of each chapter.
Studziński, Krzysztof; Tomasik, Tomasz; Krzyszton, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Windak, Adam
Major clinical practice guidelines recommend assessing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using absolute/global/total CVD risk scores. However, the effectiveness of using them in clinical practice, despite publication of numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), is still poorly understood. To summarise and analyse current knowledge in this field, we will carry out an overview of existing systematic reviews (SRs). The objective of this overview will be to assess the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD compared with standard care. We will include SRs and meta-analyses which take into account RCTs and quasi-RCTs investigating the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD. SRs will be retrieved from 4 bibliographical databases and reference lists of identified reviews. Additionally, the PROSPERO database will be searched for unpublished, ongoing or recently completed SRs. 2 reviewers will assess the SRs independently for eligibility and bias. The data will be extracted to a special form. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion. In case of lack of consensus, a third author will arbitrate. The overview of SRs will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Ethics approval is not required for overview of SRs. We will summarise evidence concerning whether use of the absolute/global/total CVD risk scoring tools in primary prevention of CVD is effective and supported with scientific data or not. If we face unsatisfactory confirmation, we will highlight a need for further research and advice on how to plan such a study. We will submit the results of our study for peer-review publication in a journal indexed in the international bibliographic database of biomedical information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Gènova-Maleras, R; Álvarez-Martín, E; Morant-Ginestar, C; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, N; Catalá-López, F
To provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the burden of disease in Spain for 2008. Implications for public health policies are discussed. Cross-sectional population-based study. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated at country level using the methodology developed in the Global Burden of Disease study. DALYs were divided into years of life lost and years of life lived with disability. Results were obtained using Spanish mortality data for 2008 and morbidity data estimated previously by the World Health Organization for Euro-A. In 2008, DALYs lost due to all diseases and injuries were estimated at 5.1 million. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 89.2% of the total DALYs. The leading causes of DALYs were neurological and mental disorders (29.9%), malignant neoplasms (15.8%) and cardiovascular diseases (12.5%). The main specific causes included depression (5.5%), ischaemic heart disease (5.5%), lung cancer (5.3%) and alcohol abuse (4.7%) among males; and depression (11.7%), dementias (10.0%), hearing loss (4.2%) and cerebrovascular disease (3.5%) among females. Measuring DALYs specifically for Spain represents a systematic analysis of population health losses, and also provides an important measure to track the outcomes of future health interventions. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karuppanan, P.; Naheed, M.
Continued outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in northern Malaysia drove the decision to establish a diagnostic surveillance capability at the regional laboratory in Kota Bharu. Based on using ELISA based diagnostic systems the laboratory was equipped for the detection of both the conservative virus and a serological response in animals. Considerable detail was given on the subsequent testing that was carried out clearly demonstrating the value both of the ELISA technology but also of what can be achieved at reasonable costs for conducting routine surveillance of FMD. (author)
In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...... is on the iterative nature of the LCA process with its many feedback loops between the different phases. It is explained how the integrated use of sensitivity analysis helps identify key assumptions and key data and thus ensure effectiveness by directing the focus of the LCA practitioner to those parts of the study...... where additional work contributes most to strengthen the results and conclusions of the study....
Sullivan, T J
Uncertainty quantification is a topic of increasing practical importance at the intersection of applied mathematics, statistics, computation, and numerous application areas in science and engineering. This text provides a framework in which the main objectives of the field of uncertainty quantification are defined, and an overview of the range of mathematical methods by which they can be achieved. Complete with exercises throughout, the book will equip readers with both theoretical understanding and practical experience of the key mathematical and algorithmic tools underlying the treatment of uncertainty in modern applied mathematics. Students and readers alike are encouraged to apply the mathematical methods discussed in this book to their own favourite problems to understand their strengths and weaknesses, also making the text suitable as a self-study. This text is designed as an introduction to uncertainty quantification for senior undergraduate and graduate students with a mathematical or statistical back...
In the domain of analytical mass spectrometry (MS), FT-ICR's place is established as combining particular advantages of extraordinary mass resolution and accuracy, a wide array of sample-ionization techniques, and a uniquely wide range of methods for structure characterization of the primary sample ions. Costs are already attractive compared with other high-performance alternatives, and as both magnets and computers (which comprise much of the expense of FT-ICR hardware) become cheaper and more powerful, the performance/cost ratio for the technique will continue to improve. This paper will provide an introduction to those who have little previous knowledge of the technique; provide an overview of the technique's outstanding areas of scientific and analytical application; and provide some historical perspective on how we reached the present state of the art
Yanovski, Jack A
The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.
Sangula, Abraham K.; Belsham, Graham; Muwanika, Vincent B.
Background: In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our...... 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent...... introductions from southern Africa were identified from a maximum clade credibility tree. One group was exclusive to Uganda while the other was present within Kenya and Tanzania. Conclusions: Our results provide a baseline characterization of the inter-regional spread of SAT 1 in sub-Saharan Africa...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in the Kingdom of Cambodia and causes major problems to farmers as well as losses in overall terms to the national economy. Losses are due to treatment of sick animal, impact on rice cultivation through the loss of ploughing capabilities, death of animals and finally, through effects on animal trade. The disease affects cattle, buffalo and pig throughout the year. In 1998, 22 cattle actually died whilst 35,000 showed clinical signs of FMD. 1,400 buffaloes and 102 pigs also showed signs of FMD. Virus sero-types Asia I and O were identified from cattle and virus sero-type O was found from infected pig. Tested epithelium and vesicle fluid samples from sick animals for antigen type has shown that 78% were FMD sero-type O among cattle and pigs and 21% FMD sero-type Asia I from cattle. Titration of sera from vaccinated animal against FMD after second vaccination has shown high levels of immunity. All sera tested were positive at a dilution of 1:125 for sero-types O, Asia I and A. (author)
Full Text Available Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks are poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD through different sectors of the pig industry: 1 large-scale pig producers; 2 small-scale producers (< 100 sows selling at saleyards and abattoirs; and, 3 small-scale producers selling through informal means. An exposure and consequence assessments were conducted assuming FMD virus was introduced into Australia through illegal importation of infected meat. A quantitative assessment, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation, was used to calculate the probabilities of exposure and spread. Input data for these assessments were obtained from a series of data gathering exercises among pig producers, industry statistics and literature. Findings of this study suggest there is an Extremely low probability of exposure (8.69 × 10-6 to 3.81 × 10-5 for the three sectors of the pig industry, with exposure through direct swill feeding being 10 to 100 times more likely to occur than through contact with infected feral pigs.. Spread of FMD from the index farm is most likely to occur through movement of contaminated fomites, pigs and ruminants. The virus is more likely to spread from small-scale piggeries selling at saleyards and abattoirs than from other piggeries. The most influential factors on the spread of FMD from the index farm is the ability of the farmer to detect FMD, the probability of FMD spread through contaminated fomites and the presence of ruminants on the farm. Although small-scale producers selling informally move animals less frequently and do not use external staff, movement of pigs to non-commercial pathways could jeopardize animal traceability in the event of a disease outbreak. This study suggest that
Bjoern M. Eskofier
Full Text Available New smart technologies and the internet of things increasingly play a key role in healthcare and wellness, contributing to the development of novel healthcare concepts. These technologies enable a comprehensive view of an individual’s movement and mobility, potentially supporting healthy living as well as complementing medical diagnostics and the monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. This overview article specifically addresses smart shoes, which are becoming one such smart technology within the future internet of health things, since the ability to walk defines large aspects of quality of life in a wide range of health and disease conditions. Smart shoes offer the possibility to support prevention, diagnostic work-up, therapeutic decisions, and individual disease monitoring with a continuous assessment of gait and mobility. This overview article provides the technological as well as medical aspects of smart shoes within this rising area of digital health applications, and is designed especially for the novel reader in this specific field. It also stresses the need for closer interdisciplinary interactions between technological and medical experts to bridge the gap between research and practice. Smart shoes can be envisioned to serve as pervasive wearable computing systems that enable innovative solutions and services for the promotion of healthy living and the transformation of health care.
Fernández-Ruiz, M; Meije, Y; Manuel, O; Akan, H; Carratalà, J; Aguado, J M; Delaloye, J
The field of new biological agents is increasing exponentially over the past years, thus making prevention and management of associated infectious complications a challenge for nonspecialized clinicians. The present consensus document is an initiative of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) aimed at analysing, from an infectious diseases perspective, the safety of targeted and biological therapies. Computer-based Medline searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family. The document is structured in sections according to the targeted site of action of each drug class: proinflammatory cytokines; interleukins, immunoglobulins and other soluble immune mediators; cell surface receptors and associated signaling pathways; intracellular signaling pathways; lymphoma and leukaemia cells surface antigens; and other targeted therapies. A common outline is followed for each agent: summary of mechanism of action, approved indications and common off-label uses; expected impact on the host's susceptibility to infection; available clinical evidence (i.e. pivotal clinical trials, postmarketing studies, case series and case reports); and suggested prevention and risk minimization strategies. The methodologic and practical difficulties of assessing the specific risk posed by a given agent are also discussed. This ESGICH consensus document constitutes not only a comprehensive overview of the molecular rationale and clinical experience on the risk of infection associated with approved targeted therapies but also an attempt to propose a series of recommendations with the purpose of guiding physicians from different disciplines into this emerging framework. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Biomechatronics provides fundamental knowledge of mechanical and electronic (mechatronic) components and systems and their interaction with human biology to assist or replace limbs, senses, and even organs damaged by trauma, birth defects, or disease. The first half of the book provides the engineering background to understand all the components of a biomechatronic system: the human subject, stimulus or actuation, transducers and sensors, signal conditioning elements, recording and display, and feedback elements.
