WorldWideScience

Sample records for introducing non-radioactive labels

  1. A Note on the impact on sales from introducing healthy labeled meals on the lunch menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Menu labeling of prepared meals away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper, we use a field experiment to analyze if a restaurant benefits from introducing a healthy labeled meal on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in sales. We cannot...

  2. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  3. Non radioactive precursor import into chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, V.A.; Ottado, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eukaryotic cells have a subcellular organization based on organelles. Protein transport to these organelles is quantitatively important because the majority of cellular proteins are codified in nuclear genes and then delivered to their final destination. Most of the chloroplast proteins are translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes as larger precursors with an amino terminal transit peptide that is necessary and sufficient to direct the precursor to the chloroplast. Once inside the organelle the transit peptide is cleaved and the mature protein adopts its folded form. In this work we developed a system for the expression and purification of the pea ferredoxin-NADP + reductase precursor (preFNR) for its import into chloroplasts in non radioactive conditions. We constructed a preFNR fused in its carboxy terminus to a 6 histidines peptide (preFNR-6xHis) that allows its identification using a commercial specific antibody. The construction was expressed, purified, processed and precipitated, rendering a soluble and active preFNR-6xHis that was used in binding and import into chloroplasts experiments. The reisolated chloroplasts were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, electro-blotting and revealed by immuno-detection using either colorimetric or chemiluminescent reactive. We performed also import experiments labeling preFNR and preFNR-6xHis with radioactive methionine as controls. We conclude that preFNR-6xHis is bound and imported into chloroplasts as the wild type preFNR and that both colorimetric or chemiluminescent detection methods are useful to avoid the manipulation of radioactive material. (author)

  4. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  5. Preparation process of a stable non radioactive carrier intended for radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a stable non radioactive carrier with a pH of around 2 and around 4, for cardiological studies, exploring the blood in circulation and exploring the brain, after labelling with sup(99m)Tc. It includes human serum albumin (SAH) and stannous tartrate, the proportion in weight between the SAH and stannous tartrate being between around 50:1 and around 150:1 [fr

  6. Non-radioactive chemical sequencing of biotin labelled DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Richterich, P

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the nonradioactive chemical sequencing of DNA are described. A biotin marker molecule, attached chemically to an oligonucleotide primer or enzymatically in an endfilling reaction of restriction enzyme sites, is stable during the base-specific chemical modification and strand scission reactions. Following fragment separation by direct blotting electrophoresis, the membrane bound sequence pattern can be visualized by a streptavidin-bridged enzymatic color reaction. The biotin labeli...

  7. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  8. Sensitive non-radioactive detection of HIV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the non-radioactive detection of HIV-1 proviral genomic sequences in HIV-1 infected cells. We have developed a sensitive assay, using three different sets of nested primers and our results show that this method is superior...... to standard PCR for the detection of HIV-1 DNA. The assay described features the use of a simple and inexpensive sample preparation technique and a non-radioactive hybridization procedure for confirmation of results. To test the suitability of the assay for clinical purposes, we tested cell samples from 76...

  9. Introducing site-specific cysteines into nanobodies for mercury labelling allows de novo phasing of their crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Simon Boje; Laursen, Nick Stub; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2017-01-01

    of the presence of free cysteines in the target protein could considerably facilitate the process of obtaining unbiased experimental phases. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies) have recently been shown to promote the crystallization and structure determination of flexible proteins and complexes. To extend......The generation of high-quality protein crystals and the loss of phase information during an X-ray crystallography diffraction experiment represent the major bottlenecks in the determination of novel protein structures. A generic method for introducing Hg atoms into any crystal independent...... the usability of nanobodies for crystallographic work, variants of the Nb36 nanobody with a single free cysteine at one of four framework-residue positions were developed. These cysteines could be labelled with fluorophores or Hg. For one cysteine variant (Nb36-C85) two nanobody structures were experimentally...

  10. Non-radioactive DNA probe and polymerase chain reaction procedures for the specific detection of Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S; Asgari, M; Henney, H R

    1994-02-01

    Acanthamoebae are potential pathogens which can cause serious infections of humans. A non-radioactive rDNA probe and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification procedures which are specific, rapid, sensitive and safe for the detection of Acanthamoeba have been developed. A restriction fragment (126 bp; ArDNA-a) from a variable region of the cloned 26S rDNA unit of Acanthamoeba castellanii (from plasmid pAR2) was labelled by biotinylation. Cells and DNAs were incubated with the labelled rDNA probe to define conditions providing the highest hybridization specificity for Acanthamoeba by both colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays. Four recent isolates of Acanthamoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, various bacteria, Herpes simplex virus, other eukaryotic amoebae and human cell lines, were sources of DNA for testing. The rDNA probe was found to be highly specific for Acanthamoeba and is capable of directly detecting about 250 cells without prior DNA purification. PCR primers for this unique ArDNA-a fragment have also been designed. Amplification of the targeted sequence by PCR using those primers yielded a single product which was specifically generated for Acanthamoeba template DNA and not DNA from the other control cells. This PCR procedure provided increased sensitivity with the direct detection of as few as 10 Acanthamoeba cells.

  11. A simple and fast non-radioactive bridging immunoassay for insulin autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkas, Ingrid; Mallone, Roberto; Tubiana-Rufi, Nadia; Chevenne, Didier; Carel, Jean Claude; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Boitard, Christian; Morel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease which results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Autoantibodies directed against islet antigens are valuable diagnostic tools. Insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) are usually the first to appear and also the most difficult to detect amongst the four major islet autoantibodies. A non-radioactive IAA bridging ELISA was developed to this end. In this assay, one site of the IAAs from serum samples is bound to a hapten-labeled insulin (GC300-insulin), which is subsequently captured on anti-GC300 antibody-coated 96-well plates. The other site of the IAAs is bound to biotinylated insulin, allowing the complex to be detected by an enzyme-streptavidin conjugate. In the present study, 50 serum samples from patients with newly diagnosed T1D and 100 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our new assay and the results were correlated with an IAA radioimmunoassay (RIA). Using IAA bridging ELISA, IAAs were detected in 32 out of 50 T1D children, whereas with IAA RIA, 41 out of 50 children with newly diagnosed T1D were scored as positive. In conclusion, the IAA bridging ELISA could serve as an attractive approach for rapid and automated detection of IAAs in T1D patients for diagnostic purposes.

  12. Spectral K-edge subtraction imaging of experimental non-radioactive barium uptake in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Samadi, Nazanin; Swanston, Treena M; Chapman, L Dean; Cooper, David M L

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using non-radioactive barium as a bone tracer for detection with synchrotron spectral K-edge subtraction (SKES) technique. Male rats of 1-month old (i.e., developing skeleton) and 8-month old (i.e., skeletally mature) were orally dosed with low dose of barium chloride (33mg/kg/day Ba 2+ ) for 4weeks. The fore and hind limbs were dissected for imaging in projection and computed tomography modes at 100μm and 52μm pixel sizes. The SKES method utilizes a single bent Laue monochromator to prepare a 550eV energy spectrum to encompass the K-edge of barium (37.441keV), for collecting both 'above' and 'below' the K-edge data sets in a single scan. The SKES has a very good focal size, thus limits the 'crossover' and motion artifacts. In juvenile rats, barium was mostly incorporated in the areas of high bone turnover such as at the growth plate and the trabecular surfaces, but also in the cortical bone as the animals were growing at the time of tracer administration. However, the adults incorporated approximately half the concentration and mainly in the areas where bone remodeling was predominant and occasionally in the periosteal and endosteal layers of the diaphyseal cortical bone. The presented methodology is simple to implement and provides both structural and functional information, after labeling with barium, on bone micro-architecture and thus has great potential for in vivo imaging of pre-clinical animal models of musculoskeletal diseases to better understand their mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep

    2011-02-25

    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of deamidation artifacts introduced by sample preparation using 18O-labeling and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Wang, Fengqiang; May, Kimberly; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hongcheng

    2012-08-07

    The sites and levels of Asn deamidation in proteins are often determined by LC-MS analysis of peptides obtained from enzymatic digestion. However, deamidation that occurs during sample preparation steps results in overestimation of the original level of deamidation. The inherent deamidation and those introduced by sample preparation can be differentiated by preparing samples in (18)O water. When using H(2)(18)O, the formation of isoAsp and Asp by Asn deamidation during sample preparation results in a molecular weight increase of 3 Da due to the incorporation of the (18)O atom to the side chains of isoAsp or Asp; in contrast, inherent deamidation only results in a molecular weight increase of 1 Da. In addition, up to two (18)O atoms can also be incorporated into the peptide C-terminal carboxyl group during enzymatic digestion. Therefore, the 2 Da molecular weight difference at the deamidation sites can only be used to differentiate deamidation that occurs prior to or during sample preparation under conditions that a fixed number of (18)O atoms are incorporated into the peptide C-terminal carboxyl groups. Otherwise, it is challenging to apply this procedure because of the resulting complicated isotopic distributions. Here, a new procedure of using (18)O-water for sample preparation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was established to calculate the deamidation artifacts. In this method, b ions were used for the calculation of Asn deamidation that occurred prior to or during sample preparation, which eliminated the complicated factor of various number of (18)O-atoms to the peptide carboxyl groups. This procedure has the potential to be applied under the general peptide mapping conditions.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  16. The distribution of radioiodine administrated to pregnant mice and the effect of non radioactive iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okui, Toyo; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodine, 131 I, which has a high fission yield in the nuclear reactor, is easily taken into the human body, accumilating in the thyroid gland, when released to the environment. 131 I was administrated orally to pregnant mice, and its transportation to the tissues, particularly the fetus, was examined closely. And further, the non-radioactive iodide, i.e., KI, was administrated to see its radiation protection effect. The transportation of 131 I to the fetus is the second highest, following the thyroid gland in the mother mouse. This transportation to the fetus becomes the higher, the larger the gestation period at which the 131 I administration is made. The administration of the non-radioactive iodide has large radiation protection effect in the thyroid gland of the mother mouse and of the fetus. But, depending on its concentration, the non-radioactive iodide may conversely increase overall exposure of the fetus. (Mori, K.)

  17. Non-radioactive detection of trinucleotide repeat size variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Stéphanie; Nicole, Annie; Gomes-Pereira, Mario; Gourdon, Genevieve

    2014-03-06

    Many human diseases are associated with the abnormal expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeat sequences. The mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat size mutation have not been fully dissected, and their understanding must be grounded on the detailed analysis of repeat size distributions in human tissues and animal models. Small-pool PCR (SP-PCR) is a robust, highly sensitive and efficient PCR-based approach to assess the levels of repeat size variation, providing both quantitative and qualitative data. The method relies on the amplification of a very low number of DNA molecules, through sucessive dilution of a stock genomic DNA solution. Radioactive Southern blot hybridization is sensitive enough to detect SP-PCR products derived from single template molecules, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred onto DNA membranes. We describe a variation of the detection method that uses digoxigenin-labelled locked nucleic acid probes. This protocol keeps the sensitivity of the original method, while eliminating the health risks associated with the manipulation of radiolabelled probes, and the burden associated with their regulation, manipulation and waste disposal.

  18. Detection of different developmental stages of malaria parasites by non-radioactive DNA in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, F. M.; van Amstel, P. J.; Janse, C. J.; Meis, J. F.; Mons, B.

    1991-01-01

    A highly sensitive non-radioactive DNA in situ hybridization procedure is described that enables detection and unequivocal identification of various developmental stages of human and rodent malaria parasites. Using biotinylated species-specific DNA probes, erythrocytic parasites can be specifically

  19. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  20. Can the same principles be used for the management of radioactive and non-radioactive waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Gunnar.

    1989-01-01

    Non-radioactive waste has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. The two types of waste have, however, some properties in common when it comes to their longterm impact on health and the environment. The occurrence in both of substances that may exist for generations and may cause cancer provides one example. Both types of waste also always occur together. It is therefore proposed that the same basic principles could be applied for the management of radioactive and non-radioactive waste. By doing so one may increase the efficiency of policy development, research and practical management. This is particurlarly importand for the very costly restoration of old disposal sites which have earlier been poorly managed. (author)

  1. Proposal of threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    With increasing amounts of radioactive wastes along with the advances of nuclear power generation and radioactive material utilizations, the needs for management cost reduction and resource saving have arisen. Under the situation, the threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive solid wastes are required. The problem has been studied by an ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Research Association, by the request of the Science and Technology Agency. The matters described are the procedures of deriving the threshold levels, the feasibility studies of the management of waste threshold-level with several enterprises, and future subjects of study. The threshold levels are grouped in two, i.e. the unconditional level and the conditional level. According to the unconditional threshold level, solid wastes are separated definitely into radioactive and non-radioactive ones. According to the conditional threshold level, under certain conditions, some radioactive solid wastes according to the unconditional level are regarded as non-radioactive ones. (J.P.N.)

  2. A simple method for the verification of clearance levels for non-radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1997-01-01

    ANSTO's radiopharmaceutical production laboratories generate 25 m 3 of solid waste per month. Most of this waste is not radioactive. Up until recently the non-radioactive waste was cleared from the controlled area and stored for 10 halflives prior to disposal as normal solid refuse. To eliminate the storage and ''double handling'' of the large quantities of non-radioactive waste a simple clearance method was devised to allow direct disposal. This paper describes how clearance levels were determined. Here the term ''clearance level'' is used as a general term for the release of material regardless of whether it was previously subject to regulatory control. This contrasts with the IAEA definition of a clearance level and highlights a potential problem with the implementation of exemption levels to keep material out of regulatory control and the use of clearance levels to allow removal of materials from regulatory control. Several common hand held contamination monitors were tested to determine their limits of detection and ability to meet these clearance levels. The clearance method includes waste segregation and size limitation features to ensure the waste is monitored in a consistent manner, compatible with the limits of detection. The clearance levels achieved were subsequently found to be compatible with some of the unconditional clearance levels in IAEA-TECDOC-855 and the measurement method also meets the required features of that document. The ANSTO non-radioactive waste clearance system has been in operation for more than 12 months and has proved simple and effective to operate. Approximately 12m 3 of the solid waste is now been treated directly as normal solid refuse. This paper describes the ANSTO clearance system, the contamination monitor tests and details practical problems associated with the direct monitoring of solid waste, including averaging of the activity in the package. The paper also briefly highlights the potential problem with the use of

  3. Magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging of brain tumor mediated by mesenchymal stem cell labeled with multifunctional nanoparticle introduced via carotid artery injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yang; Gumin, Joy; MacLellan, Christopher J.; Gao, Feng; Bouchard, Richard; Lang, Frederick F.; Stafford, R. Jason; Melancon, Marites P.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of visualizing bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with a gold-coated magnetic resonance (MR)-active multifunctional nanoparticle and injected via the carotid artery for assessing the extent of MSC homing in glioma-bearing mice. Materials and methods. Nanoparticles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with gold (SPIO@Au) with a diameter of ˜82 nm and maximum absorbance in the near infrared region were synthesized. Bone marrow-derived MSCs conjugated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were successfully labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 and injected via the internal carotid artery in six mice bearing orthotopic U87 tumors. Unlabeled MSCs were used as a control. The ability of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs to be imaged using MR and photoacoustic (PA) imaging at t = 0 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h was assessed using a 7 T Bruker Biospec experimental MR scanner and a Vevo LAZR PA imaging system with a 5 ns laser as the excitation source. Histological analysis of the brain tissue was performed 72 h after MSC injection using GFP fluorescence, Prussian blue staining, and hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. Results. MSCs labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 did not exhibit cell death or any adverse effects on differentiation or migration. The PA signal in tumors injected with SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs was clearly more enhanced post-injection, as compared with the tumors injected with unlabeled MSCs at t = 72 h. Using the same mice, T2-weighted MR imaging results taken before injection and at t = 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h were consistent with the PA imaging results, showing significant hypointensity of the tumor in the presence of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs. Histological analysis also showed co-localization of GFP fluorescence and iron, thereby confirming that SPIO@Au-labeled MSCs continue to carry their nanoparticle payloads even at 72 h after injection. Conclusions. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of tracking carotid artery

  4. Indium-doped aluminium oxide as a non-radioactive test aerosol for aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosselmeyer, E.; Mueller, H.L.; Seidel, A.; Pickering, S.

    1986-01-01

    For testing inhalation facilities it is advantageous to use a non-radioactive, low toxicity test aerosol which can be detected at low concentrations. These criteria are met by a mechanically generated aerosol of indium-doped alumina. Although some cases of lung fibroses have been associated with the inhalation of aluminium compounds in industry, aluminum oxide aerosols are generally considered to be non-toxic. Indium was chosen as a dopant material because (a) it is not normally present in the lung in detectable amounts, (b) it is chemically similar to aluminum and (c) it can be detected in trace amounts by neutron activation analysis (Friberg et al., 1979). Indium aerosols have the same advantages as radioactive tracers for ease of detection, but they are non-toxic during use. This combination of properties offers advantages that could be of use in a wider range of applications than hitherto used, e.g. in inhalation experiments. This paper describes nose-only inhalation experiments on rats using an aerosol of alumina doped with indium. (author)

  5. Use of liquid scintillation in the appraisal of non-radioactive waste shipments from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), non-radioactive or clean waste, is normally assayed to appraise the extent of surface contamination by using a survey meter. Because of the nature of the operations conducted at SRS, the majority of the waste generated is treated as contaminated waste until proven otherwise. Before such waste can be shipped off-site, more rigorous assay must demonstrate compliance with government standards. In particular, it is necessary to appraise the samples with regard to the Department of Transportation (DOT) guideline for a total activity of 2 nanoCuries per gram of waste material. Furthermore, the assay methods must be sufficient to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to prevent overcrowding of waste storage locations. Thus, the present work developed efficient liquid scintillation methods for meeting these requirements. The method of phase separation, sample processing, and liquid scintillation analysis proved effective for the analysis of mixed phase, hydrocarbon based waste samples. The described method was readily applicable to a variety of circumstances and was straightforward enough to be used by staff analysts after a minimum of training. The results were obtained in far shorter time (usually less than 2 hours for a single sample) than would be required for other typical methods of analysis. All samples analyzed by the methods presented were found to have activities below the 2 nCi/g DOT guideline for shipment of non-nuclear waste. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Identification of five novel FBN1 mutations by non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Qian, C.; Comeau, K.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), one of the most common genetic disorders of connective tissue, is characterized by variable manifestations in skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular systems. Mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) have been shown to cause MFS. To examine the relationship between FBN1 gene mutations, fibrillin protein function and MFS phenotypes, we screened for alternations in the fibrillin coding sequence in fibroblast derived cDNA from MFS patients. To date, abnormally migrating bands in more than 20 unrelated MFS patients have been identified by using non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis and silver staining. Five altered bands have been directly sequenced. Two missense mutations and three splice site mutations have been identified. Both missense mutations substitute another amino acid for a cysteine residue (C1402W and C1672R) in EGF-like motifs of the fibrillin polypeptide chain. The two splice site mutations are at nucleotide positions 6994+1 (G{yields}A), and 7205-2 (A{yields}G) and result in in-frame skipping of exon 56 and 58, respectively. Skipping of exon 56 occurs in 50% of mutant transcripts. Use of a cryptic splice site 51 bp upstream of the normal donor site results in half of the mutant transcripts containing part of exon 56. Both products contain in-frame deletions. Another splice site mutation, identified by exon screening from patient genomic DNA using intron primers, is at nucleotide position 2293+2 (T{yields}A), but the predicted exon skipping has not been detected at the RT-PCR level. This may be due to instability of the mutant transcript. Including the mutations reported here, a total of 8 out of 36 published FBN1 gene mutations involve exon skipping. It may be inferred that FBN1 exon skipping plays an important pathogenic role in MFS.

  7. Source related detriment and the commitment concept: applying the principles of radiation protection to non-radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1978-01-01

    Current principles for limitation of releases of radioactive contaminants into the environment involve concepts and methods which are not common in the control of non-radioactive pollutants. The article gives a review of these concepts and methods with special attention to the commitment concept and source-related rather than individual-related assessments. The concept of dose commitment per unit practice is of value in the three basic assessments of source justification, optimization of protection and limitation of present and future doses to individuals. In principle, the same methods and concepts should be useful also in the assessment of non-radioactive pollutants in cases where the main risk is that of cancer or hereditary effects. (Auth.)

  8. Electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source: operating parameters vs. analytical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bunert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances such as pesticides or chlorofluorocarbons. With detection limits in the low pptv range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by a β− decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation, and disposal. Here, we present a novel electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source that shows similar detection limits compared to radioactive detectors but that is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable electron densities and energies. In this work we show first experimental results using 1,1,2-trichloroethane and sevoflurane, and investigate the effect of several operating parameters on the analytical performance of this new non-radioactive electron capture detector (ECD.

  9. Introducing Aviary

    CERN Document Server

    Peutz, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The world is changing. Where before you needed to purchase and install big and expensive programs on your computer in order to create stunning images, you can now do it all online for free using Aviary. Aviary is an online collection of applications that enable you to upload and modify your own photographs and images, and create new imagery from scratch. It includes a powerful photo-manipulation tool called Phoenix, a vector-drawing application called Raven, an effects suite for creating eye-watering image effects called Peacock, and much more. Introducing Aviary takes you through all of these

  10. Introducing Mudbox

    CERN Document Server

    Kermanikian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books on Autodesk's new Mudbox 3D modeling and sculpting tool!. Autodesk's Mudbox was used to create photorealistic creatures for The Dark Knight , The Mist , and others films. Now you can join the crowd interested in learning this exciting new digital modeling and sculpting tool with this complete guide. Get up to speed on all of Mudbox's features and functions, learn how sculpt and paint, and master the art of using effective workflows to make it all go easier.: Introduces Autodesk's Mudbox, an exciting 3D modeling and sculpting tool that enables you to create photorealistic

  11. Lesion measurement in non-radioactive DNA by quantitative gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Chen, Chun Zhang; Emrick, A.; Hacham, H; Monteleone, D.; Ribeiro, E.; Trunk, J.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The gel electrophoresis method developed during the past ten years in our laboratories makes possible the quantitation of UV induced pyrimidine dimers, gamma ray induced single- and double-strand breaks and many other types of lesions in nanogram quantities of DNA. The DNA does not have to be labeled with radionuclides or of a particular conformation, thus facilitating the use of the method in measuring damage levels and repair rates in the DNA of intact organisms -- including man. The gel method can quantitate any lesion in DNA that either is, or can be converted to a single- or double-strand break. The formation of a strand break produces two shorter DNA molecules for each molecule that existed before the treatment that produced the break. Determining the number of breaks, and hence the number of lesions, becomes a matter of comparing the average lengths of molecules in samples differing only in lesion-induced breaks. This requires that we determine the distribution of mass of DNA on a gel as a function of its distance of migration and also the dispersion function of its distance of migration and also the dispersion function (the relationship between molecular length and distance of migration) in the gel electrophoresis system. 40 refs., 5 figs

  12. A non-radioactive ligand-binding assay for detection of cyanobacterial anatoxins using Torpedo electrocyte membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Herdman, Michael; Rippka, Rosmarie; Ledreux, Aurélie; Molgó, Jordi; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Nghiêm, Hoàng-Oanh

    2008-07-01

    Anatoxin-a (ANTX) and homoanatoxin-a (HANTX), neurotoxins exclusively produced by cyanobacteria (LD(50) 200-250 microg kg(-1), i.p. mouse), are agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to which they tightly bind. We have exploited the high affinity of these neurotoxins for the nicotinic receptors to develop a non-radioactive ligand-binding assay using Torpedo electrocyte membranes and biotinylated alpha-bungarotoxin (Biotin-BgTx) as tracer for detection of this class of toxins. The affinity of the Torpedo nAChRs for Biotin-BgTx was determined by chemiluminescence (K(d)=1.2 x 10(-8)M Biotin-BgTx) or color development (K(d)=3.5 x 10(-8)M Biotin-BgTx). Binding of ANTX or HANTX to the nAChRs competitively inhibits the binding of Biotin-BgTx to the receptors in a concentration-dependent manner (chemiluminescence: IC(50): 6.2 x 10(-8)M ANTX; color development: IC(50): 1.7 x 10(-8)M ANTX). The proposed method was validated by HPLC/MS with detection in the single ion recording mode. The non-radioactive ligand receptor-binding assay was successfully applied to the analysis of extracts prepared from cyanobacteria in culture and from natural habitats, as well as from aqueous samples. This method is suitable for ANTX and HANTX early survey of environmental samples since it requires minimal manipulations, is highly sensitive and gives consistent signal-to-noise ratios.

