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Sample records for intrinsic protein family

  1. Arsenite induces apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells by altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by activating intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Santosh; Shi Yongli; Wang Feng; Wang He

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental exposure to arsenic is an important public health issue. The effects of arsenic on different tissues and organs have been intensively studied. However, the effects of arsenic on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have not been reported. This study is designed to investigate the cell death process caused by arsenite and its related underlying mechanisms on MSCs. The rationale is that absorbed arsenic in the blood circulation can reach to the bone marrow and may affect the cell survival of MSCs. Methods: MSCs of passage 1 were purchased from Tulane University, grown till 70% confluency level and plated according to the experimental requirements followed by treatment with arsenite at various concentrations and time points. Arsenite (iAs III ) induced cytotoxic effects were confirmed by cell viability and cell cycle analysis. For the presence of canonic apoptosis markers; DNA damage, exposure of intramembrane phosphotidylserine, protein and m-RNA expression levels were analyzed. Results: iAs III induced growth inhibition, G2-M arrest and apoptotic cell death in MSCs, the apoptosis induced by iAs III in the cultured MSCs was, via altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by involving intrinsic pathway. Conclusion: iAs III can induce apoptosis in bone marrow-derived MSCs via Bcl-2 family proteins, regulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the multipotency of MSC, acting as progenitor cells for a variety of connective tissues including bone, adipose, cartilage and muscle, these effects of arsenic may be important in assessing the health risk of the arsenic compounds and understanding the mechanisms of arsenic-induced harmful effects.

  2. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  3. The intrinsically disordered structural platform of the plant defence hub protein RPM1-interacting protein 4 provides insights into its mode of action in the host-pathogen interface and evolution of the nitrate-induced domain protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolin; Greenwood, David R; Templeton, Matthew D; Libich, David S; McGhie, Tony K; Xue, Bin; Yoon, Minsoo; Cui, Wei; Kirk, Christopher A; Jones, William T; Uversky, Vladimir N; Rikkerink, Erik H A

    2014-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana (At) RPM1-interacting protein 4 (RIN4), targeted by many defence-suppressing bacterial type III effectors and monitored by several resistance proteins, regulates plant immune responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and type III effectors. Little is known about the overall protein structure of AtRIN4, especially in its unbound form, and the relevance of structure to its diverse biological functions. AtRIN4 contains two nitrate-induced (NOI) domains and is a member of the NOI family. Using experimental and bioinformatic approaches, we demonstrate that the unbound AtRIN4 is intrinsically disordered under physiological conditions. The intrinsically disordered polypeptide chain of AtRIN4 is interspersed with molecular recognition features (MoRFs) and anchor-identified long-binding regions, potentially allowing it to undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to partner(s). A poly-l-proline II structure, often responsible for protein recognition, is also identified in AtRIN4. By performing bioinformatics analyses on RIN4 homologues from different plant species and the NOI proteins from Arabidopsis, we infer the conservation of intrinsic disorder, MoRFs and long-binding regions of AtRIN4 in other plant species and the NOI family. Intrinsic disorder and MoRFs could provide RIN4 proteins with the binding promiscuity and plasticity required to act as hubs in a pivotal position within plant defence signalling cascades. © 2014 FEBS.

  4. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  5. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  6. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  7. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding......Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... proteins, and address why the flexibility afforded by disorder is mechanistically important. Intrinsically disordered regions are present in many common classes of membrane proteins including ion channels and transporters; G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine...

  8. Frustration-induced protein intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-03-14

    Spontaneous folding into a specific native structure is the most important property of protein to perform their biological functions within organisms. Spontaneous folding is understood on the basis of an energy landscape picture based on the minimum frustration principle. Therefore, frustration seemingly only leads to protein functional disorder. However, frustration has recently been suggested to have a function in allosteric regulation. Functional frustration has the possibility to be a key to our deeper understanding of protein function. To explore another functional frustration, we theoretically examined structural frustration, which is designed to induce intrinsic disorder of a protein and its function through the coupled folding and binding. We extended the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton model to take into account a frustration effect. With the model, we analyzed the binding part of neuron-restrictive silencer factor and showed that designed structural frustration in it induces intrinsic disorder. Furthermore, we showed that the folding and the binding are cooperative in interacting with a target protein. The cooperativity enables an intrinsically disordered protein to exhibit a sharp switch-like folding response to binding chemical potential change. Through this switch-like response, the structural frustration may contribute to the regulation function of interprotein interaction of the intrinsically disordered protein.

  9. A new family of intrinsically disordered proteins: structural characterization of the major phasin PhaF from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maestro

    Full Text Available Phasins are intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoat4e (PHA-associated proteins involved in the stabilization of these bacterial carbon storage granules. Despite its importance in PHA metabolism and regulation, only few reports have focused so far on the structure of these proteins. In this work we have investigated the structure and stability of the PhaF phasin from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a protein that is involved in PHA granule stabilization and distribution to daughter cells upon cell division. A structural, three-dimensional model of the protein was built from homology modeling procedures and consensus secondary structure predictions. The model predicts that PhaF is an elongated protein, with a long, amphipathic N-terminal helix with PHA binding capacity, followed by a short leucine zipper involved in protein oligomerization and a superhelical C-terminal domain wrapped around the chromosomal DNA. Hydrodynamic, spectroscopical and thermodynamic experiments validated the model and confirmed both that free PhaF is a tetramer in solution and that most part of the protein is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its ligands. The results lay a molecular basis for the explanation of the biological role of PhaF and, along with an exhaustive analysis of phasin sequence databases, suggest that intrinsic disorder and oligomerization through coiled-coils may be a widespread mechanism among these proteins.

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  11. Computer Simulations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Chatterjee, Prathit; Ham, Sihyun

    2017-05-01

    The investigation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is a new frontier in structural and molecular biology that requires a new paradigm to connect structural disorder to function. Molecular dynamics simulations and statistical thermodynamics potentially offer ideal tools for atomic-level characterizations and thermodynamic descriptions of this fascinating class of proteins that will complement experimental studies. However, IDPs display sensitivity to inaccuracies in the underlying molecular mechanics force fields. Thus, achieving an accurate structural characterization of IDPs via simulations is a challenge. It is also daunting to perform a configuration-space integration over heterogeneous structural ensembles sampled by IDPs to extract, in particular, protein configurational entropy. In this review, we summarize recent efforts devoted to the development of force fields and the critical evaluations of their performance when applied to IDPs. We also survey recent advances in computational methods for protein configurational entropy that aim to provide a thermodynamic link between structural disorder and protein activity.

  12. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here, I specifically discuss the feasibility of developing osmotic biomimetic MIP membranes, but the technical issues are of general concern in the design of biomimetic membranes capable of supporting selective transmembrane fluxes....

  13. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  14. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David J; Houser, Justin R; Hayden, Carl C; Sherman, Michael B; Lafer, Eileen M; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2015-07-24

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  15. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, whereas vertebrates contain two to four genes. In cnidarians, the gene appears to encode a secreted protein, but transmembrane isoforms of the protein have also evolved, and in many species, alternative splicing facilitates the expression of both transmembrane and secreted isoforms. In most species......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...

  16. Helical propensity in an intrinsically disordered protein accelerates ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per

    2014-01-01

    domain of the activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) is intrinsically disordered and folds upon binding to the nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of the CREB binding protein. A number of mutants was designed that selectively perturbs the amount of secondary structure......Many intrinsically disordered proteins fold upon binding to other macromolecules. The secondary structure present in the well-ordered complex is often formed transiently in the unbound state. The consequence of such transient structure for the binding process is, however, not clear. The activation...... the notion of preformed secondary structure as an important determinant for molecular recognition in intrinsically disordered proteins....

  17. Lipid Directed Intrinsic Membrane Protein Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Thompson, James R.; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for direct reconstitution of membrane proteins during giant vesicle formation. We show that it is straightforward to create a tissue-like giant vesicle film swelled with membrane protein using aquaporin SoPIP2;1 as an illustration. These vesicles can also be easily h...

  18. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  19. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor...... or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix...... will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make...

  20. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell...... to development of plants with levated arsenic tolerance. Plants with the ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic could find its use in soil remediation while crop plants with efficient arsenic detoxification mechanisms could be used for food production in areas polluted with arsenic....

  1. Brain expressed and X-linked (Bex proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs and form new signaling hubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Fernandez

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are abundant in complex organisms. Due to their promiscuous nature and their ability to adopt several conformations IDPs constitute important points of network regulation. The family of Brain Expressed and X-linked (Bex proteins consists of 5 members in humans (Bex1-5. Recent reports have implicated Bex proteins in transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways involved in neurodegeneration, cancer, cell cycle and tumor growth. However, structural and biophysical data for this protein family is almost non-existent. We used bioinformatics analyses to show that Bex proteins contain long regions of intrinsic disorder which are conserved across all members. Moreover, we confirmed the intrinsic disorder by circular dichroism spectroscopy of Bex1 after expression and purification in E. coli. These observations strongly suggest that Bex proteins constitute a new group of IDPs. Based on these findings, together with the demonstrated promiscuity of Bex proteins and their involvement in different signaling pathways, we propose that Bex family members play important roles in the formation of protein network hubs.

  2. The netrin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Sathyanath; Kennedy, Timothy E

    2009-01-01

    The name netrin is derived from the Sanskrit Netr, meaning 'guide'. Netrins are a family of extracellular proteins that direct cell and axon migration during embryogenesis. Three secreted netrins (netrins 1, 3 and 4), and two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins, netrins G1 and G2, have been identified in mammals. The secreted netrins are bifunctional, acting as attractants for some cell types and repellents for others. Receptors for the secreted netrins include the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) family, the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM), and the UNC-5 homolog family: Unc5A, B, C and D in mammals. Netrin Gs do not appear to interact with these receptors, but regulate synaptic interactions between neurons by binding to the transmembrane netrin G ligands NGL1 and 2. The chemotropic function of secreted netrins has been best characterized with regard to axon guidance during the development of the nervous system. Extending axons are tipped by a flattened, membranous structure called the growth cone. Multiple extracellular guidance cues direct axonal growth cones to their ultimate targets where synapses form. Such cues can be locally derived (short-range), or can be secreted diffusible cues that allow target cells to signal axons from a distance (long-range). The secreted netrins function as short-range and long-range guidance cues in different circumstances. In addition to directing cell migration, functional roles for netrins have been identified in the regulation of cell adhesion, the maturation of cell morphology, cell survival and tumorigenesis.

  3. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen

    2017-05-11

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a structured protein, while the Interaction between two IDPs is poorly understood. In this study, we combined NMR, smFRET, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to characterize the interaction between two IDPs, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of protein 4.1G and the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. It is revealed that CTD and NuMA form a fuzzy complex with remaining structural disorder. Multiple binding sites on both proteins were identified by MD and mutagenesis studies. Our study provides an atomic scenario in which two IDPs bearing multiple binding sites interact with each other in dynamic equilibrium. The combined approach employed here could be widely applicable for investigating IDPs and their dynamic interactions.

  4. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  5. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

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    Walter Basile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC and Drosophila (high GC. GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  6. Phosphorylation of Intrinsically Disordered Regions in Remorin Proteins

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    Macarena eMarín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific remorin proteins reside in subdomains of plasma membranes, originally termed membrane rafts. They probably facilitate cellular signal transduction by direct interaction with signalling proteins such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and may dynamically modulate their lateral segregation within plasma membranes. Recent evidence suggests such functions of remorins during plant-microbe interactions and innate immune responses, where differential phosphorylation of some of these proteins has been described to be dependent on the perception of the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP flg22 and the presence of the NBS-LRR resistance protein RPM1. A number of specifically phosphorylated residues in their highly variable and intrinsically disordered N-terminal regions have been identified. Sequence diversity of these evolutionary distinct domains suggests that remorins may serve a wide range of biological functions. Here, we describe patterns and features of intrinsic disorder in remorin protein and discuss possible functional implications of phosphorylation within these rapidly evolving domains.