Vanterpool, Sizzle F; Tomsin, Kathleen; Reyes, Leticia; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Been, Jasper V
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth. Women who have periodontal disease while pregnant may be at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been addressed in a considerable number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there are important differences in the conclusions of these reviews. Systematic reviews assessing the effectivity of various therapeutic interventions to treat periodontal disease during pregnancy to try and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes have also arrived at different conclusions. We aim to provide a systematic overview of systematic reviews comparing the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes between women with and without periodontal disease and/or evaluating the effect of preventive and therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease before or during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We will include systematic reviews reporting on studies comparing adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) between women with or without periodontal disease before (periodontal disease. Eligible interventions include (combinations of) the following: oral hygiene education, use of antibiotics, subgingival scaling, and root planing. For preventive and/or therapeutic reviews, the following comparisons will be considered: no intervention, a placebo intervention, or an alternative intervention. Our primary adverse pregnancy outcomes of interests are maternal mortality, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality. Two reviewers will independently identify eligible published and unpublished systematic reviews from six electronic databases and using hand searching of reference lists and citations. Data items extracted from included systematic reviews are based on the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care checklist and the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. In our narrative data
The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Ciliary muscle contraction. Ciliary muscle contraction; Decrease in anterior chamber depth; Increase in lens thickness; changed anterior and posterior radius of curvature.
... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability Overview Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Impairments, Activity Limitations, and Participation ...
Scenario Overview Our scenario today was utilized during mission validation of the U.S. Army Reserve Information Operations Command’s Detachment 52...Actions: Use retina on Mgmt machine to scan user subnet WTLF: # hosts unpatched (IPs:…) Highlights: Retina , Nessus 97 Scenario Overview (continued...on firewall (23, 37331, etc.) IH: • Run Retina scans (Findings?) 105 Scenario Wrap Up – Review Stage 2 CDAP: • Find unauthorized software
Sangula, Abraham K; Belsham, Graham J; Muwanika, Vincent B; Heller, Rasmus; Balinda, Sheila N; Masembe, Charles; Siegismund, Hans R
In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent introductions from southern Africa were identified from a maximum clade credibility tree. One group was exclusive to Uganda while the other was present within Kenya and Tanzania. Our results provide a baseline characterization of the inter-regional spread of SAT 1 in sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the importance of a regional approach to trans-boundary animal disease control in order to monitor circulating strains and apply appropriate vaccines.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally characterized by the cardinal motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and impairments of posture, gait, and balance. A relatively new focus of research and treatment is the nonmotor symptoms of the disease, following from recent understanding of the neuropathological stages. Disruptions of arousal, mood, sleep, and autonomic function before the first motor signs of PD implicate the lower brainstem, which is affected before the substantia nigra and dopaminergic system. In later stages of the disease, the pathology extends to the cortex, accompanied by impairments in cognition and perception. The articles in this special section advance our knowledge of the brain bases of the nonmotor symptoms of PD, including disrupted visual perception, impaired cognition across a range of domains, and psychiatric and artistic manifestations. Subtypes under investigation include those described by side of disease onset (left or right body side), predominant cognitive profile, and gender. Taken together, the articles in this special section reflect the field's growing focus on the nonmotor symptoms of PD, their brain bases, and the corresponding potential for their treatment.
Jašek, Roman; Králík, Lukáš; Nožička, Jakub
The paper presents the reader into the issue of ITIL (R) and provides it as a basic overview of the concepts, terminology and philosophyof IT Service management. All this information is contained in 5 key ITIL (R) publications on around 1400 pages. The aim therefore is a brief summary of the issue, which also serves as an introduction to the following articles (Differences Between ITIL (R) v2 and ITIL (R) v3, ITIL (R) and Information Security, ITIL (R) Tools and ITIL (R) Implementation).
Yang, Bingyi; Liu, Fengfeng; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Chang, Zhaorui; Huang, Jiao; Long, Lu; Luo, Li; Li, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie
Introduction Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by several serotypes from human enterovirus A species, including enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Two inactivated monovalent EV-A71 vaccines have been recently licensed in China and monovalent CV-A16 vaccine and bivalent EV-A71 and CV-A16 vaccine are under development. Methods: Using notifications from the national surveillance system, we describe the epidemiology and dynamics of HFMD in the country, before the introduction of EV-A71 vaccination, from 2008 through 2015. Results: Laboratory-identified serotype categories, i.e. CV-A16, EV-A71 and other enteroviruses, circulated annually. EV-A71 remained the most virulent serotype and was the major serotype for fatal cases (range: 88.5–95.4%) and severe cases (range: 50.7–82.3%) across years. Except for 2013 and 2015, when other enteroviruses were more frequently found in mild HFMD (48.8% and 52.5%), EV-A71 was more frequently detected from mild cases in the rest of the years covered by the study (range: 39.4–52.6%). The incidence rates and severity risks of HFMD associated with all serotype categories were the highest for children aged 1 year and younger, and decreased with increasing age. Discussion/conclusion: This study provides baseline epidemiology for evaluation of vaccine impact and potential serotype replacement. PMID:29258646
Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl
Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)
Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S
Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.
Garner, K C
Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave
flexible in allowing for the imperfect situations and capabilities we have all encountered in source recovery efforts. We have designed a table-top exercise specifically to address your concerns about the prevention and mitigation of contaminated facilities, soil, containers, and sources. Our discussion begins with an overview and video of the OSRP along with a brief on our projects ongoing international cooperation and activities. A presentation will be given by the NRSS illustrating the successes and challenges of source management in Georgia. A brief overview will be given of selected significant cases of the intentional misuse of sources. This will be followed by two comprehensive discussions focusing on the decontamination from the facility perspective down to the issues of container and source leakage. The second day will begin with the abovementioned table-top exercise on contamination control. On the third day, a second presentation from the NRSS will open up the session.
Lee, Eun Jae; Jung, Won Sang; Ko, Jeong Min; Park, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
Cowden disease is the prototype of phosphate and, tensin homologue deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome caused by germline mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN, which is characterized by multiple developmentally disorganized benign growths, hamartomas, with an increased risk of both benign and malignant tumors. We present another case of Cowden disease in a 50-year-old woman. Besides the diagnostic criteria of Cowden disease, she had various manifestations in thyroid, lung, spleen, liver, pancreas, and muscle. As far as we know, it is the first case showing radiographic findings of hamartomatous lesions in thyroid, spleen, and pancreas, associated with Cowden disease.
Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S
Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553
Radu E. Sestras
Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.
Waight, Pauline A; Andrews, Nicholas J; Ladhani, Shamez N; Sheppard, Carmen L; Slack, Mary P E; Miller, Elizabeth
The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) protects against key serotypes that increased after routine immunisation with the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7), but its potential for herd protection and serotype replacement is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales 4 years after its introduction. We used a national dataset of electronically reported and serotyped invasive pneumococcal disease cases in England and Wales to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for vaccine and non-vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease between July, 2013, and June, 2014, versus the pre-PCV13 and pre-PCV7 baseline. Incidence rates were corrected for missing serotype data and changes in surveillance sensitivity over time. An over-dispersed Poisson model was used to estimate IRRs and confidence intervals. Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the epidemiological year 2013/14 decreased by 32% compared with the pre-PCV13 baseline (incidence 10·14 per 100,000 in 2008-10 vs 6·85 per 100,000 in 2013/14; IRR 0·68, 95% CI 0·64-0·72). This was due to an 86% reduction of the serotypes covered by PCV7 (1·46 vs 0·20 per 100,000; IRR 0·14, 0·10-0·18) and a 69% reduction of the additional six serotypes covered by PCV13 (4·48 vs 1·40 per 100,000; IRR 0·31, 0·28-0·35). When compared with the pre-PCV7 baseline, there was a 56% overall reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease (15·63 vs 6·85 per 100,000; IRR 0·44, 95% CI 0·43-0·47). Compared with the pre-PCV13 baseline, the incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes increased (incidence all ages 4·19 vs 5·25 per 100,000; IRR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17-1·35) due to increases across a broad range of serotypes in children younger than 5 years and in people aged 45 years or more. In children younger than 5 years, incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes in 2013/14 was higher than in 2012/13 (age Wales has reduced the
Ferrario, Alessandra; Chitan, Elena; Seicas, Rita; Sautenkova, Nina; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Kluge, Hans; Habicht, Jarno
To assess progress in improving affordability of medicines since the introduction of mandatory health insurance in the Republic of Moldova. Using data from national health insurance, we estimate affordability of partially reimbursed medicines for the treatment of non-communicable diseases, and analyse which factors contributed to changes in affordability. Affordability of subsidized medicines improved over time. In 2013, it took a median of 0.84 days of income for the lowest income quintile (ranging from 0 to 3.32 days) to purchase 1 month of treatment for cardiovascular conditions in comparison to 1.85 days in 2006. This improvement however was mainly driven by higher incomes rather than deeper coverage through the reimbursement list. If mandatory health insurance is to improve affordability of medicines for the Moldovan population, more funds need to be (re-)allocated to enable higher percentage coverage of essential medicines and efficiencies need to be generated within the health system. These should include a budget reallocation between secondary and primary care, strengthening primary care to manage chronic conditions and raise population awareness, implementation of evidence-based selection and quality use of medicines in both outpatient and inpatient settings, improving monitoring and regulation of prices and the supply chain; and alignment of national treatment guidelines and clinical practice with international best practices and evidence-based medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Coplan, P; Black, S; Rojas, C; Shinefield, H; Ray, P; Lewis, E; Guess, H
A 15-year postmarketing evaluation of the impact of varicella vaccine on the age distribution of varicella disease is being conducted at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Northern California (KPMCP). We report on a baseline assessment of the age-specific incidence and hospitalization rates of varicella and herpes zoster that was conducted before vaccine introduction. To assess the annual incidence of varicella, a telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of approximately 8,000 youths 5 to 19 years of age. The annual incidence of hospitalizations for varicella and herpes zoster in 1994 was assessed with the use of the computerized database at KPMCP. Varicella annual incidence was 10.3% in 5- to 9-year-olds, 1.9% in 10- to 14-year-olds and 1.2% in the 15- to 19-year age groups, respectively. Hospitalization rates among the entire KPMCP membership were 2.6 and 2.1 per 100,000 person years for varicella and zoster, respectively. Varicella incidence in the 15- to 19-year age group was higher among African-Americans than among Caucasians. Varicella rates were similar in the 5- to 9- and 10- to 14-year age groups to rates from other published studies conducted in 1972 to 1978, 1980 to 1988 and 1990 to 1992; however, the rate in 15- to 19-year-olds was 2 to 4 times higher than published rates in the same age category.