  13. Development of an immobilisation technique by cementation for non-radioactive simulated liquid waste, from Mo-99 production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arva, E A; Marabini, S G; Varani, J L

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the strictly environmental safe and efficient management of the radioactive waste from different sources. Since 1985, CNEA has been producing commercially Mo-99 for medical use. In this process two types of liquid waste are produced. One of them has high alkaline (NaOH 3,5M) and aluminate contents. Since Mo-99 production started, such liquid waste was stored in specially designed containers during production, and after a decay period in smaller containers in interim storage conditions. As this waste is still a liquid, development of an immobilisation technique is required. Immobilisation of radioactive liquid waste by cementation is a frequently used technique, and will be studied in the present work using Mo-99 non-radioactive simulated liquid waste. In this second stage, a full scale (200 liters drum) cementation test using simulated non radioactive waste was carried out. Such test included: using the BEBA 201 mixing machine - the same that will be used with real waste in the future for 'tuning up' the process, construction of a specially designed temperature sensor for measuring the maximum temperature value (five different positions, four inside the drum and one outside) and the time elapsed after all components mixing. Finally, standard specimens (IRAM 1622) were made for mechanical resistance tests after cement setting at 28 days. The results show values of temperature not above 40 o C with the maximum at 12 hours before component mixing and compression strength of 14 MPa. Such values are compatible for a waste immobilisation process by cementation (author)

  14. Detection of mRNA molecules coding for neuropeptide hormones of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis by radioactive and non-radioactive in situ hybridization: a model study for mRNA detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, R.W.; Raap, A.K.; Van Minnen, J.; Vreugdenhil, E.; Smit, A.B.; Van der Ploeg, M.

    1989-01-01

    To develop and optimize non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques for mRNA detection, we used the neuropeptidergic system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a biological model system. First, we investigated the in situ hybridization procedure using radioactive-labeled cDNA and synthetic oligonucleotide probes specific for egg-laying hormone (ELH) mRNA and molluscan insulin-like peptide (MIP) mRNA. The results show an intense grain deposit above the caudodorsal cells and light-green cells expressing, respectively, ELH mRNA and MIP mRNA. Good results with relation to signal strength and tissue morphology were obtained with freeze-dry paraformaldehyde vapor fixation. The necessity to perform tissue pre-treatment appeared to be dependent on the cell type of interest. The optimized in situ hybridization protocol proved to be applicable using probes that are either sulfonated/transaminated or labeled with acetylaminofluorene (AAF). In situ hybridization of such haptenized probes led to intense and specific staining of the cytoplasm of the caudodorsal cells. Egg-laying hormone mRNA appeared not to be homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm but showed a patch-like pattern. Nuclear and axoplasmic staining for mRNA was also observed.

  15. Detection of mRNA molecules coding for neuropeptide hormones of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis by radioactive and non-radioactive in situ hybridization: a model study for mRNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, R W; Raap, A K; Van Minnen, J; Vreugdenhil, E; Smit, A B; Van der Ploeg, M

    1989-01-01

    To develop and optimize non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques for mRNA detection, we used the neuropeptidergic system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a biological model system. First, we investigated the in situ hybridization procedure using radioactive-labeled cDNA and synthetic oligonucleotide probes specific for egg-laying hormone (ELH) mRNA and molluscan insulin-like peptide (MIP) mRNA. The results show an intense grain deposit above the caudodorsal cells and light-green cells expressing, respectively, ELH mRNA and MIP mRNA. Good results with relation to signal strength and tissue morphology were obtained with freeze-dry paraformaldehyde vapor fixation. The necessity to perform tissue pre-treatment appeared to be dependent on the cell type of interest. The optimized in situ hybridization protocol proved to be applicable using probes that are either sulfonated/transaminated or labeled with acetylaminofluorene (AAF). In situ hybridization of such haptenized probes led to intense and specific staining of the cytoplasm of the caudodorsal cells. Egg-laying hormone mRNA appeared not to be homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm but showed a "patch-like" pattern. Nuclear and axoplasmic staining for mRNA was also observed.

  16. Objective and subjective evaluation of power plants and their non-radioactive emissions using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear power plant emissions are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. As energy demand tends to rise rapidly, especially in the developing countries, the negative effects to human health and to the environment from gaseous emissions together with hazardous particulate matter released by power plants can no longer be ignored. In this study, the impact of non-radioactive emissions is evaluated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by synthesizing objective and subjective criteria. There are five main emissions to be evaluated, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulates or particulate matter (PM). Objective evaluation is achieved by expressing the impact of each emission released in monetary terms following generally accepted market rules, international agreements and protocols. That is, the Euro per kilogram of each emission exceeding a specific limit that should be paid as a penalty for environmental pollution and human health damage. Subjective assessment requires an intuitive expression of the percentage of damage to human health and to the ecosystem that each emission causes. Sensitivity analysis is then used in order to examine how change of input data affects final results. Finally, 10 main types of power plant are evaluated according to the level and kind of emissions they release. These types are coal/lignite, oil, natural gas turbine, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal

  17. Introducing Ratiometric Fluorescence to MnO2Nanosheet-Based Biosensing: A Simple, Label-Free Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor Programmed by Cascade Logic Circuit for Ultrasensitive GSH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Shang, Changshuai; Gu, Wenling; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-08-09

    Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in various biological functions, the level alterations of which have been linked to varieties of diseases. Herein, we for the first time expanded the application of oxidase-like property of MnO 2 nanosheet (MnO 2 NS) to fluorescent substrates of peroxidase. Different from previously reported fluorescent quenching phenomena, we found that MnO 2 NS could not only largely quench the fluorescence of highly fluorescent Scopoletin (SC) but also surprisingly enhance that of nonfluorescent Amplex Red (AR) via oxidation reaction. If MnO 2 NS is premixed with GSH, it will be reduced to Mn 2+ and lose the oxidase-like property, accompanied by subsequent increase in SC's fluorescence and decrease in AR's. On the basis of the above mechanism, we construct the first MnO 2 NS-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for ultrasensitive and selective detection of GSH. Notably, this ratiometric sensor is programmed by the cascade logic circuit (an INHIBIT gate cascade with a 1 to 2 decoder). And a linear relationship between ratiometric fluorescent intensities of the two substrates and logarithmic values of GSH's concentrations is obtained. The detection limit of GSH is as low as 6.7 nM, which is much lower than previous ratiometric fluorescent sensors, and the lowest MnO 2 NS-based fluorescent GSH sensor reported so far. Furthermore, this sensor is simple, label-free, and low-cost; it also presents excellent applicability in human serum samples.

  18. Study by X-ray diffraction of the crystalline structure versus time of a radioactive implanted coral and of a non radioactive implanted coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Oudadesse, H.; Sauvage, T.; El Fadl, H. [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Lefevre, J.; Barlet, J.P. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, 63 -Saint-Genes-Champanelle (France)

    1993-12-31

    The corals used as biomaterials in bone surgery consist of 98% calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and have orthorhombic crystalline structure. This structure changes progressively into a bone structure in an hexagonal form when the coral is implanted in cortical or spongy surroundings. For this experiment, a radioactive and a non radioactive coral have been implanted in the metaphysics of the ovine femur. The transformation of the orthorhombic structure into the hexagonal bone structure has been studied for the two types of implant. This makes it possible to verify if radioactivity modifies the process of transformation of the implanted biocoral. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 7 figs.

  19. Quantitative estimation of the extent of alkylation of DNA following treatment of mammalian cells with non-radioactive alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, R.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge); Regan, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Alkaline sucrose sedimentation has been used to quantitate phosphotriester formation following treatment of human cells with the monofunctional alkylating agents methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate. These persistent alkaline-labile lesions are not repaired during short-term culture conditions and thus serve as a useful and precise index of the total alkylation of the DNA.Estimates of alkylation by this procedure compare favorably with direct estimates by use of labeled alkylating agents.

  20. Introduced Pine Sawfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis F. Wilson

    1966-01-01

    The introduced pine, sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in North America was first discovered in 1914 in a nursery in New Haven, Conn. This insect might have been introduced in the cocoon stage on nursery stock or packing material from Holland. Since its arrival, it has advanced steadily westward, reaching Pennsylvania before 1920 and Ontario by 1931. The present range...

  1. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data...

  2. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on their food labels. When a food says "light" ("lite") or "low fat" on the label, it ... on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories How ...

  3. Introducing ZBrush 4

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Introducing ZBrush 4 launches readers head-on into fulfilling their artistic potential for sculpting realistic creature, cartoon, and hard surface models in ZBrush. ZBrush's innovative technology and interface can be intimidating to both digital-art beginners as well as veterans who are used to a more conventional modeling environment. This book dispels myths about the difficulty of ZBrush with a thorough tour and exploration of the program's interface. Engaging projects also allow the reader to become comfortable with digital sculpting in with a relaxed and fun book atmosphere. Introducing ZB

  4. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  5. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  6. Introducing Business English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate

  7. Non-radioactive determination of the penetration of methyl iodide through impregnated charcoals during dosing and purging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romans, J.B.; Deitz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure is described using methyl iodide-127 which had the same linear flow of air (12.2 m/min) and contact time (0.25 sec.) as the RDT M16 Test Procedure. Only one-fourth of the charcoal was used (in a bed 2.54 cm diameter and 5.08 cm high) and the required dose of methyl iodide-127 was reduced from 5.25 to 1.31 mg. The inlet concentrations were determined with a gas chromatograph and the effluent concentrations with a modified microcoulombmeter. Two calibration procedures were used: (1) known vapor pressure of iodine crystals, and (2) quantitative pyrolysis of the methyl iodide-127 delivered from certified permeation tubes. Five charcoals and three impregnations were used in this study. Typical behaviors are given in 90% RH air with the charcoals either prehumidified for 16 hours at 90% RH or without the prehumidification. The breakthrough curves, concentration versus time, rose very slowly for the first 120 minutes and then more rapidly for an additional time. The lack of a dependence on the magnitude of the dose is compatible with a catalytic trapping mechanism. In the case of KI/sub x/ impregnations, there was excess emission of iodine during purging over that introduced as methyl iodide-127 which must have originated in the reservoir of iodine contained in the impregnation

  8. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  9. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  10. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  11. Introducing the CTA concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  12. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  13. Radiant-heat spray-calcination process for the solid fixation of radioactive waste. Part 1, Non-radioactive pilot unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

    1960-11-14

    The fixation of radioactive waste in a stable solid media by means of calcination of these aqueous solutions has been the subject of considerable-effort throughout the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission and by atomic energy organizations in other countries. Several methods of doing this on a continuous or semi-continuous basis have been devised, and a fev have been demonstrated to be feasible for the handling of non-radioactive, or low-activity, simulated wastes. Notable among methods currently under development are: (a) batch-operated pot calcination of waste generated from reprocessing stainless steel clad fuel elements (Darex process) and Purex waste, (b) combination rotary kiln and ball mill calcination of aluminum nitrate (TBP-25 and Redox process), and (c) fluidized bed calcination of TBP-25 and Purex wastes. Although a considerable amount of engineering experience has been obtained on the calcination of dissolved salts in a fluidized bed, and the other methods have been the subjects of a great deal of study, none of them have been developed to-the extent which would rule out the desirability of further investigation of other possible methods of calcination.

  14. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of PET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Yu, E-mail: guyu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Dai, Tiantian, E-mail: maxinedtt@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  15. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  16. Introducing the new EDMS

    CERN Multimedia

    The EDMS Team

    2014-01-01

    We are very pleased to announce the arrival of a brand new EDMS: EDMS 6. The CERN Engineering and Equipment Data Management Service just got better than ever! EDMS is the de facto interface for all engineering related data and more. Currently there are more than 1.2 million documents and nearly 2 million files stored in EDMS.   What’s new? The first thing you will notice is the look and feel of EDMS 6; the new design not only makes it more modern but also more intuitive, so that the system is easier to use, regardless of your experience with EDMS. Whilst we have kept the key concepts, we have introduced more functionality and improved navigation within the interface, allowing for better performance to help you in your daily work. We have also added a personal slant to EDMS 6 so that you can now customise your list of favourite objects. Modifying data in EDMS is much simpler, allowing you to view all object data in a single window.  More functionality will be added in the ...

  17. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-07-01

    9-[(18)F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [(18)F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. The mice were injected with a bolus including [(18)F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [(18)F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [(18)F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED50 value was 8.165mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [(18)F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 changed significantly. The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [(18)F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An advanced design of non-radioactive image capturing and management system for applications in non-invasive skin disorder diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Carol Y. B.; Luk, David C. K.; Zhou, Kany S. Y.; So, Bryan M. K.; Louie, Derek C. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasing incidences of malignant melanoma, there is a rising demand for assistive technologies for its early diagnosis and improving the survival rate. The commonly used visual screening method is with limited accuracy as the early phase of melanoma shares many clinical features with an atypical nevus, while conventional dermoscopes are not user-friendly in terms of setup time and operations. Therefore, the development of an intelligent and handy system to assist the accurate screening and long-term monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention of melanoma. In this paper, an advanced design of non-invasive and non-radioactive dermoscopy system was reported. Computer-aided simulations were conducted for optimizing the optical design and uniform illumination distribution. Functional prototype and the software system were further developed, which could enable image capturing at 10x amplified and general modes, convenient data transmission, analysis of dermoscopic features (e.g., asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter and dermoscopic structure) for assisting the early detection of melanoma, extract patient information (e.g. code, lesion location) and integrate with dermoscopic images, thus further support long term monitoring of diagnostic analysis results. A clinical trial study was further conducted on 185 Chinese children (0-18 years old). The results showed that for all subjects, skin conditions diagnosed based on the developed system accurately confirmed the diagnoses by conventional clinical procedures. Besides, clinical analysis on dermoscopic features and a potential standard approach by the developed system to support identifying specific melanocytic patterns for dermoscopic examination in Chinese children were also reported.

  20. Energy labels and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency at the end-use level is increasingly important as Climate Change commitments force policy makers to look for areas where greenhouse gas emissions reduction can be achieved rapidly. Indeed, although much improvement has been mode over the past 25 years, significant potential for improving energy efficiency still exists. Labelling and minimum efficiency standards for appliances and equipment have proven to be one of the most promising policy instruments. Used for many years in some IEA Member countries, they delivered tangible results. They are among the cheapest and least intrusive of policies. Policy makers cannot afford to neglect them. This book examines current and post experiences of countries using labels and standards to improve energy end-use efficiency. It identifies successful policy approaches, focusing on what works best. It also provides insight into the opportunities ahead, including the widespread use of computer chips in appliances, cars and equipment. This book should be of great help not only to administrations planning to introduce labelling schemes, but also to those in the process of strengthening their current programmes. Policy makers in developing countries will also find here all necessary justification for implementing labelling and standards in their economy. 74 refs

  1. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  2. Emotionel Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Nanna Sofie Garnov; Pedersen, Mette Kofoed; de Wit, Liv Kantsø; Ørndorf, Siri; Dissing, Celina Kyrn

    2017-01-01

    This project arises from the ideas of social constructionist theorist Kenneth J. Gergen and his presentation of Emotional Labeling as presented in his work The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life (1991). And on that note we are examining how emotions are being dealt with in a Danish kindergarten. We investigate what might influence the issue of emotions being taught has on children’s emotional development in everyday life. In order to do so we have conducted observations...

  3. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  4. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced fish in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP...

  5. Factors influencing absorption and retention of oral 109Cd in mice: Age, pretreatment and subsequent treatment with non-radioactive cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, B.; Nordberg, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of age, pretreatment with CdCl 2 and long-term oral treatment with CdSO 4 on whole-body retention, organ distribution and the biological half-life of 109 CdCL 2 was studied in mice: 1) Male CBA-mice, 1, 3 and 6 months af age, were given a single oral dose of CdCl 2 labelled with 109 Cd. The whole-body retention of the radiolabelled cadmium was inversely related to age. No influence of age on the biological half-time of 109 Cd was observed. 2) Three groups of adult of male CBA-mice were pretreated with 75 mgCd/1 in the drinking water for 130, 13 or 0 days, respectively, before receiving a single oral dose of CdCl 2 labelled with 109 Cd. The two pretreated groups showed higher intestinal absorption of radio-labelled cadmium and a statistically significant longer biological half-time of 109 Cd compared to mice not pretrated with cadmium. The organ retention of radiolabelled cadmium was markedly higher in mice given cadmium in the drinking water compared with those given deionized water. 3) Male and female adult CBA-mice were exposed to a single oral dose of CdCl 2 labelled with 109 Cd, via stomachtube, and were thereafter given either deionized water or 50 mgCd/1 in the drinking water continuously for 18 months. The organ retention of the radiolabelled cadmium was higher in mice exposed to cadmium in the drinking water compared to those given deionized water. Mice exposed to cadmium via the drinking water had a markedly longer biological half-time of 109 Cd compared to non-Cd-exposed mice. In all experiments the animals retaining a larger proportion of the cadmium dose showed higher liver: kidney ratios of the radiolabelled cadmium compared to mice retaining less cadmium. It is concluded: Age is of significant importance to the metabolism of cadmium due to the marked raise in intestinal adsorption in the youngest age. Pretreatment with cadmium caused a higher intestinal absorption of radiolabelled cadmium. A longer biological half-time of 109 Cd was seen

  6. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  7. Prompting Strategies for Introducing Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to introduce opera to students through the use of prompting strategies. Explains that these strategies encourage active participation by students and help to improve listening skills. Focuses on prompting strategies, such as matching characters to songs, identifying, and sequencing songs. (CMK)

  8. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  9. Introducing Happiness: A Practical Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham, Will

    2012-01-01

    A brief and breezy guide to the various philosophies of happiness—from Zhuangzi to the world of Positive Psychology and from Epicurus to the Buddha—packed with entertaining and fun exercises. Introducing Happiness is also a very intense shade of yellow.

  10. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  11. Introduce XBRL to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkern, Sheree M.; Morgan, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper informs business instructors and educators about XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) so that they can introduce it to their students and expand their students' understanding of how it relates to the accounting profession. Even though the financial community has entered a new age with this standardized reporting language, many…

  12. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  13. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beware of. Using Food Labels for a Well-Balanced Diet Here are some guidelines on using food labels ... food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It might seem complicated at first, but it ...

  14. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  15. Basic evaluation of 67Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji; Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with 67 Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na + , K + -ATPase imaging. (author)

  16. Introducing the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagad, Shyama; Genovesi, Piero; Carnevali, Lucilla; Schigel, Dmitry; McGeoch, Melodie A.

    2018-01-01

    Harmonised, representative data on the state of biological invasions remain inadequate at country and global scales, particularly for taxa that affect biodiversity and ecosystems. Information is not readily available in a form suitable for policy and reporting. The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) provides the first country-wise checklists of introduced (naturalised) and invasive species. GRIIS was conceived to provide a sustainable platform for information delivery to support national governments. We outline the rationale and methods underpinning GRIIS, to facilitate transparent, repeatable analysis and reporting. Twenty country checklists are presented as exemplars; GRIIS Checklists for close to all countries globally will be submitted through the same process shortly. Over 11000 species records are currently in the 20 country exemplars alone, with environmental impact evidence for just over 20% of these. GRIIS provides significant support for countries to identify and prioritise invasive alien species, and establishes national and global baselines. In future this will enable a global system for sustainable monitoring of trends in biological invasions that affect the environment. PMID:29360103

  17. Introducing ZBrush 3rd Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Learn ZBrush inside and out with this updated new edition Get totally comfortable sculpting in a digital environment with the latest edition of this bestselling beginner's guide to ZBrush. Fully updated for the newest version of the software, ZBrush 4R3, this book dispels any fears you might have about the difficulty of using ZBrush and soon has you creating realistic, cartoon, and organic models with flair. Learn all the essentials, as you complete fun tutorials on painting, meshes, organic scripting, hard surface sculpting, lighting, rendering, and more. Introduces you to ZBrush, the sculpt

  18. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  19. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  20. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  1. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  2. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  3. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines.

  4. Transneuronal retrograde dual viral labelling of central autonomic circuitry : possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has become an important neuroanatomical tract-tracing tool for characterization of Limbic neuronal networks. Recently, dual viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has been introduced; a method employing differential transgene expression of two genetically

  5. Industrial Robot Label Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kukasch, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with a project carried out for developing and setting up a robot label applicator system. The requirement was that RFID tracking labels can be applied on flexible positions, without manual effort and rearrangement, via programming. The purpose of the robot label applicator system is to increase the efficiency in production sites, where the RFID label position can change, depending on product or other reasons. New label positions should be programmed easily with a human-m...

  6. A SIMPLE FLUORESCENT LABELING METHOD FOR STUDIES OF PROTEIN OXIDATION, PROTEIN MODIFICATION, AND PROTEOLYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Davies, Kelvin. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are sensitive to oxidation, and oxidized proteins are excellent substrates for degradation by proteolytic enzymes such as the Proteasome and the mitochondrial Lon protease. Protein labeling is required for studies of protein turnover. Unfortunately, most labeling techniques involve 3H or 14C methylation which is expensive, exposes researchers to radioactivity, generates large amounts of radioactive waste, and allows only single-point assays because samples require acid-precipitation. Alternative labeling methods, have largely proven unsuitable, either because the probe itself is modified by the oxidant(s) being studied, or because the alternative labeling techniques are too complex or too costly for routine use. What is needed is a simple, quick, and cheap labeling technique that uses a non-radioactive marker, that binds strongly to proteins, is resistant to oxidative modification, and emits a strong signal. We have devised a new reductive method for labeling free carboxyl groups of proteins with the small fluorophore 7-amino-4-methycoumarin (AMC). When bound to target proteins, AMC fluoresces very weakly but when AMC is released by proteinases, proteases, or peptidases, it fluoresces strongly. Thus, without acid-precipitation, the proteolysis of any target protein can be studied continuously, in multiwell plates. In direct comparisons, 3H-labeled proteins and AMC-labeled proteins exhibited essentially identical degradation patterns during incubation with trypsin, cell extracts, and purified proteasome. AMC-labeled proteins are well-suited to study increased proteolytic susceptibility following protein modification, since the AMC-protein bond is resistant to oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, and is stable over time and to extremes of pH, temperature (even boiling), freeze-thawing, mercaptoethanol, and methanol. PMID:21988844

  7. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  8. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  9. Influence of humic acids on the migration behavior of radioactive and non-radioactive substances under conditions close to nature. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-04-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich in humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  10. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  11. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  12. Introducing Physician Assistants to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Vanstone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC introduced Physician Assistants (PAs through the announcement of demonstration projects, education and training programs, and subsequent funding. PAs are directly supervised by physicians and act as physician extenders by performing acts as delegated to them by their supervising physicians. PAs were proposed as a potential solution to help improve access to health care and reduce wait times throughout the province. Prior to the 2006 Ministry announcement, there was little public discussion regarding the acceptance of the PA role or its sustainability. Opposition from nursing and other groups emerged in response to the 2006 announcement and flared again when stakeholder comments were solicited in 2012 as part of the PA application for status as regulated health professionals. As a health reform, the introduction of PAs has neither succeeded nor failed. In 2013, the majority of PA funding continues to be provided by the MOHLTC, and it is unknown whether the PA role will be sustainable when the MOHTLC withdraws salary funding and health system employers must decide whether or not to continue employing PAs at their own expense.

  13. Introducing Science to undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avila Jr

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of scientific method provides stimulus and development of critical thinking and logical analysis of information besides the training of continuous formulation of hypothesis to be applied in formal scientific issues as well as in everyday facts. The scientific education, useful for all people, is indispensable for the experimental science students. Aiming at the possibility to offer a systematic learning of the scientific principles, we developed a undergraduate course designed to approximate the students to the procedures of scientific production and publication. The course was developed in a 40 hours, containing two modules: I. Introducing Scientific Articles (papers and II. Writing Research Project. The first module deals with: (1 the difference between scientific knowledge and common sense; (2 scientific methodology; (3 scientific publishing categories; (4 logical principles; (5 deduction and induction approach and (6 paper analysis. The second module includes (1 selection of problem to be solved by experimental procedures; (2 bibliography revision; (3 support agencies; (4 project writing and presentation and (5 critical analysis of experimental results. The course used a Collaborative Learning strategy with each topic being developed through activities performed by the students. Qualitative and quantitative (through Likert questionnaires evaluation were carried out in each step of the course, the results showing great appreciation by the students. This is also the opinion of the staff responsible for the planning and development of the course, which is now in its second and improved version.

  14. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  16. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  17. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  18. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  19. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  20. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...... experiment engaging 4 operations: stimulating market anticipations, focussing politicalconsultations, producing collective expertise and containing the regulatory transcription of the label....

  1. Combining combing and secondary ion mass spectrometry to study DNA on chips using 13C and 15N labeling [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Cabin-Flaman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (D-SIMS imaging of combed DNA – the combing, imaging by SIMS or CIS method – has been developed previously using a standard NanoSIMS 50 to reveal, on the 50 nm scale, individual DNA fibers labeled with different, non-radioactive isotopes in vivo and to quantify these isotopes. This makes CIS especially suitable for determining the times, places and rates of DNA synthesis as well as the detection of the fine-scale re-arrangements of DNA and of molecules associated with combed DNA fibers. Here, we show how CIS may be extended to 13C-labeling via the detection and quantification of the 13C14N- recombinant ion and the use of the 13C:12C ratio, we discuss how CIS might permit three successive labels, and we suggest ideas that might be explored using CIS.

  2. Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1994-01-01

    A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...