  7. Length-dependent prediction of protein intrinsic disorder

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    Dunker A Keith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the functional importance of intrinsically disordered proteins or protein regions, prediction of intrinsic protein disorder from amino acid sequence has become an area of active research as witnessed in the 6th experiment on Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP6. Since the initial work by Romero et al. (Identifying disordered regions in proteins from amino acid sequences, IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw., 1997, our group has developed several predictors optimized for long disordered regions (>30 residues with prediction accuracy exceeding 85%. However, these predictors are less successful on short disordered regions (≤30 residues. A probable cause is a length-dependent amino acid compositions and sequence properties of disordered regions. Results We proposed two new predictor models, VSL2-M1 and VSL2-M2, to address this length-dependency problem in prediction of intrinsic protein disorder. These two predictors are similar to the original VSL1 predictor used in the CASP6 experiment. In both models, two specialized predictors were first built and optimized for short (≤30 residues and long disordered regions (>30 residues, respectively. A meta predictor was then trained to integrate the specialized predictors into the final predictor model. As the 10-fold cross-validation results showed, the VSL2 predictors achieved well-balanced prediction accuracies of 81% on both short and long disordered regions. Comparisons over the VSL2 training dataset via 10-fold cross-validation and a blind-test set of unrelated recent PDB chains indicated that VSL2 predictors were significantly more accurate than several existing predictors of intrinsic protein disorder. Conclusion The VSL2 predictors are applicable to disordered regions of any length and can accurately identify the short disordered regions that are often misclassified by our previous disorder predictors. The success of the VSL2 predictors

  8. Binding mechanisms of intrinsically disordered proteins: theory, simulation, and experiment

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    Luca Mollica

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed e.g. in the fly-casting hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit, are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  9. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in a Physics-Based World

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    Jianhan Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are a newly recognized class of functional proteins that rely on a lack of stable structure for function. They are highly prevalent in biology, play fundamental roles, and are extensively involved in human diseases. For signaling and regulation, IDPs often fold into stable structures upon binding to specific targets. The mechanisms of these coupled binding and folding processes are of significant importance because they underlie the organization of regulatory networks that dictate various aspects of cellular decision-making. This review first discusses the challenge in detailed experimental characterization of these heterogeneous and dynamics proteins and the unique and exciting opportunity for physics-based modeling to make crucial contributions, and then summarizes key lessons from recent de novo simulations of the structure and interactions of several regulatory IDPs.

  10. Random coil chemical shift for intrinsically disordered proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Brander, Søren; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2011-01-01

    Secondary chemical shift analysis is the main NMR method for detection of transiently formed secondary structure in intrinsically disordered proteins. The quality of the secondary chemical shifts is dependent on an appropriate choice of random coil chemical shifts. We report random coil chemical....... Temperature has a non-negligible effect on the (13)C random coil chemical shifts, so temperature coefficients are reported for the random coil chemical shifts to allow extrapolation to other temperatures. The pH dependence of the histidine random coil chemical shifts is investigated in a titration series...

  11. BQP35 is a novel member of the intrinsically unstructured protein (IUP) family which is a potential antigen for the sero-diagnosis of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Liu, Junlong; Ma, Miling; Rogniaux, Hélène; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong

    2012-07-06

    A new gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BQP35) was cloned by screening a merozoite cDNA expression library with infected sheep serum and using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1140bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 936bp encoding a 35-kDa predicted polypeptide with 311 amino acid residues. Comparison of BQP35 cDNA and genomic DNA sequences showed that BQP35 does not possess an intron. Recombinant BQP35 (rBQP35), expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, showed abnormally slow migration on SDS-PAGE. Gel shifting, amino acid sequence and in silico disorder region prediction indicated that BQP35 protein has characteristics of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). This is the first description of such proteins in the Babesia genus. BQP35 induced antibodies production as early as one week after Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection in sheep. No cross-reaction was observed with sera from sheep infected with other ovine piroplasms dominant in China, except with Babesia sp. Tianzhu. The interest of BQP35 as a diagnostic antigen is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Inhibitors of Biological Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions involving disordered partners have unique features and represent prominent targets in drug discovery processes. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs are involved in cellular regulation, signaling and control: they bind to multiple partners and these high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases. Disordered regions, terminal tails and flexible linkers are particularly abundant in DNA-binding proteins and play crucial roles in the affinity and specificity of DNA recognizing processes. Protein complexes involving IDPs are short-lived and typically involve short amino acid stretches bearing few “hot spots”, thus the identification of molecules able to modulate them can produce important lead compounds: in this scenario peptides and/or peptidomimetics, deriving from structure-based, combinatorial or protein dissection approaches, can play a key role as hit compounds. Here, we propose a panoramic review of the structural features of IDPs and how they regulate molecular recognition mechanisms focusing attention on recently reported drug-design strategies in the field of IDPs.

  13. Academic and Family Conditions Associated with Intrinsic Academic Motivation in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…

  14. Dancing Protein Clouds: The Strange Biology and Chaotic Physics of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-25

    Biologically active but floppy proteins represent a new reality of modern protein science. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and hybrid proteins containing ordered and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome. Functionally, they complement ordered proteins, and their conformational flexibility and structural plasticity allow them to perform impossible tricks and be engaged in biological activities that are inaccessible to well folded proteins with their unique structures. The major goals of this minireview are to show that, despite their simplified amino acid sequences, IDPs/IDPRs are complex entities often resembling chaotic systems, are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, and can be considered an important part of the structure-function continuum. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are everywhere, and are ubiquitously engaged in various interactions characterized by a wide spectrum of binding scenarios and an even wider spectrum of structural and functional outputs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Comprehensive large-scale assessment of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ian; Giollo, Manuel; Di Domenico, Tomás; Ferrari, Carlo; Zimmermann, Olav; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-15

    Intrinsically disordered regions are key for the function of numerous proteins. Due to the difficulties in experimental disorder characterization, many computational predictors have been developed with various disorder flavors. Their performance is generally measured on small sets mainly from experimentally solved structures, e.g. Protein Data Bank (PDB) chains. MobiDB has only recently started to collect disorder annotations from multiple experimental structures. MobiDB annotates disorder for UniProt sequences, allowing us to conduct the first large-scale assessment of fast disorder predictors on 25 833 different sequences with X-ray crystallographic structures. In addition to a comprehensive ranking of predictors, this analysis produced the following interesting observations. (i) The predictors cluster according to their disorder definition, with a consensus giving more confidence. (ii) Previous assessments appear over-reliant on data annotated at the PDB chain level and performance is lower on entire UniProt sequences. (iii) Long disordered regions are harder to predict. (iv) Depending on the structural and functional types of the proteins, differences in prediction performance of up to 10% are observed. The datasets are available from Web site at URL: http://mobidb.bio.unipd.it/lsd. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Fuzzy regions in an intrinsically disordered protein impair protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Antoine; Dosnon, Marion; Blocquel, David; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Das, Rahul K; Bonetti, Daniela; Gianni, Stefano; Fuxreiter, Monika; Longhi, Sonia; Bignon, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Despite the partial disorder-to-order transition that intrinsically disordered proteins often undergo upon binding to their partners, a considerable amount of residual disorder may be retained in the bound form, resulting in a fuzzy complex. Fuzzy regions flanking molecular recognition elements may enable partner fishing through non-specific, transient contacts, thereby facilitating binding, but may also disfavor binding through various mechanisms. So far, few computational or experimental studies have addressed the effect of fuzzy appendages on partner recognition by intrinsically disordered proteins. In order to shed light onto this issue, we used the interaction between the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein (NTAIL ) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein as model system. After binding to XD, the N-terminal region of NTAIL remains conspicuously disordered, with α-helical folding taking place only within a short molecular recognition element. To study the effect of the N-terminal fuzzy region on NTAIL /XD binding, we generated N-terminal truncation variants of NTAIL , and assessed their binding abilities towards XD. The results revealed that binding increases with shortening of the N-terminal fuzzy region, with this also being observed with hsp70 (another MeV NTAIL binding partner), and for the homologous NTAIL /XD pairs from the Nipah and Hendra viruses. Finally, similar results were obtained when the MeV NTAIL fuzzy region was replaced with a highly dissimilar artificial disordered sequence, supporting a sequence-independent inhibitory effect of the fuzzy region. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins and the Origins of Multicellular Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, A. Keith

    In simple multicellular organisms all of the cells are in direct contact with the surrounding milieu, whereas in complex multicellular organisms some cells are completely surrounded by other cells. Current phylogenetic trees indicate that complex multicellular organisms evolved independently from unicellular ancestors about 10 times, and only among the eukaryotes, including once for animals, twice each for green, red, and brown algae, and thrice for fungi. Given these multiple independent evolutionary lineages, we asked two questions: 1. Which molecular functions underpinned the evolution of multicellular organisms?; and, 2. Which of these molecular functions depend on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs)? Compared to unicellularity, multicellularity requires the advent of molecules for cellular adhesion, for cell-cell communication and for developmental programs. In addition, the developmental programs need to be regulated over space and time. Finally, each multicellular organism has cell-specific biochemistry and physiology. Thus, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms from unicellular ancestors required five new classes of functions. To answer the second question we used Key-words in Swiss Protein ranked for associations with predictions of protein structure or disorder. With a Z-score of 18.8 compared to random-function proteins, à differentiation was the biological process most strongly associated with IDPs. As expected from this result, large numbers of individual proteins associated with differentiation exhibit substantial regions of predicted disorder. For the animals for which there is the most readily available data all five of the underpinning molecular functions for multicellularity were found to depend critically on IDP-based mechanisms and other evidence supports these ideas. While the data are more sparse, IDPs seem to similarly underlie the five new classes of functions for plants and fungi as well, suggesting that IDPs were indeed

  18. An Extended Guinier Analysis for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenwei; Best, Robert B

    2018-03-21

    Guinier analysis allows model-free determination of the radius of gyration (R g ) of a biomolecule from X-ray or neutron scattering data, in the limit of very small scattering angles. Its range of validity is well understood for globular proteins, but is known to be more restricted for unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). We have used ensembles of disordered structures from molecular dynamics simulations to investigate which structural properties cause deviations from the Guinier approximation at small scattering angles. We find that the deviation from the Guinier approximation is correlated with the polymer scaling exponent ν describing the unfolded ensemble. We therefore introduce an empirical, ν-dependent, higher-order correction term, to augment the standard Guinier analysis. We test the new fitting scheme using all-atom simulation data for several IDPs and experimental data for both an IDP and a destabilized mutant of a folded protein. In all cases tested, we achieve an accuracy of the inferred R g within ∼3% of the true R g . The method is straightforward to implement and extends the range of validity to a maximum qR g of ∼2 versus ∼1.1 for Guinier analysis. Compared with the Guinier or Debye approaches, our method allows data from wider angles with lower noise to be used to analyze scattering data accurately. In addition to R g , our fitting scheme also yields estimates of the scaling exponent ν in excellent agreement with the reference ν determined from the underlying molecular ensemble. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. When job performance is all relative: how family motivation energizes effort and compensates for intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Menges, Jochen Immanuel; Tussing, DV; Wihler, A; Grant, A

    2017-01-01

    Supporting one's family is a major reason why many people work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications of family motivation. Drawing on theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, we propose that family motivation increases job performance by enhancing energy and reducing stress, and it is especially important when intrinsic motivation is lacking. Survey and diary data collected across multiple time points in a Mexican maquiladora generally support our ...

  20. Work-family and family-work conflict: does intrinsic-extrinsic satisfaction mediate the prediction of general job satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Martínez-De-Lecea, José-María Salinas; Carrasco-González, Ana-María

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the mediating role of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the relationship between the 2 dimensions of work-family conflict-family interfering with work (FIW) and work interfering with family (WIF)-and general job satisfaction. Step-by-step hierarchical regression analyses were carried out on a sample of 151 men and women from a Spanish public organization. The results confirmed the mediating role of intrinsic job satisfaction in the case of FIW. This highlights the importance of taking into account the level of satisfaction with the intrinsic facets of one's job as a measure for understanding why FIW has a negative impact on general job satisfaction.

  1. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-08-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains.

  2. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-re...

  3. Structural predictions of neurobiologically relevant G-protein coupled receptors and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Giulia; Dibenedetto, Domenica; Calandrini, Vania; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-09-15

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and intrinsic disordered proteins (IDPs) are key players for neuronal function and dysfunction. Unfortunately, their structural characterization is lacking in most cases. From one hand, no experimental structure has been determined for the two largest GPCRs subfamilies, both key proteins in neuronal pathways. These are the odorant (450 members out of 900 human GPCRs) and the bitter taste receptors (25 members) subfamilies. On the other hand, also IDPs structural characterization is highly non-trivial. They exist as dynamic, highly flexible structural ensembles that undergo conformational conversions on a wide range of timescales, spanning from picoseconds to milliseconds. Computational methods may be of great help to characterize these neuronal proteins. Here we review recent progress from our lab and other groups to develop and apply in silico methods for structural predictions of these highly relevant, fascinating and challenging systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metalloido-porins: Essentiality of Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins in metalloid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Diehn, Till Arvid; Bienert, Gerd Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Metalloids are a group of physiologically important elements ranging from the essential to the highly toxic. Arsenic, antimony, germanium, and tellurium are highly toxic to plants themselves and to consumers of metalloid-contaminated plants. Boron, silicon, and selenium fulfill essential or beneficial functions in plants. However, when present at high concentrations, boron and selenium cause toxicity symptoms that are detrimental to plant fitness and yield. Consequently, all plants require efficient membrane transport systems to control the uptake and extrusion of metalloids into or out of the plant and their distribution within the plant body. Several Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) that belong to the aquaporin plant water channel protein family facilitate the diffusion of uncharged metalloid species. Genetic, physiological, and molecular evidence is that NIPs from primitive to higher plants not only transport all environmentally important metalloids, but that these proteins have a major role in the uptake, translocation, and extrusion of metalloids in plants. As most of the metalloid-permeable NIP aquaporins are impermeable or are poorly permeable to water, these NIP channel proteins should be considered as physiologically essential metalloido-porins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The family of retinoblastoma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, P; Giordano, A

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of how the retinoblastoma family members, pRB/p105, pRB2/p130, and pRBL1/p107, regulate cellular properties has progressed significantly. Mechanisms have been described regarding how these proteins utilize properties of additional factors, such as histone deacetylases, to negatively regulate transcription. More importantly, the retinoblastoma proteins have been integrated within multiple cellular pathways, and a complex view has emerged on how the individual members respond to various external and internal stimuli. pRB/p105 is best described in its biochemical properties as well as in the resulting cellular functions. Less is known about pRB2/p130 and pRBL1/p107, but an improved map of their individual as well as redundant functions has been drawn over the last years. In this review we describe general aspects of the properties and functions of the three retinoblastoma family members and their protein-binding partners in cellular growth control.