Huang, Chen; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jiao; Weschler, Louise B; Wang, Xueying; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Sundell, Jan
We investigated associations of breastfeeding (BF) durations and patterns and of timing of other dietary introductions with prevalence of asthma, wheeze, hay fever, rhinitis, pneumonia, and eczema among preschool children. During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 72 kindergartens from five districts of Shanghai, China and obtained 13,335 questionnaires of children 4-6-years-old. We used multiple logistic regression models to evaluate the target associations. Compared to children who were never BF, children who were exclusively breastfed 3-6 months had the lowest risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.72-0.91) and wheeze (0.93, 0.87-0.99); and exclusive BF >6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hay fever (0.93, 0.89-0.97), rhinitis (0.97, 0.94-0.99), pneumonia (0.97, 0.94-0.99), and eczema (0.96, 0.93-0.99). No significant associations were found between time when fruits or vegetables were introduced and the studied diseases. Associations were independent of the child's sex and parent's ownership of the current residence. Longer duration BF was only significantly protective when there was no family history of atopy. This study suggests that heredity, but not sex and socioeconomic status, may negatively impact the effect of BF on childhood airway and allergic diseases. Our findings support China's national recommendation that mothers provide exclusive BF for the first four months, and continue partial BF for more than 6 months.
A.M. Tartaglione; A. Venerosi; G. Calamandrei
The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse fetal and early childhood exposures can predispose to obesity, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) in adult life. Early exposure to environmental chemicals interferes with developmental programming and induces subclinical alterations that may hesitate in pathophysiology and behavioral deficits at a later life stage. The mechanisms by which perinatal insults lead to altered programming and to diseas...
Guetin, Stéphane; Charras, Kevin; Berard, Alain; Arbus, Christophe; Berthelon, Patrick; Blanc, Frédéric; Blayac, Jean-Pierre; Bonte, Florence; Bouceffa, Jean-Paul; Clement, Sylvain; Ducourneau, Gérard; Gzil, Fabrice; Laeng, Nathalie; Lecourt, Edith; Ledoux, Sylvie; Platel, Hervé; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Touchon, Jacques; Vrait, François-Xavier; Leger, Jean-Marie
The aim of this overview is to present the developments of music therapy in France, its techniques, mechanisms and principal indications, mainly in the context of Alzheimer's disease. An international review of the literature on music therapy applied to Alzheimer's disease was conducted using the principal scientific search engines. A work group of experts in music therapy and psychosocial techniques then considered the different points highlighted in the review of literature and discussed them. Clinical and neurophysiological studies have enlightened some positive benefits of music in providing support for people with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Music therapy acts mainly through emotional and psycho-physiological pathways. It includes a series of techniques that can respond to targeted therapeutic objectives. Some studies have shown that music therapy reduces anxiety, alleviates periods of depression and aggressive behaviour and thus significantly improves mood, communication and autonomy of patients. Psychosocial interventions, such as music therapy, can contribute to maintain or rehabilitate functional cognitive and sensory abilities, as well as emotional and social skills and to reduce the severity of some behavioural disorders.
Full Text Available This paper describes the successful national program initiated by the South African government to produce disease-free African buffalo so as to ensure the sustainability of this species due to threats from diseases. Buffalo are known carriers of foot-and-mouth disease, bovine tuberculosis, Corridor disease and brucellosis. A long-term program involving multiphase testing and a breeding scheme for buffalo is described where, after 10 years, a sustainable number of buffalo herds are now available that are free of these four diseases. A large portion of the success was attributable to the use of dairy cows as foster parents with the five-stage quarantine process proving highly effective in maintaining the “disease-free” status of both the calves and the foster cows. The projects proved the successfulness of breeding with African buffalo in a commercial system that was unique to African buffalo and maintained the “wildness” of the animals so that they could effectively be released back into the wild with minimal, if any, behavioral problems.
Ellis, Terry; Motl, Robert W
Persons with chronic progressive neurologic diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) face significant declines in mobility and activities of daily living, resulting in a loss of independence and compromised health-related quality of life over the course of the disease. Such undesirable outcomes can be attenuated through participation in exercise and physical activity, yet there is profound and prevalent physical inactivity in persons with PD and MS that may initiate a cycle of deconditioning and worsening of disease consequences, independent of latent disease processes. This Special Interest article highlights the accruing evidence revealing the largely sedentary behaviors common among persons living with physically disabling conditions and summarizes the evidence on the benefits of physical activity in persons with PD and MS. We then examine the social cognitive theory as an approach to identifying the primary active ingredients for behavioral change and, hence, the targets of interventions for increasing physical activity levels. The design and efficacies of interventions based on the social cognitive theory for increasing physical activity in persons with PD and MS are discussed. Finally, a rationale for adopting a secondary prevention approach to delivering physical therapy services is presented, with an emphasis on the integration of physical activity behavior change interventions into the care of persons with chronic, progressive disabilities over the course of the disease.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A42) for more insights from the authors.
Berry, Sarah E E
The position of fatty acids in the TAG molecule (sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3) determines the physical properties of the fat, which affects its absorption, metabolism and distribution into tissues, which may have implications for the risk of CHD. The TAG structure of fats can be manipulated by the process of interesterification, which is of increasing commercial importance, as it can be used to change the physical characteristics of a fat without the generation of trans-fatty acids. Interesterified fats rich in long-chain SFA are commercially important, but few studies have investigated their health effects. Evidence from animal and human infant studies suggests that TAG structure and interesterification affect digestibility, atherogenicity and fasting lipid levels, with fats containing palmitic and stearic acid in the sn-2 position being better digested and considered to be more atherogenic. However, chronic studies in human adults suggest that TAG structure has no effect on digestibility or fasting lipids. The postprandial effects of fats with differing TAG structure are better characterised but the evidence is inconclusive; it is probable that differences in the physical characteristics of fats resulting from interesterification and changes in TAG structure are key determinants of the level of postprandial lipaemia, rather than the position of fatty acids in the TAG. The present review gives an overview of TAG structure and interesterified palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats, their physical properties and their acute and chronic effects in human adults in relation to CHD.
This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…
Thijs C van Holten
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming number of studies and meta-analyses on biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, there are no comprehensive studies comparing the relevance of each biomarker. We performed a systematic review of meta-analyses on levels of serological biomarkers for atherothrombosis to compare the relevance of the most commonly studied biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline and Embase were screened on search terms that were related to "arterial ischemic events" and "meta-analyses". The meta-analyses were sorted by patient groups without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, with cardiovascular disease and heterogeneous groups concerning general populations, groups with and without cardiovascular disease, or miscellaneous. These were subsequently sorted by end-point for cardiovascular disease or stroke and summarized in tables. We have identified 85 relevant full text articles, with 214 meta-analyses. Markers for primary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, the apolipoprotein A/apolipoprotein B ratio, high density lipoprotein, and vitamin D. Markers for secondary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: cardiac troponins I and T, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and cystatin C. For primary stroke, fibrinogen and serum uric acid are strong risk markers. Limitations reside in that there is no acknowledged search strategy for prognostic studies or meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For primary cardiovascular events, markers with strong predictive potential are mainly associated with lipids. For secondary cardiovascular events, markers are more associated with ischemia. Fibrinogen is a
Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems
Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either
Shah, Manish A; Kelsen, David P
Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite recent advances in targeted therapy and understanding of the biology and development of the malignancy, progress in the treatment of gastric cancer has been limited. Most newly diagnosed patients will present with incurable disease, and have a median survival of less than 1 year. Although the disease has widespread ethnic and epidemiologic differences, medical management of gastric cancer does not distinguish among the various disease subtypes. The recent report of the ToGA phase III study has validated Her2 as a molecular target in this disease, supporting the concept that a greater understanding of the biology of gastric cancer subsets may improve treatment selection and overall outcome of individual patients. This article summarizes the epidemiology and ethnic variation of this disease to crystalize subtypes of gastric cancer in the context of current and future medical management of advanced disease.
George, F H
An Introduction to Digital Computing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of digital computing. This book represents a major step towards the universal availability of programmed material.Organized into four chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental workings of the computer, including the way it handles simple arithmetic problems. This text then provides a brief survey of the basic features of a typical computer that is divided into three sections, namely, the input and output system, the memory system for data storage, and a processing system. Other c
Rothery, David A
Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?
Bogolyubov, N N
Introduction to Quantum Statistical Mechanics (Second Edition) may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students, even ambitious undergraduates in physics. It is also suitable for non experts in physics who wish to have an overview of some of the classic and fundamental quantum models in the subject. The explanation in the book is detailed enough to capture the interest of the reader, and complete enough to provide the necessary background material needed to dwell further into the subject and explore the research literature.
Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
In Denmark emergency departments are newly established and still in a process of devising their procedures and technology support. Electronic whiteboards are a means of supporting clinicians in creating and maintaining the overview necessary to provide quality treatment of patients. The concrete...... meaning of the notion of overview is, however, fussy. To explore the notion of overview and how it might be affected by whiteboards, we conducted a survey at two emergency departments and, for reasons of comparison, a pediatric department. Our results indicate that respondents consider the information...... on their dry-erase whiteboards important to their overview and that they are positive toward the introduction of electronic whiteboards. At the emergency departments, the phy-sicians’ and nurses’ overall perception of their overview correlates with different subcomponents of overview, suggesting differences...