  3. Overview of Current Labelling Methods. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, R.

    2009-01-01

    The conjugation of 99m Tc complexes or complex fragments to targeting vectors is the core science of labelling chemistry. The first sections of the chapter outline the non-chemical constraints to be considered for successful biomolecule labelling and for a chance of becoming introduced to the market. Without taking these constraints into account, even the best radiopharmaceutical will not gain access to the market. Labelling methods, which either fulfil these constraints completely or, at least, to a significant extent, will then be emphasized. Besides the old cores, such as [Tc=O] 3+ , the novel cores [Tc] 3+ , [Tc≡N] 2+ and [Tc(CO) 3 ] + as well as the intensive research based on these cores are discussed in detail. Recent examples towards novel 99m Tc based radiopharmaceuticals are described. Based on the current methods for the labelling of biomolecules, the objective of the chapter is to guide towards potential novel approaches in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (author)

  4. Quantification of stable isotope label in metabolites via mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Jan; Goetze, Jan; Dethloff, Frederik; Junker, Bjoern; Kopka, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Isotope labelling experiments with stable or radioactive isotopes have long been an integral part of biological and medical research. Labelling experiments led to the discovery of new metabolic pathways and made it possible to calculate the fluxes responsible for a metabolic phenotype, i.e., the qualitative and quantitative composition of metabolites in a biological system. Prerequisite for efficient isotope labelling experiments is a reliable and precise method to analyze the redistribution of isotope label in a metabolic network. Here we describe the use of the CORRECTOR program, which utilizes matrix calculations to correct mass spectral data from stable isotope labelling experiments for the distorting effect of naturally occurring stable isotopes (NOIs). CORRECTOR facilitates and speeds up the routine quantification of experimentally introduced isotope label from multiple mass spectral readouts, which are generated by routine metabolite profiling when combined with stable isotope labelling experiments.

  5. Preparation of {sup 99m}Tc labeled substance P (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozker, S.K. E-mail: ozker@mcw.edu; Hellman, Robert S.; Krasnow, Arthur Z

    2002-11-01

    Substance P (SP) is an ll-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family. This study investigated the preparation of an SP analog labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for imaging SP receptor positive tissue (inflammatory diseases and neoplasms with increased expression of SP receptors). High specific activity {sup 99m}Tc-SP was prepared using the 1-imino-4-mercaptobutyl (IMB) group as a bifunctional chelator. Biological distribution in mice showed increased {sup 99m}Tc-SP uptake in the salivary glands (which have a high concentration of SP receptors), but this activity was displaced in animals pre-treated with excess non-radioactive SP. These data show that the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-SP is receptor specific. IMB derivatization at the N-terminal location is suitable for labeling of SP analogues with {sup 99m}Tc. Synthetic analogues of SP labeled with {sup 99m}Tc may be an attractive alternative to {sup 111}In labeled molecules and merit further investigation.

  6. Synthesis of pentamidine labelled with tritium and carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Jones, J.R. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Chemistry); Lockley, W.J.S.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1990-11-01

    Tritium labelled pentamidine has been prepared with a specific activity of 90 mCi mmol{sup -1} using a one-step exchange reaction between the unlabelled drug and tritiated water. The labelling utilised a homogeneous rhodium trichloride catalyst and yielded pentamidine regiospecifically labelled in the positions ortho to the amidine groups. Carbon-14 labelled pentamidine was prepared via a seven-step procedure in which the isotope was introduced via a nucleophilic substitution of 4-bromo-phenol with copper(I) ({sup 14}C)cyanide. (author).

  7. Connected Components Labeling on the GPU with Generalization to Voronoi Diagrams and Signed Distance Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Ziegler, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many image processing problems benefit from a complete solution to connected components labeling. This paper introduces a new data parallel labeling method based on calculation of label propagation sizes from the connectivity between pixels extracted in a pre-processing step and re-usal of establ...

  8. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  9. Labelling Fashion Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  10. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  11. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  12. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  13. Water pollution by non-radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenbrok, G.

    1974-01-01

    Water is in constant circulation from the ocean to the earth's atmosphere and back to the ocean. In the course of this cycle, the composition of the water is altered by natural and human influences. Depending on the prevailing conditions, the water may contain solute gases, undissolved substances, inorganic salts, organic compounds, and microorganisms of varying types and concentrations. Many of these substances are known to pollute the water and thus to threaten its various uses. Emitting sources of water pollutants are: waste waters, seepings from open dumpings, mineral fertilizers and biocides washed out from agricultural areas, water pollutants emitted during storage and transport, air pollutants, and erosions from roads. The thermal load is an additional factor. Technical and legal steps are necessary in order to prevent water pollution and to maintain the quality of water required for its various uses. These measures are treated in detail. (orig./AK) [de

  14. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  15. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  16. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  17. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  18. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  19. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  20. Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii ) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles ( Cybister tripunctatus ) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya.

  1. Estimation of labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sina; Xu, Feng; Wang, Peiying L; Uh, Jinsoo; Yezhuvath, Uma S; van Osch, Matthias; Lu, Hanzhang

    2010-03-01

    Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI is a new arterial spin labeling technique that has the potential of combining advantages of continuous arterial spin labeling and pulsed arterial spin labeling. However, unlike continuous arterial spin labeling, the labeling process of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling is not strictly an adiabatic inversion and the efficiency of labeling may be subject specific. Here, three experiments were performed to study the labeling efficiency in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI. First, the optimal labeling position was determined empirically to be approximately 84 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line in order to achieve the highest sensitivity. Second, an experimental method was developed to utilize phase-contrast velocity MRI as a normalization factor and to estimate the labeling efficiency in vivo, which was founded to be 0.86 +/- 0.06 (n = 10, mean +/- standard deviation). Third, we compared the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI under normocapnic and hypercapnic (inhalation of 5% CO(2)) conditions and showed that a higher flow velocity in the feeding arteries resulted in a reduction in the labeling efficiency. In summary, our results suggest that labeling efficiency is a critical parameter in pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI not only in terms of achieving highest sensitivity but also in quantification of absolute cerebral blood flow in milliliters per minute per 100 g. We propose that the labeling efficiency should be estimated using phase-contrast velocity MRI on a subject-specific basis. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few common questions about food label requirements. What foods are labeled? Domestic or imported packaged food is ... allergens found in flavorings, colorings or other additives. What foods aren't labeled? Fresh produce, eggs, fresh meat ...

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  4. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  5. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  6. Label-free photoacoustic nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Winkler, Amy M.; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lidai; Chen, Yun; Dorn, Gerald W.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy techniques-capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light-have opened new opportunities to explore subcellular structures and dynamics not resolvable in conventional far-field microscopy. However, relying on staining with exogenous fluorescent markers, these techniques can sometimes introduce undesired artifacts to the image, mainly due to large tagging agent sizes and insufficient or variable labeling densities. By contrast, the use of endogenous pigments allows imaging of the intrinsic structures of biological samples with unaltered molecular constituents. Here, we report label-free photoacoustic (PA) nanoscopy, which is exquisitely sensitive to optical absorption, with an 88 nm resolution. At each scanning position, multiple PA signals are successively excited with increasing laser pulse energy. Because of optical saturation or nonlinear thermal expansion, the PA amplitude depends on the nonlinear incident optical fluence. The high-order dependence, quantified by polynomial fitting, provides super-resolution imaging with optical sectioning. PA nanoscopy is capable of super-resolution imaging of either fluorescent or nonfluorescent molecules.

  7. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  8. Synthesis of tritium labeled renin inhibitor ditekiren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Bundy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the search for a radioactive form of the peptidomimetic renin inhibitor, ditekiren, with a metabolically suitable radiolabel for conducting drug disposition studies, we prepared [ 3 H]ditekiren with tritium labels in the N-methyl-histidine moiety and in the leu-val alcohol transition-state insert. [His- 3 H]ditekiren was obtained by first introducing two iodine substituents into the N-methyl-histidine moiety of the parent drug, followed by catalytic hydrodehalogenation with tritium gas. Administration of this labeled drug to monkeys, however, resulted in prolonged retention of radioactivity in the test animals, even though little or no tritiated water was detected in urine. The results, together with similar earlier findings after administration of [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the proline moiety of the drug, led us to synthesize [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the ''unnatural'' leu-val alcohol (LVA) portion of the molecule. The tritium label in [LVA- 3 H]ditekiren was found to be metabolically suitable for conducting drug disposition studies, with no liability for tritiated water production or prolonged retention of radioactivity in tissues of test animals. (author)

  9. Functionalized gold nanostars for label-free detection of PKA phosphorylation using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Kah, James C. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation controls fundamental biological processes. Dysregulation of protein kinase is associated with a series of human diseases including cancer. Protein kinase A (PKA) activity has been reported to serve as a potential prognostic marker for cancer. To this end, we developed a non-radioactive, rapid, cheap and robust scheme based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for label-free detection of PKA phosphorylation using gold nanostars (AuNS) functionalized with BSA-kemptide. While bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins stabilized the AuNS, kemptide, which is a high affinity substrate peptide specific for PKA, were phosphorylated in vitro to generate Raman signals that were identified by performing principal component analysis (PCA) on the acquired SERS spectra.

  10. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  11. Pembuatan kulit untuk label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is aimed to produce leather for label which is needed by market demand ant to disseminate this technology to industries. There were 10 sides of wet salted cow hides for this research. Those hides were divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides that were serially tanned by 3%, 4% and 5% and one side for control. Those hides were then mixed and divided into 3 groups, each group consisted of 3 sides and were then tanned by 6%, 8% and 10% of mimosa. The rest one side was tanned by 6% chrome and 8% mimosa for control. One side of label leather was taken from market used for comparison. Organoleptical, physical and chemical leather testing were carried out in IRDLAI laboratory. The result showed that the quality of the label leather from this research were better than label leather from market. Beside this it could be found out the technology of label manufacture which could produce good quality of label leather that were tanned by 5% chrome and re-tanned by 8% of mimosa

  12. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  13. Progress on research of radioisotope-labeled porphyrin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Pu Manfei; Song Hu; Song Hongtao; Li Xingliang

    2010-01-01

    Porphyrin derivatives can be taken up by tumor cells and accumulated there for a long time. Since 1960's, radioactive isotope-labeled porphyrins have been under extensive researches around the world. The progress of labeled porphyrins with various radioactive isotopes includes 3 H, 11 C, 123 I, 131 I, 99m Tc, 188 Re, 117,113m Sn, 153 Sm, 109 Pd, 111 In, 57 Co, 58 Co, 65 Zn, 64, 67 Cu, 90 Y, 166 Ho is reviewed here. Among them, we studied the labeling conditions, chemical and biochemical properties of 188 Re-labeled, 117,113 mSn-labeled and 153 Sm-labeled T 3,4 CPP and TPPS 4 . We also studied the bio-distribution of 188 Re-labeled T 3,4 CPP and TPPS 4 in mice with transplanted liver tumor and melanoma. Other researches in porphyrins which could affect the research of radioisotope-labeled porphyrins are introduced in the end. This review could provide a reference for design of better radioisotope-labeled porphyrins. (authors)

  14. Introducing Relativity: Less May Be More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how relativity can be introduced in four stages, each building on those before it, but the teacher can choose to stop after whichever stage he/she believes the pupils are capable of tackling.

  15. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  16. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  17. Status of the indoor climate labelling scheme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    for the Indoor Climate Label, due to a growing concern about the indoor environment among architects, consulting and planning engineers and private consumers. This shows that the concept is now working as originally intended. A goal for the ICL is to develop a method for labelling of the overall indoor......The impartial Indoor Climate Labelling, ICL, originally introduced in Denmark to reduce emissions from building materials and products used in the indoor environment, is still developing and consolidating its position. The ICL benefits from an expansion of the product areas covered and a still...... environment in buildings. Work towards this goad is, however, only at its initial level....

  18. Introducing A Hybrid Data Mining Model to Evaluate Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was introducing a comprehensive model of bank customers᾽ loyalty evaluation based on the assessment and comparison of different clustering methods᾽ performance. This study also pursues the following specific objectives: a using different clustering methods and comparing them for customer classification, b finding the effective variables in determining the customer loyalty, and c using different collective classification methods to increase the modeling accuracy and comparing the results with the basic methods. Since loyal customers generate more profit, this study aims at introducing a two-step model for classification of customers and their loyalty. For this purpose, various methods of clustering such as K-medoids, X-means and K-means were used, the last of which outperformed the other two through comparing with Davis-Bouldin index. Customers were clustered by using K-means and members of these four clusters were analyzed and labeled. Then, a predictive model was run based on demographic variables of customers using various classification methods such as DT (Decision Tree, ANN (Artificial Neural Networks, NB (Naive Bayes, KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors and SVM (Support Vector Machine, as well as their bagging and boosting to predict the class of loyal customers. The results showed that the bagging-ANN was the most accurate method in predicting loyal customers. This two-stage model can be used in banks and financial institutions with similar data to identify the type of future customers.

  19. A strategy for introducing hydrogen into transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.E.; Keith, D.W.; Corbett, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable effort is being expended on research and demonstration projects aimed at introducing hydrogen into the transportation sector as a fuel, generally motivated by concerns about carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum imports (or scarcity). In this paper we focus on one aspect of strategy for introducing hydrogen--the choice of transportation mode. Our analysis suggests that cost of introducing hydrogen can be reduced by selecting a mode that uses a small number of relatively large vehicles that are operated by professional crews along a limited number of point-to-point routes or within a small geographic area. In addition, technological innovation in vehicle design will take place most quickly in modes where individual vehicles are produced to order and each receives significant engineering attention (not those manufactured in vast quantities on assembly lines). The immediate environmental benefits of introducing hydrogen fuel will occur in modes that have relatively less stringent pollution regulations applied to them. These insights, suggest that heavy-duty freight modes would be a less costly way to introduce hydrogen as a transportation fuel and a more effective way to advance hydrogen-related technologies so that they could subsequently be used more widely in light-duty vehicles

  20. Toward improved pregnancy labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Klieger, Chagit; Kazmin, Alex; Osadchy, Alla; Yazdani-Brojeni, Parvaneh; Matok, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Information about the use of a medication in pregnancy is part of overall drug labelling as prepared by the pharmaceutical company and approved by the regulators. It is aimed at assisting clinicians in prescribing, however, very few drugs are labelled for specific indications in pregnancy, since there is rarely information about the use of a drug in this condition. Recently the FDA has drafted new guidelines for the labeling of drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding, to replace the A,B,C,D,X system that was used for more than 30 years. Here we document the use of the new system through 3 different medications; each representing a different clinical situation in pregnancy--acute infection, chronic pain, and drug use during labor. Advantages and challenges in the new system are being highlighted.

  1. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  2. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  3. Chord Label Personalization through Deep Learning of Integrated Harmonic Interval-based Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, H. V.; de Haas, W. B.; Bransen, J.; Volk, A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing accuracy of automatic chord estimation systems, the availability of vast amounts of heterogeneous reference annotations, and insights from annotator subjectivity research make chord label personalization increasingly important. Nevertheless, automatic chord estimation systems are historically exclusively trained and evaluated on a single reference annotation. We introduce a first approach to automatic chord label personalization by modeling subjectivity through deep learning of a harmonic interval-based chord label representation. After integrating these representations from multiple annotators, we can accurately personalize chord labels for individual annotators from a single model and the annotators' chord label vocabulary. Furthermore, we show that chord personalization using multiple reference annotations outperforms using a single reference annotation.

  4. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  5. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  6. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques: towards miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and sample preparation are of crucial importance in an analytical procedure, representing quite often a source of errors. The technique chosen for the isolation of analytes greatly affects the success of a chemical determination. On the other hand, growing concerns about environmental and human safety, along with the introduction of international regulations for quality control, have moved the interest of scientists towards specific needs. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques are challenged to meet new criteria: (i) miniaturization, (ii) higher sensitivity and selectivity, and (iii) automation. In this survey, the most recent techniques introduced in the field of sample preparation will be described and discussed, along with many examples of applications.

  7. Introducing particle physics a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071677

    2013-01-01

    What really happens at the most fundamental levels of nature? Introducing Particle Physics explores the very frontiers of our knowledge, even showing how particle physicists are now using theory and experiment to probe our very concept of what is real. From the earliest history of the atomic theory through to supersymmetry, micro-black holes, dark matter, the Higgs boson, and the possibly mythical graviton, practising physicist and CERN contributor Tom Whyntie gives us a mind-expanding tour of cutting-edge science. Featuring brilliant illustrations from Oliver Pugh, Introducing Particle Physics is a unique tour through the most astonishing and challenging science being undertaken today.

  8. Introducing Electronic Reports. Connecting Scholarship Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Robert W.

    Designed to be a "road map," this guide introduces an approach to producing "electronic reports," documents that fuse computer-based methods with traditional research techniques. The guide emphasizes four stages--planning, inquiry, analysis, and expression. The chapter on planning discusses defining objectives, flowcharting,…

  9. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  10. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple resistance genes from American to Chinese wheat. JN Qi, X Zhang, C Yin, H Li, F Lin. Abstract. Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this ...

  11. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting...

  12. Introducing fluid dynamics using dimensional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of fluid dynamics can be introduced using dimensional analysis, combined with some basic physical principles. This approach is concise and allows exploration of both the laminar and turbulent limits—including important phenomena that are not normally dealt with when fluid dynamics...

  13. Introducing new agricultural technologies and marketing strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing new agricultural technologies and marketing strategies: A means for increasing income and nutrition of farm households in Ethiopia. ... Both the treatment of the nutritional deficits and the decision making criteria defined by farmers are expected to be useful techniques in other developing country technology ...

  14. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  15. Introduce Construction Technology through Home Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Enrique R.

    2007-01-01

    Introducing technology education students to the field of home inspection gives them a great opportunity to learn about and apply construction technology content. In working with his 8th-grade students, the author covers the purpose of a home inspection, the dynamic of home inspections, the process involved in inspecting schools and homes and…

  16. Introducing Technology Education at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are seeing a need to introduce technology education to students at the elementary level. Pennsylvania's Penn Manor School District is one of them. Pennsylvania has updated science and technology standards for grades 3-8, and after several conversations the author had with elementary principals and the assistant superintendent…

  17. Introducing Complex Systems into the Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    2008-01-01

    Children live in a highly sophisticated world composed of interlocking complex systems. An appreciation and understanding of such systems is critical for making effective decisions about everyone's lives as individuals and as community members. This article addresses one approach to introducing children of all achievement levels to introductory…

  18. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  19. The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

  20. Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J.J.; Quesada, M.A.; Randesi, M.

    1999-07-27

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector. The cloning vector has an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. 1 fig.

  1. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  2. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  3. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Dongmei; Qu Zhe; Tang Zhichang

    2004-01-01

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  4. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  5. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  6. Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary.    The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional...

  7. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  9. The challenges of introducing internal social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges associated with introducing internal social media (ISM) into organizations in order to help them reap the benefits of coworker communication on ISM. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an exploratory study in ten...... facilitators and sense-givers. Keywords Organizational communication, Internal communication, Coworker, Internal social media Paper type Research paper...

  10. Introducing the new business demography statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Grierson; Andrew Allen

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the new business demography statisticsA new National Statistics series waspublished on 28 November 2008 bythe Offi ce for National Statistics (ONS),providing data on business births,deaths and survival rates, called BusinessDemography: Enterprise Births andDeaths. The Department for Business,Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (BERR)also published its series Business start upsand closures: VAT registrations andde-registrations in 2007 on the sameday. The year 2008 is the final update t...

  11. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  12. [Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species.

  13. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  14. Spin label EPR-based characterization of biosystem complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strancar, J.; Koklic, T.; Arsov, Z.; Filipic, B.; Stopar, D.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Following the widely spread EPR spin-label applications for biosystem characterization, a novel approach is proposed for EPR-based characterization of biosystem complexity. Hereto a computational method based on a hybrid evolutionary optimization (HEO) is introduced. The enormous volume of

  15. Mild cognitive impairment: coping with an uncertain label.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recently introduced diagnostic label of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) identifies patients with a cognitive decline that is more pronounced than is usual for a person's age and educational level but does not notably interfere with activities of daily living (ADL). The natural course

  16. Labeling uncertainty in multitarget tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aoki, E.H.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Svensson, Lennart; Boers, Y.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    In multitarget tracking, the problem of track labeling (assigning labels to tracks) is an ongoing research topic. The existing literature, however, lacks an appropriate measure of uncertainty related to the assigned labels that has a sound mathematical basis as well as clear practical meaning to the

  17. Classification & Labelling Inventory: role of ECHA and notification requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schöning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The CLP Regulation introduces the criteria of the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling (UN GHS in the EU. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA manages the CLP related tasks - such as harmonised classification and labelling, handling requests for alternative names and maintaining the Classification & Labelling Inventory (C&L - to ensure consistent implementation in the EU. The obligations for industry depend on their role in the supply chain. Manufacturers and importers have to notify to ECHA the identity and classification and labelling of substances within one month of placing them on the market either on their own or in a mixture, and regardless of the quantitity. As of 3 January 2011 ECHA has received some 3.1 million notifications of over 107 000 substances. This information is stored in the C&L Inventory and accessible to Member State Competent Authorities. The non-confidential information will be made publicly available on ECHA's website in 2011.

  18. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  19. Interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labels. Comparing competing recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet; Mather, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Many stakeholders support introducing an interpretive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label, but disagree over the form it should take. In late 2012, an expert working group established by the New Zealand government recommended the adoption of an untested summary rating system: a Star label. This study used a best-worst scaling choice experiment to estimate how labels featuring the new Star rating, the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL), Daily Intake Guide (DIG), and a no-FOP control affected consumers' choice behaviours and product perceptions. Nutrient-content and health claims were included in the design. We also assessed whether respondents who used more or less information during the choice tasks differed in their selection patterns. Overall, while respondents made broadly similar choices with respect to the MTL and Star labels, the MTL format had a significantly greater impact on depressing preference as a food's nutritional profile became less healthy. Health claims increased rankings of less nutritious options, though this effect was less pronounced when the products featured an MTL. Further, respondents were best able to differentiate products' healthiness with MTL labels. The proposed summary Stars system had less effect on choice patterns than an MTL label and our findings highlight the need for policy makers to ensure that decisions to introduce FOP labels are underpinned by robust research evidence. These results suggest that the proposed summary Stars system will have less effect on shifting food choice patterns than interpretive FOP nutrition label featuring traffic light ratings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  1. Synthesis of 13C and 2H labelled retinals: spectroscopic investigations on isotopically labelled rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardoen, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop probes of the structure of chromophores, the author introduces isotopic modifications at specific chromophoric positions as structural probes. To obtain bacteriorhodopsin, rhodopsin and their photoproducts labelled in the chromophore at selected positions, bacterioopsin and opsin were reacted with the appropriate labelled a11-trans and 11-cis retinals. The author describes the synthesis of a11-trans retinal selectively 13 C labelled at different positions. The characterization of these labelled a11-trans retinals by mass spectrometry, 300 MHz 1 H NMR and 75 MHz 13 C NMR spectroscopy is given. The photochemical preparation and isolation of the pure 9-, 11- and 13-cis forms is described in the experimental part. (Auth.)

  2. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    the difficulties of building collaborations between actors with different logics. The analysis is threefold: 1. The mobilization and generation of social capital; 2. The conflict of logics/frames; 3. The frame alignment process set in motion by micro-finance The case is based on extended field research......The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  3. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  4. The Labyrinth of Time Introducing the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Modern physics has revealed the universe as a much stranger place than we could have imagined. The puzzle at the centre of our knowledge of the universe is time. Michael Lockwood takes the reader on a fascinating journey into the nature of things. He investigates philosophical questions about past, present, and future, our experience of time, and the possibility of time travel. And he provides the most careful, lively, and up-to-date introduction to the physics of time and thestructure of the universe. He guides us step by step through relativity theory and quantum physics, introducing and exp

  5. Introducing risk modeling in corporate finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castelo Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a simulation modeling in the context of a simplified capital budgeting problem. It walks the reader from creating and running a simulation in a spreadsheet environment to interpreting simulation results to gain insight and understanding about the problem. The uncertainty lies primarily in the level of sales in the first year of the project and in the growth rate of sales thereafter, manufacturing cost as a percentage of sales, and the salvage value of fixed assets. The simulation is carried out within a spreadsheet environment using @Risk.

  6. Synthesis of radioactively labelled CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots for in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Gordon M; Bauer, Christoph; Waurisch, Christian; Bargheer, Denise; Nielsen, Peter; Heeren, Jörg; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades of nanoparticles research, many nanomaterials have been developed for applications in the field of bio-labelling. For the visualization of transport processes in the body, organs and cells, luminescent quantum dots (QDs) make for highly useful diagnostic tools. However, intercellular routes, bio-distribution, metabolism during degradation or quantification of the excretion of nanoparticles, and the study of the biological response to the QDs themselves are areas which to date have not been fully investigated. In order to aid in addressing those issues, CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were radioactively labelled, which allows quantification of the QD concentration in the whole body or in ex vivo samples by γ-counting. However, the synthesis of radioactively labelled QDs is not trivial since the coating process must be completely adapted, and material availability, security and avoidance of radioactive waste must be considered. In this contribution, the coating of CdSe/CdS QDs with a radioactive (65)ZnS shell using a modified, operator-safe, SILAR procedure is presented. Under UV illumination, no difference in the photoluminescence of the radioactive and non-radioactive CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal solutions was observed. Furthermore, a down-scaled synthesis for the production of very small batches of 5 nmol QDs without loss in the fluorescence quality was developed. Subsequently, the radio-labelled QDs were phase transferred by encapsulation into an amphiphilic polymer. γ-counting of the radioactivity provided confirmation of the successful labelling and phase transfer of the QDs.