  6. The lifestyle switch protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an intrinsically disordered protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Prehna

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case. Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling.

  7. Assembly of the intrinsic factor domains and oligomerization of the protein in the presence of cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Human intrinsic factor (IF) was purified from the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana by affinity chromatography. Cobalamin (Cbl) saturated protein was separated by gel filtration into peaks I and II, which contained according to SDS electrophoresis the 50 kDa full-length protein IF(50...

  8. Intrinsic disorder modulates protein self-assembly and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Alfonso; Kitchen, Craig; Kwan, Ann H; Sunde, Margaret; Dobson, Christopher M; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-05-01

    Protein molecules have evolved to adopt distinctive and well-defined functional and soluble states under physiological conditions. In some circumstances, however, proteins can self-assemble into fibrillar aggregates designated as amyloid fibrils. In vivo these processes are normally associated with severe pathological conditions but can sometimes have functional relevance. One such example is the hydrophobins, whose aggregation at air-water interfaces serves to create robust protein coats that help fungal spores to resist wetting and thus facilitate their dispersal in the air. We have performed multiscale simulations to address the molecular determinants governing the formation of functional amyloids by the class I fungal hydrophobin EAS. Extensive samplings of full-atom replica-exchange molecular dynamics and coarse-grained simulations have allowed us to identify factors that distinguish aggregation-prone from highly soluble states of EAS. As a result of unfavourable entropic terms, highly dynamical regions are shown to exert a crucial influence on the propensity of the protein to aggregate under different conditions. More generally, our findings suggest a key role that specific flexible structural elements can play to ensure the existence of soluble and functional states of proteins under physiological conditions.

  9. System-wide analysis reveals intrinsically disordered proteins are prone to ubiquitylation after misfolding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alex H M; Fang, Nancy N; Comyn, Sophie A; Gsponer, Jörg; Mayor, Thibault

    2013-09-01

    Damaged and misfolded proteins that are no longer functional in the cell need to be eliminated. Failure to do so might lead to their accumulation and aggregation, a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Protein quality control pathways play a major role in the degradation of these proteins, which is mediated mainly by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Despite significant focus on identifying ubiquitin ligases involved in these pathways, along with their substrates, a systems-level understanding of these pathways has been lacking. For instance, as misfolded proteins are rapidly ubiquitylated, unconjugated ubiquitin is rapidly depleted from the cell upon misfolding stress; yet it is unknown whether certain targets compete more efficiently to be ubiquitylated. Using a system-wide approach, we applied statistical and computational methods to identify characteristics enriched among proteins that are further ubiquitylated after heat shock. We discovered that distinct populations of structured and, surprisingly, intrinsically disordered proteins are prone to ubiquitylation. Proteomic analysis revealed that abundant and highly structured proteins constitute the bulk of proteins in the low-solubility fraction after heat shock, but only a portion is ubiquitylated. In contrast, ubiquitylated, intrinsically disordered proteins are enriched in the low-solubility fraction after heat shock. These proteins have a very low abundance in the cell, are rarely encoded by essential genes, and are enriched in binding motifs. In additional experiments, we confirmed that several of the identified intrinsically disordered proteins were ubiquitylated after heat shock and demonstrated for two of them that their disordered regions are important for ubiquitylation after heat shock. We propose that intrinsically disordered regions may be recognized by the protein quality control machinery and thereby facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins after heat shock.

  10. Virtual reality analysis of intrinsic protein geometry with applications to cis peptide planes

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yanzhen; Dai, Jin; Ilieva, Nevena; Niemi, Antti J.; Peng, Xubiao; He, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    A protein is traditionally visualised as a piecewise linear discrete curve, and its geometry is conventionally characterised by the extrinsically determined Ramachandran angles. However, a protein backbone has also two independent intrinsic geometric structures, due to the peptide planes and the side chains. Here we adapt and develop modern 3D virtual reality techniques to scrutinize the atomic geometry along a protein backbone, in the vicinity of a peptide plane. For this we compare backbone...

  11. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen P Graether

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration proteins (dehydrins are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y- and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggest multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins.

  12. Functional roles of intrinsic disorder in CRISPR-associated protein Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhihua; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-08-22

    Protein intrinsic disorder is an important characteristic commonly detected in multifunctional or RNA- and DNA-binding proteins. Due to their high conformational flexibility and solvent accessibility, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) execute diverse functions including interaction with multiple partners, and are frequently subjected to various post-translational modifications. Recent studies on the components comprising the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system have elucidated the crystal structure of Cas9 proteins and the mechanism by which the Cas9-sgRNA complex recognizes and cleaves its target DNA. Yet the extent and functional implications of intrinsic disorder in the Cas9 protein have never been fully assessed. Here, we present a comprehensive computational analysis based on both sequence and structural data in an attempt to investigate the roles of IDPRs in the functioning of Cas9 proteins of different origin. We conclude that among the functional roles of IDPRs in Cas9 proteins are recognition of the target DNA and mediation of nucleic acid and protein binding.

  13. Towards the Structural Characterization of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by SAXS and MD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Sato, Mamoru

    2011-01-01

    Dynamical structures of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and multi-domain proteins that include large ID regions between the domains are unable to be determined by such conventional methods as X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is suitable to determine low-resolution structures of proteins and protein complexes in solution, but the structural data on protein dynamics are averaged over the structural ensemble in protein solution. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel method, named MD-SAXS, of the combined use of SAXS and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to analyze protein dynamics in solution of multi-subunit protein complexes and multi-domain proteins toward the structural characterization of IDPs. Here we show validity of the method through the structural characterization of restriction Endonuclease EcoO109I.

  14. Novel Role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the Restriction of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 by the Cellular Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kristen L; Wasson, Peter; McFarlane, Steven; Tong, Lily; Brown, James R; Grant, Kyle G; Domingues, Patricia; Boutell, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is used by the intrinsic antiviral immune response to restrict viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Despite characterization of the host factors that rely on SUMOylation to exert their antiviral effects, the enzymes that mediate these SUMOylation events remain to be defined. We show that unconjugated SUMO levels are largely maintained throughout infection regardless of the presence of ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, in the absence of ICP0, high-molecular-weight SUMO-conjugated proteins do not accumulate if HSV-1 DNA does not replicate. These data highlight the continued importance for SUMO signaling throughout infection. We show that the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is upregulated during HSV-1 infection and localizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA. PIAS4 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry through SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent mechanisms that are destabilized by ICP0. In contrast, PIAS4 accumulates in replication compartments through SIM-independent mechanisms irrespective of ICP0 expression. Depletion of PIAS4 enhances the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, which is susceptible to restriction by the intrinsic antiviral immune response. The mechanisms of PIAS4-mediated restriction are synergistic with the restriction mechanisms of a characterized intrinsic antiviral factor, promyelocytic leukemia protein, and are antagonized by ICP0. We provide the first evidence that PIAS4 is an intrinsic antiviral factor. This novel role for PIAS4 in intrinsic antiviral immunity contrasts with the known roles of PIAS proteins as suppressors of innate immunity. Posttranslational modifications with small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins regulate multiple aspects of host immunity and viral replication. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of SUMO ligases is predominantly associated with the suppression of

  15. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact wi...

  16. High dimensional and high resolution pulse sequences for backbone resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, A.; Kozminski, W.; Šanderová, Hana; Krásný, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2012), s. 329-337 ISSN 0925-2738 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Intrinsically disordered proteins * Non-uniform sampling * Backbone assignment Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2012

  17. DNA origami scaffold for studying intrinsically disordered proteins of the nuclear pore complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketterer, Philip; Ananth, Adithya N; Laman Trip, Diederik S; Mishra, Ankur; Bertosin, Eva; Ganji, Mahipal; van der Torre, Jaco; Onck, Patrick; Dietz, Hendrik; Dekker, Cees

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the gatekeeper for nuclear transport in eukaryotic cells. A key component of the NPC is the central shaft lined with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) known as FG-Nups, which control the selective molecular traffic. Here, we present an approach to realize

  18. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  19. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact......-domain proteins catalyse the formation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, whereas others appear to target ubiquitinated proteins for degradation and interact with chaperones. Hence, by binding to the 26S proteasome the UBL-domain proteins seem to tailor and direct the basic proteolytic functions of the particle...

  20. Protein and lipid MALDI profiles classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Chong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry (MS has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of common solid tumors. Using recently developed MALDI matrices for lipid profiling, we evaluated whether direct tissue MALDI MS analysis on proteins and lipids may classify human breast cancer samples according to the intrinsic subtype. Methods Thirty-four pairs of frozen, resected breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS analysis. Sinapinic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Results Protein and lipid profiles distinguish cancer from adjacent normal tissue samples with the median prediction accuracy of 94.1%. Luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by permutation P values less than 0.01 for 0.632+ bootstrap cross-validated misclassification rates with all classifiers tested. Discriminatory proteins and lipids were useful for classifying tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in random test sets. Conclusions Protein and lipid profiles accurately distinguish tumor from adjacent normal tissue and classify breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtype.

  1. Binding induced conformational changes of proteins correlate with their intrinsic fluctuations: a case study of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Ozlem

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How antibodies recognize and bind to antigens can not be totally explained by rigid shape and electrostatic complimentarity models. Alternatively, pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis states that the native state of an antibody is not defined by a single rigid conformation but instead with an ensemble of similar conformations that co-exist at equilibrium. Antigens bind to one of the preferred conformations making this conformation more abundant shifting the equilibrium. Results Here, two antibodies, a germline antibody of 36–65 Fab and a monoclonal antibody, SPE7 are studied in detail to elucidate the mechanism of antibody-antigen recognition and to understand how a single antibody recognizes different antigens. An elastic network model, Anisotropic Network Model (ANM is used in the calculations. Pre-existing equilibrium is not restricted to apply to antibodies. Intrinsic fluctuations of eight proteins, from different classes of proteins, such as enzymes, binding and transport proteins are investigated to test the suitability of the method. The intrinsic fluctuations are compared with the experimentally observed ligand induced conformational changes of these proteins. The results show that the intrinsic fluctuations obtained by theoretical methods correlate with structural changes observed when a ligand is bound to the protein. The decomposition of the total fluctuations serves to identify the different individual modes of motion, ranging from the most cooperative ones involving the overall structure, to the most localized ones. Conclusion Results suggest that the pre-equilibrium concept holds for antibodies and the promiscuity of antibodies can also be explained this hypothesis: a limited number of conformational states driven by intrinsic motions of an antibody might be adequate to bind to different antigens.

  2. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level.

  3. Enhanced Boron Tolerance in Plants Mediated by Bidirectional Transport Through Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-02-23

    High boron (B) concentration is toxic to plants that limit plant productivity. Recent studies have shown the involvement of the members of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family in controlling B transport. Here, we have provided experimental evidences showing the bidirectional transport activity of rice OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6. Boron transport ability of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 were displayed in yeast HD9 mutant strain (∆fps1∆acr3∆ycf1) as a result of increased B sensitivity, influx and accumulation by OsPIP1;3, and rapid efflux activity by OsPIP2;6. RT-PCR analysis showed strong upregulation of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 transcripts in roots by B toxicity. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 exhibited enhanced tolerance to B toxicity. Furthermore, B concentration was significantly increased after 2 and 3 hours of tracer boron ((10)B) treatment. Interestingly, a rapid efflux of (10)B from the roots of the transgenic plants was observed within 1 h of (10)B treatment. Boron tolerance in OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 lines was inhibited by aquaporin inhibitors, silver nitrate and sodium azide. Our data proved that OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 are indeed involved in both influx and efflux of boron transport. Manipulation of these PIPs could be highly useful in improving B tolerance in crops grown in high B containing soils.