Ahmad, Khurshid; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Greig, Nigel H; Choi, Inho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common and well-studied neurodegenerative disease (ND). Biological pathways, pathophysiology and genetics of AD show commonalities with other NDs viz. Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), Prion disease and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Many of the NDs, sharing the common features and molecular mechanisms suggest that pathology may be directly comparable and be implicated in disease prevention and development of highly effective therapies. In this review, a brief description of pathophysiology, clinical symptoms and available treatment of various NDs have been explored with special emphasis on AD. Commonalities in these fatal NDs provide support for therapeutic advancements and enhance the understanding of disease manifestation. The studies concentrating on the commonalities in biological pathways, cellular mechanisms and genetics may provide the scope to researchers to identify few novel common target(s) for disease prevention and development of effective common drugs for multi-neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rödger, Jan-Markus; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris
The chapter gives an introduction to life cycle costing (LCC) and how it can be used to support decision-making. It can form the economic pillar in a full life cycle sustainability assessment, but often system delimitations differ depending on the goal and scope of the study. To provide a profound...... understanding this chapter describes several approaches and terms, fundamental principles and different types of costs. A brief introduction is given to conventional LCC and societal LCC but the main focus is on environmental Life Cycle Costing (eLCC) as the LCC approach that is compatible with environmental...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of system delimitation. Differences are explained and addressed, and an overview is given of the main cost categories to consider from different user perspectives. As inventory data is often sensitive in financial analyses, a list of relevant databases is provided...
Full Text Available The traditionally recognized role of vitamin D consists in the regulation of bone metabolism and calcium-phosphorus homeostasis but recently a lot of in vitro and in vivo studies recognized several “noncalcemic” effects of vitamin D metabolites. Accumulating evidence suggests that the metabolic pathways of this vitamin may play a key role in the developing of gynaecological/obstetric diseases. VDR-mediated signalling pathways and vitamin D levels seem to (deeply affect the risk of several gynaecological diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, endometriosis, and ovarian and even breast cancer. On the other hand, since also the maternal-fetal unit is under the influence of vitamin D, a breakdown in its homeostasis may underlie infertility, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. According to our literature review, the relationship between vitamin D and gynaecological/obstetric diseases must be replicated in future studies which could clarify the molecular machineries behind their development. We suggest that further investigation should take into account the different serum levels of this vitamin, the several actions which arise from the binding between it and its receptor (taking into account its possible polymorphism, and finally the interplay between vitamin D metabolism and other hormonal and metabolic pathways.
Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
A general overview of the Equation of State (EOS) Project will be presented. The goal is to provide the audience with an introduction of what our more advanced methods entail (DFT, QMD, etc.. ) and how these models are being utilized to better constrain the thermodynamic models. These models substantially reduce our regions of interpolation between the various thermodynamic limits. I will also present a variety example of recent EOS work.
Peter P Toth1,2 1CGH Medical Center, Sterling IL, USA, 2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Most individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have or will develop multiple independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treating these patients is challenging. The risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, or fluid...
Heringa, Aalt Willem
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the origins
Full Text Available n June 2017, Circulation journal published updated recommendations of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology (AHA / ACC on the management of patients with valvular heart disease. The main provisions of this manual are set out in this message. It should be emphasized that the recommendations written by leading US experts in this field are set out clearly, using a variety of tables and figures, which will undoubtedly make them a desktop guide to action for most practitioners in the following years. As usual, when creating such guidelines, the authors were guided by evidence-based methodology using the classes of recommendations and levels of evidence.
... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ...
Swinburn, B; Sacks, G; Vandevijvere, S; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Neal, B; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Walker, C
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) dominate disease burdens globally and poor nutrition increasingly contributes to this global burden. Comprehensive monitoring of food environments, and evaluation of the impact of public and private sector policies on food environments is needed to strengthen accountability systems to reduce NCDs. The International Network for Food and Obesity/NCDs Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) is a global network of public-interest organizations and researchers that aims to monitor, benchmark and support public and private sector actions to create healthy food environments and reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. The INFORMAS framework includes two 'process' modules, that monitor the policies and actions of the public and private sectors, seven 'impact' modules that monitor the key characteristics of food environments and three 'outcome' modules that monitor dietary quality, risk factors and NCD morbidity and mortality. Monitoring frameworks and indicators have been developed for 10 modules to provide consistency, but allowing for stepwise approaches ('minimal', 'expanded', 'optimal') to data collection and analysis. INFORMAS data will enable benchmarking of food environments between countries, and monitoring of progress over time within countries. Through monitoring and benchmarking, INFORMAS will strengthen the accountability systems needed to help reduce the burden of obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Brandon J. Perumpail
Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results: Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions: Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD.
Full Text Available Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation, and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC. Due to decreases in dopamine responsible for the disruption of the BGTC network in adults with PD, it is hypothesized that rhythmic auditory cues assist patients through recruiting an alternate network, the CTC, which extends to the supplementary motor areas (SMA and the frontal cortices. In piano training, fine motor finger movements activate the cerebellum and SMA, thereby exercising the CTC network. We hypothesize that exercising the CTC network through music training will contribute to enhanced executive functions. Previous research suggested that music training enhances cognitive performance (i.e., working memory and processing speed in healthy adults and adults with cognitive impairments. This review and rationale provides support for the use of music training to enhance cognitive outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD.
Lesiuk, Teresa; Bugos, Jennifer A; Murakami, Brea
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC). Due to decreases in dopamine responsible for the disruption of the BGTC network in adults with PD, it is hypothesized that rhythmic auditory cues assist patients through recruiting an alternate network, the CTC, which extends to the supplementary motor areas (SMA) and the frontal cortices. In piano training, fine motor finger movements activate the cerebellum and SMA, thereby exercising the CTC network. We hypothesize that exercising the CTC network through music training will contribute to enhanced executive functions. Previous research suggested that music training enhances cognitive performance (i.e., working memory and processing speed) in healthy adults and adults with cognitive impairments. This review and rationale provides support for the use of music training to enhance cognitive outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD).
Chisholm, Andrew M
This comprehensive resource provides a complete introduction to global capital markets by explaining key instruments used in markets and their practical applications. An Introduction to Capital Marketsassumes no starting knowledge of the subject and begins with a general overview of the structure of the capital markets industry. Readers will quickly learn about swaps applications, options trading strategies, and much more. This introduction to financial markets offer valuable insights for anyone interested in the theory, practice, products, and applications within this field.
Campon, G.; Martinez, I.
An introduction of risks analysis was given in the exposition which main issues were: food innocuousness, world, regional and national food context,change of paradigms, health definition, risk, codex, standardization, food chain role, trade agreement, codex alimentarius, food transmission diseases cost impact
This book provides an introduction to the field of Penning traps and related experimental techniques. It serves both as a primer for those entering the field, and as a quick reference for those working in it. The book is motivated by the observation that often a vast number of different resources have to be explored to gain a good overview of Penning trap principles. This is especially true for students who experience additional difficulty due to the different styles of presentation and notation. This volume provides a broad introductory overview in unified notation.
Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G
The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.
This article presents an overview of Greek ethnography. It argues that ethnography in Greece cannot be seen as separate from its preceding fields of history and folklore studies, alongside Greece itself being viewed as a research field by foreign anthropologists. Because of the late introduction of anthropology in Greece it followed very quickly the main theoretical stream of postmodernism in its view of Greek society. The main argument of this article is that the introduction of postmodernis...
Bonny, G.; Malerba, L.
In this report an overview on interatomic potentials is given. This overview is by no means complete and it has merely the intention to give the reader an idea of where interatomic potentials come from, as well as to provide the basic ideas behind some commonly used methods for deriving interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics applications. We start by giving a short introduction about the concept of interatomic potential in the framework of quantum mechanics, followed by a short description of commonly used methods for deriving semi-empirical interatomic potentials. After some short theoretical notions on each method, some practical parameterizations of commonly used potentials are given, including very recent ones. An effort has been made to classify existing approaches within a rational and consequent scheme, which is believed to be of use for a thorough comprehension of the topic. Although these approaches can be used in a variety of different materials, we will only discuss the practical cases of metals. Following this, some widespread ad hoc modification of the general methods are discussed. The report is concluded by a generalization of the methods to multi-component materials, in particular metallic alloys. (author)
-element expressions, i.e. Voigt notation. The chapter concludes with a brief overview of implicit integration methods, i.e. tangent stiffness, initial tangent stiffness and Newton-Raphson. Chapter five deals with the more specialized topic of implicit and explicit integration of von Mises plasticity. One of the techniques described is the radial-return method which ensures that the stresses at the end of an increment of deformation always lie on the expanded yield surface. Although this method guarantees a solution it may not always be the most accurate for large deformation, this is one area where reference to alternative methods would have been a helpful addition. Chapter six continues with further detail of how the plasticity models may be incorporated into finite-element codes, with particular reference to the Abaqus package and the use of user-defined subroutines, introduced via a 'UMAT' subroutine. This completes part I of the book. Part II focuses on plasticity models, each chapter dealing with a particular process or material model. For example, chapter seven deals with superplasticity, chapter eight with porous plasticity, chapter nine with creep and chapter ten with cyclic plasticity, creep and TMF. Examples of deep drawing, forming of titanium metal-matrix composites and creep damage are provided, together with further guidelines on the use of Abaqus to model these processes. Overall, the book is organised in a very logical and readable form. The use of simple one-dimensional examples, with full descriptions of tensors and vectors throughout the book, is particularly useful. It provides a good introduction to the topic, covering much of the theory and with applications to give a good grounding that can be taken further with more comprehensive advanced texts. An excellent starting point for anyone involved in research in computational plasticity. (book review)
Adam, Z; Pour, L; Krejcí, M; Neubauer, J; Vanícek, J; Vasků, V; Hájek, R
Over a period of 18 years, 17 patients with proven Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) were treated at the Haematological Clinic in Brno. In 13 of them, the disease was diagnosed at adult age, and 4 patients were referred to the centre with LCH diagnosed at early child age. One of these 4 patients suffered from repeated recurrences of the disease at adult age and was diagnosed with progressive neurodegenerative damage of the CNS at the age of 25 which in its terminal phase resulted in the patient's immobility, loss of sphincter control, incapacity to communicate and death at the age of 32. LCH was diagnosed at adult age in 13 patients. The form with primary bone involvement was detected in 8 out of 13 patients (62%). Only 2 of 13 patients (15%) had multiple bone lesions upon diagnosis, the remaining 6 patients (46%) had only one lesion at the time of diagnosis. Repeated recurrence of bone involvement was only recorded in 3 out of 13 patients (23%). The combination of recurrent bone involvement and the development of lung affection (dyspnoea, irritating cough, nodularities and cysts in HRCT images) were documented in 2 out of 13 patients (15%). One of the patients diagnosed with LCH at the age of37 had repeated recurrence of bone involvement, which was also treated by 2 cycles of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation. He died of bronchopneumonia due to the affection of the lungs by LCH at 48 years of age. Primary extraoseal (extamedular) involvement was diagnosed in 5 out of 13 patients (38%) (mandibular gum infiltration, single cervical node infiltration, hand skin infiltration, infiltration of the perineal region and infiltration of the hypophysial infundibular and primary lung form of LCH). In the 1st case, excision was the solution applied to the infiltration of the lingual side ofthe gums, without further recurrence. In the 2nd case, the infiltrated region of skin over the metacarpophalangeal joint was irradiated and the infiltration disappeared
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan
sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal....... One or more units from beyond the network may complement the extended enterprise. The common reference model for this extended enterprise will utilise GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) to provide an architectural framework for the modelling carried out within......This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise...