  7. Synthesis of radioactively labelled CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots for in vivo experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M. Stachowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades of nanoparticles research, many nanomaterials have been developed for applications in the field of bio-labelling. For the visualization of transport processes in the body, organs and cells, luminescent quantum dots (QDs make for highly useful diagnostic tools. However, intercellular routes, bio-distribution, metabolism during degradation or quantification of the excretion of nanoparticles, and the study of the biological response to the QDs themselves are areas which to date have not been fully investigated. In order to aid in addressing those issues, CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were radioactively labelled, which allows quantification of the QD concentration in the whole body or in ex vivo samples by γ-counting. However, the synthesis of radioactively labelled QDs is not trivial since the coating process must be completely adapted, and material availability, security and avoidance of radioactive waste must be considered. In this contribution, the coating of CdSe/CdS QDs with a radioactive 65ZnS shell using a modified, operator-safe, SILAR procedure is presented. Under UV illumination, no difference in the photoluminescence of the radioactive and non-radioactive CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal solutions was observed. Furthermore, a down-scaled synthesis for the production of very small batches of 5 nmol QDs without loss in the fluorescence quality was developed. Subsequently, the radio-labelled QDs were phase transferred by encapsulation into an amphiphilic polymer. γ-counting of the radioactivity provided confirmation of the successful labelling and phase transfer of the QDs.

  8. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  9. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  10. Are Luxury Brand Labels and “Green” Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a “green” label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status. PMID:28170399

  11. [Financial impact of introducing filmless CRT diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Yukihiro

    2002-09-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion as to the cost and benefit of introducing filmless CRT diagnosis for radiological exams. Although the various advantages of the filmless system tend to be highlighted, very few studies have attempted to provide a quantitative estimate of the degree of impact. We analyzed the potential financial impact on the cost of film management (film development, maintenance, and transportation) if CRT diagnosis were to be introduced in Seirei Hamamatsu Hospital. In conducting this analysis, we assumed that CRT diagnosis initially would be limited to CT and MR. The analysis demonstrated that the actual yearly cost of managing films amounts to about 240 million yen. As individual items, the cost of film materials, labor, and depreciation of assets were the three largest cost sectors, with the cost of film accounting for more than 30% of the total. The expense attributable to CT and MR exams was roughly half of the total cost. Against this level of expense, the expected savings in the first year after shifting to the filmless system would be 100 million yen, or a 36% reduction in current expenses. This savings reflects various effects of system change, including lack of need for related materials, reduction in staff workload, elimination of unnecessary equipment, etc. Under the simulation we conducted, 70% of savings occurred in the area of variable costs and 30% in the area of fixed costs.

  12. Evaluation of Frova, single-use intubation introducer, in a manikin. Comparison with Eschmann multiple-use introducer and Portex single-use introducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzovic, I; Latto, I P; Wilkes, A R; Hall, J E; Mapleson, W W

    2004-08-01

    In a randomised cross-over study, 48 anaesthetists attempted to place a Frova single-use introducer, an Eschmann multiple-use introducer and a Portex single-use introducer in the trachea of a manikin set up to simulate a grade 3 laryngoscopic view. The anaesthetists were blinded to success (tracheal placement) or failure (oesophageal placement). Successful placement (proportion, 95% confidence interval) of either the Frova introducer (65%, 50-77%) or the Eschmann introducer (60%, 46-73%) was significantly more likely than with the Portex introducer (8%, 3-20%). There were no significant differences between the success rates for the Frova and the Eschmann introducers. A separate experiment revealed that the peak force exerted by the Frova and Portex introducers was two to three times greater than that which could be exerted by the Eschmann introducer, p < 0.0001, indicating that the single-use introducers are more likely to cause tissue trauma during placement.

  13. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...

  14. Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Heinroth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introducing Spoken Dialogue Systems into Intelligent Environments outlines the formalisms of a novel knowledge-driven framework for spoken dialogue management and presents the implementation of a model-based Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Manager(ASDM) called OwlSpeak. The authors have identified three stakeholders that potentially influence the behavior of the ASDM: the user, the SDS, and a complex Intelligent Environment (IE) consisting of various devices, services, and task descriptions. The theoretical foundation of a working ontology-based spoken dialogue description framework, the prototype implementation of the ASDM, and the evaluation activities that are presented as part of this book contribute to the ongoing spoken dialogue research by establishing the fertile ground of model-based adaptive spoken dialogue management. This monograph is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, PhD students, and postdocs as well as academic and industrial researchers and developers in speech and multimodal interactive ...

  15. Introducing quantum theory a graphic guide

    CERN Document Server

    McEvoy, J P

    2013-01-01

    Quantum theory confronts us with bizarre paradoxes which contradict the logic of classical physics. At the subatomic level, one particle seems to know what the others are doing, and according to Heisenberg's "uncertainty principle", there is a limit on how accurately nature can be observed. And yet the theory is amazingly accurate and widely applied, explaining all of chemistry and most of physics. "Introducing Quantum Theory" takes us on a step-by-step tour with the key figures, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg and Schrodinger. Each contributed at least one crucial concept to the theory. The puzzle of the wave-particle duality is here, along with descriptions of the two questions raised against Bohr's "Copenhagen Interpretation" - the famous "dead and alive cat" and the EPR paradox. Both remain unresolved.

  16. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... being subject to work planning. Summary of work: Inspired by Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of optimal challenges, an intervention study aimed at introducing a more suitable planning of residents' learning in terms of optimal allocation of educational patient contacts. The objective was to coordinating...... residents’ individual competences and learning needs with patient characteristics in order to match each resident with a case (an outpatient or a patient) that meets the learning needs of the resident and thus pose an optimal challenge to the resident. Summary of results: The preliminary results show...

  17. Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellan Welin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788

  18. F-18 labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikecz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation the production of fluorine-18, separation of [ 18 F]fluoride, converting fluoride into fluorine as well as fluorine incorporation into organic molecules are reviewed. Reaction schemes and technology schemes are included. Towards organic reactions, with help of small molecules of the 18 F can be introduced into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Analyzing the impact of conjunctive labeling as part of a regional wine branding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have proven that place-based/regional branding methods have a positive effect on brand equity and economic benefits for companies. However, very small or specific regions may be confusing to consumers, so conjunctive labeling – or the process of advertising both a larger region and the sub-region of origin for a product – is suggested as a remedy for this situation. This study analyzes the impact of conjunctive labeling by comparing two national samples of consumers, before and two years after, conjunctive wine labeling was introduced in Sonoma County. The results show a higher awareness for both Sonoma County and its sub appellations (AVAs after conjunctive labeling was introduced than before. This demonstrates the potential benefit of associating sub-regional appellations with larger wine regions. Keywords: Regional branding, Appellations, Wine marketing, Conjunctive labeling, Place-based marketing

  20. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  1. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  2. label.switching: An R Package for Dealing with the Label Switching Problem in MCMC Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Papastamoulis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Label switching is a well-known and fundamental problem in Bayesian estimation of mixture or hidden Markov models. In case that the prior distribution of the model parameters is the same for all states, then both the likelihood and posterior distribution are invariant to permutations of the parameters. This property makes Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC samples simulated from the posterior distribution non-identifiable. In this paper, the label.switching package is introduced. It contains one probabilistic and seven deterministic relabeling algorithms in order to post-process a given MCMC sample, provided by the user. Each method returns a set of permutations that can be used to reorder the MCMC output. Then, any parametric function of interest can be inferred using the reordered MCMC sample. A set of user-defined permutations is also accepted, allowing the researcher to benchmark new relabeling methods against the available ones.

  3. Multi-Label Classification Based on Low Rank Representation for Image Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotating remote sensing images is a challenging task for its labor demanding annotation process and requirement of expert knowledge, especially when images can be annotated with multiple semantic concepts (or labels. To automatically annotate these multi-label images, we introduce an approach called Multi-Label Classification based on Low Rank Representation (MLC-LRR. MLC-LRR firstly utilizes low rank representation in the feature space of images to compute the low rank constrained coefficient matrix, then it adapts the coefficient matrix to define a feature-based graph and to capture the global relationships between images. Next, it utilizes low rank representation in the label space of labeled images to construct a semantic graph. Finally, these two graphs are exploited to train a graph-based multi-label classifier. To validate the performance of MLC-LRR against other related graph-based multi-label methods in annotating images, we conduct experiments on a public available multi-label remote sensing images (Land Cover. We perform additional experiments on five real-world multi-label image datasets to further investigate the performance of MLC-LRR. Empirical study demonstrates that MLC-LRR achieves better performance on annotating images than these comparing methods across various evaluation criteria; it also can effectively exploit global structure and label correlations of multi-label images.

  4. Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is

  5. Induction of DNA strand breaks in 14C-labelled cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundell-Bergman, S.; Johanson, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chinese hamster cells grown in vitro were labelled with 14 C-thymidine for 18 hours and after 3 hours in non-radioactive medium they were stored at 0 0 C for various periods ( 1 to 12 hours). During this treatment a number of DNA strand breaks were induced by 14 C decay which were not repaired at 0 0 C. The number of DNA strand breaks was determined using the DNA unwinding technique. At 0.5-1 dpm per cell a detectable number of DNA strand breaks were found. Treatment for six hours (1 dpm per cell) reduced the percentage of double-stranded DNA from 80 to 70%, corresponding to about 750 DNA strand breaks per cell. The rejoining of DNA strand breaks was studied after treatment for 12 hours at 0 0 C followed by incubation of the cells for various periods at 37 0 C. Most of the DNA strand breaks induced by 14 C decay at 0 0 C were repaired after incubation at 37 0 C for 15 minutes. Assuming an absorbed dose of 1.8 mGy per 14 C decay to the cell nucleus an RBE value close to 1 was found for internal irradiation from 14 C decay as compared with 60 Co-gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  7. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...... evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related...

  8. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  9. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  10. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  11. Introducing systems biology for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra A

    2009-07-01

    Systems biology expands on general systems theory as the "omics'' era rapidly progresses. Although systems biology has been institutionalized as an interdisciplinary framework in the biosciences, it is not yet apparent in nursing. This article introduces systems biology for nursing science by presenting an overview of the theory. This framework for the study of organisms from molecular to environmental levels includes iterations of computational modeling, experimentation, and theory building. Synthesis of complex biological processes as whole systems rather than isolated parts is emphasized. Pros and cons of systems biology are discussed, and relevance of systems biology to nursing is described. Nursing research involving molecular, physiological, or biobehavioral questions may be guided by and contribute to the developing science of systems biology. Nurse scientists can proactively incorporate systems biology into their investigations as a framework for advancing the interdisciplinary science of human health care. Systems biology has the potential to advance the research and practice goals of the National Institute for Nursing Research in the National Institutes of Health Roadmap initiative.

  12. Modeling and measuring intracellular fluxes of secreted recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris with a novel 34S labeling procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann Stephan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for protein production. To determine the best suitable strategy for strain improvement, especially for high secretion, quantitative data of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein are very important. Especially the balance between intracellular protein formation, degradation and secretion defines the major bottleneck of the production system. Because these parameters are different for unlimited growth (shake flask and carbon-limited growth (bioreactor conditions, they should be determined under "production like" conditions. Thus labeling procedures must be compatible with minimal production media and the usage of bioreactors. The inorganic and non-radioactive 34S labeled sodium sulfate meets both demands. Results We used a novel labeling method with the stable sulfur isotope 34S, administered as sodium sulfate, which is performed during chemostat culivations. The intra- and extracellular sulfur 32 to 34 ratios of purified recombinant protein, the antibody fragment Fab3H6, are measured by HPLC-ICP-MS. The kinetic model described here is necessary to calculate the kinetic parameters from sulfur ratios of consecutive samples as well as for sensitivity analysis. From the total amount of protein produced intracellularly (143.1 μg g-1 h-1 protein per yeast dry mass and time about 58% are degraded within the cell, 35% are secreted to the exterior and 7% are inherited to the daughter cells. Conclusions A novel 34S labeling procedure that enables in vivo quantification of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein under "production like" conditions is described. Subsequent sensitivity analysis of the fluxes by using MATLAB, indicate the most promising approaches for strain improvement towards increased secretion.

  13. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.-D.; Heller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C 16 O 18 O and 2.8 percent C 18 O 2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18 O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s -1 and 0.12s -1 for C 18 O 2 and 2.5s -1 and 0.87s -1 for C 16 O 18 O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C 18 O 2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C 16 O 18 O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C 16 O 18 O as well as by C 18 O 2 . (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helle, M.; Norris, D.G.; Rufer, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; van Osch, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique for the imaging of flow territories of individual extra- and intracranial arteries is presented. The method is based on balanced pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling but employs additional time-varying gradients in between the radiofrequency pulses of the long labeling train. The

  15. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  16. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label...... on Danish consumers' choice of ground coffee was tested in a 3 price levels × 3 levels of carbon emission × 3 certifying organizations × 2 organic labeling conditions discrete choice experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to two slightly different variants of the experiment: In one condition......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product's relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  17. Creating A More Coordinated Agro-Food System for Non-GM Grains - A Case Study of Japanese Mandatory Labeling System

    OpenAIRE

    Tachikawa, Masashi; Inoue, Sotaro; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    n August 1999, the Japanese government decided to introduce mandatory labeling for genetically modified (GM) food starting from April 2001. Under the labeling system, certain types of processed food such as oil and sweeteners from corn are exempted from labeling, since scientific verification tests detecting GMO ingredient cannot be applied persuasively. The result of the introduction of labeling system was contrary to the initial expectation of the Japanese government. That is, the shift fro...

  18. Synthesis of tritium-labeled vitamin A and its analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.W.; Bubb, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and pharmacologic studies of Vitamin A and its analogs related to the prevention of lung cancer and other epithelial cancers required tritium-labeled Vitamin A analogs and β-carotene at high specific activity. Syntheses of some of the isomers were therefore developed in the laboratory, as described in the paper. The advantages of the scheme shown are that : 1. Tritiums are introduced into the molecule by catalytic hydrogenation, thus affording high specific activity. 2. It uses an allylic rearrangement of tritiated vinyl-β-ionol to C 15 -phosphonium salt, which is condensed with C 5 -nitrile to give C 20 -skeleton of retinonitrile. 3. It permits the development of milder methods to convert tritium-labeled retinaldehyde, as a common intermediate, to the other retinoids (i.e., retinoic acid, retinol, and retinyl acetate). Furthermore, tritium-labeled all-trans-β-carotene, an important carotenoid, has been obtained from the retinaldehyde

  19. Fluorine-18 labelled building blocks for PET tracer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Born, Dion; Pees, Anna; Poot, Alex J; Orru, Romano V A; Windhorst, Albert D; Vugts, Danielle J

    2017-07-31

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important driver for present day healthcare. Fluorine-18 is the most widely used radioisotope for PET imaging and a thorough overview of the available radiochemistry methodology is a prerequisite for selection of a synthetic approach for new fluorine-18 labelled PET tracers. These PET tracers can be synthesised either by late-stage radiofluorination, introducing fluorine-18 in the last step of the synthesis, or by a building block approach (also called modular build-up approach), introducing fluorine-18 in a fast and efficient manner in a building block, which is reacted further in one or multiple reaction steps to form the PET tracer. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and application of fluorine-18 labelled building blocks since 2010.

  20. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  1. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frederick W., E-mail: frederick.w.bryan@vanderbilt.edu; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Reich, Daniel S. [Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); and Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  2. Investigation of the complexation and the migration of actinides and non-radioactive substances with humic acids under geogenic conditions. Complexation of humic acids with actinides in the oxidation state IV Th, U, Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Krepelova, A.; Mibus, J.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.

    2004-03-01

    Objective of this project was the study of basic interaction and migration processes of actinides in the environment in presence of humic acids (HA). To obtain more basic knowledge on these interaction processes synthetic HA with specific functional properties as well as 14 C-labeled HA were synthesized and applied in comparison to the natural HA Aldrich. One focus of the work was on the synthesis of HA with distinct redox functionalities. The obtained synthetic products that are characterized by significantly higher Fe(III) redox capacities than Aldrich HA were applied to study the redox properties of HA and the redox stability of U(VI) humate complexes. It was confirmed that phenolic OH groups play an important role for the redox properties of HA. However, the results indicate that there are also other processes than the single oxidation of phenolic OH groups and/or other functional groups contributing to the redox behavior of HA. A first direct-spectroscopic proof for the reduction of U(VI) by synthetic HA with distinct redox functionality was obtained. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural HA with actinides (Th, Np, Pu) was studied. Structural parameters of Pu(III), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Np(V) humates were determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results show that carboxylate groups dominate the interaction between HA and actinide ions. These are predominant monodentately bound. The influence of phenolic OH groups on the Np(V) complexation by HA was studied with modified HA (blocked phenolic OH groups). The blocking of phenolic OH groups induces a decrease of the number of maximal available complexing sites of HA, whereas complex stability constant and Np(V) near-neighbor surrounding are not affected. The effects of HA on the sorption and migration behavior of actinides was studied in batch and column experiments. Th(IV) sorption onto quartz and Np(V) sorption onto granite and its mineral constituents are affected by the pH value and the

  3. Investigation of the complexation and the migration of actinides and non-radioactive substances with humic acids under geogenic conditions. Complexation of humic acids with actinides in the ocidation state IV Th, U, Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Krepelova, A.; Mibus, J.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.

    2004-03-01

    Objective of this project was the study of basic interaction and migration processes of actinides in the environment in presence of humic acids (HA). To obtain more basic knowledge on these interaction processes synthetic HA with specific functional properties as well as {sup 14}C-labeled HA were synthesized and applied in comparison to the natural HA Aldrich. One focus of the work was on the synthesis of HA with distinct redox functionalities. The obtained synthetic products that are characterized by significantly higher Fe(III) redox capacities than Aldrich HA were applied to study the redox properties of HA and the redox stability of U(VI) humate complexes. It was confirmed that phenolic OH groups play an important role for the redox properties of HA. However, the results indicate that there are also other processes than the single oxidation of phenolic OH groups and/or other functional groups contributing to the redox behavior of HA. A first direct-spectroscopic proof for the reduction of U(VI) by synthetic HA with distinct redox functionality was obtained. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural HA with actinides (Th, Np, Pu) was studied. Structural parameters of Pu(III), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Np(V) humates were determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results show that carboxylate groups dominate the interaction between HA and actinide ions. These are predominant monodentately bound. The influence of phenolic OH groups on the Np(V) complexation by HA was studied with modified HA (blocked phenolic OH groups). The blocking of phenolic OH groups induces a decrease of the number of maximal available complexing sites of HA, whereas complex stability constant and Np(V) near-neighbor surrounding are not affected. The effects of HA on the sorption and migration behavior of actinides was studied in batch and column experiments. Th(IV) sorption onto quartz and Np(V) sorption onto granite and its mineral constituents are affected by the pH value

  4. 40 CFR 86.007-35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.007-35 Labeling. Section 86.007-35 includes text that specifies... background of the label: (A) The label heading: Important Vehicle Information; (B) Full corporate name and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.095-35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.095-35 Labeling. (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle (or... color that contrasts with the background of the label: (A) The label heading: “Important Engine...

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky Series...

  8. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  9. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  10. On Barbs and Labels in Reactive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Bonchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive systems (RSs represent a meta-framework aimed at deriving behavioral congruences for those computational formalisms whose operational semantics is provided by reduction rules. RSs proved a flexible specification device, yet so far most of the efforts dealing with their behavioural semantics focused on idem pushouts (IPOs and saturated (also known as dynamic bisimulations. In this paper we introduce a novel, intermediate behavioural equivalence: L-bisimilarity, which is able to recast both its IPO and saturated counterparts. The equivalence is parametric with respect to a set L of RSs labels, and it is shown that under mild conditions on L it is indeed a congruence. Furthermore, L-bisimilarity can also recast the notion of barbed semantics for RSs, proposed by the same authors in a previous paper. In order to provide a suitable test-bed, we instantiate our proposal by addressing the semantics of (asynchronous CCS and of the calculus of mobile ambients.

  11. Labelling nanoparticles by nanotracers and oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, F; Raccurt, O; Golanski, L; Auger, A; Liu, J; Brachet, A G; Jary, D; Vinet, F; Peponnet, C

    2009-01-01

    The rapidly developing field of nanotechnologies presents many opportunities and benefits for new materials with significantly improved properties as well as revolutionary applications in the fields of materials, energy, environment, medicine, etc. Nevertheless, this new industry can rapidly compete with microelectronics or automotive in terms of annual turnover only if the nanoproducts are well accepted by consumers. Labelling the nanoproducts as 'nanomaterials' is one of the prerequisite conditions for market acceptance. One approach consists in encouraging manufacturers to insert labels since the nanoparticles synthesis, at the last step of the production reactors, in order to give consumers useful information related to nano-fillers contained in commercial products. The first level of information could be the specification of the presence of nanoparticles in the product: a kind of tag indicating 'nanomaterials inside'. The second level of labelling could supply more complex information such as: the type of nanoparticles, the manufacturer name, the batch number, the toxicity class, etc. In European Nanosafe2 project, two main routes have been investigated: the previous one is using biomarkers based tracers. In that case the information is available thanks to conventional biological methods. The second way requests fluorescent nanotracers which are less powerful in terms of data storage but may be more resistant against chemicals, temperature, UV aggressions and could be red in a few seconds by field operational portable decoding devices. For economical reasons it is necessary to introduce a very small quantity of tracers in the nanoparticles. Nevertheless, for certain applications for which a high purity level of the nanoparticles is requested (e.g. microelectronics) this small amount can be redhibitory.

  12. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  13. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  14. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  15. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  16. Custom isotope-labelling of apis mellifera pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conanan, Aida P.; Cortes, Nicole Marie A.; Daguno, Cristel Lyn R.; Templonuevo, Jose Angelo A.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the optimum conditions for the synthesis of isotope-labelled isoamyl acetate. Esterification by alcoholysis of acetic acid was optimized for the preparation of Carbon - 14 ( 14 C)-labelled isopentyl acetate from 14 C-labelled acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol. The optimization procedure defined the effects of catalysis, reflux time, and temperature. The application of catalysis without reflux resulted to the highest yield (40%); the same condition also resulted to the highest abundance of carbon isotope label with 2.40 disintegrations per minute per cubic centimetre, DPM/cc (measurement unit for radioactivity). Determination of the beta radioactivity concentration of 14 C in the isopentyl acetate product was done using low level liquid scintillation spectrometry. Each of the synthetic constructs was mixed with Ultima Gold scintillation cocktail in a glass scintillation vial, and analysed in a low-level Wallac 1414 scintillation counter. Samples were counted for 2 hours in a chamber temperature maintained at 14 degree centegrade. The catalysed reaction without reflux was established to be the most efficient scheme for the radiolabelling. The radiolabelled isoamyl acetate can give way to the synthesis of more complex substances which can be then tracked when they are introduced to a system through the carbon isotope label. (author)

  17. Label-free high-throughput imaging flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Chen, C.; Niazi, K. R.; Rabizadeh, S.; Jalali, B.

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is an optical method for studying cells based on their individual physical and chemical characteristics. It is widely used in clinical diagnosis, medical research, and biotechnology for analysis of blood cells and other cells in suspension. Conventional flow cytometers aim a laser beam at a stream of cells and measure the elastic scattering of light at forward and side angles. They also perform single-point measurements of fluorescent emissions from labeled cells. However, many reagents used in cell labeling reduce cellular viability or change the behavior of the target cells through the activation of undesired cellular processes or inhibition of normal cellular activity. Therefore, labeled cells are not completely representative of their unaltered form nor are they fully reliable for downstream studies. To remove the requirement of cell labeling in flow cytometry, while still meeting the classification sensitivity and specificity goals, measurement of additional biophysical parameters is essential. Here, we introduce an interferometric imaging flow cytometer based on the world's fastest continuous-time camera. Our system simultaneously measures cellular size, scattering, and protein concentration as supplementary biophysical parameters for label-free cell classification. It exploits the wide bandwidth of ultrafast laser pulses to perform blur-free quantitative phase and intensity imaging at flow speeds as high as 10 meters per second and achieves nanometer-scale optical path length resolution for precise measurements of cellular protein concentration.

  18. Facile metabolic glycan labeling strategy for exosome tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Young; Zhang, Weiqi; Song, In Ho; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2018-05-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles derived from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the surrounding plasma membrane. Exosomes have various diagnostic and therapeutic potentials in cancer and other diseases, thus tracking exosomes is an important issue. Here, we report a facile exosome labeling strategy using a natural metabolic incorporation of an azido-sugar into the glycan, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. In culture, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-D-mannosamine (Ac 4 ManNAz) was spontaneously incorporated into glycans within the cells and later redistributed onto their exosomes. These azido-containing exosomes were then labeled with azadibenzylcyclooctyne (ADIBO)-fluorescent dyes by a bioorthogonal click reaction. Cellular uptake and the in vivo tracking of fluorescent labeled exosomes were evaluated in various cells and tumor bearing mice. Highly metastatic cancer-derived exosomes showed an increased self-homing in vitro and selective organ distribution in vivo. Our metabolic exosome labeling strategy could be a promising tool in studying the biology and distribution of exosomes, and optimizing exosome based therapeutic approaches. A facile and effective exosome labeling strategy was introduced by presenting azido moiety on the surface of exosome through metabolic glycan synthesis, and then conjugating a strain-promoted fluorescent dye. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic labeling and segmentation of vertebrae in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Labeling and segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image- guided interventions. State-of-the art techniques have focused either on image feature extraction or template matching for labeling of the vertebrae followed by segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi- object models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics among several anatomies. In particular, we have created models for segmentation of the lumbar spine which are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae pose+shape model and utilize it in a novel framework for labeling and segmentation of the vertebra in a CT image. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the labeling and segmentation of CT images acquired from 56 subjects. The method correctly labels all vertebrae in 70% of patients and is only one level off for the remaining 30%. The mean distance error achieved for the segmentation is 2.1 +/- 0.7 mm.