  4. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

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    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  5. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haining; Ouyang, Shu; Egan, Amy; Nobuta, Kan; Haas, Brian J; Zhu, Wei; Gu, Xun; Silva, Joana C; Meyers, Blake C; Buell, C Robin

    2008-02-19

    High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb) and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Collectively, these data suggest that while co

  6. Major intrinsic proteins and arsenic transport in plants: new players and their potential role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Jahn, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of As in the environment re arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)]. As(V) is a nonfunctional phosphate analog that enters the food chain via plant phosphate transporters. Recently, evidence was provided that uptake of As(III)--the second most abundant As species in soils--is mediated by plant nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), a subfamily of plant major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Specific NIPs are also essential for the uptake of the metalloids boron and silicon and aquaglyceroporins from microbes and mammals were shown to be the major routes of As uptake. Therefore As(III) transport through MIPs is a conserved and ancient feature. In this chapter we summarize the current view on As transport in plants and address the potential physiological significance of As(III) transport through NIPs.

  7. p53 Proteoforms and Intrinsic Disorder: An Illustration of the Protein Structure–Function Continuum Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is one of the most studied proteins, p53 continues to be an enigma. This protein has numerous biological functions, possesses intrinsically disordered regions crucial for its functionality, can form both homo-tetramers and isoform-based hetero-tetramers, and is able to interact with many binding partners. It contains numerous posttranslational modifications, has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage or alternative initiation of translation, and is commonly mutated in different cancers. Therefore, p53 serves as an important illustration of the protein structure–function continuum concept, where the generation of multiple proteoforms by various mechanisms defines the ability of this protein to have a multitude of structurally and functionally different states. Considering p53 in the light of a proteoform-based structure–function continuum represents a non-canonical and conceptually new contemplation of structure, regulation, and functionality of this important protein. PMID:27834926

  8. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  9. Proteins with Intrinsically Disordered Domains Are Preferentially Recruited to Polyglutamine Aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie P Wear

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein aggregation is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregates formed by polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded proteins, such as Huntingtin, adopt amyloid-like structures that are resistant to denaturation. We used a novel purification strategy to isolate aggregates formed by human Huntingtin N-terminal fragments with expanded polyQ tracts from both yeast and mammalian (PC-12 cells. Using mass spectrometry we identified the protein species that are trapped within these polyQ aggregates. We found that proteins with very long intrinsically-disordered (ID domains (≥ 100 amino acids and RNA-binding proteins were disproportionately recruited into aggregates. The removal of the ID domains from selected proteins was sufficient to eliminate their recruitment into polyQ aggregates. We also observed that several neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins were reproducibly trapped within the polyQ aggregates purified from mammalian cells. Many of these proteins have large ID domains and are found in neuronal inclusions in their respective diseases. Our study indicates that neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins are particularly vulnerable to recruitment into polyQ aggregates via their ID domains. Also, the high frequency of ID domains in RNA-binding proteins may explain why RNA-binding proteins are frequently found in pathological inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Powder Model of the Intrinsically Disordered Protein Tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichou, Yann; Heyden, Matthias; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Weik, Martin; Tobias, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    The tau protein, whose aggregates are involved in Alzheimer's disease, is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that regulates microtubule activity in neurons. An IDP lacks a single, well-defined structure and, rather, constantly exchanges among multiple conformations. In order to study IDP dynamics, the combination of experimental techniques, such as neutron scattering, and computational techniques, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, is a powerful approach. Amorphous hydrated powder samples have been very useful for studying protein internal dynamics experimentally, e.g., using neutron scattering. Thus, there is demand for realistic in silico models of hydrated protein powders. Here we present an MD simulation analysis of a powder hydrated at 0.4 g water/g protein of the IDP tau in the temperature range 20-300 K. By comparing with neutron scattering data, we identify the protein-water interface as the predominant feature determining IDP dynamics. The so-called protein dynamical transition is shown to be attenuated, but not suppressed, in the parts of the protein that are not exposed to the solvent. In addition, we find similarities in the mean-squared displacements of the core of a globular protein and "dry" clusters formed by the IDP in hydrated powders. Thus, the ps to ns dynamics of proteins in hydrated powders originate mainly from those residues in contact with solvent. We propose that by measuring the dynamics of protein assemblies, such as aggregates, one might assess qualitatively their state of hydration.

  11. Inhibition of the intrinsic factor X activating complex by protein S: evidence for a specific binding of protein S to factor VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent nonenzymatic anticoagulant protein that acts as a cofactor to activated protein C. Recently it was shown that protein S inhibits the prothrombinase reaction independent of activated protein C. In this study, we show that protein S can also inhibit the intrinsic

  12. The Impact of O-Glycan Chemistry on the Stability of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prates, Erica T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guan, Xiaoyang [University of Colorado; Li, Yaohao [University of Colorado; Wang, Xinfeng [University of Colorado; Chaffey, Patrick K. [University of Colorado; Skaf, Munir S. [University of Campinas; Tan, Zhongping [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Protein glycosylation is a diverse post-translational modification that serves myriad biological functions. O-linked glycans in particular vary widely in extent and chemistry in eukaryotes, with secreted proteins from fungi and yeast commonly exhibiting O-mannosylation in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins, likely for proteolysis protection, among other functions. However, it is not well understood why mannose is often the preferred glycan, and more generally, if the neighboring protein sequence and glycan have coevolved to protect against proteolysis in glycosylated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Here, we synthesized variants of a model IDP, specifically a natively O-mannosylated linker from a fungal enzyme, with a-O-linked mannose, glucose, and galactose moieties, along with a non-glycosylated linker. Upon exposure to thermolysin, O-mannosylation, by far, provides the highest extent of proteolysis protection. To explain this observation, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were conducted, revealing that the axial configuration of the C2-hydroxyl group (2-OH) of a-mannose adjacent to the glycan-peptide bond strongly influences the conformational features of the linker. Specifically, a-mannose restricts the torsions of the IDP main chain more than other glycans whose equatorial 2-OH groups exhibit interactions that favor perpendicular glycan-protein backbone orientation. We suggest that IDP stiffening due to O-mannosylation impairs protease action, with contributions from protein-glycan interactions, protein flexibility, and protein stability. Our results further imply that resistance to proteolysis is an important driving force for evolutionary selection of a-mannose in eukaryotic IDPs, and more broadly, that glycan motifs for proteolysis protection likely coevolve with the protein sequence to which they attach.

  13. A novel hepacivirus with an unusually long and intrinsically disordered NS5A protein in a wild Old World primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D; Lara, James; Purdy, Michael A; Khudyakov, Yury; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Switzer, William M; Chapman, Colin A; Hughes, Austin L; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Goldberg, Tony L

    2013-08-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B; family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus) has been studied in New World primates as a model for human hepatitis C virus infection, but the distribution of GBV-B and its relatives in nature has remained obscure. Here, we report the discovery of a novel and highly divergent GBV-B-like virus in an Old World monkey, the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), in Uganda. The new virus, guereza hepacivirus (GHV), clusters phylogenetically with GBV-B and recently described hepaciviruses infecting African bats and North American rodents, and it shows evidence of ancient recombination with these other hepaciviruses. Direct sequencing of reverse-transcribed RNA from blood plasma from three of nine colobus monkeys yielded near-complete GHV genomes, comprising two distinct viral variants. The viruses contain an exceptionally long nonstructural 5A (NS5A) gene, approximately half of which codes for a protein with no discernible homology to known proteins. Computational structure-based analyses indicate that the amino terminus of the GHV NS5A protein may serve a zinc-binding function, similar to the NS5A of other viruses within the family Flaviviridae. However, the 521-amino-acid carboxy terminus is intrinsically disordered, reflecting an unusual degree of structural plasticity and polyfunctionality. These findings shed new light on the natural history and evolution of the hepaciviruses and on the extent of structural variation within the Flaviviridae.

  14. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  15. Amphipathic helical peptides hamper protein-protein interactions of the intrinsically disordered chromatin nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Rizzuti, Bruno; Abián, Olga; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Iovanna, Juan L; Neira, José L

    2018-03-09

    NUPR1 is a multifunctional intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved, among other functions, in chromatin remodelling, and development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It interacts with several biomolecules through hydrophobic patches around residues Ala33 and Thr68. The drug trifluoperazine (TFP), which hampers PDAC development in xenografted mice, also binds to those regions. Because of the large size of the hot-spot interface of NUPR1, small molecules could not be adequate to modulate its functions. We explored how amphipathic helical-designed peptides were capable of interacting with wild-type NUPR1 and the Thr68Gln mutant, inhibiting the interaction with NUPR1 protein partners. We used in vitro biophysical techniques (fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)), in silico studies (docking and molecular dynamics (MD)), and in cellulo protein ligation assays (PLAs) to study the interaction. Peptide dissociation constants towards wild-type NUPR1 were ~ 3 μM, whereas no interaction was observed with the Thr68Gln mutant. Peptides interacted with wild-type NUPR1 residues around Ala33 and residues at the C terminus, as shown by NMR. The computational results clarified the main determinants of the interactions, providing a mechanism for the ligand-capture that explains why peptide binding was not observed for Thr68Gln mutant. Finally, the in cellulo assays indicated that two out of four peptides inhibited the interaction of NUPR1 with the C-terminal region of the Polycomb RING protein 1 (C-RING1B). Designed peptides can be used as lead compounds to inhibit NUPR1 interactions. Peptides may be exploited as drugs to target IDPs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains. PMID:20509167

  17. Prediction of Spontaneous Protein Deamidation from Sequence-Derived Secondary Structure and Intrinsic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ramiro Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Asparagine residues in proteins undergo spontaneous deamidation, a post-translational modification that may act as a molecular clock for the regulation of protein function and turnover. Asparagine deamidation is modulated by protein local sequence, secondary structure and hydrogen bonding. We present NGOME, an algorithm able to predict non-enzymatic deamidation of internal asparagine residues in proteins in the absence of structural data, using sequence-based predictions of secondary structure and intrinsic disorder. Compared to previous algorithms, NGOME does not require three-dimensional structures yet yields better predictions than available sequence-only methods. Four case studies of specific proteins show how NGOME may help the user identify deamidation-prone asparagine residues, often related to protein gain of function, protein degradation or protein misfolding in pathological processes. A fifth case study applies NGOME at a proteomic scale and unveils a correlation between asparagine deamidation and protein degradation in yeast. NGOME is freely available as a webserver at the National EMBnet node Argentina, URL: http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/ in the subpage "Protein and nucleic acid structure and sequence analysis".

  18. Relation between Protein Intrinsic Normal Mode Weights and Pre-Existing Conformer Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Beytullah; Ozdemir, E Sila; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2017-04-20

    Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium toward the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed. The correlation between the normalized mode weight ratios and the kinetic rate ratios is around 83% on a set of 11 non-enzyme proteins and around 59% on a set of 17 enzymes. The results are suggestive that mode motions carry intrinsic relations with thermodynamics and kinetics of the proteins.

  19. First Experimental Assessment of Protein Intrinsic Disorder Involvement in an RNA Virus Natural Adaptive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Justine; Barra, Amandine; Walter, Jocelyne; Millot, Pauline; Hébrard, Eugénie; Moury, Benoît; Michon, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is defined as a lack of stable structure in physiological conditions. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are highly abundant in some RNA virus proteomes. Low topological constraints exerted on IDRs are expected to buffer the effect of numerous deleterious mutations and could be related to the remarkable adaptive potential of RNA viruses to overcome resistance of their host. To experimentally test this hypothesis in a natural pathosystem, a set of four variants of Potato virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus genus) containing various ID degrees in the Viral genome-linked (VPg) protein, a key determinant of potyvirus adaptation, was designed. To estimate the ID contribution to the VPg-based PVY adaptation, the adaptive ability of the four PVY variants was monitored in the pepper host (Capsicum annuum) carrying a recessive resistance gene. Intriguingly, the two mutants with the highest ID content displayed a significantly higher ability to restore infection in the resistant host, whereas the less intrinsically disordered mutant was unable to restore infection. The role of ID on virus adaptation may be due either to a larger exploration of evolutionary pathways or the minimization of fitness penalty caused by resistance-breaking mutations. This pioneering study strongly suggests the positive impact of ID in an RNA virus adaptive capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  1. Intrinsically Disordered Segments Affect Protein Half-Life in the Cell and during Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van der Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of protein turnover is essential for cellular homeostasis. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is well established as a major regulator of protein degradation, but an understanding of how inherent structural features influence the lifetimes of proteins is lacking. We report that yeast, mouse, and human proteins with terminal or internal intrinsically disordered segments have significantly shorter half-lives than proteins without these features. The lengths of the disordered segments that affect protein half-life are compatible with the structure of the proteasome. Divergence in terminal and internal disordered segments in yeast proteins originating from gene duplication leads to significantly altered half-life. Many paralogs that are affected by such changes participate in signaling, where altered protein half-life will directly impact cellular processes and function. Thus, natural variation in the length and position of disordered segments may affect protein half-life and could serve as an underappreciated source of genetic variation with important phenotypic consequences.