Cosway, Ben; Tomkinson, Alun; Owens, David
Rhinosinusitis is a common condition with adults experiencing 2-5 episodes per year. The European Positional Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) published in 2005 and updated in 2007 provided evidence-based guidelines on the management of sinus disease promoting a conservative approach to treatment. This study examines the effect of EP3OS on sinus surgery uptake and acute admissions for sinusitis in England and Wales. A retrospective study using the national electronic health databases of England (Hospital Episodes Statistics, HES online) and Wales (Patient Episodes Database of Wales, PEDW) was undertaken from 2000 to 2010 using the OPCS-4 codes E12-E17 (sinus surgery) and ICD10 code J01 (acute admission for sinusitis). Data were analysed for effect following the introduction of the EP3OS in 2005 using linear regression and Chi squared analysis. 116,370 sinus procedures and 10,916 acute admissions for sinusitis were made during the study period. No significant decrease in sinus surgery procedures occurred following the introduction of the EP3OS as may have been expected (p > 0.05), although subgroup analysis suggested a significant increase in Wales (p introduction of EP3OS (p 0.05). The EP3OS appears to have had little impact on the rates of sinus surgery but more conservative approaches to managing of sinus disease may have led to an increase in acute admissions. Further research is required to investigate whether changes in practice were adopted.
Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details. The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, leading on to emerging and already commercialized applications, such as nanofluids in magnetic resonance imaging, high-performance nanocomposites and carbon nanotube-based electronics. Based on the author's experience in teaching nanomaterials courses and adapted, in style and level, for students with only limited background knowledge, the textbook includes fur...
Schmaling, Constanze H.
This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…
... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 990.12 Overview. This part describes three phases of a natural resource..., is described in subpart D of this part. The Restoration Planning Phase, during which trustees...
Krieger, N; Margo, G
Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.
Berz, Martin; Wan, Weishi
The field of beam physics touches many areas of physics, engineering, and the sciences. In general terms, beams describe ensembles of particles with initial conditions similar enough to be treated together as a group so that the motion is a weakly nonlinear perturbation of a chosen reference particle. Particle beams are used in a variety of areas, ranging from electron microscopes, particle spectrometers, medical radiation facilities, powerful light sources, and astrophysics to large synchrotrons and storage rings such as the LHC at CERN. An Introduction to Beam Physics is based on lectures given at Michigan State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, the online VUBeam program, the U.S. Particle Accelerator School, the CERN Academic Training Programme, and various other venues. It is accessible to beginning graduate and upper-division undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, and engineering. The book begins with a historical overview of methods for generating and accelerating beams, high...
Yanovski, Jack A.
The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737
Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is an emerging standard used internationally in an increasing number of archives and manuscripts libraries to encode data describing corporate records and personal papers. The individual descriptions are variously called finding aids, guides, handlists, or catalogues. While archival ...
weaknesses in managing cybersecurity risk cannot be overstated. Our field experience indicates that few acquisition and development programs currently imple...should provide. The purpose of the Requirements area of the SAF is to produce, analyze, and manage security requirements for the customer , prod- uct...including custom -developed software, commercial-off-the-shelf software, and open source software) to establish their criticality. Risk Management Plan
Moore, R.H.; Easterling, R.G.
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was organized formally in January 1975. The Commission's responsibilities can be categorized into four broad areas involving the licensing and use of nuclear materials and facilities: protecting public health and safety; protecting the environment; safeguarding nuclear materials and facilities; and assuring conformity with antitrust laws. A large variety of statistical problems are related to these basic responsibilities. They arise from the data-based nature of many of the issues to be resolved in making regulatory decisions. Hence, they are reflected in interactions among the NRC staff and licensees, vendors, and the public. This paper identifies and outlines some of these problems, providing a spectrum for comparison with the other presentations in this session. These problems are linked by the need for clear and objective treatment of data; their articulation and solution will benefit from insights and contributions from an informed statistical community
Pandita Rachna; Rana A C; Seth Nimrata; Bala Rajni
Drugs are critical elements in health care. They must be manufactured to the highest quality levels. End-product testing by itself does not guarantee the quality of the product. Quality assurance techniques must be used. In the pharmaceutical industry, process validation performs this task, ensuring that the process does what it purports to do. Validation is defined as the collection and evaluation of data, from the process design stages through commercial production, which establishes scient...
sis, inflation and dark energy require understanding physics scenario beyond the standard model. In 2008, the LHC experiment will start its operation. This is a proton– ..... These measurements have potential impacts on the study of neutrino mass generation mechanism in SUSY models, along with lepton flavor violation.
Clovis WSMR / HAFB Vicinity Regional Military Operating Areas (MOAs) Roswell Carlsbad BEAK MOAS PECOS MOAS VALENTINE MOA CATO MOA JACKAL...MOA BRONCO MOAS TALON MOAS UAV COA Regional Air Space Joint Military Operating Area RESERVE MOA MORENCI MOA TOMBSTONE MOA El Paso Alamogordo Clovis
After a brief survey of the issues that will be discussed at the meeting, this paper briefly discusses the areas of status of current DOE enrichment services contracts, factors influencing contract provisions, centrifuge technology and its effect on contract provisions, and DOE marketing objectives (customer relationships). 4 figs
measurements of electroweak processes at LEP and SLC in the 1990s have led us to confidence that gauge symmetry is a guiding principle of the law of ... sis, inflation and dark energy require understanding physics scenario beyond the standard model. In 2008, the LHC experiment will start its operation. This is a proton– ...
Ausubel, J.H.; Biswas, A.K.
The volume of proceedings entitled "Climatic Constraints and Human Activities" contains a summary essay and seven invited papers from the Task Force meeting on the Nature of Climate Society Research convened in February 1980 at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. This, the introductory essay, examines the differences in research methods on questions of short-term climate variability and longer-term climatic change, identifies some important avenues ...
Hastings, Harold M.; Davidsen, Jörn; Leung, Henry
One of the main challenges of modern physics is to provide a systematic understanding of systems far from equilibrium exhibiting emergent behavior. Prominent examples of such complex systems include, but are not limited to the cardiac electrical system, the brain, the power grid, social systems, material failure and earthquakes, and the climate system. Due to the technological advances over the last decade, the amount of observations and data available to characterize complex systems and their dynamics, as well as the capability to process that data, has increased substantially. The present issue discusses a cross section of the current research on complex systems, with a focus on novel experimental and data-driven approaches to complex systems that provide the necessary platform to model the behavior of such systems.
Sims, L.D.; Dyrting, K.C.; Lo, W.C.; Wong, K.W.
ELISA-based tests were introduced to assist in the diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Hong Kong. The tests were used to identify and type FMD viruses in clinical samples, to provide an assessment of the efficacy of vaccination programmes as practised, to train staff in ELISA technology and to strengthen quality assurance for foot-and-mouth disease and other diagnostic tests. These tests have provided the tools needed to understand why foot-and-mouth disease occurs in the face of vaccination - an essential step towards control of this disease in Hung Kong. (author)
IntroductionOverviewScales and DimensionsNight SkyConstellationsEarth, Sun, and the Solar SystemRetrograde Motion of PlanetsSidereal TimeAstronomical Catalogs and SoftwareObservationsElectromagnetic WavesElectromagnetic SpectrumTelescopesRefractor TelescopeReflecting TelescopeObservations at Visible FrequenciesTheoretical Limit on ResolutionSeeingMounting of TelescopeEquatorial MountAzimuthal MountInterferometerObservations at Other WavelengthsAstrometryCoordinate SystemsThe Horizontal SystemEquatorial Coordinate SystemEcliptic SystemGalactic Coordinate SystemSupergalactic Coordinate SystemSpace Velocity and Proper Motion of StarsDoppler EffectParallaxAberrationCoordinate TransformationsTransformation between Equatorial and Ecliptic Coordinate SystemsPrecession of EquinoxesEquatorial Mounting of a TelescopePhotometryIntroductionFlux Density and IntensityBlackbody RadiationEnergy Density in an Isotropic Radiation FieldMagnitude ScaleApparent MagnitudeAbsolute MagnitudeThe Color IndexBolometric MagnitudeStellar...
An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...
Trudeau, Richard J
Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or
Bayesian Networks: An Introduction provides a self-contained introduction to the theory and applications of Bayesian networks, a topic of interest and importance for statisticians, computer scientists and those involved in modelling complex data sets. The material has been extensively tested in classroom teaching and assumes a basic knowledge of probability, statistics and mathematics. All notions are carefully explained and feature exercises throughout. Features include:.: An introduction to Dirichlet Distribution, Exponential Families and their applications.; A detailed description of learni
Sardesai, Vishwanath M
.... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...