  20. Introducing new software tool : Guidelines for introducing new software tool to a team. Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Benni, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate what are the main obstacles in introducing a new software tool to an organisation and how to overcome those obstacles. If there are any definite set practices that could be used by leaders and managers, to minimise the resistance towards the change and the effects of such practices– both upon employees and the businesses or organisations. In addition,the research study aims to validate pre-existing literature and relevance of certain traits and s...

  1. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-01-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl [Tc-99m(TBI)] and cyclohexyl [Tc-99m(CHI)] analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine

  2. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  3. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Program Near You Develop Your Program City and County Sites Case Studies National Partners National ... 20% DV or more is high Visit the Smart Food Shopping page and learn how the label ...

  4. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms What does 'mechanically separated ... Top of Page ] NATURAL: A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally ...

  5. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  6. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  7. Direct no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of arenes via nucleophilic substitution on aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, T.L.

    2006-01-15

    For in vivo imaging of molecular processes via positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of high specific activity are demanded. In case of the most commonly used positron emitter fluorine-18, this is only achievable with no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, which implies nucleophilic methods of {sup 18}F-substitution. Whereas electron deficient aromatic groups can be labelled in one step using no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, electron rich {sup 18}F-labelled aromatic molecules are only available by multi-step radiosyntheses or carrier-added electrophilic reactions. Here, diaryliodonium salts represent an alternative, since they have been proven as potent precursor for a direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-introduction into aromatic molecules. Furthermore, as known from non-radioactive studies, the highly electron rich 2-thienyliodonium leaving group leads to a high regioselectivity in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Consequently, a direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of electron rich arenes via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium precursors was developed in this work. The applicability of direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-labelling was examined in a systematic study on eighteen aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts. As electron rich precursors the ortho-, meta- and para-methoxyphenyl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides, iodides, tosylates and triflates were synthesised. In addition, para-substituted (R=BnO, CH{sub 3}, H, Cl, Br, I) aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides were prepared as precursors with a systematically varying electron density. As first approach, the general reaction conditions of the nucleophilic {sup 18}F-substitution procedure were optimised. The best conditions for direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts were found with dimethylformamide as solvent, a reaction temperature of 130{+-}3 C and 25 mmol/l as concentration of the precursor. (orig.)

  8. Direct no-carrier-added 18F-labelling of arenes via nucleophilic substitution on aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    For in vivo imaging of molecular processes via positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of high specific activity are demanded. In case of the most commonly used positron emitter fluorine-18, this is only achievable with no-carrier-added [ 18 F]fluoride, which implies nucleophilic methods of 18 F-substitution. Whereas electron deficient aromatic groups can be labelled in one step using no-carrier-added [ 18 F]fluoride, electron rich 18 F-labelled aromatic molecules are only available by multi-step radiosyntheses or carrier-added electrophilic reactions. Here, diaryliodonium salts represent an alternative, since they have been proven as potent precursor for a direct nucleophilic 18 F-introduction into aromatic molecules. Furthermore, as known from non-radioactive studies, the highly electron rich 2-thienyliodonium leaving group leads to a high regioselectivity in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Consequently, a direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added 18 F-labelling of electron rich arenes via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium precursors was developed in this work. The applicability of direct nucleophilic 18 F-labelling was examined in a systematic study on eighteen aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts. As electron rich precursors the ortho-, meta- and para-methoxyphenyl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides, iodides, tosylates and triflates were synthesised. In addition, para-substituted (R=BnO, CH 3 , H, Cl, Br, I) aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides were prepared as precursors with a systematically varying electron density. As first approach, the general reaction conditions of the nucleophilic 18 F-substitution procedure were optimised. The best conditions for direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added 18 F-labelling via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts were found with dimethylformamide as solvent, a reaction temperature of 130±3 C and 25 mmol/l as concentration of the precursor. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  10. Extrinsic vs intrinsic labeling of the calcium in whole-wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C M; Heaney, R P; Martin, B R; Fitzsimmons, M L

    1992-02-01

    Fractional absorption of calcium from bread made either from intrinsically or extrinsically labeled whole-wheat flour was compared in 11 healthy adult women. The intrinsic label was provided by 45Ca injected individually into stems of wheat plants during growth. The extrinsic tag was introduced by adding 45Ca to unlabeled flour via the water used in dough making. The two labeled breads were tested in a randomized crossover design using a standardized breakfast administered after an overnight fast. Approximately 80 g labeled bread was consumed by each subject, providing a total calcium load of 13.3 mg. Fractional absorption from the intrinsically labeled bread averaged 0.812 +/- 0.130 (mean +/- SE) and from the extrinsically labeled bread 0.792 +/- 0.113. The mean difference, within subject, was only 0.025 +/- 0.016 and was not significantly different from zero. Extrinsic labeling of the calcium of whole-wheat flour results in a degree of labeling homogeneity equivalent to that of intrinsic labeling, at least for a leavened bread product.

  11. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  12. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  13. Why do consumers respond to eco-labels? The case of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung-Ah; Park, Youkyoung; Kim, Yeonbae

    2016-01-01

    Although eco-labels were introduced with the intention of encouraging eco-friendly purchasing behavior by consumers, they have had little effect on consumers' purchasing decisions, and therefore a significant gap exists between eco-label awareness and actual purchasing behavior. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer preference, in terms of public and private values, for two types of Korean eco-label that have been administered by the Korean government since 1992. Analyses were based on a structural equation model, employing the theory of reasoned action. Data were collected by survey. The results indicate that although general consumers are highly aware of the publicly valuable information that eco-labels provide, privately valuable information exerts far greater power over their purchasing intentions. Therefore, a supplementary policy that converts public value to private value could promote the purchase of eco-labeled products.

  14. Differential Isotope Labeling of Glycopeptides for Accurate Determination of Differences in Site-Specific Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Martin; Benešová, Iva; Fagerer, Stephan R; Jacobsen, Mathias; Eyer, Klaus; Schmidt, Gregor; Steinhoff, Robert; Krismer, Jasmin; Wahl, Fabian; Preisler, Jan; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-01-04

    We introduce a stable isotope labeling approach for glycopeptides that allows a specific glycosylation site in a protein to be quantitatively evaluated using mass spectrometry. Succinic anhydride is used to specifically label primary amino groups of the peptide portion of the glycopeptides. The heavy form (D4(13)C4) provides an 8 Da mass increment over the light natural form (H4(12)C4), allowing simultaneous analysis and direct comparison of two glycopeptide profiles in a single MS scan. We have optimized a protocol for an in-solution trypsin digestion, a one-pot labeling procedure, and a post-labeling solid-phase extraction to obtain purified and labeled glycopeptides. We provide the first demonstration of this approach by comparing IgG1 Fc glycopeptides from polyclonal IgG samples with respect to their galactosylation and sialylation patterns using MALDI MS and LC-ESI-MS.

  15. Long-term biodistribution study of HPMA-ran-LMA copolymers in vivo by means of131I-labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Karolin; Moderegger, Dorothea; Allmeroth, Mareli; Reibel, Achim; Kramer, Stefan; Biesalski, Barbara; Bausbacher, Nicole; Zentel, Rudolf; Thews, Oliver; Rösch, Frank

    2018-03-01

    For the evaluation of macromolecular drug delivery systems suitable pre-clinical monitoring of potential nanocarrier systems is needed. In this regard, both short-term as well as long-term in vivo tracking is crucial to understand structure-property relationships of polymer carrier systems and their resulting pharmacokinetic profile. Based on former studies revealing favorable in vivo characteristics for 18 F-labeled random (ran) copolymers consisting of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and lauryl methacrylate (LMA) - including prolonged plasma half-life as well as enhanced tumor accumulation - the presented work focuses on their long-term investigation in the living organism. In this respect, four different HPMA-based polymers (homopolymers as well as random copolymers with LMA as hydrophobic segment) were synthesized and subsequent radioactive labeling was accomplished via the longer-lived radioisotope 131 I. In vivo results, concentrating on the pharmacokinetics of a high molecular weight HPMA-ran-LMA copolymer, were obtained by means of biodistribution and metabolism studies in the Walker 256 mammary carcinoma model over a time-span of up to three days. Besides, a direct comparison with the 18 F-radiolabeled polymer was drawn. To consider physico-chemical differences between the differently labeled polymer ( 18 F or 131 I) on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the size of the polymeric micelles, those properties were determined using the 19 F- or 127 I-functionalized polymer. Special emphasis was laid on the time-dependent correlation between blood circulation properties and corresponding tumor accumulation, particularly regarding the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Studies revealed, at first, differences in the short time (2h) body distribution, despite the very similar properties (molecular structure, CMC and size of the micellar aggregates) of the non-radioactive 19 F- and 127 I-functionalized polymers. Long

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Facts and Myths How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  17. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  18. 78 FR 8362 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... the label's technical efficiency rating terms (e.g., SEER) should appear in a more prominent fashion... appearance of two different maps on the same label. For central air-conditioner models that do not meet the... proposed label placement requirements. For example, ACCA asserted that the label's appearance on packaging...

  19. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b) The...

  20. 7 CFR 70.45 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 70.45 Section 70.45 Agriculture... Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded” and “Federal-State Graded” or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any product without stating in the labeling or advertisement the...

  1. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  2. Recoil labelling of fluorine-18 labelled chlorofluoromethanes and tetrafluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    18 F recoil labelling of trichlorofluoro-, dichlorodifluoro-, chlorotrifluoro- and tetrafluoromethane has been investigated. Mixtures of an appropriate substrate (0.3-2%) in neon were bombared with 14 MeV deuterons ( 20 Ne(d, α) 18 F reaction). All the above compounds were labelled in high activities by this technique. When tetrachloromethane was the substrate the major product was 18 F-trichlorofluoromethane (approximately 95% of total gaseous activity). 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane was the major product (approximately 60 and approximately 70% respectively) when either trichlorofluoromethane or dichlorodifluoromethane was the substrate. The use of chlorotrifluoromethane as substrate produced 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane and 18 F-tetrafluoromethane in significant amounts in addition to 18 F-chlorotrifluoromethane (approximately 40%). Bombardment of mixtures of tetrafluoromethane in neon produced 18 F-tetrafluoromethane (approximately 80%) together with other 18 F-labelled gaseous products. The targetry and irradiation conditions are described. the volatile products were analysed by radio-gas chromatography. (author)

  3. Evaluation of students' opinion regarding food labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Budrytė, Indrė

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of Students' Opinion Regarding Food Labelling. Food labeling is one of the main information sources that helps to improve consumers eating habits and maintain health. The aim of research: To evaluate Vilnius University Medicine and Economics faculties students’ opinion regarding food labelling and its impact to their food products choice. Tasks: 1) to evaluate students’ opinion regarding food labelling; 2) to evaluate students’ opinion regarding food labelling depending on the soci...

  4. Cytotoxic effects of 125I-labeled PBZr ligand PK 11195 in prostatic tumor cells: therapeutic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenfall, J.; Kant, R.; Batra, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of [ 125 I]PK 11195 was examined in human prostatic tumor cells (DU 145) in culture and compared with Na[ 125 I] and non-radioactive PK 11195. [ 125 I]PK 11195 was clearly cytocidal. The data for dose-related cell survival with [ 125 I]PK 11195 showed a linear relationship. Na[ 125 I] or non-labeled PK 11195 at similar concentrations did not lead to any cell killing. The uptake of [ 125 I]PK 11195 and [ 3 H]PK 11195 in cells was very similar. Fragmentation of DNA measured by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that exposure of DU 145 cells to [ 125 I]PK 11195 for 1, 4 or 24 h caused no fragmentation. These results indicate that nuclear DNA is not the prime binding site for [ 125 I]PK 11195, which is consistent with the presence of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBZr) in the mitochondria. The cell killing effect of [ 125 I]PK 11195 suggests the use of PBZr ligand for radiotherapy

  5. Label-free drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye eFang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug discovery is dominated by label-dependent molecular approaches, which screen drugs in the context of a predefined and target-based hypothesis in vitro. Given that target-based discovery has not transformed the industry, phenotypic screen that identifies drugs based on a specific phenotype of cells, tissues, or animals has gained renewed interest. However, owing to the intrinsic complexity in drug-target interactions, there is often a significant gap between the phenotype screened and the ultimate molecular mechanism of action sought. This paper presents a label-free strategy for early drug discovery. This strategy combines label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches, and holds promise to bridge the gap by offering a kinetic and holistic representation of the functional consequences of drugs in disease relevant cells that is amenable to mechanistic deconvolution.

  6. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent......Venous blood sampling (phlebotomy) is the most common invasive procedure performed in patient care. Guidelines on the correct practice of phlebotomy are available, including the H3-A6 guideline issued by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). As the quality of practices and procedures...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...

  7. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  8. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  9. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  10. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  11. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  12. Biological and communication skills needed for introduced fish biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    What skills and knowledge will a new graduate seeking employment need to work with introduced fishes? Clearly, success in introduced species management—similar to other disciplines in fisheries—requires a mixture of scientific and communication skills. However, specific abilities especially important to a biologist who manages introduced fishes should be highlighted. Unlike most other management strategies, stocking an introduced species can result in unintended and irreversible impacts, so particular care must be employed when stocking is considered. Furthermore, fish populations in areas outside of the introduced species management area might also be affected, usually negatively, if the introduced fish escapes. Therefore, rock-solid knowledge of basic aquatic ecology, including risk management; fish taxonomy (so the wrong fish species is not mistakenly stocked!); familiarity with human values of both the time and the place (which requires communication skills); and a strong understanding of human history are all important.

  13. [Metabolism of labeled exogenous glucose in fiber flax tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G; Khamidullina, L A

    2005-01-01

    A labeled glucose solution was introduced into cut fiber flax plants (45-50 cm high) using a special unit under a pressure of 0.1 atm for 30 min, 1, and 2 h. The highest quantities of labeled carbon were revealed in the woody tissue. Sucrose made up a considerable proportion in low molecular weight products of [ [2-14C]-glucose transformation (23.5%). Metabolism of labeled glucose in the leaves exposed to sunlight yielded a set of metabolites similar to products of 14CO2 photoassimilation. In the shade, the pattern of 14C distribution in labeled compounds of the water/alcohol soluble fraction remained similar in mature leaves, while in juvenile leaves, 14C content decreased in sucrose and increased in organic and amino acids. In the shade, the incorporation of 14C into starch and hot water soluble polysaccharides increased at the expense of the acetone fraction (lipids and pigments), water/salt soluble proteins, and cellulose. Low light conditions increased the radioactivity ratio of sparingly soluble (KOH and Triton X-100 soluble) proteins to albumins and globulins. We propose that the synthesis of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in juvenile leaves is directly powered by photosynthesis and the photosynthesis of glucose and the polymers compete for ATP energy. Appearance of sucrose in the woody tissue is due to its release from the phloem to the stem apoplast and the radial transfer to the xylem, where it is transported to the upper shoot with the transpiration flow.

  14. NUTIRTION LABELLING OF FOOD AND ALLERGEN IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation introduced mandatory nutrition labelling and ordering food manufacturers provide information on energy and six nutrients: fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt - in that order, and per 100 g or 100 ml. This information should be included in the nutritional table in one visual field (usually on the back cover, moreover, can also be expressed on per serving. It is important to realize that this regulation requires manufacturers indicate the nutritional value in one field of vision, usually on the "back cover" designation in the principal field (e.g. "on the front cover" remains voluntary. Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labelling of ‘‘priority allergens. Increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labelling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.doi:10.5219/230

  15. The introduction of tritium label into natural and modified prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Bezuglov, V.V.; Nagayev, I.Y.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the role of the nature of both heterogeneous catalysts and the solvent on the reduction selectively of 5,6-double bonds showed that the largest yield could be obtained by using the Lindlar catalyst and ethyl acetate. The use of different isotopes of hydrogen in the protium-deuterium-tritium series markedly decreased the hydrogenation reaction rate, but the selectivity of the process practically remained unaltered. Homogeneous catalysts were also used in the production of natural tritium-labelled prostaglandins and of their fluorine and deoxy analogues. The label was introduced by selective hydrogenation in the presence of (Ph 3 P) 3 RhCl and dioxane as solvent. Different ways have been studied of tritium-label introduction into prostaglandins modified at the carboxyl group. The synthesis of similar preparations was performed either by selective dehalogenation in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts treated with quinoline or triethylamine, or by condensation of prostaglandins at the carboxyl group by tritium-labelled amino acid. (author). 4 refs.; 1 fig

  16. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  17. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  18. Multi-Label Classification by Semi-Supervised Singular Value Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liping; Shen, Chenyang; Yang, Liu; Yu, Jian; Ng, Michael K

    2017-10-01

    Multi-label problems arise in various domains, including automatic multimedia data categorization, and have generated significant interest in computer vision and machine learning community. However, existing methods do not adequately address two key challenges: exploiting correlations between labels and making up for the lack of labelled data or even missing labelled data. In this paper, we proposed to use a semi-supervised singular value decomposition (SVD) to handle these two challenges. The proposed model takes advantage of the nuclear norm regularization on the SVD to effectively capture the label correlations. Meanwhile, it introduces manifold regularization on mapping to capture the intrinsic structure among data, which provides a good way to reduce the required labelled data with improving the classification performance. Furthermore, we designed an efficient algorithm to solve the proposed model based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, and thus, it can efficiently deal with large-scale data sets. Experimental results for synthetic and real-world multimedia data sets demonstrate that the proposed method can exploit the label correlations and obtain promising and better label prediction results than the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. RosettaEPR: rotamer library for spin label structure and dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Alexander

    Full Text Available An increasingly used parameter in structural biology is the measurement of distances between spin labels bound to a protein. One limitation to these measurements is the unknown position of the spin label relative to the protein backbone. To overcome this drawback, we introduce a rotamer library of the methanethiosulfonate spin label (MTSSL into the protein modeling program Rosetta. Spin label rotamers were derived from conformations observed in crystal structures of spin labeled T4 lysozyme and previously published molecular dynamics simulations. Rosetta's ability to accurately recover spin label conformations and EPR measured distance distributions was evaluated against 19 experimentally determined MTSSL labeled structures of T4 lysozyme and the membrane protein LeuT and 73 distance distributions from T4 lysozyme and the membrane protein MsbA. For a site in the core of T4 lysozyme, the correct spin label conformation (Χ1 and Χ2 is recovered in 99.8% of trials. In surface positions 53% of the trajectories agree with crystallized conformations in Χ1 and Χ2. This level of recovery is on par with Rosetta performance for the 20 natural amino acids. In addition, Rosetta predicts the distance between two spin labels with a mean error of 4.4 Å. The width of the experimental distance distribution, which reflects the flexibility of the two spin labels, is predicted with a mean error of 1.3 Å. RosettaEPR makes full-atom spin label modeling available to a wide scientific community in conjunction with the powerful suite of modeling methods within Rosetta.

  20. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  1. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... need from every group? How did you do? What recommendations can you make? Eating a healthy diet doesn't mean giving up your favorite foods. Just balance your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the ...

  2. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  3. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  4. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  5. Symmetry in labeled transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. van Langevelde

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSymmetry is defined for labeled transition systems, and it is shown how symmetrical systems can be symmetrically decomposed into components. The central question is under what conditions one such component may represent the whole system, in the sense that one symmetrical system is

  6. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  7. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R 1 positions and OCH 3 at R 2 position to the same effect of FET. Herein, we wish

  8. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background  European Council resolutions on tattoo ink introduce sterility and preservation of inks to protect customers. Inks used in Denmark are typically purchased over the internet from international suppliers and manufacturers from the US and the UK. In Denmark tattoo inks are regulated...... and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. Objective  The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Methods  Physical...... a maximum period of durability of typically 2-3 years. The physical sealing was leaking in 28% of the products. Conclusions  The European Council resolutions regarding safety of tattoo inks are not effective. Stock bottles of tattoo ink may contain bacteria pathogenic to humans and environmental bacteria...

  9. Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…

  10. Introducing Engineering Design through an Intelligent Rube Goldberg Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sushil; Sirinterlikci, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Engineering students need a head start on designing a component, a process, or a system early in their educational endeavors, and engineering design topics need to be introduced appropriately without negatively affecting students' motivation for engineering. In ENGR1010 at Robert Morris University, freshmen engineering students are introduced to…

  11. Einstein was here: Introducing relativistic chemistry in a basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presented work reports a study performed to introduce relativistic chemistry in basic (introductory) college chemistry classrooms. The study involved fifty students. It was verified that exploring the previous (high school) knowledge on special relativity, and introducing a simple equation, it is possible to explain the ...

  12. Non-Radioactive Detection of Trinucleotide Repeat Size Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé, Stéphanie; Nicole, Annie; Gomes-Pereira, Mario; Gourdon, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are associated with the abnormal expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeat sequences. The mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat size mutation have not been fully dissected, and their understanding must be grounded on the detailed analysis of repeat size distributions in human tissues and animal models. Small-pool PCR (SP-PCR) is a robust, highly sensitive and efficient PCR-based approach to assess the levels of repeat size variation, providing both quantitative and qualitati...

  13. Management of Conventional Wastes (Non Radioactive) in Spanish Landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Pena, J. M.; Ramos, J. L.; Millan, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the result of a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA. The goal of the report is to analyze the existing legislation on solid conventional waste, according to the European Community, the Spanish State and its Autonomous Communities, focusing on the latest regulation applicable to the final management in controlled landfills. In addition, information about the legal frame, production, composition and characteristics of conventional waste (i.e. urban, inert, dangerous industrial and non dangerous industrial) is given. Also, the final management that is carried out nowadays in Spain for each of the waste is analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the fulfilment of the in force regulation by the different types of Spanish controlled landfills is evaluated. (Author) 52 refs.

  14. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-03-08

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uptake of cobalt-60 from sea water and from labelled food by the common shrimp Crangon erangon (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van

    1975-01-01

    The role of two different modes of uptake in the accumulation of 60 Co by the common shrimp (Crangon crangon (L.)) is the subject of the present study. The results show that accumulation of 60 Co from sea water is a slow process. The concentration factor for whole animals reached in one month was only about 13. Most of the activity accumulated from water appears to be associated with the exoskeleton. As a consequence, moulting has a pronounced effect on the uptake pattern of 60 Co and on the subsequent retention of the radionuclide by shrimps kept in non-radioactive sea water. After single feeding of shrimps with labelled mussel flesh, 60 Co is retained according to an exponential function with a short-lived and a long-lived component. The short-lived component has a mean biological half-life of 1.2 days and accounts for about 80% of the initial activity. About 20% of the initial activity is lost with a mean biological half-life of about 10 days. After repeated feeding of labelled mussel flesh the short-lived component in the 60 Co retention is virtually absent. Cobalt-60 taken up with food is localized mainly in the digestive gland and the concentration in the edible muscles from the abdomen is relatively small. It is concluded from the present study that direct uptake from sea water will play only a minor role in the accumulation of 60 Co in the internal organs of the shrimp. 60 Co released into the marine environment will be taken up by shrimps mainly from food. The results indicate a rapid turnover of 60 Co in shrimps. (author)

  16. Supernova: A Versatile Vector System for Single-Cell Labeling and Gene Function Studies in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Mizuno, Hidenobu; Iwata, Ryohei; Nakazawa, Shingo; Yasuda, Kosuke; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Iwasato, Takuji

    2016-10-24

    Here we describe "Supernova" series of vector systems that enable single-cell labeling and labeled cell-specific gene manipulation, when introduced by in utero electroporation (IUE) or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery. In Supernova, sparse labeling relies on low TRE leakage. In a small population of cells with over-threshold leakage, initial tTA-independent weak expression is enhanced by tTA/TRE-positive feedback along with a site-specific recombination system (e.g., Cre/loxP, Flpe/FRT). Sparse and bright labeling by Supernova with little background enables the visualization of the morphological details of individual neurons in densely packed brain areas such as the cortex and hippocampus, both during development and in adulthood. Sparseness levels are adjustable. Labeled cell-specific gene knockout was accomplished by introducing Cre/loxP-based Supernova vectors into floxed mice. Furthermore, by combining with RNAi, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, IUE-based Supernova achieved labeled cell-specific gene knockdown and editing/knockout without requiring genetically altered mice. Thus, Supernova system is highly extensible and widely applicable for single-cell analyses in complex organs, such as the mammalian brain.