  2. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  3. Unified understanding of folding and binding mechanisms of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Munehito

    2018-01-06

    Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of folding and binding of globular proteins, and coupled folding and binding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The forces responsible for conformational changes and binding are common in both proteins; however, these mechanisms have been separately discussed. Here, we attempt to integrate the mechanisms of coupled folding and binding of IDPs, folding of small and multi-subdomain proteins, folding of multimeric proteins, and ligand binding of globular proteins in terms of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms as well as the nucleation-condensation mechanism that is intermediate between them. Accumulating evidence has shown that both the rate of conformational change and apparent rate of binding between interacting elements can determine reaction mechanisms. Coupled folding and binding of IDPs occurs mainly by induced-fit because of the slow folding in the free form, while ligand binding of globular proteins occurs mainly by conformational selection because of rapid conformational change. Protein folding can be regarded as the binding of intramolecular segments accompanied by secondary structure formation. Multi-subdomain proteins fold mainly by the induced-fit (hydrophobic collapse) mechanism, as the connection of interacting segments enhances the binding (compaction) rate. Fewer hydrophobic residues in small proteins reduce the intramolecular binding rate, resulting in the nucleation-condensation mechanism. Thus, the folding and binding of globular proteins and IDPs obey the same general principle, suggesting that the coarse-grained, statistical mechanical model of protein folding is promising for a unified theoretical description of all mechanisms.

  4. Monophyletic clustering and characterization of protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A protein family contains sequences that are evolutionarily related. Generally, this is reflected by sequence similarity. There have been many attempts to organize the set of protein families into evolutionarily homogenous clusters using certain clustering methods. How do we characterize these clusters? How can we cluster protein families using these characterizations? In this work, these questions were addressed by use of a concept called group-wide co-evolution, and was exemplified by some real and simulated protein family data. The results have shown that the trend of a group of monophyletic proteins might be characterized by a normal distribution, while the strength and variability of this trend can be described by the sample mean and variance of the observed correlation coefficients after a suitable transformation. To exploit this property, we have developed a monophyletic clustering method called monophyletic k−medoids clustering. A software package written in R has been made available at http://www.kent.ac.uk/ims/personal/jz .

  5. Novel methods based on 13C detection to study intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Isabella C.; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by highly flexible solvent exposed backbones and can sample many different conformations. These properties confer them functional advantages, complementary to those of folded proteins, which need to be characterized to expand our view of how protein structural and dynamic features affect function beyond the static picture of a single well defined 3D structure that has influenced so much our way of thinking. NMR spectroscopy provides a unique tool for the atomic resolution characterization of highly flexible macromolecules in general and of IDPs in particular. The peculiar properties of IDPs however have profound effects on spectroscopic parameters. It is thus worth thinking about these aspects to make the best use of the great potential of NMR spectroscopy to contribute to this fascinating field of research. In particular, after many years of dealing with exclusively heteronuclear NMR experiments based on 13C direct detection, we would like here to address their relevance when studying IDPs.

  6. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S.; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-01

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions.

  7. Random coil chemical shift for intrinsically disordered proteins: effects of temperature and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Brander, Søren; Poulsen, Flemming M.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary chemical shift analysis is the main NMR method for detection of transiently formed secondary structure in intrinsically disordered proteins. The quality of the secondary chemical shifts is dependent on an appropriate choice of random coil chemical shifts. We report random coil chemical shifts and sequence correction factors determined for a GGXGG peptide series following the approach of Schwarzinger et al. (J Am Chem Soc 123(13):2970–2978, 2001). The chemical shifts are determined at neutral pH in order to match the conditions of most studies of intrinsically disordered proteins. Temperature has a non-negligible effect on the 13 C random coil chemical shifts, so temperature coefficients are reported for the random coil chemical shifts to allow extrapolation to other temperatures. The pH dependence of the histidine random coil chemical shifts is investigated in a titration series, which allows the accurate random coil chemical shifts to be obtained at any pH. By correcting the random coil chemical shifts for the effects of temperature and pH, systematic biases of the secondary chemical shifts are minimized, which will improve the reliability of detection of transient secondary structure in disordered proteins.

  8. Decoding the intrinsic mechanism that prohibits ALIX interaction with ESCRT and viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Si, Jiali; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Kuang, Jian

    2010-12-15

    The adaptor protein ALIX [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked-gene-2 product)-interacting protein X] links retroviruses to ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery during retroviral budding. This function of ALIX requires its interaction with the ESCRT-III component CHMP4 (charged multivesicular body protein 4) at the N-terminal Bro1 domain and retroviral Gag proteins at the middle V domain. Since cytoplasmic or recombinant ALIX is unable to interact with CHMP4 or retroviral Gag proteins under non-denaturing conditions, we constructed ALIX truncations and mutations to define the intrinsic mechanism through which ALIX interactions with these partner proteins are prohibited. Our results demonstrate that an intramolecular interaction between Patch 2 in the Bro1 domain and the TSG101 (tumour susceptibility gene 101 protein)-docking site in the proline-rich domain locks ALIX into a closed conformation that renders ALIX unable to interact with CHMP4 and retroviral Gag proteins. Relieving the intramolecular interaction of ALIX, by ectopically expressing a binding partner for one of the intramolecular interaction sites or by deleting one of these sites, promotes ALIX interaction with these partner proteins and facilitates ALIX association with the membrane. Ectopic expression of a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-ALIX mutant with a constitutively open conformation, but not the wild-type protein, increases EIAV (equine infectious anaemia virus) budding from HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. These findings predict that relieving the autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction of ALIX is a critical step for ALIX to participate in retroviral budding.

  9. Triple resonance 15N NMR relaxation experiments for studies of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srb, Pavel; Nováček, J.; Kadeřávek, P.; Rabatinová, Alžběta; Krásný, Libor; Žídková, Jitka; Bobálová, Janette; Sklenář, V.; Žídek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2017), s. 133-146 ISSN 0925-2738 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-16842S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : nuclear magnetic resonance * relaxation * non-uniform sampling * intrinsically disordered proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M); CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Microbiology (MBU-M); Analytical chemistry (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2016

  10. Protein intrinsic disorder in Arabidopsis NAC transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Mikael Kryger; Stender, Emil G.P.

    2015-01-01

    because of its simple MoRF pattern and its ability to interact with RCD1 (radical-induced cell death 1). Experiments in yeast and thermodynamic characterization suggest that its single MoRF region is sufficient for both transcriptional activation and interaction with RCD1. The remainder of the large......Protein ID (intrinsic disorder) plays a significant, yet relatively unexplored role in transcription factors (TFs). In the present paper, analysis of the transcription regulatory domains (TRDs) of six phylogenetically representative, plant-specific NAC [no apical meristem, ATAF (Arabidopsis...

  11. Insights into the Immunological Properties of Intrinsically Disordered Malaria Proteins Using Proteome Scale Predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Guy

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a significant global health burden. The development of an effective malaria vaccine remains as a major challenge with the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. While Plasmodium spp. have been shown to contain a large number of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs or disordered protein regions, the relationship of protein structure to subcellular localisation and adaptive immune responses remains unclear. In this study, we employed several computational prediction algorithms to identify IDPs at the proteome level of six Plasmodium spp. and to investigate the potential impact of protein disorder on adaptive immunity against P. falciparum parasites. IDPs were shown to be particularly enriched within nuclear proteins, apical proteins, exported proteins and proteins localised to the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, several leading vaccine candidates, and proteins with known roles in host-cell invasion, have extensive regions of disorder. Presentation of peptides by MHC molecules plays an important role in adaptive immune responses, and we show that IDP regions are predicted to contain relatively few MHC class I and II binding peptides owing to inherent differences in amino acid composition compared to structured domains. In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were predicted to be enriched in IDPs. Tandem repeat regions and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be strongly associated with regions of disorder. In summary, immune responses against IDPs appear to have characteristics distinct from those against structured protein domains, with increased antibody recognition of linear epitopes but some constraints for MHC presentation and issues of polymorphisms. These findings have major implications for vaccine design, and understanding immunity to malaria.

  12. Altered Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Children at Familial Risk of Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina; Biederman, Joseph; Uchida, Mai; Doehrmann, Oliver; Leonard, Julia A; Salvatore, John; Kenworthy, Tara; Brown, Ariel; Kagan, Elana; de Los Angeles, Carlo; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of patients with major depression have revealed abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity measured during the resting state in multiple distributed networks. However, it is unclear whether these findings reflect the state of major depression or reflect trait neurobiological underpinnings of risk for major depression. We compared resting-state functional connectivity, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, between unaffected children of parents who had documented histories of major depression (at-risk, n = 27; 8-14 years of age) and age-matched children of parents with no lifetime history of depression (control subjects, n = 16). At-risk children exhibited hyperconnectivity between the default mode network and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex/orbital frontal cortex, and the magnitude of connectivity positively correlated with individual symptom scores. At-risk children also exhibited 1) hypoconnectivity within the cognitive control network, which also lacked the typical anticorrelation with the default mode network; 2) hypoconnectivity between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) hyperconnectivity between the right amygdala and right inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for top-down modulation of emotion. Classification between at-risk children and control subjects based on resting-state connectivity yielded high accuracy with high sensitivity and specificity that was superior to clinical rating scales. Children at familial risk for depression exhibited atypical functional connectivity in the default mode, cognitive control, and affective networks. Such task-independent functional brain measures of risk for depression in children could be used to promote early intervention to reduce the likelihood of developing depression. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Large-scale analysis of intrinsic disorder flavors and associated functions in the protein sequence universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Marco; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins has been extensively described for the last decade; a large-scale classification of ID in proteins is mostly missing. Here, we provide an extensive analysis of ID in the protein universe on the UniProt database derived from sequence-based predictions in MobiDB. Almost half the sequences contain an ID region of at least five residues. About 9% of proteins have a long ID region of over 20 residues which are more abundant in Eukaryotic organisms and most frequently cover less than 20% of the sequence. A small subset of about 67,000 (out of over 80 million) proteins is fully disordered and mostly found in Viruses. Most proteins have only one ID, with short ID evenly distributed along the sequence and long ID overrepresented in the center. The charged residue composition of Das and Pappu was used to classify ID proteins by structural propensities and corresponding functional enrichment. Swollen Coils seem to be used mainly as structural components and in biosynthesis in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. In Bacteria, they are confined in the nucleoid and in Viruses provide DNA binding function. Coils & Hairpins seem to be specialized in ribosome binding and methylation activities. Globules & Tadpoles bind antigens in Eukaryotes but are involved in killing other organisms and cytolysis in Bacteria. The Undefined class is used by Bacteria to bind toxic substances and mediate transport and movement between and within organisms in Viruses. Fully disordered proteins behave similarly, but are enriched for glycine residues and extracellular structures. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  14. Fast hydrogen exchange affects 15N relaxation measurements in intrinsically disordered proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seho; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Baum, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Unprotected amide protons can undergo fast hydrogen exchange (HX) with protons from the solvent. Generally, NMR experiments using the out-and-back coherence transfer with amide proton detection are affected by fast HX and result in reduced signal intensity. When one of these experiments, 1 H– 15 N HSQC, is used to measure the 15 N transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ), the measured R 2 rate is convoluted with the HX rate (k HX ) and has higher apparent R 2 values. Since the 15 N R 2 measurement is important for analyzing protein backbone dynamics, the HX effect on the R 2 measurement is investigated and described here by multi-exponential signal decay. We demonstrate these effects by performing 15 N R 2 CPMG experiments on α-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein, in which the amide protons are exposed to solvent. We show that the HX effect on R 2 CPMG can be extracted by the derived equation. In conclusion, the HX effect may be pulse sequence specific and results from various sources including the J coupling evolution, the change of steady state water proton magnetization, and the D 2 O content in the sample. To avoid the HX effect on the analysis of relaxation data of unprotected amides, it is suggested that NMR experimental conditions insensitive to the HX should be considered or that intrinsic R 2 CPMG values be obtained by methods described herein.

  15. Conformational disorder in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins from nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Loic

    2010-01-01

    Biological macromolecules are, by essence, dynamical systems. While the importance of this flexibility is nowadays well established, the accurate characterization of the conformational disorder of these systems remains an important challenge. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a unique tool to probe these motions at atomic level, through the analysis of spin relaxation or residual dipolar couplings. The latter allows all motions occurring at timescales faster than the millisecond to be investigated, including physiologically important timescales. The information presents in those couplings is interpreted here using mainly analytical approaches in order to quantify the amounts of dynamics present in folded protein, to determine the direction of those motions and to obtain structural information within this conformational disorder. These analytical approaches are complemented by numerical methods, that allowed the observation of phenomena from a different point of view or the investigation of other systems such as intrinsically disordered proteins. All of these studies demonstrate an important complementarity between structural order and conformational disorder. (author)

  16. An Overview of Predictors for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins over 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzong Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sequence-structure-function paradigm of proteins has been changed by the occurrence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. Benefiting from the structural disorder, IDPs are of particular importance in biological processes like regulation and signaling. IDPs are associated with human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, amyloidoses, and several other maladies. IDPs attract a high level of interest and a substantial effort has been made to develop experimental and computational methods. So far, more than 70 prediction tools have been developed since 1997, within which 17 predictors were created in the last five years. Here, we presented an overview of IDPs predictors developed during 2010–2014. We analyzed the algorithms used for IDPs prediction by these tools and we also discussed the basic concept of various prediction methods for IDPs. The comparison of prediction performance among these tools is discussed as well.