Augustin, Thomas; de Cooman, Gert; Troffaes, Matthias C M
In recent years, the theory has become widely accepted and has been further developed, but a detailed introduction is needed in order to make the material available and accessible to a wide audience. This will be the first book providing such an introduction, covering core theory and recent developments which can be applied to many application areas. All authors of individual chapters are leading researchers on the specific topics, assuring high quality and up-to-date contents. An Introduction to Imprecise Probabilities provides a comprehensive introduction to imprecise probabilities, includin
Marcus Barros talks about how tropical diseases influenced his decision to study medicine. He tells a number of stories about his family, which moved from Alto Juruá to Manaus to escape malaria and other fevers. He says it is essential to adopt homeopathy, acupuncture, and other indigenous knowledge and practices in treating disease. Barros also talks about measures taken when he was president of Brazil's national environmental institute, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama)--all part of an effort to prevent and combat these diseases and halt deforestation and burn-offs.
Kunze, Kerstin E.
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.
Estuaries, although minor geographical features at the global scale, have major importance for society and the world’s economies. This chapter introduces estuaries by presenting an overview of definitions, origins, physical, chemical and ecological attributes, and the interaction...
Leighton, F Thomson
Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays Trees Hypercubes provides an introduction to the expanding field of parallel algorithms and architectures. This book focuses on parallel computation involving the most popular network architectures, namely, arrays, trees, hypercubes, and some closely related networks.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest architectures of arrays and trees. This text then presents the structures and relationships between the dominant network architectures, as well as the most efficient parallel algorithms for
Wiercinski, Floyd J
An overview of calcium is presented including introduction, pre-history, chronology of the research recorded in the literature, discussion, summary, recent references, literature cited, acknowledgments, and appendix. Elemental calcium began with the Earth's formation. Calcium was used for utilitarian purposes in B.C. times. In the 12th and 13th centuries A.D., calcium oxide was formed by roasting limestone to form calcium carbonate. A test for calcium was found in the 17th century, and "stones" were observed in humans (see appendix). In the 19th century, calcium was isolated and chemically identified by electrolysis, and later in that century calcium was found to be needed in a physiological solution similar to the ionic content of blood. In the 20th century it was found that, in the absence of calcium, living cells pulled away from one another. Anesthesia was produced by massive injection of magnesium salts into a mammal-conciousness could be restored by the addition of calcium, which neutralized the magnesium. Finally, calcium out of control in necrosis has an invasive action. Calcium antagonists and their mode of action were described in 1986.
Petersen, Nils Holger
A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume.......A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume....
Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's
de Castro, Solange L.; Batista, Denise G. J.; Batista, Marcos M.; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F.; Silva, Patricia B.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C.
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nf)) developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and
Solange L. de Castro
Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz and nifurtimox (Nf developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies
de Castro, Solange L; Batista, Denise G J; Batista, Marcos M; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Oliveira, Gabriel M; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F; Silva, Patricia B; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nf)) developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and
Elichegaray, Ch. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)
This article is a general introduction to air pollution. It focusses on air quality problems at the local and regional scale: 1 - atmospheric environment and determining factors of its quality; 2 - French situation; 3 - local scale impacts: health hazards; 4 - regional scale impacts: risks for health and ecosystems (acid rains, photochemical pollution); 5 - management of the atmospheric environment (national scale, international scale: monitoring of air quality and role of the French agency of environment and energy mastery - Ademe). (J.S.)
Full Text Available The paper introduces preliminary results of our research on DICOM – JPEG 2000 coupling: DICOM standard. DICOM standard defines method for transferring digital images of various formats and associated data between devices manufactured by various vendors. PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System inside a hospital that can interface with other informational subsystems is based on this standard. DICOM standard is applicable to a network and/or to an off-line media environment. These features of DICOM standard manage communication between PACS in different hospitals. That means that if patient is transferred to another hospital his new physician can access patient’s medical records over the network. They also manage online accession to medical records from physician’s home. The standard supports operations that are based on other computer protocols (TCP/IP, ISO 9660, etc. Digital image and associated data are coupled in a single DICOM file. Image pixels are encapsulated inside this file. Format of image can be native DICOM format and/or some other lossless or lossy standard (jpeg, jpeg 2000, etc. At the end, development of PACS system of Hospital for chest-diseases which is based on DICOM standard is discussedi.
This special issue of 'CEA-Saclay, le Journal' celebrates the 50. anniversary of the very first big facilities (experimental reactors and accelerators) that were put in service at the CEA-Saclay research center. This issue aims at presenting the pluri-disciplinary aspect of the research works that are carried out today at Saclay in the following domains: nuclear energy (Descartes, a new neutronic calculation tool for reactors; a hot laboratory for irradiated materials; a brand new core for Osiris; foreseeing corrosion; cladding under high pressure; how do radionuclide migrate; clay, a barrier to confine nuclear wastes; modeling extreme situations), health (a hope for allergic people; what reading means?; in the heart of brain connections; how the cell organizes its repair?; molecules for cancer targeting; the CEA against mad cow disease), technology (towards the single-electron transistor; toxic ions trapped; neutrons are investigating; a new referential in spectrometry; frequency converting electrons; a new technique to study the porous environments; the Micromegas detector on Ariane's wire; optical fibers for Saint-Jean's bridge; the camera explores Petrus; the French concrete resists well), astrophysics (a fossil in the Milky Way; about the neutrino, only new things; a new eye in the cosmos), climatology/environment (the first secrets of the Vostok lake; the main role of the ocean), physics (does the Earth is doing more than just rotating?; a little nuclear revolution; a step towards the quantum computer; BaBar in search of the lost world; the mysterious kaons), training (tomorrow's energy sources), and documentation (the documentary search at the researchers' service). (J.S.)
Nelson, Vaughn C
IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB
Phillips, A C
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics is an introduction to the power and elegance of quantum mechanics. Assuming little in the way of prior knowledge, quantum concepts are carefully and precisely presented, and explored through numerous applications and problems. Some of the more challenging aspects that are essential for a modern appreciation of the subject have been included, but are introduced and developed in the simplest way possible.Undergraduates taking a first course on quantum mechanics will find this text an invaluable introduction to the field and help prepare them for more adv
Sangula, Abraham; Siegismund, Hans; Belsham, Graham
Most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. In this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype C virus isolates from Kenya, one of the few places in the world...... of serotype C FMD virus and the use of vaccination as a control measure in Kenya are discussed....
Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.
This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological
Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.
"An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…
Gantz David A.
Full Text Available This introduction explores the historical changes in the trade policies of the United States (U.S., namely, the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional trade agreements and provides an overview of the political and economic considerations behind the conclusion of the major U.S. free trade agreements.
Curran, Stephanie; Murray, Graeme I
The development and application of laser-based tissue microdissection techniques has provided a major impetus to the sensitive and specific molecular analysis of solid tissues and tumors. This chapter provides an overview of the different laser-based microdissection systems and an introduction to the principles involved in the function and applications of these individual systems.
den Hollander, Franciscus; Piersma, Kristien
Interview met Margriet Hidding, Birgit Lijmbach en Jeroen van Engen, medewerkers van het Talencentrum en de makers van de Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Introduction to Dutch over het grote succes van deze cursus
Prasad, Paras N.
Paras Prasad's text provides a basic knowledge of a broad range of topics so that individuals in all disciplines can rapidly acquire the minimal necessary background for research and development in biophotonics. Introduction to Biophotonics serves as both a textbook for education and training as well as a reference book that aids research and development of those areas integrating light, photonics, and biological systems. Each chapter contains a topic introduction, a review of key data, and description of future directions for technical innovation. Introduction to Biophotonics covers the basic principles of Optics Optical spectroscopy Microscopy Each section also includes illustrated examples and review questions to test and advance the reader's knowledge. Sections on biosensors and chemosensors, important tools for combating biological and chemical terrorism, will be of particular interest to professionals in toxicology and other environmental disciplines. Introduction to Biophotonics proves a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in engineering, chemistry, and the life sciences.
Wilson, Robin J
Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.
“Introduction to Event Data” presented by Martin Fenner (DataCite) at the Joint Global Infrastructure Conference co-hosted by Crossref, DataCite, and ORCID at the Korea Chamber of Commerce & Industry on 15 June 2017.
Hildebrand, F B
Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...
Smith, Jonathan D H
Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc
Wilson, Edmund J N
2/10 Mathematical Introduction : matrices ; 3/10 Mathematical Introduction : differential equations ; 4/10 Phase stability and focusing principles ; 6/10 Lattices and such ; 10/10 More transverse beam dynamics ; 11/10 Closed orbit and gradient errors. 13/10 RF bunches, buckets, dispertion and transiton ; 16/10 Magnets, multipoles and resonances ; 17/10 Electron dynamics ; 18/10 Instabilities ; 19/10 The future.
Jones, Peter Watts
Some Background on ProbabilityIntroduction Probability Conditional probability and independence Discrete random variables Continuous random variables Mean and variance Some standard discrete probability distributions Some standard continuous probability distributions Generating functions Conditional expectationSome Gambling ProblemsGambler's ruin Probability of ruin Some numerical simulations Duration of the game Some variations of gambler's ruinRandom WalksIntroduction Unrestricted random walks The probability distribution after n steps First returns of the symmetric random walkMarkov ChainsS
Cracknell, Arthur P
Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo
Mahendra R.R Raj
The importance of waste disposal management is a very essential and integral part of any health care system. Health care providers have been ignorant or they did not essentially know the basic aspect of the importance and effective management of hospital waste.This overview of biomedical waste disposal/management gives a thorough insight into the aspects of the guidelines to be followed and adopted according to the international WHO approved methodology for a cleaner, disease-free, and health...
The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.