  17. Representativeness in corpora of literary texts: introducing the C18P project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemeinböck, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are very few specialised corpora of literary texts that are tailored to the needs of literary critics who are interested in corpus stylistic analyses of prose fiction. Many existing corpora including literary texts were compiled for linguistic research interests and are often unsuitable for corpus stylistic purposes. The paper addresses three of the main problems: the absence of labelling of the texts for literary genre, the use of extracts, and the prevalence of linguistic periodisation schemes. C18P is a corpus of prose fiction designed specifically to address these issues. It traces the early development of the novel from 1700 up until the Victorian era. It can, for instance, be used for an analysis of the characteristic linguistic features of individual literary genres and forms. The following paper introduces the design of the corpus as well as some of its potential uses.

  18. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  20. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  2. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  3. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but they' ... Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View more Partner Message About Us ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print ...

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of isotopically labelled purine deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank-Kamenetskaya, M.D.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1992-01-01

    An enzymatic method is described which makes it possible to synthesize labelled purine deoxyribonucleotides from corresponding labelled purine ribonucleotides using the RDP-reductase system of ether-treated E. coli E125 cells. (Author)

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...

  9. Chemoenzymatic Reversible Immobilization and Labeling of Proteins without Prior Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Song, James M.; Pricer, Rachel E.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific chemical modification of proteins is important for many applications in biology and biotechnology. Recently, our laboratory and others have exploited the high specificity of the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) to site-specifically modify proteins through the use of alternative substrates that incorporate bioorthogonal functionality including azides and alkynes. In this study, we evaluate two aldehyde-containing molecules as substrates for PFTase and as reactants in both oxime and hydrazone formation. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model system, we demonstrate that the purified protein can be enzymatically modified with either analogue to yield aldehyde-functionalized proteins. Oxime or hydrazone formation was then employed to immobilize, fluorescently label or PEGylate the resulting aldehyde-containing proteins. Immobilization via hydrazone formation was also shown to be reversible via transoximization with a fluorescent alkoxyamine. After characterizing this labeling strategy using pure protein, the specificity of the enzymatic process was used to selectively label GFP present in crude E. coli extract followed by capture of the aldehyde-modified protein using hydrazide-agarose. Subsequent incubation of the immobilized protein using a fluorescently labeled or PEGylated alkoxyamine resulted in the release of pure GFP containing the desired site-specific covalent modifications. This procedure was also employed to produce PEGylated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a protein with potential therapeutic activity for diabetes. Given the specificity of the PFTase-catalyzed reaction coupled with the ability to introduce a CAAX-box recognition sequence onto almost any protein, this method shows great potential as a general approach for the selective immobilization and labeling of recombinant proteins present in crude cellular extract without prior purification. Beyond generating site-specifically modified proteins

  10. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Vehicle... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Regulations for Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1606 Labeling. (a) The manufacturer shall make...

  11. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  12. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling. 61.57 Section 61.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to...

  13. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  14. 7 CFR 56.73 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 56.73 Section 56.73 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Denial of Service § 56.73 Misleading labeling. The use of the terms “Government Graded”, “Federal-State Graded”, or terms of similar import in the labeling or advertising of any...

  15. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  16. Learning foreign labels from a foreign speaker: the role of (limited) exposure to a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nameera; Menjivar, Jennifer; Hoicka, Elena; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Three- and four-year-olds (N = 144) were introduced to novel labels by an English speaker and a foreign speaker (of Nordish, a made-up language), and were asked to endorse one of the speaker's labels. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared to bilingual children and English-speaking children who were regularly exposed to a language other than English. All children tended to endorse the English speaker's labels when asked 'What do you call this?', but when asked 'What do you call this in Nordish?', children with exposure to a second language were more likely to endorse the foreign label than monolingual and bilingual children. The findings suggest that, at this age, exposure to, but not necessarily immersion in, more than one language may promote the ability to learn foreign words from a foreign speaker.

  17. Diolistic labeling of neuronal cultures and intact tissue using a hand-held gene gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2006-01-01

    Diolistic labeling is a highly efficient method for introducing dyes into cells using biolistic techniques. The use of lipophilic carbocyanine dyes, combined with particle-mediated biolistic delivery using a hand-held gene gun, allows non-toxic labeling of multiple cells in both living and fixed tissue. The technique is rapid (labeled cells can be visualized in minutes) and technically undemanding. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for diolistic labeling of cultured human embryonic kidney 293 cells and whole brain using a hand-held gene gun. There are four major steps: (i) coating gold microcarriers with one or more dyes; (ii) transferring the microcarriers into a cartridge to make a bullet; (iii) preparation of cells or intact tissue; and (iv) firing the microcarriers into cells or tissue. The method can be readily adapted to other cell types and tissues. This protocol can be completed in less than 1 h.

  18. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  19. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  20. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  1. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  3. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  5. Green fluorescent protein labeling of Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for safety-related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-04-04

    Many food safety-related studies require tracking of introduced foodborne pathogens to monitor their fate in complex environments. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (gfp) provides an easily detectable phenotype so has been used to label many microorganisms for ecological studies. The objectives of this study were to label major foodborne pathogens and related bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, with GFP and characterize the labeled strains for stability of the GFP plasmid and the plasmid's effect on bacterial growth. GFP plasmids were introduced into these strains by a CaCl(2) procedure, conjugation or electroporation. Stability of the label was determined through sequential propagation of labeled strains in the absence of selective pressure, and rates of plasmid-loss were calculated. Stability of the GFP plasmid varied among the labeled species and strains, with the most stable GFP label observed in E. coli O157:H7. When grown in nonselective media for two consecutive subcultures (ca. 20 generations), the rates of plasmid loss among labeled E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains ranged from 0%-30%, 15.8%-99.9% and 8.1%-93.4%, respectively. Complete loss (>99.99%) of the plasmid occurred in some labeled strains after five consecutive subcultures in the absence of selective pressure, whereas it remained stable in others. The GFP plasmid had an insignificant effect on growth of most labeled strains. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains can be effectively labeled with the GFP plasmid which can be stable in some isolates for many generations without adversely affecting growth rates.

  6. Green fluorescent protein labeling of Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for safety-related studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Many food safety-related studies require tracking of introduced foodborne pathogens to monitor their fate in complex environments. The green fluorescent protein (GFP gene (gfp provides an easily detectable phenotype so has been used to label many microorganisms for ecological studies. The objectives of this study were to label major foodborne pathogens and related bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, with GFP and characterize the labeled strains for stability of the GFP plasmid and the plasmid's effect on bacterial growth. GFP plasmids were introduced into these strains by a CaCl(2 procedure, conjugation or electroporation. Stability of the label was determined through sequential propagation of labeled strains in the absence of selective pressure, and rates of plasmid-loss were calculated. Stability of the GFP plasmid varied among the labeled species and strains, with the most stable GFP label observed in E. coli O157:H7. When grown in nonselective media for two consecutive subcultures (ca. 20 generations, the rates of plasmid loss among labeled E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains ranged from 0%-30%, 15.8%-99.9% and 8.1%-93.4%, respectively. Complete loss (>99.99% of the plasmid occurred in some labeled strains after five consecutive subcultures in the absence of selective pressure, whereas it remained stable in others. The GFP plasmid had an insignificant effect on growth of most labeled strains. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains can be effectively labeled with the GFP plasmid which can be stable in some isolates for many generations without adversely affecting growth rates.

  7. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Xaq

    2017-04-01

    This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

  8. Organisational readiness for introducing a performance management system

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ochurub; Mark Bussin; Xenia Goosen

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: The successful introduction of performance management systems to the public service requires careful measurement of readiness for change. Research purpose: This study investigated the extent to which employees were ready for change as an indication of whether their organisation was ready to introduce a performance management system (PMS).Motivation for the study: Introducing system changes in organisations depends on positive employee preconditions. There is some debate over w...

  9. Organisational readiness for introducing a performance management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ochurub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The successful introduction of performance management systems to the public service requires careful measurement of readiness for change.Research purpose: This study investigated the extent to which employees were ready for change as an indication of whether their organisation was ready to introduce a performance management system (PMS.Motivation for the study: Introducing system changes in organisations depends on positive employee preconditions. There is some debate over whether organisations can facilitate these preconditions. This research investigates change readiness linked to the introduction of a PMS in a public sector organisation. The results add to the growing literature on levels of change readiness.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a quantitative, questionnairebased design. Because the organisation was large, the researchers used stratified sampling to select a sample from each population stratum. The sample size was 460, which constituted 26% of the total population. They used a South African change readiness questionnaire to elicit employee perceptions and opinions.Main findings: The researchers found that the organisation was not ready to introduce a PMS. The study identified various challenges and key factors that were negatively affecting the introduction of a PMS.Practical/managerial implications: The intention to develop and introduce performance management systems is generally to change the attitudes, values and approaches of managers and employees to the new strategies, processes and plans to improve productivity and performance. However, pre-existing conditions and attitudes could have an effect. It is essential to ensure that organisations are ready to introduce performance management systems and to provide sound change leadership to drive the process effectively. This study contributes to the body of knowledge about the challenges and factors organisations should consider when they

  10. Organisational readiness for introducing a performance management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ochurub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The successful introduction of performance management systems to the public service requires careful measurement of readiness for change. Research purpose: This study investigated the extent to which employees were ready for change as an indication of whether their organisation was ready to introduce a performance management system (PMS. Motivation for the study: Introducing system changes in organisations depends on positive employee preconditions. There is some debate over whether organisations can facilitate these preconditions. This research investigates change readiness linked to the introduction of a PMS in a public sector organisation. The results add to the growing literature on levels of change readiness. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a quantitative, questionnairebased design. Because the organisation was large, the researchers used stratified sampling to select a sample from each population stratum. The sample size was 460, which constituted 26% of the total population. They used a South African change readiness questionnaire to elicit employee perceptions and opinions. Main findings: The researchers found that the organisation was not ready to introduce a PMS. The study identified various challenges and key factors that were negatively affecting the introduction of a PMS. Practical/managerial implications: The intention to develop and introduce performance management systems is generally to change the attitudes, values and approaches of managers and employees to the new strategies, processes and plans to improve productivity and performance. However, pre-existing conditions and attitudes could have an effect. It is essential to ensure that organisations are ready to introduce performance management systems and to provide sound change leadership to drive the process effectively. This study contributes to the body of knowledge about the challenges and factors organisations should consider when

  11. Robust Subjective Visual Property Prediction from Crowdsourced Pairwise Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Xiong, Jiechao; Gong, Shaogang; Wang, Yizhou; Yao, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The problem of estimating subjective visual properties from image and video has attracted increasing interest. A subjective visual property is useful either on its own (e.g. image and video interestingness) or as an intermediate representation for visual recognition (e.g. a relative attribute). Due to its ambiguous nature, annotating the value of a subjective visual property for learning a prediction model is challenging. To make the annotation more reliable, recent studies employ crowdsourcing tools to collect pairwise comparison labels. However, using crowdsourced data also introduces outliers. Existing methods rely on majority voting to prune the annotation outliers/errors. They thus require a large amount of pairwise labels to be collected. More importantly as a local outlier detection method, majority voting is ineffective in identifying outliers that can cause global ranking inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a more principled way to identify annotation outliers by formulating the subjective visual property prediction task as a unified robust learning to rank problem, tackling both the outlier detection and learning to rank jointly. This differs from existing methods in that (1) the proposed method integrates local pairwise comparison labels together to minimise a cost that corresponds to global inconsistency of ranking order, and (2) the outlier detection and learning to rank problems are solved jointly. This not only leads to better detection of annotation outliers but also enables learning with extremely sparse annotations.

  12. Semi-Supervised Learning Through Label Propagation on Geodesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Du, Liang; Chen, Liang; Tao, Dacheng

    2018-05-01

    Graph-based semi-supervised learning (SSL) has attracted great attention over the past decade. However, there are still several open problems in this paper, including: 1) how to construct an effective graph over data with complex distribution and 2) how to define and effectively use pair-wise similarity for robust label propagation. In this paper, we utilize a simple and effective graph construction method to construct the graph over data lying on multiple data manifolds. The method can guarantee the connectiveness between pair-wise data points. Then, the global pair-wise data similarity is naturally characterized by geodesic distance-based joint probability, where the geodesic distance is approximated by the graph distance. The new data similarity is much more effective than previous Euclidean distance-based similarities. To apply data structure for robust label propagation, Kullback-Leibler divergence is utilized to measure the inconsistency between the input pair-wise similarity and the output similarity. In order to further consider intraclass and interclass variances, a novel regularization term on sample-wise margins is introduced to the objective function. This enables the proposed method fully utilizes the input data structure and the label information for classification. An efficient optimization method and the convergence analysis have been proposed for our problem. Besides, out-of-sample extension is discussed and addressed. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art SSL methods on image classification tasks have been presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. The preparation of 125I labelled sodium polystyrene sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Williams, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    A radio-labelled polymeric colloid for use in field studies of colloidal migration was prepared. Sodium polystyrene p-sulphonate (PSSNa) with an average molecular weight of 500,000 Daltons was labelled with iodine 125. The report describes the preparation, purification and characterisation of this material. In order to use a standard technique for radio-iodination, by the iodinium ion, a very small number of phenolic groups had to be introduced into the polymer initially. This was done by a carefully controlled reaction with sodium hydroxide optimised so that a qualitative test for p-phenols gave a discernible positive result yet size exclusion chromatography indicated that no noticeable change in bulk properties of the PSSNa had occurred. The modified PSSNa was radio-iodinated and size exclusion chromatography was used to quantify the yield, activity and stability of the product. The radio-iodination of a bulk sample of the modified PSSNa was entrusted to Amersham who prepared a labelled product with an activity of 1.12 MBq per mg PSSNa. The mobility of this material was studied in the laboratory using spike injections onto columns of Drigg sand, sieved and unsieved, eluted with Drigg groundwater. The results indicated that transport of PSSNa in the field should give information on the structure of flow paths in the Drigg aquifer. (Author)

  14. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  15. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  16. Polycationic nanoparticles: (1) synthesis of a polylysine-MION conjugate and its application in labeling fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Ernest V; Yang, Meiheng; Reinhardt, Christopher P; Weinberg, James S; Vaccaro, Dennis E

    2009-03-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used to label cells to track them by imaging or to quantify them in vivo. However, normal cellular uptake mechanisms are inadequate to load cells with tracking label. We propose a simple method to coat nanoparticles, such as monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle (MION), with the transfection agent polylysine in order to facilitate rapid, uniform, and heavy labeling of fibroblasts. The method is based on commercially available reagents, requires no more than 1 h of laboratory contact time, and can be accomplished safely without a chemical hood. A suspension of MION was treated by addition of solid sodium periodate to oxidize glucose residues of dextran and introduced aldehyde groups to the dextran coat surrounding MION's crystalline magnetite core. After a 30-min incubation to effect oxidation, unreacted periodate was quenched with glycerol. The preparation was dialyzed to remove reactants and diluted to a final concentration of 2 mg Fe/ml. Poly-L-lysine was added to the oxidized MION (MION-A) to form reversible covalent Schiff base linkages. The resulting conjugate, a polylysine iron oxide nano-particle is abbreviated PLION. NIH3T3 fibroblasts labeled with either MION, MION-A, or MION plus polylysine showed minimal uptake of iron while cells labeled with PLION acquired a brown hue demonstrating strong labeling with iron. Microscopic assessment of iron labeling was confirmed using Prussian blue staining. In some cells, the concentration of iron was sufficiently high and localized to suggest association with cytoplasmic vacuoles. The nucleus of the cell was not labeled. Cell labeling increased when the ratio of polylysine to MION increased and with increasing amount of PLION.

  17. Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Invasive and introduced reptiles and amphibians: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Mader, Douglas R.; Divers, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Why is there a section on introduced amphibians and reptiles in this volume, and why should veterinarians care about this issue? Globally, invasive species are a major threat to the stability of native ecosystems,1,2 and amphibians and reptiles are attracting increased attention as potential invaders. Some introduced amphibians and reptiles have had a major impact (e.g., Brown Tree Snakes [Boiga irregularis] wiping out the native birds of Guam3 or Cane Toads [Rhinella marina] poisoning native Australian predators).4 For the vast majority of species, however, the ecological, economic, and sociopolitical effects of introduced amphibians and reptiles are generally poorly quantified, largely because of a lack of focused research effort rather than because such effects are nonexistent. This trend is alarming given that rates of introduction have increased exponentially in recent decades.

  19. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18 F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18 F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18 F in the released and intracellular components of 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18 F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18 F was released as the form of 18 F-FDG from 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18 F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18 F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  20. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  1. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  2. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  3. Projective limits of state spaces IV. Fractal label sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski (1977) to represent quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces (see Lanéry (2016) [1] for a concise introduction to this formalism). One can thus bypass the need to select a vacuum state for the theory, and still be provided with an explicit and constructive description of the quantum state space, at least as long as the label set indexing the projective structure is countable. Because uncountable label sets are much less practical in this context, we develop in the present article a general procedure to trim an originally uncountable label set down to countable cardinality. In particular, we investigate how to perform this tightening of the label set in a way that preserves both the physical content of the algebra of observables and its symmetries. This work is notably motivated by applications to the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity. Building on earlier work by Okołów (2013), a projective state space was introduced for this algebra in Lanéry and Thiemann (2016). However, the non-trivial structure of the holonomy-flux algebra prevents the construction of satisfactory semi-classical states (Lanéry and Thiemann, 2017). Implementing the general procedure just mentioned in the case of a one-dimensional version of this algebra, we show how a discrete subalgebra can be extracted without destroying universality nor diffeomorphism invariance. On this subalgebra, quantum states can then be constructed which are more regular than was possible on the original algebra. In particular, this allows the design of semi-classical states whose semi-classicality is enforced step by step, starting from collective, macroscopic degrees of freedom and going down progressively toward smaller and smaller scales.

  4. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  5. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  6. Use of tritium-labeled PCBs for investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobiri, K.S.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P. V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method for tritium labelling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The strains of soil bacteria - destructors of chloro organic compounds was studied with the help of test-system based on the using of tritium-labeled PCBs. The strains of bacteria were grown on the agar synthetic medium and then were introduced into the synthetic medium containing tritium-labeled mixture of PCBs (commercial mark - SOVOL) as alone source of carbon. The samples were analysed after one and two months period of incubation. PCBs were extracted by hexane from fraction of bacteria and fraction of cultural medium and radioactivity was measured. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with following radioautography. Additionally samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that all selected strains survived in the medium with PCBs as alone source of carbon and bacteria accumulated PCBs from cultural medium. Accumulation of PCBs by strains of bacteria was different. The TLC analysis detected additional compounds labeled by tritium, that prove the degradation of PCBs in presence of bacteria. The gas chromatography analysis of cultural medium and bacteria detected redistribution in the system and qualitative changes of PCBs in bacteria. The strains of bacteria also were grown in model condition on the soil with tritium labeled PCBs. We found that some strains effectively destroy PCBs with decreasing level of tritium label in the soil. The using of tritium labeled PCBs' allows to introduce precise quantitative characteristics for study of accumulation and biodegradation PCBs by soil bacteria strains. Developed test-system is very useful tool for selection of new strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs

  7. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  8. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  9. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  10. The feasibility of introducing solar ovens to rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of introducing solar ovens to rural women in Maphephethe. M Wilson, JM Green. Abstract. Vorige navorsing het bewys dat die potensiaal vir die bemagtiging van baie landelike vroue in 'n beter manier van beide kook en die versameling van brandhout lê. Die vele huishoudelike pligte van vroue kan so verlig ...

  11. Introducing the Contextual Orientation to Bible: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2008-01-01

    Barry Holtz' (2003) presentation of a map of orientations for the teaching of Bible provides a certain kind of focus for research, enabling us to ask deeper and richer question about those orientations. This article investigates the teaching of one teacher, in two different settings--more specifically, how that teacher introduces Bible in those…

  12. Introducing Process Competences in a PBL-based Engineering Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2013-01-01

    The article describes an experiment in which elements related to generic professional competences, such as group work methodology, project planning, task delegation and communication, have been introduced in an existing course, tailored as a Problem Base Learning (PBL) course in Advanced Telecomm...

  13. Introducing Artificial Neural Networks through a Spreadsheet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Thomas F.; Athappilly, Kuriakose K.

    2012-01-01

    Business students taking data mining classes are often introduced to artificial neural networks (ANN) through point and click navigation exercises in application software. Even if correct outcomes are obtained, students frequently do not obtain a thorough understanding of ANN processes. This spreadsheet model was created to illuminate the roles of…

  14. Latitudinal shifts of introduced species: possible causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Dov F. Sax; Hong Qian; Regan Early

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to document shifts in the latitudinal distributions of non-native species relative to their own native distributions and to discuss possible causes and implications of these shifts. We used published and newly compiled data on intercontinentally introduced birds, mammals and plants. We found strong correlations between the latitudinal distributions...

  15. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a…

  16. Introducing Online Bibliographic Service to its Users: The Online Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Nancy B.; Pilachowski, David M.

    1978-01-01

    A description of techniques for introducing online services to new user groups includes discussion of terms and their definitions, evolution of online searching, advantages and disadvantages of online searching, production of the data bases, search strategies, Boolean logic, costs and charges, "do's and don'ts," and a user search questionnaire. (J…

  17. Cybersecurity Curriculum Development: Introducing Specialties in a Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Ali; Liu, Michelle; Murphy, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The cybersecurity curriculum has grown dramatically over the past decade: once it was just a couple of courses in a computer science graduate program. Today cybersecurity is introduced at the high school level, incorporated into undergraduate computer science and information systems programs, and has resulted in a variety of cybersecurity-specific…

  18. Introducing Ethical, Social and Environmental Issues in ICT Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Rafael; Aller, Celia Fernández; Anguera, Áurea; Portillo, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related mainly on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The…

  19. Bedtime procrastination : Introducing a new area of procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Adriaanse, Marieke A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023

    Background: Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important

  20. Effect on Academic Procrastination after Introducing Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, Peña Fabiani; Mora, Carlos Efren; Añorbe-Díaz, Beatriz; Rivero-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Students suffer academic procrastination while dealing with frequent deadlines and working under pressure. This causes to delay their coursework and may affect their academic progress, despite feeling worse. Triggering students' motivation, like introducing technologies, helps to reduce procrastination. In this context, Augmented Reality has been…

  1. Introducing 12 Year-Olds to Elementary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a new learning unit, which introduces 12 year-olds to the subatomic structure of matter. The learning unit was iteratively developed as a design-based research project using the technique of probing acceptance. We give a brief overview of the unit's final version, discuss its key ideas and main concepts, and conclude by highlighting the…

  2. Senate approves global warming bill; House bill introduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the Senate approved global warming bill and its impact to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the power industry. The bill requires stabilization or reduction of the greenhouse gases produced by the United States by the year 2005. DOE is required to develop a least-cost national energy strategy. A similar bill has been introduced into the House

  3. Using "Monopoly" to Introduce Concepts of Race and Ethnic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waren, Warren

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…

  4. Superconformal Lagrangian without the need to introduce constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A field Lagrangian invariant under all the symmetries of the superconformal group has been constructed without the need to introduce constraints on the curvatures. We have thus generalized the action of Townsend, van Nieuwenhuizen, and Kaku. We maintain that any and all constraints on the curvatures should result as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking and not be a priori enforced. 14 refs

  5. Two-Dimensional Crystallography Introduced by the Sprinkler Watering Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toro, Jose A.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Muniz, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The problem of optimizing the number of circular sprinklers watering large fields is used to introduce, from a purely elementary geometrical perspective, some basic concepts in crystallography and comment on a few size effects in condensed matter physics. We examine square and hexagonal lattices to build a function describing the, so-called, dry…

  6. The Mixer: Introducing the Concept of Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrist, Dan J.; Pawlow, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    This study entailed the development and implementation of a classroom activity designed to introduce students to the concept of factor analysis. We implemented the activity in both a personality theories course and a tests and measurements course. Data suggest that students learned about factor analysis from this activity, while enjoying it.…

  7. Introducing Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry: Probing the Substrate Selectivity of Acetylcholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Marcus; Larsson, Rikard; Vongvilai, Pornrapee; Ramstrom, Olof

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, college students are introduced to dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) and apply it to determine the substrate selectivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Initially, the students construct a chemical library of dynamically interchanging thioesters and thiols. Then, AChE is added and allowed to select and hydrolyze…

  8. Introducing Nkami: A Forgotten Guang Language and People of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper introduces a group of people and an endangered language called Nkami. I discuss issues concerning the historical, geo-political, religious, socio-economic and linguistic backgrounds of the people. Among others, it is shown that Nkami is a South-. Guang language spoken by approximately 400 people ...

  9. Introducing Undergraduate Students to Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Dale; Funnell, Alister; Jack, Briony; Johnston, Jill

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is conducted, which in four 3 h laboratory sessions, introduces third year undergraduate Biochemistry students to the technique of real-time PCR in a biological context. The model used is a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL cells). These continuously cycling, immature red blood cells, arrested at an early stage in erythropoiesis,…

  10. Differential escape from parasites by two competing introduced crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, April M.; Keogh, Carolyn L.; Byers, James E.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Torchin, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Although introduced species often interact with one another in their novel communities, the role of parasites in these interactions remains less clear. We examined parasite richness and prevalence in 2 shorecrab species with different invasion histories and residency times in an introduced region where their distributions overlap broadly. On the northeastern coast of the USA, the Asian shorecrab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was discovered 20 yr ago, while the European green crab Carcinus maenas has been established for over 200 yr. We used literature and field surveys to evaluate parasitism in both crabs in their native and introduced ranges. We found only 1 parasite species infecting H. sanguineus on the US East Coast compared to 6 species in its native range, while C. maenas was host to 3 parasite species on the East Coast compared to 10 in its native range. The prevalence of parasite infection was also lower for both crabs in the introduced range compared to their native ranges; however, the difference was almost twice as much for H. sanguineus as for C. maenas. There are several explanations that could contribute to C. maenas' greater parasite diversity than that of H. sanguineus on the US East Coast, including differences in susceptibility, time since introduction, manner of introduction (vector), distance from native range, taxonomic isolation, and the potential for parasite identification bias. Our study underscores not just that non-native species lose parasites upon introduction, but that they may do so differentially, with ramifications for their direct interactions and with potential community-level influences.