  17. On the Entropy of Protein Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John P.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Cocco, Simona; Jacquin, Hugo; Monasson, Rémi

    2016-03-01

    Proteins are essential components of living systems, capable of performing a huge variety of tasks at the molecular level, such as recognition, signalling, copy, transport, ... The protein sequences realizing a given function may largely vary across organisms, giving rise to a protein family. Here, we estimate the entropy of those families based on different approaches, including Hidden Markov Models used for protein databases and inferred statistical models reproducing the low-order (1- and 2-point) statistics of multi-sequence alignments. We also compute the entropic cost, that is, the loss in entropy resulting from a constraint acting on the protein, such as the mutation of one particular amino-acid on a specific site, and relate this notion to the escape probability of the HIV virus. The case of lattice proteins, for which the entropy can be computed exactly, allows us to provide another illustration of the concept of cost, due to the competition of different folds. The relevance of the entropy in relation to directed evolution experiments is stressed.

  18. Discovery of Cryoprotective Activity in Human Genome-Derived Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Matsuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are an emerging phenomenon. They may have a high degree of flexibility in their polypeptide chains, which lack a stable 3D structure. Although several biological functions of IDPs have been proposed, their general function is not known. The only finding related to their function is the genetically conserved YSK2 motif present in plant dehydrins. These proteins were shown to be IDPs with the YSK2 motif serving as a core region for the dehydrins’ cryoprotective activity. Here we examined the cryoprotective activity of randomly selected IDPs toward the model enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. All five IDPs that were examined were in the range of 35–45 amino acid residues in length and were equally potent at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, whereas folded proteins, the PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ domain, and lysozymes had no potency. We further examined their cryoprotective activity toward glutathione S-transferase as an example of the other enzyme, and toward enhanced green fluorescent protein as a non-enzyme protein example. We further examined the lyophilization protective activity of the peptides toward LDH, which revealed that some IDPs showed a higher activity than that of bovine serum albumin (BSA. Based on these observations, we propose that cryoprotection is a general feature of IDPs. Our findings may become a clue to various industrial applications of IDPs in the future.

  19. On the importance of polar interactions for complexes containing intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T C Wong

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition for the importance of proteins with large intrinsically disordered (ID segments in cell signaling and regulation. ID segments in these proteins often harbor regions that mediate molecular recognition. Coupled folding and binding of the recognition regions has been proposed to confer high specificity to interactions involving ID segments. However, researchers recently questioned the origin of the interaction specificity of ID proteins because of the overrepresentation of hydrophobic residues in their interaction interfaces. Here, we focused on the role of polar and charged residues in interactions mediated by ID segments. Making use of the extended nature of most ID segments when in complex with globular proteins, we first identified large numbers of complexes between globular proteins and ID segments by using radius-of-gyration-based selection criteria. Consistent with previous studies, we found the interfaces of these complexes to be enriched in hydrophobic residues, and that these residues contribute significantly to the stability of the interaction interface. However, our analyses also show that polar interactions play a larger role in these complexes than in structured protein complexes. Computational alanine scanning and salt-bridge analysis indicate that interfaces in ID complexes are highly complementary with respect to electrostatics, more so than interfaces of globular proteins. Follow-up calculations of the electrostatic contributions to the free energy of binding uncovered significantly stronger Coulombic interactions in complexes harbouring ID segments than in structured protein complexes. However, they are counter-balanced by even higher polar-desolvation penalties. We propose that polar interactions are a key contributing factor to the observed high specificity of ID segment-mediated interactions.

  20. SUMOylation of Myc-family proteins.

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    Arianna Sabò

    Full Text Available Myc-family proteins are key controllers of the metabolic and proliferative status of the cell, and are subjected to a complex network of regulatory events that guarantee their efficient and fast modulation by extracellular stimuli. Hence, unbalances in regulatory mechanisms leading to altered Myc levels or activities are often reported in cancer cells. Here we show that c- and N-Myc are conjugated to SUMO proteins at conserved lysines in their C-terminal domain. No obvious effects of SUMOylation were detected on bulk N-Myc stability or activities, including the regulation of transcription, proliferation or apoptosis. N-Myc SUMOylation could be induced by cellular stresses, such as heat shock and proteasome inhibition, and in all instances concerned a small fraction of the N-Myc protein. We surmise that, as shown for other substrates, SUMOylation may be part of a quality-control mechanism acting on misfolded Myc proteins.

  1. p15PAF is an intrinsically disordered protein with nonrandom structural preferences at sites of interaction with other proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Sibille, Nathalie; Lelli, Moreno; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Blanco, Francisco J

    2014-02-18

    We present to our knowledge the first structural characterization of the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-associated factor p15(PAF), showing that it is monomeric and intrinsically disordered in solution but has nonrandom conformational preferences at sites of protein-protein interactions. p15(PAF) is a 12 kDa nuclear protein that acts as a regulator of DNA repair during DNA replication. The p15(PAF) gene is overexpressed in several types of human cancer. The nearly complete NMR backbone assignment of p15(PAF) allowed us to measure 86 N-H(N) residual dipolar couplings. Our residual dipolar coupling analysis reveals nonrandom conformational preferences in distinct regions, including the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-interacting protein motif (PIP-box) and the KEN-box (recognized by the ubiquitin ligase that targets p15(PAF) for degradation). In accordance with these findings, analysis of the (15)N R2 relaxation rates shows a relatively reduced mobility for the residues in these regions. The agreement between the experimental small angle x-ray scattering curve of p15(PAF) and that computed from a statistical coil ensemble corrected for the presence of local secondary structural elements further validates our structural model for p15(PAF). The coincidence of these transiently structured regions with protein-protein interaction and posttranslational modification sites suggests a possible role for these structures as molecular recognition elements for p15(PAF). Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of molecular crowding on the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio A Cino

    Full Text Available Inside cells, the concentration of macromolecules can reach up to 400 g/L. In such crowded environments, proteins are expected to behave differently than in vitro. It has been shown that the stability and the folding rate of a globular protein can be altered by the excluded volume effect produced by a high density of macromolecules. However, macromolecular crowding effects on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are less explored. These proteins can be extremely dynamic and potentially sample a wide ensemble of conformations under non-denaturing conditions. The dynamic properties of IDPs are intimately related to the timescale of conformational exchange within the ensemble, which govern target recognition and how these proteins function. In this work, we investigated the macromolecular crowding effects on the dynamics of several IDPs by measuring the NMR spin relaxation parameters of three disordered proteins (ProTα, TC1, and α-synuclein with different extents of residual structures. To aid the interpretation of experimental results, we also performed an MD simulation of ProTα. Based on the MD analysis, a simple model to correlate the observed changes in relaxation rates to the alteration in protein motions under crowding conditions was proposed. Our results show that 1 IDPs remain at least partially disordered despite the presence of high concentration of other macromolecules, 2 the crowded environment has differential effects on the conformational propensity of distinct regions of an IDP, which may lead to selective stabilization of certain target-binding motifs, and 3 the segmental motions of IDPs on the nanosecond timescale are retained under crowded conditions. These findings strongly suggest that IDPs function as dynamic structural ensembles in cellular environments.

  3. Genome-scale prediction of proteins with long intrinsically disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenling; Mizianty, Marcin J; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Proteins with long disordered regions (LDRs), defined as having 30 or more consecutive disordered residues, are abundant in eukaryotes, and these regions are recognized as a distinct class of biologically functional domains. LDRs facilitate various cellular functions and are important for target selection in structural genomics. Motivated by the lack of methods that directly predict proteins with LDRs, we designed Super-fast predictor of proteins with Long Intrinsically DisordERed regions (SLIDER). SLIDER utilizes logistic regression that takes an empirically chosen set of numerical features, which consider selected physicochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, and amino acid composition, as its inputs. Empirical tests show that SLIDER offers competitive predictive performance combined with low computational cost. It outperforms, by at least a modest margin, a comprehensive set of modern disorder predictors (that can indirectly predict LDRs) and is 16 times faster compared to the best currently available disorder predictor. Utilizing our time-efficient predictor, we characterized abundance and functional roles of proteins with LDRs over 110 eukaryotic proteomes. Similar to related studies, we found that eukaryotes have many (on average 30.3%) proteins with LDRs with majority of proteomes having between 25 and 40%, where higher abundance is characteristic to proteomes that have larger proteins. Our first-of-its-kind large-scale functional analysis shows that these proteins are enriched in a number of cellular functions and processes including certain binding events, regulation of catalytic activities, cellular component organization, biogenesis, biological regulation, and some metabolic and developmental processes. A webserver that implements SLIDER is available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/SLIDER/. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence in the Detection and Analysis of Proteins: A Focus on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar B. T. Ghisaidoobe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available F resonance energy transfer (FRET occurs when the distance between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor is within 10 nm, and its application often necessitates fluorescent labeling of biological targets. However, covalent modification of biomolecules can inadvertently give rise to conformational and/or functional changes. This review describes the application of intrinsic protein fluorescence, predominantly derived from tryptophan (\\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{ex}}\\sim\\ nm, \\(\\uplambda_{\\textsc{em}}\\sim\\ 350 nm, in protein-related research and mainly focuses on label-free FRET techniques. In terms of wavelength and intensity, tryptophan fluorescence is strongly influenced by its (or the proteinlocal environment, which, in addition to fluorescence quenching, has been applied to study protein conformational changes. Intrinsic F resonance energy transfer (iFRET, a recently developed technique, utilizes the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in conjunction with target-specific fluorescent probes as FRET donors and acceptors, respectively, for real time detection of native proteins.

  5. Programming molecular self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins containing sequences of low complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joseph R.; Carroll, Nick J.; Rubinstein, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic protein-rich intracellular structures that contain phase-separated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) composed of sequences of low complexity (SLC) have been shown to serve a variety of important cellular functions, which include signalling, compartmentalization and stabilization. However, our understanding of these structures and our ability to synthesize models of them have been limited. We present design rules for IDPs possessing SLCs that phase separate into diverse assemblies within droplet microenvironments. Using theoretical analyses, we interpret the phase behaviour of archetypal IDP sequences and demonstrate the rational design of a vast library of multicomponent protein-rich structures that ranges from uniform nano-, meso- and microscale puncta (distinct protein droplets) to multilayered orthogonally phase-separated granular structures. The ability to predict and program IDP-rich assemblies in this fashion offers new insights into (1) genetic-to-molecular-to-macroscale relationships that encode hierarchical IDP assemblies, (2) design rules of such assemblies in cell biology and (3) molecular-level engineering of self-assembled recombinant IDP-rich materials.

  6. A Method for Systematic Assessment of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions by NMR

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    Natsuko Goda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs that lack stable conformations and are highly flexible have attracted the attention of biologists. Therefore, the development of a systematic method to identify polypeptide regions that are unstructured in solution is important. We have designed an “indirect/reflected” detection system for evaluating the physicochemical properties of IDPs using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. This approach employs a “chimeric membrane protein”-based method using the thermostable membrane protein PH0471. This protein contains two domains, a transmembrane helical region and a C-terminal OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding-fold domain (named NfeDC domain, connected by a flexible linker. NMR signals of the OB-fold domain of detergent-solubilized PH0471 are observed because of the flexibility of the linker region. In this study, the linker region was substituted with target IDPs. Fifty-three candidates were selected using the prediction tool POODLE and 35 expression vectors were constructed. Subsequently, we obtained 15N-labeled chimeric PH0471 proteins with 25 IDPs as linkers. The NMR spectra allowed us to classify IDPs into three categories: flexible, moderately flexible, and inflexible. The inflexible IDPs contain membrane-associating or aggregation-prone sequences. This is the first attempt to use an indirect/reflected NMR method to evaluate IDPs and can verify the predictions derived from our computational tools.