Salzberg, Betty Joan
An Introduction to Data Base Design provides an understanding of how data base management systems (DBMS) work to be able to use any available commercial DBMS intelligently. This book presents the principle of independence of physical and local organization.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of normal form theory. This text then describes the three types of DBMS. Other chapters consider the difficulties in processing queries where the names of the files are not mentioned. This book discusses as well how to group data hierarchically, how to use a preorder tree trave
This book is a very concise introduction to the basic knowledge of scientific publishing. It starts with the basics of writing a scientific paper, and recalls the different types of scientific documents. In gives an overview on the major scientific publishing companies and different business models. The book also introduces to abstracting and indexing services and how they can be used for the evaluation of science, scientists, and institutions. Last but not least, this short book faces the problem of plagiarism and publication ethics.
An Introduction to Turbulence and Its Measurement is an introductory text on turbulence and its measurement. It combines the physics of turbulence with measurement techniques and covers topics ranging from measurable quantities and their physical significance to the analysis of fluctuating signals, temperature and concentration measurements, and the hot-wire anemometer. Examples of turbulent flows are presented. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the physics of turbulence, paying particular attention to Newton's second law of motion, the Newtonian viscous f
Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co
This clear, rigorous introduction to the calculus of variations covers applications to geometry, dynamics, and physics. Focusing upon problems with one independent variable, the text connects the abstract theory to its use in concrete problems. It offers a working knowledge of relevant techniques, plus an impetus for further study.Starting with an overview of fundamental problems and theories, the text advances to illustrative examples and examinations of variable end-points and the fundamental sufficiency theorem. Subsequent chapters explore the isoperimetrical problem, curves in space, the p
Penn, David L.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Roberts, David L.
The purpose of this column is to provide an overview of social cognition in schizophrenia. The column begins with a short introduction to social cognition. Then, we describe the application of social cognition to the study of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on key domains (i.e., emotion perception, Theory of Mind, and attributional style). We conclude the column by discussing the relationship of social cognition to neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functioning, with an eye toward strateg...
Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G
Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.
Jalil, M B A
Offers an introduction to the physics of nanoelectronics, that encompasses spintronics, electronics, Hall effects, single electronics, carbon and graphene electronics. In this title, the spin hall effect is explained and its application to the emerging field of spintronics, where an electron's spin as well as its charge is utilised, is discussed.$bThis book provides an introduction to the physics of nanoelectronics, with a focus on the theoretical aspects of nanoscale devices. The book begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronics, to facilitate the understanding of subsequent chapters. It goes on to encompass quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devices. Theoretical methodology is developed using quantum mechanical and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) techniques to calculate electronic currents and elucidate their transport properties at the atomic scale. The spin Hal...
This article introduces "U.S. Homophile Internationalism," a special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality. The introduction provides a broad overview of the "U.S. Homophile Internationalism" archive and exhibit, which was published on the Outhistory Web site in 2015. The archive and exhibit consists of more than 800 U.S. homophile magazine articles, letters, and other items that referenced non-U.S. regions of the world from 1953 to 1964. The essays in the special issue focus on (1) Africa; (2) Asia and the Pacific; (3) Canada; (4) Latin America and the Caribbean; (5) the Middle East; and (6) Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. There is also an article that addresses the public history and digital humanities dimensions of the project. The introduction concludes by discussing the essays' common goals, themes, and concerns.
Robert Miles speaks of a recent “flood” of published materials on the gothic in his preface to the 2002 edition of Gothic Writing, 1750-1820: A Gothic Genealogy, and provides a helpful overview of the gothic criticism of the 1990s
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.
The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…
This paper begins with a brief overview of records and archival management before the advent of the electronic era; then describe the ways in which the definitions and constructs of archives and records management have been altered in the electronic environment; and outlines the various approaches to the challenges of electronic recordkeeping that are currently being investigated and applied.
Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John; Blanchard, Joan C; Itani, Kamal M F; Ricks, Philip; Dellinger, E Patchen; Allen, George; Kelz, Rachel; Reinke, Caroline E; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common type of health-care-associated infection (HAI) and adds considerably to the individual, social, and economic costs of surgical treatment. This document serves to introduce the updated Guideline for the Prevention of SSI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). The Core section of the guideline addresses issues relevant to multiple surgical specialties and procedures. The second procedure-specific section focuses on a high-volume, high-burden procedure: Prosthetic joint arthroplasty. While many elements of the 1999 guideline remain current, others warrant updating to incorporate new knowledge and changes in the patient population, operative techniques, emerging pathogens, and guideline development methodology.
Copeland, Courtney A; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Austin, Eric D; Loyd, James E; West, James D; Kenworthy, Anne K
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae and is implicated in numerous physiological processes. Recent studies have identified heterozygous mutations in the CAV1 gene in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the mechanisms by which these mutations impact caveolae assembly and contribute to disease remain unclear. To address this question, we examined the consequences of a familial PAH-associated frameshift mutation in CAV1 , P158PfsX22, on caveolae assembly and function. We show that C-terminus of the CAV1 P158 protein contains a functional ER-retention signal that inhibits ER exit and caveolae formation and accelerates CAV1 turnover in Cav1 -/- MEFs. Moreover, when coexpressed with wild-type (WT) CAV1 in Cav1 -/- MEFs, CAV1-P158 functions as a dominant negative by partially disrupting WT CAV1 trafficking. In patient skin fibroblasts, CAV1 and caveolar accessory protein levels are reduced, fewer caveolae are observed, and CAV1 complexes exhibit biochemical abnormalities. Patient fibroblasts also exhibit decreased resistance to a hypo-osmotic challenge, suggesting the function of caveolae as membrane reservoir is compromised. We conclude that the P158PfsX22 frameshift introduces a gain of function that gives rise to a dominant negative form of CAV1, defining a new mechanism by which disease-associated mutations in CAV1 impair caveolae assembly. © 2017 Copeland, Han, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.; van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.
Rodents have interacted with people since the beginning of systematic food storage by humans in the early Neolithic era. Such interactions have had adverse outcomes such as threats to human health, spoiling and consumption of food sources, damage to human infrastructure and detrimental effects on indigenous island wildlife (through inadvertent anthropogenic assisted introductions). These socio/economic and environmental impacts illustrate the clear need to control populations of commensal rodents. Different methods have been applied historically but the main means of control in the last decades is through the application of rodenticides, mainly anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) that inhibit blood clotting. The so-called First Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (FGARs) proved highly effective but rodents increasingly developed resistance. This led to a demand for more effective alternative compounds and paved the way to the development of Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (SGARs). These were more acutely toxic and persistent, making them more effective but also increasing the risks of exposure of non-target species and secondary poisoning of predatory species. SGARs often fail the environmental thresholds of different regulatory frameworks because of these negative side-effects, but their use is still permitted because of the overwhelming societal needs for rodent control and the lack of effective alternatives. This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific advancements in assessment of environmental exposure, effects and risks of currently used ARs. This is discussed in relation to the societal needs for rodent control, including risk mitigation and development of alternatives.
Le Ngoc Ha
In the past 2 decades, nuclear medicine has dramatically developed and been widely used in cardiology. In developed countries, nuclear cardiology techniques have represented from 25% to over 30% of the activities in nuclear medicine department and it becomes Nuclear Cardiology. This overview outlines the applications and the roles of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is an accurate technique in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The sensitivity and specificity for detection of CAD averaged 85% - 90% and 75% - 80% respectively. PET using Rubidium-82, N-13-ammonia improved significantly the sensitivity and specificity (89 - 95% and 86 - 100% respectively). Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is also an excellent tool for predicting of CAD. The scintigraphic techniques using Thallium-201 and 99m Tc-sestamibi or tetrofosmin, F18-FDG PET allow to differentiate hibernation to myocardial scars, assessment of myocardial viability for the post myocardial infarction patients who benefit significantly from revascularization. Radionuclide Angiography is widely used in evaluating ventricular wall motion, left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. Infarct Avid Imaging using 99m Tc-pyrophosphate, antimyosin antibody, glucarate contributes to confirm acute myocardial infarction patients who unable to identify with the conventional diagnostic techniques. (author)
Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette; Ladelund, Steen
with an increased risk of IPD. Detectable viral loads (RR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.79-1.98]) and a relative fall in CD4 T-cell counts were also associated with an increased risk (≥500 to 350-500 CD4 T cells/µL: RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.21-1.37] and risk of IPD declined over time......BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV......-infected adults treated at all Danish HIV treatment centers during 1995-2012. Nineteen population-matched controls per HIV-infected individual were retrieved. The risk of IPD was assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The incidence of IPD was 304.7 cases per 100 000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in HIV...
Resistance to Antibiotics and Antifungal Medicinal Products: Can Complementary and Alternative Medicine Help Solve the Problem in Common Infection Diseases? The Introduction of a Dutch Research Consortium
Esther T. Kok
Full Text Available The increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, rising numbers of deaths and costs associated with this, and the fact that hardly any new antimicrobial drugs have been developed during the last decade have increased the interest in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM therapeutic interventions, if proven safe and effective. Observational studies on clinical CAM practices demonstrate positive effects of treatment of infections with CAM therapies (clinical effects, patient satisfaction in combination with small percentages of antibiotics prescription. However, Cochrane reviews and other studies demonstrate that in most instances the quality of clinical trials on CAM treatment of infections is currently too low to provide sufficient evidence. Therefore a Dutch consortium on (in vitro and clinical scientific research on CAM and antibiotic resistance has been formed. The aim and objective of the consortium is to establish an enduring partnership and to develop expertise to further develop and investigate safe and effective CAM treatments for infectious diseases of humans (and animals. A first ongoing project on the development of safe and effective biobased CAM antimycotics in women with (recurrent vaginal candidiasis infection is introduced.