  11. Use of interactive teaching techniques to introduce mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of interactive teaching techniques to introduce mental health training to medical schools in a resource poor setting. ... On site and distance learning based on the teaching described here has widened the scope of the training possible in psychiatry and allowed the provision of regular teaching, supervision and peer ...

  12. Standard 'Principle guides of radioprotection': introduced concepts and future forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnino, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main topics introduced by the new CNEN standard NE 3.01 - Basic Directrix of Radioprotection directly associated to the field work in industrial radiography are presented. It's showed a practical example which evidences the need of information exchange among the industrial security, radiological safety and quality control staffs for the continuity of works in this area. (author)

  13. Introducing Misoprostol for the Treatment of Incomplete Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered ...

  14. The cost-effectiveness of introducing manual vacuum aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite the proven efficacy of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete miscarriages its use is low in Swaziland, including Raleigh Fitkin Memorial (RFM) Hospital, Manzini. Uncertainty about the cost implications of introducing MVA to replace dilatation and curettage (D&C) is probably the major obstacle ...

  15. Introducing Multiplication and Division Contexts in Junior Primary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Bicknell, Brenda; Lelieveld, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares research from a pilot study in which young children were introduced to multiplication and division problems in their first year of school. The focus was on building children's conceptual understanding of the idea of "repeated groups" as a fundamental aspect of multiplication and its relation to division. The particular…

  16. Population dynamics of bacteria introduced into bentonite amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria have frequently been introduced into the soil environment, e.g. for increasing crop production or for biological control purposes. Many applications require high numbers of surviving organisms in order to be effective. However, survival of bacteria after introduction into soil is

  17. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dessert bananas (Musa spp.) form one of the world's most important fruits, yet one of the least traded commodities in Uganda. A range of exotic and hybrid dessert bananas that included KABANA 3H and KABANA 4H were introduced in Uganda in response to Fusarium wilt disease that was wiping away Gros Michel.

  18. Adoption of Rice Technologies Introduced by the United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the levels of adoption of improved rice technologies introduced by USAID MARKETS project phase one in Anambra and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. The population of the study included all project participant rice farmers of USAID MARKETS project in both Anambra and Ebonyi States. A total sample of 80 ...

  19. Using a Case-Study Article to Effectively Introduce Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Community college students in a nonmajors biology class are introduced to mitosis by reading a case-study article that allows them to gauge how many times various parts of their bodies have been regenerated. The case-study article allows students to develop a conceptual framework of the cell cycle prior to a lecture on mitosis. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Introducing a sustainable soil fertility system for chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to introduce a sustainable soil fertility system for chickpea, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Experiments were arranged in split-split plot arrangements with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of vetch and barley, (G2): without green ...

  1. Introducing Recovery Style for Modeling and Analyzing System Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Kruchten, P.; Garlan, D.; Woods, E.

    An analysis of the existing approaches for representing architectural views reveals that they focus mainly on functional concerns and are limited when considering quality concerns. We introduce the recovery style for modeling the structure of the system related to the recovery concern. The recovery

  2. A Fictional Dialogue on Infinitude of Primes: Introducing Virtual Duoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We introduce "virtual duoethnography" as a novel research approach in mathematics education, in which researchers produce a text of a dialogic format in the voices of fictional characters, who present and contrast different perspectives on the nature of a particular mathematical phenomenon. We use fiction as a form of research linked to…

  3. Introducing the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 2012 Scholar Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoff, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    This commentary introduces David Kirk's paper entitled "Making a career in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy in the corporatized university: Reflections on hegemony, resistance, collegiality and scholarship", which was presented in the 2012 Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) "scholar lecture" at the British…

  4. An Excel Solver Exercise to Introduce Nonlinear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Business students taking business analytics courses that have significant predictive modeling components, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, are introduced to nonlinear regression using application software that is a "black box" to the students. Thus, although correct models are…

  5. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  6. Predation by introduced largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predatory impact of introduced largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides on the juveniles of estuary-associated indigenous marine fish species in the lower Kowie River and estuary headwaters was investigated in 2012–2013. Stomach contents and stable isotope analyses were employed to assess the dietary ...

  7. Introducing Farouk's Process Consultation Group Approach in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie; Stringer, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that teacher consultation groups increase teachers' behaviour management skills through discussion and collaborative problem-solving. Unlike the United Kingdom, at the time of this research consultation groups were not widely used in Irish schools. This research introduced Farouk's process consultation approach in three Irish…

  8. Introducing problem-based learning (PBL) into a foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainability of the meaning-directed learning skills was questionable if student beliefs in the approach did not support the activities employed. Introducing PBL into a foundation programme can develop self-directed learning skills in students and set in motion a process of growth towards lifelong learning. Keywords: ...

  9. Introducing CSR - The Missing Ingredient in the Land Reform Recipe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR) as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion.

  10. Evaluation of the applicability of territorial arterial spin labeling in meningiomas for presurgical assessments compared with 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yiping; Wen, Jianbo; Geng, Daoying; Yin, Bo; Luan, Shihai; Liu, Li; Xiong, Ji; Qu, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the application of territorial arterial spin labelling (t-ASL) in comparison with unenhanced three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) in the identification of the feeding vasculature of meningiomas. Thirty consecutive patients with suspected meningiomas underwent conventional MR imaging, unenhanced 3D-TOF-MRA and t-ASL scanning. Four experienced neuro-radiologists assessed the feeding vessels with different techniques separately. For the identification of the origin of the feeding arteries on t-ASL, the inter-observer agreement was excellent (κ = 0.913), while the inter-observer agreement of 3D-TOF-MRA was good (κ = 0.653). The inter-modality agreement between t-ASL and 3D-TOF-MRA for the feeding arteries was moderate (κ = 0.514). All 8 patients with motor or sensory disorders proved to have meningiomas supplied completely or partially by the internal carotid arteries, while all 14 patients with meningiomas supplied by the external carotid arteries or basilar arteries didn't show any symptoms concerning motor or sensory disorders (p = 0.003). T-ASL could complement unenhanced 3D-TOF-MRA and increase accuracy in the identification of the supplying arteries of meningiomas in a safe, intuitive, non-radioactive manner. The information about feeding arteries was potentially related to patients' symptoms and pathology, making it more crucial for neurosurgeons in planning surgery as well as evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the applicability of territorial arterial spin labeling in meningiomas for presurgical assessments compared with 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yiping; Wen, Jianbo; Geng, Daoying; Yin, Bo [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Luan, Shihai [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Liu, Li [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Xiong, Ji [Fudan University, Department of Pathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Qu, Jianxun [GE Healthcare, Department of MR Research, Shanghai (China)

    2017-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the application of territorial arterial spin labelling (t-ASL) in comparison with unenhanced three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) in the identification of the feeding vasculature of meningiomas. Thirty consecutive patients with suspected meningiomas underwent conventional MR imaging, unenhanced 3D-TOF-MRA and t-ASL scanning. Four experienced neuro-radiologists assessed the feeding vessels with different techniques separately. For the identification of the origin of the feeding arteries on t-ASL, the inter-observer agreement was excellent (κ = 0.913), while the inter-observer agreement of 3D-TOF-MRA was good (κ = 0.653). The inter-modality agreement between t-ASL and 3D-TOF-MRA for the feeding arteries was moderate (κ = 0.514). All 8 patients with motor or sensory disorders proved to have meningiomas supplied completely or partially by the internal carotid arteries, while all 14 patients with meningiomas supplied by the external carotid arteries or basilar arteries didn't show any symptoms concerning motor or sensory disorders (p = 0.003). T-ASL could complement unenhanced 3D-TOF-MRA and increase accuracy in the identification of the supplying arteries of meningiomas in a safe, intuitive, non-radioactive manner. The information about feeding arteries was potentially related to patients' symptoms and pathology, making it more crucial for neurosurgeons in planning surgery as well as evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  12. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  13. Strategies for Introducing Outpatient Specialty Palliative Care in Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Casey M; Lefkowits, Carolyn; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Bakitas, Marie A; Clark, Leslie H; Duska, Linda R; Urban, Renata R; Creasy, Stephanie L; Schenker, Yael

    2017-09-01

    Concern that patients will react negatively to the idea of palliative care is cited as a barrier to timely referral. Strategies to successfully introduce specialty palliative care to patients have not been well described. We sought to understand how gynecologic oncologists introduce outpatient specialty palliative care. We conducted a national qualitative interview study at six geographically diverse academic cancer centers with well-established palliative care clinics between September 2015 and March 2016. Thirty-four gynecologic oncologists participated in semistructured telephone interviews focusing on attitudes, experiences, and practices related to outpatient palliative care. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative methods to inductively develop and refine a coding framework. This analysis focuses on practices for introducing palliative care. Mean participant age was 47 years (standard deviation, 10 years). Mean interview length was 25 minutes (standard deviation, 7 minutes). Gynecologic oncologists described the following three main strategies for introducing outpatient specialty palliative care: focus initial palliative care referral on symptom management to dissociate palliative care from end-of-life care and facilitate early relationship building with palliative care clinicians; use a strong physician-patient relationship and patient trust to increase acceptance of referral; and explain and normalize palliative care referral to address negative associations and decrease patient fear of abandonment. These strategies aim to decrease negative patient associations and encourage acceptance of early referral to palliative care specialists. Gynecologic oncologists have developed strategies for introducing palliative care services to alleviate patient concerns. These strategies provide groundwork for developing system-wide best practice approaches to the presentation of palliative care referral.

  14. Exploring membrane protein structural features by oxidative labeling and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars; Pan, Yan

    2012-10-01

    Despite their biological importance, the structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) by x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy remains challenging. Hence, there is a need for complementary approaches that are capable of probing IMP conformational features in a robust fashion. Covalent labeling relies on the principle that solvent accessible regions can be modified by reactive species, whereas buried segments are protected. The readout of the labeling pattern is conducted by mass spectrometry. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) introduces oxidative modifications at amino acid side chains. In this article, the authors discuss the application of ·OH labeling for the structural interrogation of IMPs. Kyte-Doolittle hydropathy analyses are widely used for generating IMP topology models. The validation of these models by mutational techniques is labor intensive. ·OH labeling can readily distinguish transmembrane elements from solvent-exposed loops, thereby providing an alternative topology validation tool. For IMPs with published crystal structures, oxidative modifications can report on functionally relevant dynamic features that are invisible in the static x-ray data. The coupling of pulsed ·OH labeling with rapid mixing techniques represents a novel approach for studying IMP folding kinetics. In conclusion, ·OH labeling is a versatile tool that can provide insights into the structure and dynamics of IMPs.

  15. PENGARUH REGULASI ECO LABELLING DI UNI EROPA TERHADAP REGULASI EKSPOR PRODUK KAYU DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masitha Tismananda Kumala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union issued an Eco Labelling regulations related to all the goods and services in the EU market, including timber products. The regulation is applicable to timber products in state member of the European Union and timber product which are imported by state member of the European Union. Eco Label system was first introduced in the EU by Council Regulation (EEC No. 880 of 1992. The regulation set regarding Eco Label Award to a variety of products, including timber products. With the existence of these regulations, inevitably make states who export their products to the EU must pay attention to these provisions, including with Indonesia. Many Indonesian producers that export timber products to the state member of EU. So it is needed setting regulation about Eco Label in Indonesia. In addition, it is requirement to establish the institution that issued the Eco Label certificate so that Indonesian timber products can get into the EU market. This is due to the many Indonesian producers were exporting timber products in state member of the European Union. Indonesia’s requirement for regulations and institutions associated with Eco Label are caused by the globalization of international trade. In the end we realize it or not, with the globalization, a rule of law in one country will affect the rule of law in another country.

  16. Automatic single- and multi-label enzymatic function prediction by machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervine Amidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of protein structures in the PDB database has been increasing more than 15-fold since 1999. The creation of computational models predicting enzymatic function is of major importance since such models provide the means to better understand the behavior of newly discovered enzymes when catalyzing chemical reactions. Until now, single-label classification has been widely performed for predicting enzymatic function limiting the application to enzymes performing unique reactions and introducing errors when multi-functional enzymes are examined. Indeed, some enzymes may be performing different reactions and can hence be directly associated with multiple enzymatic functions. In the present work, we propose a multi-label enzymatic function classification scheme that combines structural and amino acid sequence information. We investigate two fusion approaches (in the feature level and decision level and assess the methodology for general enzymatic function prediction indicated by the first digit of the enzyme commission (EC code (six main classes on 40,034 enzymes from the PDB database. The proposed single-label and multi-label models predict correctly the actual functional activities in 97.8% and 95.5% (based on Hamming-loss of the cases, respectively. Also the multi-label model predicts all possible enzymatic reactions in 85.4% of the multi-labeled enzymes when the number of reactions is unknown. Code and datasets are available at https://figshare.com/s/a63e0bafa9b71fc7cbd7.

  17. Systematic Comparison of Label-Free, Metabolic Labeling, and Isobaric Chemical Labeling for Quantitative Proteomics on LTQ Orbitrap Velos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Adams, Rachel M [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A variety of quantitative proteomics methods have been developed, including label-free, metabolic labeling, and isobaric chemical labeling using iTRAQ or TMT. Here, these methods were compared in terms of the depth of proteome coverage, quantification accuracy, precision, and reproducibility using a high-performance hybrid mass spectrometer, LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Our results show that (1) the spectral counting method provides the deepest proteome coverage for identification, but its quantification performance is worse than labeling-based approaches, especially the quantification reproducibility; (2) metabolic labeling and isobaric chemical labeling are capable of accurate, precise, and reproducible quantification and provide deep proteome coverage for quantification. Isobaric chemical labeling surpasses metabolic labeling in terms of quantification precision and reproducibility; (3) iTRAQ and TMT perform similarly in all aspects compared in the current study using a CID-HCD dual scan configuration. Based on the unique advantages of each method, we provide guidance for selection of the appropriate method for a quantitative proteomics study.

  18. [(64) Cu]-labelled trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoeth-Eskesen, Christina; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Heissel, Søren

    2015-01-01

    ,7 acetic acid (NODAGA) analogue in a preliminary HER2 tumour mouse model. The chelators were conjugated to trastuzumab using the activated esters DOTA mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and NODAGA-NHS. (64) Cu-labelling of DOTA-trastuzumab was studied by varying the amount of DOTA-trastuzumab used, reaction...... [(64) Cu]DOTA-trastuzumab and [(64) Cu]NODAGA-trastuzumab were produced after purification with radiochemical purities of >97%. The tracers were injected into mice with HER2 expressing tumours. The mice were imaged by positron emission tomography and showed high tumour uptake of 3-9% ID/g for both......The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-30% of all breast cancer cases, leading to increased cell proliferation, growth and migration. The monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, binds to HER2 and is used for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab has...

  19. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  20. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  1. Genetic Code Expansion- and Click Chemistry-Based Site-Specific Protein Labeling for Intracellular DNA-PAINT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikić-Spiegel, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy allows imaging of cellular structures at nanometer resolution. This comes with a demand for small labels which can be attached directly to the structures of interest. In the context of protein labeling, one way to achieve this is by using genetic code expansion (GCE) and click chemistry. With GCE, small labeling handles in the form of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) are site-specifically introduced into a target protein. In a subsequent step, these amino acids can be directly labeled with small organic dyes by click chemistry reactions. Click chemistry labeling can also be combined with other methods, such as DNA-PAINT in which a "clickable" oligonucleotide is first attached to the ncAA-bearing target protein and then labeled with complementary fluorescent oligonucleotides. This protocol will cover both aspects: I describe (1) how to encode ncAAs and perform intracellular click chemistry-based labeling with an improved GCE system for eukaryotic cells and (2) how to combine click chemistry-based labeling with DNA-PAINT super-resolution imaging. As an example, I show click-PAINT imaging of vimentin and low-abundance nuclear protein, nucleoporin 153.

  2. Portion size labeling and intended soft drink consumption : the impact of labeling format and size portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess what portion size labeling format is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie,

  3. Experimental investigation of transmission properties and label swapping of an orthogonal ASK/FSK labeled signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Yu, S.Y.; Xu, Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental assessment of the transmission performance and all-optical label swapping for an orthogonal amplitude-shift keying-frequency-shift keying (ASK/FSK) labeled signal. Transmission through different dispersion maps with various compensation schemes and fiber types ...... is investigated. All-optical label erasure, reinsertion, and multihop transmission are experimentally demonstrated....

  4. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  5. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  6. Local Field Response Method Phenomenologically Introducing Spin Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Tatsuya

    2018-03-01

    The local field response (LFR) method is a way of searching for the ground state in a similar manner to quantum annealing. However, the LFR method operates on a classical machine, and quantum effects are introduced through a priori information and through phenomenological means reflecting the states during the computations. The LFR method has been treated with a one-body approximation, and therefore, the effect of entanglement has not been sufficiently taken into account. In this report, spin correlations are phenomenologically introduced as one of the effects of entanglement, by which multiple tunneling at anticrossing points is taken into account. As a result, the accuracy of solutions for a 128-bit system increases by 31% compared with that without spin correlations.

  7. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is usually expected to be an efficient numerical tool for calculating the fluid-structure interactions in compressors; however, an endogenetic restriction is the problem of low-order consistency. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels, which is quite easy to be implemented but efficient, is proposed for solving this restriction. The basic inverse method and the special treatment near boundary are introduced with also the discussion of the combination of the Least-Square (LS and Moving-Least-Square (MLS methods. Then detailed analysis in spectral space is presented for people to better understand this method. Finally we show three test examples to verify the method behavior.

  8. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk, using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha. Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant height and number of plants per meter on the grain yield. Correlation coefficients were generally low and didn't show as significant. This indicates that these studies included small number of properties that can affect grain yield. In further work with this introduced species, more properties should be included.

  9. Introduced marine species in Croatian waters (Eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PECAREVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea covers more than 35% of the total Croatian territory, which means that monitoring changes in marine ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity are of great importance. Following global changes, Croatia is experiencing increasing problems due to the introduction of new species that include aliens (due to aquaculture activities and shipping and species from other Mediterranean subregions that are extending their geographic range. This work provides a checklist of introduced species in Croatian waters. A total of 113 species (15 phytoplankton, 16 zooplankton, 16 macroalgae, 44 zoobenthic and 22 fish species have been recorded in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea, of which 61 species are alien and 52 introduced, due to climate change.

  10. In vivo SPECT imaging of [¹²³I]-labeled pentamidine pro-drugs for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Björn; Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Culman, Juraj; Clement, Bernd; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2014-12-30

    Pentamidine is an effective antiparasitic agent and approved drug for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). However, pentamidine suffers from poor orally bioavailability and lacks central nervous system (CNS) delivery. Therefore its applicability is limited to intravenous or intramuscular treatment of the first stage of the African trypanosomiasis. For this reason, several new pentamidine pro-drugs have been developed with the aim of providing improved orally availability and CNS penetration. this work aims to measure and to compare the distribution, bioavailability, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier of [(123)I]-labeled pentamidine and its pro-drugs, N,N'-dihydroxypentamidine and N,N'‑bis(succinyloxy) pentamidine, using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) after intravenously and per orally administration in rats. a total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were examined. Each [(123)I]-labeled substance (n=3) was applied to 12 rats (n=6 i.v. and n=6 orally). In two additional test series both [(123)I]iodopentamidine (n=6) and N,N'-bis(succinyloxy)-[(123)I]iodopentamidine (n=6) were administered orally together with the non-radioactive homologues. To evaluate the in vivo stability of the labeled compounds, [(123)I]NaI solution was administered intravenously (n=6) and orally (n=6). In vivo SPECT images were acquired after 30 min, 4h, and 24h and blood samples were taken over 24h. The SPECT images were fusioned with previously acquired magnetic resonance images. After the last SPECT the rats were perfused, sacrificed and the organ γ-radiation levels were determined with a γ-counter. Analysis and quantification of the reconstructed SPECT images was performed using the region of interest technique. the data showed a highly improved oral bioavailability of the [(123)I]-labeled pro-drugs compared to [(123)I]-labeled pentamidine. While [(123)I]iodopentamidine was mainly renally eliminated the pro-drugs were primarily

  11. Introducing Magneto-Optical Functions into Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    including organic and bio materials by using magnetic nanomaterials. This final report includes the successful developments of magneto-optical...introduce magneto-optical properties in soft materials including organic and bio materials by using magnetic nanomaterials. This final report includes the...interaction, and spin-spin interaction in magnetic /bio composites. We plan to use materials processing and spin-physics measurements to elucidate

  12. Introducing the Skills of Self-assessment and Peer Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania K. Jabr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of our teaching should not simply be to introduce our students to a foreign language, but it should be to enable them to perform well when we teachers are no longer there to support them. This means we need to teach them to be autonomous, and one way to succeed in this challenging task is to train them in the “skill” of self-assessment (Harris, 1997 and how to benefit from peer interaction.

  13. Bedtime procrastination : Introducing a new area of procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, Floor M.; De Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important factor related to getting insufficient sleep and consequently affecting individual well-being. Bedtime procrastination is defined as failing to go to bed at the intended time, while no external circu...

  14. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Miñano; Celia Fernández Aller; Áurea Anguera; Eloy Portillo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related mainly on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current ICT engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, has significantly imp...

  15. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN INTRODUCING IFRS AT UNIVERSITIES IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Andian Ari Istiningrum

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Experiential Learning in Introducing IFRS at Universities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to find the appropriate learning model for accounting learning process at universities in Indonesia due to the process of convergence to IFRS that has already occurred in Indonesia. The study is conducted by reviewing, analyzing and evaluating the effects and solutions of convergence to IFRS in other countries that have already implemented IFRS. All possible accounting learning metho...

  16. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti–T. gondii–specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  17. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...... implementation consisting of a distributed PI controller structure, both in terms of minimising the overall cost but also in terms of the ability to minimise deviation, which is the classical objective....

  18. Introducing radiality constraints in capacitated location-routing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mirledy Toro Ocampo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a unified mathematical formulation for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP and for the Capacitated Location Routing Problem (CLRP, adopting radiality constraints in order to guarantee valid routes and eliminate subtours. This idea is inspired by formulations already employed in electric power distribution networks, which requires a radial topology in its operation. The results show that the proposed formulation greatly improves the convergence of the solver.

  19. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  20. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2014-05-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate molecule in the detection system. A functional polymer with Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) template was immobilized on the sensing surface of the inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor with sputtered gold sensing electrodes fabricated over a native layer of silicon dioxide on a single crystal silicon substrate. Various concentrations (10 to 200 ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were exposed to the sensor surface functionalized with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) in order to capture the analyte molecule, hence introducing molecular selectivity to the testing system. Impedance spectra were obtained using EIS in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the solution. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyzer algorithm was used to deduce equivalent circuit and equivalent component parameters from the experimentally obtained impedance spectra employing Randle\\'s cell model curve fitting technique. Experimental results confirmed that the immobilization of the functional polymer on sensing surface introduces selectivity for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD). © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kough, John; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on the toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into GM crops to impart desired traits. In many cases, introduced proteins can be shown to have a history of safe use. Where modifications have been made to proteins, experience has shown that it is highly unlikely that modification of amino acid sequences can make a non-toxic protein toxic. Moreover, if the modified protein still retains its biological function, and this function is found in related proteins that have a history of safe use (HOSU) in food, and the exposure level is similar to functionally related proteins, then the modified protein could also be considered to be “as-safe-as” those that have a HOSU. Within nature, there can be considerable evolutionary changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins within the same family, yet these proteins share the same biological function. In general, food crops such as maize, soy, rice, canola etc. are subjected to a variety of processing conditions to generate different food products. Processing conditions such as cooking, modification of pH conditions, and mechanical shearing can often denature proteins in these crops resulting in a loss of functional activity. These same processing conditions can also markedly lower human dietary exposure to (functionally active) proteins. Safety testing of an introduced protein could be indicated if its biological function was not adequately characterized and/or it was shown to be structurally/functionally related to proteins that are known to be toxic to mammals. PMID:24164515

  2. Native and introduced squirrels in Italy host different Cryptosporidium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Jitka; Horčičková, Michaela; Hofmannová, Lada; Sak, Bohumil; Ferrari, Nicola; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to describe Cryptosporidium spp. infection in tree squirrels from 17 locations in Northern Italy. A total of 357 squirrels were examined, including species native to Europe (Sciurus vulgaris; n=123), and species introduced from North America (Sciurus carolinensis; n=162) and Southeast Asia (Callosciurus erythraeus; n=72). Faecal samples of all squirrels were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium infection by microscopy (flotation method) and PCR/sequence analysis of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA, actin, and gp60 genes. Despite the overlapping ranges of native and introduced tree squirrel species in the study area, they host different Cryptosporidium spp. Sciurus vulgaris were exclusively infected with Cryptosporidium ferret genotype (n=13) belonging to three novel gp60 subtypes, VIIIb-VIIId. Sciurus carolinensis hosted C. ubiquitum subtype XIIb (n=2), Cryptosporidium skunk genotype subtype XVIa (n=3), and chipmunk genotype I subtype XIVa (n=1). Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I subtype XIVa was also found in two C. erythraeus. Comparing data from this and previous studies, we propose that Cryptosporidium skunk genotype and possibly C. ubiquitum subtype XIIb were introduced to Europe with eastern grey squirrels. Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I and ferret genotype were associated with high intensity infections, but there was no association with diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  4. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... bulbs (often cardboard sheets with plastic bulb covers) have little or no room for the new label. \\13... many consumers. And, although typical usage patterns (e.g., hours per day of operation) may vary for these products, the standard usage assumption on the Lighting Facts label (i.e., three hours per day...