  7. Actin capping protein and its inhibitor CARMIL: how intrinsically disordered regions function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shuichi; Maéda, Yuichiro; Koike, Ryotaro; Ota, Motonori; Nitanai, Yasushi; Minakata, Shiho

    2011-01-01

    The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments to block further elongation. The β-tentacle in CP is an important region that ensures stable interaction with actin filaments. CARMIL inhibits the interaction of CP with actin filaments via the C-terminal portion containing the CP-binding motif, located in an intrinsically disordered region. We have proposed an allosteric inhibition model in which CARMIL suppresses CP by the population shift mechanism. Here, we solved a crystal structure of CP in complex with a CARMIL-derived peptide, CA32. The new structure clearly represents the α-helical form of the β-tentacle that was invisible in other CP/CARMIL peptide complex structures. In addition, we exhaustively performed a normal mode analysis with the elastic network model on all available crystal structures of the CP/CARMIL peptide complexes, including the new structure. We concluded that the CP-binding motif is necessary and sufficient for altering the fluctuation of CP, which is essential for attenuating the barbed-end-capping activity along the population shift mechanism. The roles and functions of the β-tentacle and the CP-binding motif are discussed in terms of their intrinsically disordered nature

  8. Actin capping protein and its inhibitor CARMIL: how intrinsically disordered regions function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuichi; Koike, Ryotaro; Nitanai, Yasushi; Minakata, Shiho; Maéda, Yuichiro; Ota, Motonori

    2011-06-01

    The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments to block further elongation. The β-tentacle in CP is an important region that ensures stable interaction with actin filaments. CARMIL inhibits the interaction of CP with actin filaments via the C-terminal portion containing the CP-binding motif, located in an intrinsically disordered region. We have proposed an allosteric inhibition model in which CARMIL suppresses CP by the population shift mechanism. Here, we solved a crystal structure of CP in complex with a CARMIL-derived peptide, CA32. The new structure clearly represents the α-helical form of the β-tentacle that was invisible in other CP/CARMIL peptide complex structures. In addition, we exhaustively performed a normal mode analysis with the elastic network model on all available crystal structures of the CP/CARMIL peptide complexes, including the new structure. We concluded that the CP-binding motif is necessary and sufficient for altering the fluctuation of CP, which is essential for attenuating the barbed-end-capping activity along the population shift mechanism. The roles and functions of the β-tentacle and the CP-binding motif are discussed in terms of their intrinsically disordered nature.

  9. Microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of intrinsically disordered proteins involved in the oxidative stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio A Cino

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs are abundant in cells and have central roles in protein-protein interaction networks. Interactions between the IDP Prothymosin alpha (ProTα and the Neh2 domain of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, with a common binding partner, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1, are essential for regulating cellular response to oxidative stress. Misregulation of this pathway can lead to neurodegenerative diseases, premature aging and cancer. In order to understand the mechanisms these two disordered proteins employ to bind to Keap1, we performed extensive 0.5-1.0 microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments to investigate the structure/dynamics of free-state ProTα and Neh2 and their thermodynamics of bindings. The results show that in their free states, both ProTα and Neh2 have propensities to form bound-state-like β-turn structures but to different extents. We also found that, for both proteins, residues outside the Keap1-binding motifs may play important roles in stabilizing the bound-state-like structures. Based on our findings, we propose that the binding of disordered ProTα and Neh2 to Keap1 occurs synergistically via preformed structural elements (PSEs and coupled folding and binding, with a heavy bias towards PSEs, particularly for Neh2. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms Neh2 and ProTα bind to Keap1, information that is useful for developing therapeutics to enhance the oxidative stress response.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Boomsma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology of their ordered regions, and did not capture the unique disorder patterns that encode the functional mechanism of San1. However, by searching specifically for key features of the San1 sequence, such as long regions of intrinsic disorder embedded with short stretches predicted to be suitable for substrate interaction, we identified several E3 ligases with these characteristics. Our initial analysis revealed that another remarkable trait of San1 is shared with several candidate E3 ligases: long stretches of complete lysine suppression, which in San1 limits auto-ubiquitination. We encode these characteristic features into a San1 similarity-score, and present a set of proteins that are plausible candidates as San1 counterparts in humans. In conclusion, our work

  11. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-15

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  13. Clustering evolving proteins into homologous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Mahbob, Maisarah; Ragan, Mark A

    2013-04-08

    Clustering sequences into groups of putative homologs (families) is a critical first step in many areas of comparative biology and bioinformatics. The performance of clustering approaches in delineating biologically meaningful families depends strongly on characteristics of the data, including content bias and degree of divergence. New, highly scalable methods have recently been introduced to cluster the very large datasets being generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. However, there has been little systematic investigation of how characteristics of the data impact the performance of these approaches. Using clusters from a manually curated dataset as reference, we examined the performance of a widely used graph-based Markov clustering algorithm (MCL) and a greedy heuristic approach (UCLUST) in delineating protein families coded by three sets of bacterial genomes of different G+C content. Both MCL and UCLUST generated clusters that are comparable to the reference sets at specific parameter settings, although UCLUST tends to under-cluster compositionally biased sequences (G+C content 33% and 66%). Using simulated data, we sought to assess the individual effects of sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity, and underlying G+C content. Performance decreased with increasing sequence divergence, decreasing among-site rate variation, and increasing G+C bias. Two MCL-based methods recovered the simulated families more accurately than did UCLUST. MCL using local alignment distances is more robust across the investigated range of sequence features than are greedy heuristics using distances based on global alignment. Our results demonstrate that sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity and content bias can individually and in combination affect the accuracy with which MCL and UCLUST can recover homologous protein families. For application to data that are more divergent, and exhibit higher among-site rate variation and/or content bias, MCL may often be the better

  14. Two novel heat-soluble protein families abundantly expressed in an anhydrobiotic tardigrade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration by reversibly switching to an ametabolic state. This ability is called anhydrobiosis. In the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can withstand various extreme environments including space, but their molecular basis remains largely unknown. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins and can prevent protein-aggregation in dehydrated conditions in other anhydrobiotic organisms, but their relevance to tardigrade anhydrobiosis is not clarified. In this study, we focused on the heat-soluble property characteristic of LEA proteins and conducted heat-soluble proteomics using an anhydrobiotic tardigrade. Our heat-soluble proteomics identified five abundant heat-soluble proteins. All of them showed no sequence similarity with LEA proteins and formed two novel protein families with distinct subcellular localizations. We named them Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble (CAHS and Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble (SAHS protein families, according to their localization. Both protein families were conserved among tardigrades, but not found in other phyla. Although CAHS protein was intrinsically unstructured and SAHS protein was rich in β-structure in the hydrated condition, proteins in both families changed their conformation to an α-helical structure in water-deficient conditions as LEA proteins do. Two conserved repeats of 19-mer motifs in CAHS proteins were capable to form amphiphilic stripes in α-helices, suggesting their roles as molecular shield in water-deficient condition, though charge distribution pattern in α-helices were different between CAHS and LEA proteins. Tardigrades might have evolved novel protein families with a heat-soluble property and this study revealed a novel repertoire of major heat-soluble proteins in these anhydrobiotic animals.

  15. Anchoring Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Multiple Targets: Lessons from N-Terminus of the p53 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Huang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anchor residues, which are deeply buried upon binding, play an important role in protein–protein interactions by providing recognition specificity and facilitating the binding kinetics. Up to now, studies on anchor residues have been focused mainly on ordered proteins. In this study, we investigated anchor residues in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs which are flexible in the free state. We identified the anchor residues of the N-terminus of the p53 protein (Glu17–Asn29, abbreviated as p53N which are involved in binding with two different targets (MDM2 and Taz2, and analyzed their side chain conformations in the unbound states. The anchor residues in the unbound p53N were found to frequently sample conformations similar to those observed in the bound complexes (i.e., Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 in the p53N-MDM2 complex, and Leu22 in the p53N-Taz2 complex. We argue that the bound-like conformations of the anchor residues in the unbound state are important for controlling the specific interactions between IDPs and their targets. Further, we propose a mechanism to account for the binding promiscuity of IDPs in terms of anchor residues and molecular recognition features (MoRFs.

  16. Understanding the Role of Intrinsic Disorder of Viral Proteins in the Oncogenicity of Different Types of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, Elvira Regina; Giuliatti, Silvana

    2018-01-09

    Intrinsic disorder is very important in the biological function of several proteins, and is directly linked to their foldability during interaction with their targets. There is a close relationship between the intrinsically disordered proteins and the process of carcinogenesis involving viral pathogens. Among these pathogens, we have highlighted the human papillomavirus (HPV) in this study. HPV is currently among the most common sexually transmitted infections, besides being the cause of several types of cancer. HPVs are divided into two groups, called high- and low-risk, based on their oncogenic potential. The high-risk HPV E6 protein has been the target of much research, in seeking treatments against HPV, due to its direct involvement in the process of cell cycle control. To understand the role of intrinsic disorder of the viral proteins in the oncogenic potential of different HPV types, the structural characteristics of intrinsically disordered regions of high and low-risk HPV E6 proteins were analyzed. In silico analyses of primary sequences, prediction of tertiary structures, and analyses of molecular dynamics allowed the observation of the behavior of such disordered regions in these proteins, thereby proving a direct relationship of structural variation with the degree of oncogenicity of HPVs. The results obtained may contribute to the development of new therapies, targeting the E6 oncoprotein, for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases.

  17. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2018-03-01

    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers—applicable to describe disordered proteins—as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence—while maintaining the same charge composition—can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at

  18. Intrinsic nucleic acid dynamics modulates HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein binding to its targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bazzi

    Full Text Available HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC is involved in the rearrangement of nucleic acids occurring in key steps of reverse transcription. The protein, through its two zinc fingers, interacts preferentially with unpaired guanines in single-stranded sequences. In mini-cTAR stem-loop, which corresponds to the top half of the cDNA copy of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, NC was found to exhibit a clear preference for the TGG sequence at the bottom of mini-cTAR stem. To further understand how this site was selected among several potential binding sites containing unpaired guanines, we probed the intrinsic dynamics of mini-cTAR using (13C relaxation measurements. Results of spin relaxation time measurements have been analyzed using the model-free formalism and completed by dispersion relaxation measurements. Our data indicate that the preferentially recognized guanine in the lower part of the stem is exempt of conformational exchange and highly mobile. In contrast, the unrecognized unpaired guanines of mini-cTAR are involved in conformational exchange, probably related to transient base-pairs. These findings support the notion that NC preferentially recognizes unpaired guanines exhibiting a high degree of mobility. The ability of NC to discriminate between close sequences through their dynamic properties contributes to understanding how NC recognizes specific sites within the HIV genome.

  19. Intrinsic Nucleic Acid Dynamics Modulates HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Binding to Its Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Zargarian, Loussiné; Chaminade, Françoise; De Rocquigny, Hugues; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is involved in the rearrangement of nucleic acids occurring in key steps of reverse transcription. The protein, through its two zinc fingers, interacts preferentially with unpaired guanines in single-stranded sequences. In mini-cTAR stem-loop, which corresponds to the top half of the cDNA copy of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, NC was found to exhibit a clear preference for the TGG sequence at the bottom of mini-cTAR stem. To further understand how this site was selected among several potential binding sites containing unpaired guanines, we probed the intrinsic dynamics of mini-cTAR using 13C relaxation measurements. Results of spin relaxation time measurements have been analyzed using the model-free formalism and completed by dispersion relaxation measurements. Our data indicate that the preferentially recognized guanine in the lower part of the stem is exempt of conformational exchange and highly mobile. In contrast, the unrecognized unpaired guanines of mini-cTAR are involved in conformational exchange, probably related to transient base-pairs. These findings support the notion that NC preferentially recognizes unpaired guanines exhibiting a high degree of mobility. The ability of NC to discriminate between close sequences through their dynamic properties contributes to understanding how NC recognizes specific sites within the HIV genome. PMID:22745685

  20. Coiled-Coil Domains of SUN Proteins as Intrinsic Dynamic Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Si; Ke, Huimin; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Mingzhu; Huo, Lin; Gong, Weimin; Feng, Wei

    2016-01-05

    SUN proteins are the core components of LINC complexes that span across the nuclear envelope for nuclear positioning and migration. SUN proteins contain at least one predicted coiled-coil domain preceding the SUN domain. Here, we found that the two coiled-coil domains (CC1 and CC2) of SUN2 exhibit distinct oligomeric states. CC2 is a monomer in solution. The structure of the CC2-SUN monomer revealed that CC2 unexpectedly folds as a three-helix bundle that interacts with the SUN domain and locks it in an inactive conformation. In contrast, CC1 is a trimer. The structure of the CC1 trimer demonstrated that CC1 is an imperfect coiled coil for the trimerization and activation of the SUN domain. Modulations of CC1 and CC2 dictate different oligomeric states of CC1-CC2-SUN, which is essential for LINC complex formation. Thus, the two coiled-coil domains of SUN2 act as the intrinsic dynamic regulators for controlling the SUN domain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Jaina; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Punta, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the Pfam database to show that the sequence redundancy of protein structures deposited in the PDB is increasing. The possible reasons behind this trend are discussed. High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed

  2. FoldIndex((c)) : a simple tool to predict whether a given protein sequence is intrinsically unfolded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prilusky, J; Felder, CE; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T; Rydberg, EH; Man, O; Beckmann, J.S.; Silman, I.; Sussman, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    An easy-to-use, versatile and freely available graphic web server, FoldIndex© is described: it predicts if a given protein sequence is intrinsically unfolded implementing the algorithm of Uversky and co-workers, which is based on the average residue hydrophobicity and net charge of the sequence.