Gray, Andrew Lofts; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; J Wirtz, Veronika
To assess the impact of mandatory offer of generic substitution, introduced in South Africa in May 2003, on private sector sales of generic and originator medicines for chronic diseases. Private sector sales data (June 2001 to May 2005) were obtained from IMS Health for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs; ATC code A02BC), HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins; C10AA), dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (C08CA), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I; C09AA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; N06AB). Monthly sales were expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 insured population per month (DDD/TIM). Interrupted time-series models were used to estimate the changes in slope and level of medicines use after the policy change. ARIMA models were used to correct for autocorrelation and stationarity. Only the SSRIs saw a significant rise in level of generic utilisation (0.2 DDD/TIM; P decrease in slope (-0.003 DDD/TIM, P = 0.046; -0.01 DDD/TIM, P cost-containment efforts. However, decisions taken outside of official policy may anticipate or differ from that policy, with important consequences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Biophysics: An Introduction, is a concise balanced introduction to this subject. Written in an accessible and readable style, the book takes a fresh, modern approach with the author successfully combining key concepts and theory with relevant applications and examples drawn from the field as a whole. Beginning with a brief introduction to the origins of biophysics, the book takes the reader through successive levels of complexity, from atoms to molecules, structures, systems and ultimately to the behaviour of organisms. The book also includes extensive coverage of biopolymers, biomembranes, biological energy, and nervous systems. The text not only explores basic ideas, but also discusses recent developments, such as protein folding, DNA/RNA conformations, molecular motors, optical tweezers and the biological origins of consciousness and intelligence.
Christiansen, Ask Vest
by detachment, normatively and morally. Besides researching the actual abuse, individually and in aggregate, they also study structural circumstances that promote the use of drugs in sports; besides evaluations of the efficacy of the anti-doping efforts, they consider the effects of various anti-doping schemes...... on the integrity and privacy of the athletes. Ask Vest Christiansen, himself an internationally renowned scholar in the field, has read a recent, thus detached, introduction to drug use in sports, An Introduction to Drugs in Sport: Addicted to Winning by Ivan Waddington and Andy Smith (Routledge). Christiansen...... finds much to appreciate in the book, and a couple of disconcerting mistakes and misjudgments notwithstanding, he recommends the book as a solid introduction to the problem of doping – knowledgeable, well written and easy to read....
Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.
Abdullah, Mohammad Omar
Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S
Introduction to Fuzzy Systems provides students with a self-contained introduction that requires no preliminary knowledge of fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy control systems theory. Simplified and readily accessible, it encourages both classroom and self-directed learners to build a solid foundation in fuzzy systems. After introducing the subject, the authors move directly into presenting real-world applications of fuzzy logic, revealing its practical flavor. This practicality is then followed by basic fuzzy systems theory. The book also offers a tutorial on fuzzy control theory, based mainly on th
Barron, E N
An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to
Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy
This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two ...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project.......In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...
Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int
Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.
This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.
These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed.......These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed....
These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed.......These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed....
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This
Introduction to Magnetochemistry provides an introduction to the more important aspects of magnetochemistry. The measurement of magnetic moment has been one of the most consistently useful to coordination chemists. For teaching purposes it provides a simple method of illustrating the ideas of electronic structure, and in research it can provide fundamental information about the bonding and stereochemistry of complexes. The book contains six chapters covering topics such as free atoms and ions, transition metal complexes, crystal field theory, second and third row transition metal complexes, a
Furtado, Guilherme H; Nicolau, David P
The rapidly escalating prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is a global concern. This reduced susceptibility to currently available antimicrobial agents coupled with the progressive shortage of newly approved compounds is a worrisome situation. Major problems are encountered for a growing number of Gram-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative pathogens (i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae). We provide an overview of bacterial resistance focusing on the most common pathogens responsible for infection in both the community and healthcare settings. In addition, several strategies to curb antimicrobial resistance are also discussed. It is increasingly evident that without the introduction of novel antimicrobial agents, a return to the clinical outcomes associated with the pre-antibiotic era are inevitable.
"A dynamic and comprehensive overview of the field of health physics"""This trusted, one-of-a-kind guide delivers authoritative and succinctly written coverage of the entire field of health physics including the biological basis for radiation safety standards, radioactivity, nuclear reactors, radioactive waste, and non-ionizing radiation, as well as radiation dosimetry, radiation instrumentation, and principles of radiation protection. This thorough overview of need-to-know topics, from a review of physical principles to a useful look at the interaction of radiation with matter, offers a problem-solving approach that will serve readers throughout their careers. More than 380 "Homework Problems" and 175+ "Example Problems" Essential background material on quantitative risk assessment for radiation exposure Unique Integration of industrial hygiene with radiation safety Authoritative radiation safety and environmental health coverage that supports the International Commission on Radiological Protection's standar...
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for
Full Text Available Always wondered why research papers often present rather complicated statistical analyses? Or wondered how to properly analyse the results of a pragmatic trial from your own practice? This talk will give an overview of basic statistical principles and focus on the why of statistics, rather than on the how.This is a podcast of Mirjam's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 2, 2016.
This accessible text is now fully revised and updated, providing an overview of fabrication technologies and materials needed to realize modern microdevices. It demonstrates how common microfabrication principles can be applied in different applications, to create devices ranging from nanometer probe tips to meter scale solar cells, and a host of microelectronic, mechanical, optical and fluidic devices in between. Latest developments in wafer engineering, patterning, thin films, surface preparation and bonding are covered. This second edition includes:expanded sections on MEMS
FASTBUS is a standardized modular 32-bit data-bus system for performing data acquisition, data processing, and control in high energy physics and other applications. It has been developed by the Fast System Design Group of the U.S. NIM Committee. Presented here is an overview of the FASTBUS hardware specification, the operation of the FASTBUS protocol, the implications that the use of FASTBUS has for software systems, and some of the computer to FASTBUS interfaces developed to date.
FASTBUS is a standardized modular 32-bit data-bus system for performing data acquisition, data processing, and control in high energy physics and other applications. It has been developed by the Fast System Design Group of the U.S. NIM Committee. Presented here is an overview of the FASTBUS hardware specification, the operation of the FASTBUS protocol, the implications that the use of FASTBUS has for software systems, and some of the computer to FASTBUS interfaces developed to date
This paper gives an overview of charm physics. It is a lecture write-up aimed at students with a minimum of prior knowledge in particle physics, but at the same time provides a state-of-the art review of the field. The main focus is on mixing and CP violation, which is a field with ever growing attention since first evidence for charm mixing was observed in 2007. Other areas covered are charm spectroscopy, production, as well as rare decays.
Peder Pedersen, Claus
Introduction to chapter on creative spaces for the 'ADAPT-r Creativity Book'. The text reflects on how researching practitioners in the ADAPT-r has frequently been referring to their workspaces as part of their creative practice research. The Chapter also contains a photographic essay by the author...... showing work spaces of researchers at Aarhus School of Architecture...
Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David
One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.
A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.
This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction. Durgesh D Rao. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 61-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0061-0070 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Introduction to Wiener's Article. V Rajaraman. Reflections Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 80-80. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/01/0080-0080. Author Affiliations.
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...
Monteiro, Marco A.R.
An elementary introduction to quantum groups is presented. The example of Universal Enveloping Algebra of deformed SU(2) is analysed in detail. It is also discussed systems made up of bosonic q-oscillators at finite temperature within the formalism of Thermo-Field Dynamics. (author). 39 refs
Abstract. As an introduction to the special issue on nonlinear waves, solitons and their signiﬁcance in physics are reviewed. The soliton is the ﬁrst universal concept in nonlinear science. Universality and ubiquity of the soliton concept are emphasized.
ADDRESSING AFRICAN FEMINISM. H F Chidammodzi. 1.0 Introduction. Popular struggles for democracy and human rights in Africa today have, among other things, precipitated a reflective consciousness upon the status and conditions of women. The African woman herself has become sensitised to the multiple forms.
Dec 1, 2011 ... nor funding, relief programmes and international aid, these discussions have made the 'youth' the .... to the definition of youth if the social science of Africa intends to do justice to the cultural, historical ... their introduction to capitalist regimes that turned them into cheap labour for the mines or plantations.
This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project....
After a short introduction on stellar evolution, the physical foundations of nucleosynthesis are exposed: H, He, C and O fusion, Si burning and the equilibrium process. The effect of neutrinos in the last stages of stellar evolution and Supernova explosions are treated too. Afterwards the neutron capture process, fast and slow, are considerated concluding with cosmic nucleogenesis and nucleosynthesis in overmasive objects. (author)
This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…
R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)
markdownabstractThis introduction chapter sets out the overall framework informing the volume and surveys the relevant literature. It lays out a relational approach to studying children, youth and development with age and generation as key concepts. This chapter introduces and develops these
Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan
Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production
This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Introduction to Algorithms Turtle Graphics. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 1 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400 005, India.
Rose, F Clifford
This introduction precedes the four papers given in October 2000 in Copenhagen on analysing problems in the history of the neurosciences. The term historiography can be defined in different ways but means the study, and not simply the writing, of history. Although it goes back two millennia, it is a rapidly developing field as illustrated by the subsequent contributions.
Nias, A.H.W.; Dimbleby, R.
This text provides an introduction to quantitative radiobiology with emphasis on practical aspects of the subject. Among the topics considered are reparable damage, densely ionizing radiation, normal and malignant cells, and whole body regulation. These and other aspects of radiation biology are described in detail
Highly regarded for its exceptional clarity, imaginative and instructive exercises, and fine writing style, this concise book offers an ideal introduction to the fundamentals of topology. It provides a simple, thorough survey of elementary topics, starting with set theory and advancing to metric and topological spaces, connectedness, and compactness. 1975 edition.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Introduction to Game Theory. S Ramasubramanian. Book Review Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 81-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/03/0081-0081. Author Affiliations.
Feb 14, 2017 ... The Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) and Online Mendelian Disease in. Man (OMIM) survey human populations ... (AR) versus dominant (AD) inherited genetic disease in the East to be compared with that in the West. The relative .... Huntington disease (all AD). 0. 0. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ...
Frank H. Koch
A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...
Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang
Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DiSessa, Andrea A.; And Others
Presented is an overview of "Boxer," a multipurpose computational user-friendly medium, the focus of this special issue presenting research involving its use. With its roots in LOGO, the design of Boxer is described and an overview of the articles in the issue is given. (MDH)
Steven K. Ault
Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.
Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.
Luis J. Boya
Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.
Gould, Phillip L
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Murty, V Kumar
The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.
Robertazzi, Thomas G
This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.