  5. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  6. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle fuels (including electricity), and the color of the knock-out type within the black band, is... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications... alternative vehicle fuel (other than electricity) labels with disclosure of principal component only. The...

  7. 40 CFR 86.413-78 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (i) The label heading. Vehicle... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New..., containing the information hereinafter provided, to all production models of such vehicles available for sale...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  9. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  10. 16 CFR 1511.7 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PACIFIERS § 1511.7 Labeling. (a) As required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, pacifiers shall be labeled with the statement: “Warning—Do Not Tie Pacifier Around Child's Neck as it Presents a... and conspicuously on any retail display carton containing two or more pacifiers. (c) Each individually...

  11. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talk to Your Child About the News Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias ... español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  14. On the complexity of labeled oriented trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study ...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  18. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  19. The preparation of radioiodine labelled amiodarone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jialing; Yan Ping; Li Yanru

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodine labelled amiodarone can be conveniently obtained in the presence of copper(II) and excess reductant by hydrothermal method, at 100 deg C for 1 hour and separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Labelling efficiency is over 95%. Radiochemical purity is over 95%. The hydrothermal exchange method is a simple monocompartment isotope exchange reaction in homogeneous system and obeys the exponential law

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo ...

  2. Methods of synthesis of deuterium labelled lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragina, N.A.; Chupin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for synthesis of deuterium-labelled hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid molecules and ways of obtaining selectively and completely deuterized phospholipids and their analogues are considered. The deuterium-labelled lipids are used for studies on structural organization and functioning of biological membranes, including studies with the NMP and neutron-diffraction methods of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions

  3. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  4. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring Out ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  7. 9 CFR 112.5 - Review and approval of labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... container label, carton label, and enclosure. Sketches must be legible, and must include all information... product two copies of each sketch of an enclosure, label for the smallest size final container, and carton label; Provided, That labels for larger size containers and/or cartons that are identical, except for...

  8. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label...

  9. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  10. Off-label Prescription of Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Off-label use of medication refers to prescribing a registered medicine outside its approved marketing authorization, purpose, target group, or indication. Off-label prescription is a widely accepted practice. However, no or little regulation can be found. In this article, the legal status of off-label prescription will be examined. Does off-label prescription fall under the therapeutical freedom and is it free from regulation? Or should we equalize off-label prescription with a therapeutical experimentation and should it follow the rules of experimentation? I will also examine whether the patient can give an informed consent. Whether or not this is possible leads to intense discussions. Finally, the potential liability of the prescribing physician is of great importance.

  11. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  12. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  14. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  15. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of 11 C, 18 F and 13 N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume

  16. Cross-label Suppression: a Discriminative and Fast Dictionary Learning with Group Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudong; Gu, Yuantao

    2017-05-10

    This paper addresses image classification through learning a compact and discriminative dictionary efficiently. Given a structured dictionary with each atom (columns in the dictionary matrix) related to some label, we propose crosslabel suppression constraint to enlarge the difference among representations for different classes. Meanwhile, we introduce group regularization to enforce representations to preserve label properties of original samples, meaning the representations for the same class are encouraged to be similar. Upon the cross-label suppression, we don't resort to frequently-used `0-norm or `1- norm for coding, and obtain computational efficiency without losing the discriminative power for categorization. Moreover, two simple classification schemes are also developed to take full advantage of the learnt dictionary. Extensive experiments on six data sets including face recognition, object categorization, scene classification, texture recognition and sport action categorization are conducted, and the results show that the proposed approach can outperform lots of recently presented dictionary algorithms on both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  17. An adaptive alignment algorithm for quality-controlled label-free LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Marianne; Ali, Ashfaq; Hansson, Karin; Månsson, Olle; Andreasson, Erik; Resjö, Svante; Levander, Fredrik

    2013-05-01

    Label-free quantification using precursor-based intensities is a versatile workflow for large-scale proteomics studies. The method however requires extensive computational analysis and is therefore in need of robust quality control during the data mining stage. We present a new label-free data analysis workflow integrated into a multiuser software platform. A novel adaptive alignment algorithm has been developed to minimize the possible systematic bias introduced into the analysis. Parameters are estimated on the fly from the data at hand, producing a user-friendly analysis suite. Quality metrics are output in every step of the analysis as well as actively incorporated into the parameter estimation. We furthermore show the improvement of this system by comprehensive comparison to classical label-free analysis methodology as well as current state-of-the-art software.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  19. Label-based routing for a family of small-world Farey graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yinhu; Wang, Yinhe

    2016-05-11

    We introduce an informative labelling method for vertices in a family of Farey graphs, and deduce a routing algorithm on all the shortest paths between any two vertices in Farey graphs. The label of a vertex is composed of the precise locating position in graphs and the exact time linking to graphs. All the shortest paths routing between any pair of vertices, which number is exactly the product of two Fibonacci numbers, are determined only by their labels, and the time complexity of the algorithm is O(n). It is the first algorithm to figure out all the shortest paths between any pair of vertices in a kind of deterministic graphs. For Farey networks, the existence of an efficient routing protocol is of interest to design practical communication algorithms in relation to dynamical processes (including synchronization and structural controllability) and also to understand the underlying mechanisms that have shaped their particular structure.

  20. Indocyanine green labeled with 123I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub 1 / 2 / = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of 123 I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to 131 I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125

  1. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  2. Off-label use of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, Pieter; Southern, James; Abramson, Jon; Duclos, Philippe; Hombach, Joachim; Marti, Melanie; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hanquet, Germaine

    2017-04-25

    This article reviews the off-label recommendations and use of vaccines, and focuses on the differences between the labelled instructions on how to use the vaccine as approved by the regulatory authorities (or "label" 1 ), and the recommendations for use issued by public health advisory bodies at national and international levels. Differences between public health recommendations and the product label regarding the vaccine use can lead to confusion at the level of vaccinators and vaccinees and possibly result in lower compliance with national vaccination schedules. In particular, in many countries, the label may contain regulatory restrictions and warnings against vaccination of specific population groups (e.g. pregnant women) due to a lack of evidence of safety from controlled trials at the time of initial licensure of the vaccine, while public health authorities may recommend the same vaccine for that group, based on additional post-marketing data and benefit risk analyses. We provide an overview of the different responsibilities between regulatory authorities and public health advisory bodies, and the rationale for off-label use 2 of vaccines, the challenges involved based on the impact of off-label use in real-life. We propose to reduce off-label use of vaccines by requiring the manufacturer to regularly adapt the label as much as possible to the public health needs as supported by new evidence. This would require manufacturers to collect and report post-marketing data, communicate them to all stakeholders and regulators to extrapolate existing evidence (when acceptable) to other groups or to other brands of a vaccine (class effect 3 ). Regulatory authorities have a key role to play by requesting additional post-marketing data, e.g. in specific target groups. When public health recommendations for vaccine use that are outside labelled indications are considered necessary, good communication between regulatory bodies, public health authorities, companies and

  3. Engineered, highly reactive substrates of microbial transglutaminase enable protein labeling within various secondary structure elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Natalie M; Quaglia, Daniela; Lévesque, Éric; Charette, André B; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2017-11-01

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is a practical tool to enzymatically form isopeptide bonds between peptide or protein substrates. This natural approach to crosslinking the side-chains of reactive glutamine and lysine residues is solidly rooted in food and textile processing. More recently, MTG's tolerance for various primary amines in lieu of lysine have revealed its potential for site-specific protein labeling with aminated compounds, including fluorophores. Importantly, MTG can label glutamines at accessible positions in the body of a target protein, setting it apart from most labeling enzymes that react exclusively at protein termini. To expand its applicability as a labeling tool, we engineered the B1 domain of Protein G (GB1) to probe the selectivity and enhance the reactivity of MTG toward its glutamine substrate. We built a GB1 library where each variant contained a single glutamine at positions covering all secondary structure elements. The most reactive and selective variants displayed a >100-fold increase in incorporation of a recently developed aminated benzo[a]imidazo[2,1,5-cd]indolizine-type fluorophore, relative to native GB1. None of the variants were destabilized. Our results demonstrate that MTG can react readily with glutamines in α-helical, β-sheet, and unstructured loop elements and does not favor one type of secondary structure. Introducing point mutations within MTG's active site further increased reactivity toward the most reactive substrate variant, I6Q-GB1, enhancing MTG's capacity to fluorescently label an engineered, highly reactive glutamine substrate. This work demonstrates that MTG-reactive glutamines can be readily introduced into a protein domain for fluorescent labeling. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  4. Methods of introducing nucleic acids into cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, Marc J.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Church, George M.

    2017-06-27

    A method of introducing a nucleic acid sequence into a cell is provided where the cell has impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaG primase activity or impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaB helicase activity, or larger or increased gaps or distance between Okazaki fragments or lowered or reduced frequency of Okazaki fragment initiation, or the cell has increased single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the lagging strand of the replication fork including transforming the cell through recombination with a nucleic acid oligomer.

  5. A Proposal of Introducing Clustering Technology to R^*-tree

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yaokai; Makinouchi, Akifumi

    2002-01-01

    As a famous member of R-tree family, R^*-tree is widely used in multimedia databases and spatial databases, in which NN (Nearest Neighbor) search is very popular. Based on the observation that the objects are not well-clustered in R^*-tree leaf nodes, this paper proposes an approach to improve NN search performance of R^*-tree by introducing clustering technology to R^*-tree. The experimental result indicates that our improved R^*-tree has much better NN search performance than the original R...

  6. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  7. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  8. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  9. Introducing iccMAX: new frontiers in color management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derhak, Max; Green, Phil; Lianza, Tom

    2015-01-01

    ICC has announced a preliminary specification for iccMAX, a next-generation colour management system that expands the existing ICC profile format and architecture to overcome the limitation of the fixed colorimetric Profile Connection Space and support a much wider range of functionality. New features introduced in iccMAX include spectral processing, material identification and visualization, BRDF, new data types, an improved gamut boundary descriptor and support for arbitrary and programmable transforms. The iccMAX preliminary specification is accompanied by a reference implementation, and will undergo a period of public review before being finalized.

  10. Medical guidelines for the patient: introducing the life assistance protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, David; Fernández, Carlos; Meneu, Teresa; Mocholí, Juan Bautista; Serafin, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces our preliminary results in the modeling of Life Assistance Protocols, a new vision of medical guidelines and protocols through the lenses of p-Health. In this context the patient's role in the process is emphasized, the actions to be performed less defined and not only clinical situations considered, but also healthier lifestyle promotion processes accounted for, where the person's preferences and motivations play a key role. We propose a complete framework, balancing on classical clinical guideline models and covering both the theoretical and the practical aspects of the problem, describing it from conceptualization to the execution environment.

  11. A guide to introducing burnup credit, preliminary version (English translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee. (author)

  12. Introducing Opportunity-based Entrepreneurship in a Transition Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    possible entrepreneurial settings for a selected town or region, and four strategies for introducing the opportunity-based entrepreneurship are given. In the most general sense, this paper strives to encourage discussion about national systems of innovation as a complementary and/or dominant catch...... either a necessity- or opportunity-based ntrepreneurial environment. The concluding remarks emphasize the need for careful introduction of opportunity-based entrepreneurship together with recommendations for how that may be accomplished across different regions. Results suggest that there are four...

  13. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  14. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  15. 21 CFR 352.52 - Labeling of sunscreen drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...] Labeling § 352.52 Labeling of sunscreen drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the... protective clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risks of skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful...

  16. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  17. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  18. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled chlordiazepoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, P.; Yurt, F.; Asikoglu, M.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Dundar, C.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    1,4 Benzodiazepine derivatives have been largely used in Medicine since 1960. Chlordiazepoxide (7-Chloro-2-(methyl amino)-5-phenyl-3H-1.4 benzodiazepine 4-oxide) has been mostly used and the oldest one after diazepam. The aim of this study is labeling of chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) with I-131 and investigation of radiopharmaceutical potential as a benzodiazepine receptor agent. Iodogen has been used as iodination agent. Labeling yields have been determined by ITLC (instant This Layer Chromatography) and Paper Electrophoresis. pH and iodogen amount effects to labeling yields have been examined to obtain optimum reaction conditions. Labeling yield was 90% for 1 mg chlordiazepoxide, 1 mg iodogen, 1 pH, 15-20 minutes at room temperature. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide was searched in vivo experiments carried out on rabbits by using Sophy DX Gamma Camera. I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide of specific activity 690 MBq/mmol has been injected ear vein of rabbit and static perspectives were taken by pointed time intervals. Brain activity has increased after the injection, reached to maximum in 20th minutes and has not decreased during the imaging time (90 minutes). Obtained results have shown that I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide can be used as a benzodiazepine receptor radiopharmaceutical for SPECT studies of brain. (author)

  19. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) is amending its regulations regarding the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear on other labels affixed to the container rather than requiring it to appear on the brand label. This regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine labeling regulations to the agreement reached by members of the World Wine Trade Group regarding the presentation of certain information on wine labels.

  20. Criteria of assessing introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. А. Андрух

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and describe the basic criteria for studying and assessing decorative and economic-and-biological characters of the genus Heuchera L. varieties in the context of introduction. Methods. Introduction procedure, analytical approach, morphological analysis and biometric data evaluation. Results. Aided by the comparative morphological analysis of introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera, significant differences in their characters were revealed, including plant height, height and width of the basal rosette of leaves, generative shoot height. There was a significant variation of such parameters as the number of generative shoots within one plant, the number of flowers on a single generative shoot, flowering abundance. Based on investigation findings, 17 groups of varieties were identified for the dominant color of adaxial surface of the leaf blade and 7 groups – for inflorescence color. According to phenological observations, Heuchera varieties groups were determined and the dates of commencement and duration of plants flowering were registered in the context of introduction. The results of these investigations are the necessary basis for the study and evaluation of this culture assortment, they are important in breeding and landscaping. Conclusions. Based on the results of investigations of morphological features of introduced species of the genus Heuchera, traits and parameters for varieties grouping were defined as well as decorative and economic-and-biological traits that should be evaluated.

  1. Enhancing blood compatibility of biodegradable polymers by introducing sulfobetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Yuan-Wei; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Lin

    2011-06-15

    Novel biodegradable polycaprolactone containing N,N'-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) methylamine ammonium propane sulfonate (PCL-APS) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and water contact angle (WCA). These measurements showed that the APS unit was introduced into polymers. The hydrolysis of PCL-APS was evaluated by soaking the polymer membranes in a pH = 3.20 acid solution. The rate of weight loss was increased with the content of APS increasing in polymer. The compatibility of polymers were evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic test, and activated partial thromboplastic time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) experiments. Results showed that adhered platelets deceased after introducing sulfobetaine as compared to the control PCL, little hemolysis took place on PCL-APS, and APTT of PCL-APS polymers was prolonged than that of control PCL. Therefore, polycaprolactone containing sulfobetaine is a promising biodegradable polymer with good blood compatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bedtime Procrastination: Introducing a New Area of Procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor eKroese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important factor related to getting insufficient sleep and consequently affecting individual well-being. Bedtime procrastination is defined as failing to go to bed at the intended time, while no external circumstances prevent a person from doing so.Methods. To empirically support the conceptual introduction of bedtime procrastination, an online survey study was conducted among a community sample (N = 177. The relationship between bedtime procrastination and individual difference variables related to self-regulation and general procrastination was assessed. Moreover, it was investigated whether bedtime procrastination was a predictor of self-reported sleep outcomes (experienced insufficient sleep, hours of sleep, fatigue during the day.Results. Bedtime procrastination was negatively associated with self-regulation: people who scored lower on self-regulation variables reported more bedtime procrastination. Moreover, self-reported bedtime procrastination was related to general reports of insufficient sleep above and beyond demographics and self-regulation.Conclusions. Introducing a novel domain in which procrastinators experience problems, bedtime procrastination appears to be a prevalent and relevant issue that is associated with getting insufficient sleep.

  3. Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; De Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important factor related to getting insufficient sleep and consequently affecting individual well-being. Bedtime procrastination is defined as failing to go to bed at the intended time, while no external circumstances prevent a person from doing so. To empirically support the conceptual introduction of bedtime procrastination, an online survey study was conducted among a community sample (N = 177). The relationship between bedtime procrastination and individual difference variables related to self-regulation and general procrastination was assessed. Moreover, it was investigated whether bedtime procrastination was a predictor of self-reported sleep outcomes (experienced insufficient sleep, hours of sleep, fatigue during the day). Bedtime procrastination was negatively associated with self-regulation: people who scored lower on self-regulation variables reported more bedtime procrastination. Moreover, self-reported bedtime procrastination was related to general reports of insufficient sleep above and beyond demographics and self-regulation. Introducing a novel domain in which procrastinators experience problems, bedtime procrastination appears to be a prevalent and relevant issue that is associated with getting insufficient sleep.

  4. Birds introduced in new areas show rest disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Pierre-Yves; Salgado, Catalina Landeta; Muñoz, Fanny Paucar; Wikelski, Martin C

    2013-10-23

    All colonizing individuals have to settle in a novel, conspecific-free environment. The introduction process should be poorly compatible with a good rest. We compared the resting behaviour of radio-tagged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) experimentally translocated into new, conspecific-free areas (introduced individuals, n = 10), with that of translocated sparrows that settled in naturally established populations (controls, n = 5). Resting habits of introduced sparrows markedly differed from those of control birds: they did not vocalize before going to roost, they changed their roosting habitat and they roosted 24 ± 7 min later and departed 13 ± 4 min earlier from the roost, resulting in a 5% rest debt. Because colonizing a new environment is expected to require heightened cognitive and physical activities, which in turn are constrained by the quality and duration of rest, we hypothesize that rest disorders and resulting cognitive impairments of newly released individuals could functionally contribute to the low post-release survival observed in (re)introduction attempts.

  5. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  6. Effects of Introduced Materials in the Drift Scale Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L; Jones, RL

    2002-01-01

    Water samples previously acquired from superheated (>140 C) zones within hydrological test boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) show relatively high fluoride concentrations (5-66 ppm) and low pH (3.1-3.5) values. In these high temperature regions of the rock, water is present superheated vapor only--liquid water for sampling purposes is obtained during the sampling process by cooling. Based on data collected to date, it is evident that the source of the fluoride and low pH is from introduced man-made materials (Teflon(trademark) and/or Viton(trademark) fluoroelastomer) used in the test. The test materials may contribute fluoride either by degassing hydrogen fluoride (HF) directly to produce trace concentrations of HF gas (∼0.1 ppm) in the high temperature steam, or by leaching fluoride in the sampling tubes after condensation of the superheated steam. HF gas is known to be released from Viton(trademark) at high temperatures (Dupont Dow Elastomers L.L.C., Elkton, MD, personal communication) and the sample water compositions indicate near stoichiometric balance of hydrogen ion and fluoride ion, indicating dissolution of HF gas into the aqueous phase. These conclusions are based on a series of water samples collected to determine if the source of the fluoride is from the degradation of materials originally installed to facilitate measurements. Analyses of these water samples show that the source of the fluoride is the introduced materials, that is the Viton(trademark) packers used to isolate test zones and/or Teflon(trademark) tubing used to draw water and steam from the test zones. In particular, water samples collected from borehole (BH) 72 high temperatures (∼ 170 C) prior to introduction of any Viton(trademark) or Teflon(trademark) show pH Values (4.8 to 5.5) and fluoride concentrations well below 1 ppm over a period of six months. These characteristics are typical of condensing DST steam that contains only some dissolved carbon dioxide generated by water

  7. Labeling of Neuronal Receptors and Transporters with Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; Blakely, Randy D.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to efficiently visualize protein targets in cells is a fundamental goal in biological research. Recently, quantum dots (QDots) have emerged as a powerful class of fluorescent probes for labeling membrane proteins in living cells due to breakthrough advances in QDot surface chemistry and biofunctionalization strategies. This review discusses the increasing use of QDots for fluorescence imaging of neuronal receptors and transporters. The readers are briefly introduced to QDot structure, photophysical properties, and common synthetic routes towards the generation of water-soluble QDots. The next section highlights several reports of QDot application that seek to unravel molecular aspects of neuronal receptor and transporter regulation and trafficking. We close with a prospectus of the future of derivatized QDots in neurobiological and pharmacological research. PMID:22887823

  8. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  9. Labelling of immunoglobulins with metal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budsky, F.; Prokop, J.; Hradil, M.

    1989-01-01

    The general principles are briefly described of labelling immunoglobulins with metal radionuclides. Bicyclic anhydrides cDTPAA and cEDTAA were selected for experiments by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez near Prague. The compounds show sufficient reactivity to immunoglobulins and can be stored in an evacuated dessicator with calcium chloride at laboratory temperature for an unlimited time. The procedure is described of the preparation of the two anhydrides and of their labelling with 111 In and 99m Tc. For both radionuclides, favourable results have been obtained in labelling immunoglobulins, which creates preconditions for the introduction of immunoscintigraphy in Czechoslovak nuclear medicine. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 13 refs

  10. Synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Reaction of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation, isotopic exchange with enriched tritium water, catalytic heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium, hydrogenolysis as applied to synthesis of plants labelled by tritium were studied. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, fusicoccins - representatives of the basic hormones of plants - were objects of investigations. In dependence on synthesis method compounds labelled by tritium were prepared with molar radioactivity from 5 up to 155 Ci/mmol. Order of universal approaches to synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium was formulated [ru

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  15. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  16. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  19. Do Consumers Want More Nutritional and Health Information on Wine Labels? Insights from the EU and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Annunziata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol launched in 2010 by the World Health Organization includes, amongst several areas of recommended actions, providing consumer information about, and labelling, alcoholic beverages to indicate alcohol-related harm. Labelling requirements worldwide for alcoholic drinks are currently quite diverse and somewhat limited compared to labelling on food products and on tobacco. In this context, the current paper contributes to the academic and political debate on the inclusion of nutritional and health information on wine labelling, providing some insights into consumer interest in, and preferences for, such information in four core wine-producing and -consuming countries: Italy, France, Spain, and the United States of America. A rating-based conjoint analysis was performed in order to ascertain consumer preferences for different formats of additional information on wine labels, and a segmentation of the sample was performed to determine the existence of homogeneous groups of consumers in relation to the degrees of usefulness attached to the nutritional and health information on wine labels. Our results highlight the interest expressed by European and United States consumers for introducing nutrition and health information on wine labels. However, the results of conjoint analysis show some significant differences among stated preferences of the information delivery modes in different countries. In addition, segmentation analysis reveal the existence of significant differences between consumer groups with respect to their interest in receiving additional information on wine labels. These differences are not only linked to the geographic origin of the consumers, or to socio-demographic variables, but are also related to wine consumption habits, attitudes towards nutritional information, and the degree of involvement with wine. This heterogeneity of consumer preferences indicates a need for a careful

  20. Do Consumers Want More Nutritional and Health Information on Wine Labels? Insights from the EU and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo; Mariani, Angela

    2016-07-07

    The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol launched in 2010 by the World Health Organization includes, amongst several areas of recommended actions, providing consumer information about, and labelling, alcoholic beverages to indicate alcohol-related harm. Labelling requirements worldwide for alcoholic drinks are currently quite diverse and somewhat limited compared to labelling on food products and on tobacco. In this context, the current paper contributes to the academic and political debate on the inclusion of nutritional and health information on wine labelling, providing some insights into consumer interest in, and preferences for, such information in four core wine-producing and -consuming countries: Italy, France, Spain, and the United States of America. A rating-based conjoint analysis was performed in order to ascertain consumer preferences for different formats of additional information on wine labels, and a segmentation of the sample was performed to determine the existence of homogeneous groups of consumers in relation to the degrees of usefulness attached to the nutritional and health information on wine labels. Our results highlight the interest expressed by European and United States consumers for introducing nutrition and health information on wine labels. However, the results of conjoint analysis show some significant differences among stated preferences of the information delivery modes in different countries. In addition, segmentation analysis reveal the existence of significant differences between consumer groups with respect to their interest in receiving additional information on wine labels. These differences are not only linked to the geographic origin of the consumers, or to socio-demographic variables, but are also related to wine consumption habits, attitudes towards nutritional information, and the degree of involvement with wine. This heterogeneity of consumer preferences indicates a need for a careful consideration of wine