  3. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  4. Characterization of Leishmania donovani aquaporins shows presence of subcellular aquaporins similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Biyani

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, resides in the macrophages of the mammalian host. The aquaporin family of proteins form important components of the parasite-host interface. The parasite-host interface could be a potential target for chemotherapy. Analysis of L. major and L. infantum genomes showed the presence of five aquaporins (AQPs annotated as AQP9 (230aa, AQP putative (294aa, AQP-like protein (279aa, AQP1 (314aa and AQP-like protein (596aa. We report here the structural modeling, localization and functional characterization of the AQPs from L. donovani. LdAQP1, LdAQP9, LdAQP2860 and LdAQP2870 have the canonical NPA-NPA motifs, whereas LdAQP putative has a non-canonical NPM-NPA motif. In the carboxyl terminal to the second NPA box of all AQPs except AQP1, a valine/alanine residue was found instead of the arginine. In that respect these four AQPs are similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins in plants, which are localized to intracellular organelles. Confocal microscopy of L. donovani expressing GFP-tagged AQPs showed an intracellular localization of LdAQP9 and LdAQP2870. Real-time PCR assays showed expression of all aquaporins except LdAQP2860, whose level was undetectable. Three-dimensional homology modeling of the AQPs showed that LdAQP1 structure bears greater topological similarity to the aquaglyceroporin than to aquaporin of E. coli. The pore of LdAQP1 was very different from the rest in shape and size. The cavity of LdAQP2860 was highly irregular and undefined in geometry. For functional characterization, four AQP proteins were heterologously expressed in yeast. In the fps1Δ yeast cells, which lacked the key aquaglyceroporin, LdAQP1 alone displayed an osmosensitive phenotype indicating glycerol transport activity. However, expression of LdAQP1 and LdAQP putative in a yeast gpd1Δ strain, deleted for glycerol production, conferred osmosensitive phenotype indicating water transport activity or aquaporin function. Our analysis

  5. Learning generative models for protein fold families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sivaraman; Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Carbonell, Jaime G; Lee, Su-In; Langmead, Christopher James

    2011-04-01

    We introduce a new approach to learning statistical models from multiple sequence alignments (MSA) of proteins. Our method, called GREMLIN (Generative REgularized ModeLs of proteINs), learns an undirected probabilistic graphical model of the amino acid composition within the MSA. The resulting model encodes both the position-specific conservation statistics and the correlated mutation statistics between sequential and long-range pairs of residues. Existing techniques for learning graphical models from MSA either make strong, and often inappropriate assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA (e.g., Hidden Markov Models), or else use suboptimal algorithms to learn the parameters of the model. In contrast, GREMLIN makes no a priori assumptions about the conditional independencies within the MSA. We formulate and solve a convex optimization problem, thus guaranteeing that we find a globally optimal model at convergence. The resulting model is also generative, allowing for the design of new protein sequences that have the same statistical properties as those in the MSA. We perform a detailed analysis of covariation statistics on the extensively studied WW and PDZ domains and show that our method out-performs an existing algorithm for learning undirected probabilistic graphical models from MSA. We then apply our approach to 71 additional families from the PFAM database and demonstrate that the resulting models significantly out-perform Hidden Markov Models in terms of predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick; Puppo, Carine; Manneville, Stéphanie; Gontero, Brigitte; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  7. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Puppo, Carine [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Manneville, Stéphanie [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Gontero, Brigitte [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brechot@inserm.fr [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France)

    2016-08-12

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  8. Hyperphosphorylation of intrinsically disordered tau protein induces an amyloidogenic shift in its conformational ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolong Zhu

    Full Text Available Tau is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP whose primary physiological role is to stabilize microtubules in neuronal axons at all stages of development. In Alzheimer's and other tauopathies, tau forms intracellular insoluble amyloid aggregates known as neurofibrillary tangles, a process that appears in many cases to be preceded by hyperphosphorylation of tau monomers. Understanding the shift in conformational bias induced by hyperphosphorylation is key to elucidating the structural factors that drive tau pathology, however, as an IDP, tau is not amenable to conventional structural characterization. In this work, we employ a straightforward technique based on Time-Resolved ElectroSpray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TRESI-MS and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange (HDX to provide a detailed picture of residual structure in tau, and the shifts in conformational bias induced by hyperphosphorylation. By comparing the native and hyperphosphorylated ensembles, we are able to define specific conformational biases that can easily be rationalized as enhancing amyloidogenic propensity. Representative structures for the native and hyperphosphorylated tau ensembles were generated by refinement of a broad sample of conformations generated by low-computational complexity modeling, based on agreement with the TRESI-HDX profiles.

  9. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  10. Intrinsic structural differences in the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Rivas, L; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Predictive studies suggest that the known sequences of the N-terminal segment of surfactant protein SP-C from animal species have an intrinsic tendency to form beta-turns, but there are important differences on the probable location of these motifs in different SP-C species. Our hypothesis...... is that intrinsic structural determinants of the sequence of the N-terminal region of SP-C could define conformation, acylation and perhaps surface properties of the mature protein. To test this hypothesis we have synthesized peptides corresponding to the 13-residue N-terminal sequence of porcine and canine SP......-C, and studied their structural behaviour in solution and in phospholipid bilayers and monolayers. In these peptides, leucine at position 1 of both sequences has been replaced by tryptophan in order to allow their study by fluorescence spectroscopy. Far-u.v. circular dichroism spectra of the peptides in aqueous...

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; van Tol, Johan; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10-4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10-4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  12. A novel Glycine soja tonoplast intrinsic protein gene responds to abiotic stress and depresses salt and dehydration tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiao-Li; Chen, Lian-Jiang; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-07-15

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a subfamily of the aquaporin (AQP), also known as major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and regulates water movement across vacuolar membranes. Some reports have implied that TIP genes are associated with plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses that cause water loss, such as drought and high salinity. In our previous work, we found that an expressed sequence tag (EST) representing a TIP gene in our Glycine soja EST library was inducible by abiotic stresses. This TIP was subsequently isolated from G. soja with cDNA library screening, EST assembly and PCR, and named as GsTIP2;1. The expression patterns of GsTIP2;1 in G. soja under low temperature, salt and dehydration stress were different in leaves and roots. Though GsTIP2;1 is a stress-induced gene, overexpression of GsTIP2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stress, but did not affect seedling growth under cold or favorable conditions. Higher dehydration speed was detected in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GsTIP2;1, implying GsTIP2;1 might mediate stress sensitivity by enhancing water loss in the plant. Such a result is not identical to previous reports, providing some new information about the relationship between TIP and plant abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  14. Mapping Residual Structure in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins at Residue Resolution Using Millisecond Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Residue Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel, Theodore R.; Weis, David D.

    2015-04-01

    Measurement of residual structure in intrinsically disordered proteins can provide insights into the mechanisms by which such proteins undergo coupled binding and folding. The present work describes an approach to measure residual structure in disordered proteins using millisecond hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange in a conventional bottom-up peptide-based workflow. We used the exchange mid-point, relative to a totally deuterated control, to quantify the rate of H/D exchange in each peptide. A weighted residue-by-residue average of these midpoints was used to map the extent of residual structure at near single-residue resolution. We validated this approach both by simulating a disordered protein and experimentally using the p300 binding domain of ACTR, a model disordered protein already well-characterized by other approaches. Secondary structure elements mapped in the present work are in good agreement with prior nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The new approach was somewhat limited by a loss of spatial resolution and subject to artifacts because of heterogeneities in intrinsic exchange. Approaches to correct these limitations are discussed.

  15. Intrinsically disordered and pliable Starmaker-like protein from medaka (Oryzias latipes controls the formation of calcium carbonate crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Różycka

    Full Text Available Fish otoliths, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate with a small amount of organic matrix, are involved in the functioning of the inner ear. Starmaker (Stm from zebrafish (Danio rerio was the first protein found to be capable of controlling the formation of otoliths. Recently, a gene was identified encoding the Starmaker-like (Stm-l protein from medaka (Oryzias latipes, a putative homologue of Stm and human dentine sialophosphoprotein. Although there is no sequence similarity between Stm-l and Stm, Stm-l was suggested to be involved in the biomineralization of otoliths, as had been observed for Stm even before. The molecular properties and functioning of Stm-l as a putative regulatory protein in otolith formation have not been characterized yet. A comprehensive biochemical and biophysical analysis of recombinant Stm-l, along with in silico examinations, indicated that Stm-l exhibits properties of a coil-like intrinsically disordered protein. Stm-l possesses an elongated and pliable structure that is able to adopt a more ordered and rigid conformation under the influence of different factors. An in vitro assay of the biomineralization activity of Stm-l indicated that Stm-l affected the size, shape and number of calcium carbonate crystals. The functional significance of intrinsically disordered properties of Stm-l and the possible role of this protein in controlling the formation of calcium carbonate crystals is discussed.

  16. Synergistic inhibition of the intrinsic factor X activation by protein S and C4b-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S. J.; van't Veer, C.; Sixma, J. J.; Bouma, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    The complement protein C4b-binding protein plays an important role in the regulation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. C4b-binding protein can bind to protein S, thereby inhibiting the cofactor activity of protein S for activated protein C. In this report, we describe a new role for

  17. Combining a PagP fusion protein system with nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage to produce intrinsically disordered proteins in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Somaya; Pan, Jonathan S; Liu, Philip B; Hwang, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions that are highly solvent-exposed and susceptible to post-translational modifications. Studying these protein segments is critical to understanding their physiologic regulation, but proteolytic degradation can make them difficult to express and purify. We have designed a new protein expression vector that fuses the target protein to the N-terminus of the integral membrane protein, PagP. The two proteins are connected by a short linker containing the sequence SRHW, previously shown to be optimal for nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage. The methodology is demonstrated for an intrinsically disordered segment of cardiac troponin I. cTnI[135-209]-SRHW-PagP-His6 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, accumulating in insoluble inclusion bodies. The protein was solubilized, purified using nickel affinity chromatography, and then cleaved with 0.5mM NiSO4 at pH 9.0 and 45 °C, all in 6M guanidine-HCl. Nickel ion-catalyzed peptide bond hydrolysis is an effective chemical cleavage technique under denaturing conditions that preclude the use of proteases. Moreover, nickel-catalyzed cleavage is more specific than the most commonly used agent, cyanogen bromide, which cleaves C-terminal to methionine residues. We were able to produce 15 mg of purified cTnI[135-209] from 1L of M9 minimal media using this protocol. The methodology is more generally applicable to the production of intrinsically disordered protein segments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Characterized by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering with Contrast Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Daniel; Jeffries, Cy M.J.; Hammouda, Boualem; Trewhella, Jill; Goldenberg, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering was used to examine the effects of molecular crowding on an intrinsically disordered protein, the N protein of bacteriophage λ, in the presence of high concentrations of a small globular protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The N protein was labeled with deuterium, and the D2O concentration of the solvent was adjusted to eliminate the scattering contrast between the solvent and unlabeled BPTI, leaving only the scattering signal from the unfolded protein. The scattering profile observed in the absence of BPTI closely matched that predicted for an ensemble of random conformations. With BPTI added to a concentration of 65 mg/mL, there was a clear change in the scattering profile representing an increase in the mass fractal dimension of the unfolded protein, from 1.7 to 1.9, as expected if crowding favors more compact conformations. The crowding protein also inhibited aggregation of the unfolded protein. At 130 mg/mL BPTI, however, the fractal dimension was not significantly different from that measured at the lower concentration, contrary to the predictions of models that treat the unfolded conformations as convex particles. These results are reminiscent of the behavior of polymers in concentrated melts, suggesting that these synthetic mixtures may provide useful insights into the properties of unfolded proteins under crowding conditions. PMID:21320458

  19. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD

  20. Structural and hydrodynamic properties of an intrinsically disordered region of a germ cell-specific protein on phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jacob P; Farber, Patrick J; Sekhar, Ashok; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Rui; Bah, Alaji; Nott, Timothy J; Chan, Hue Sun; Baldwin, Andrew J; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Kay, Lewis E

    2017-09-26

    Membrane encapsulation is frequently used by the cell to sequester biomolecules and compartmentalize their function. Cells also concentrate molecules into phase-separated protein or protein/nucleic acid "membraneless organelles" that regulate a host of biochemical processes. Here, we use solution NMR spectroscopy to study phase-separated droplets formed from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal 236 residues of the germ-granule protein Ddx4. We show that the protein within the concentrated phase of phase-separated Ddx4, [Formula: see text], diffuses as a particle of 600-nm hydrodynamic radius dissolved in water. However, NMR spectra reveal sharp resonances with chemical shifts showing [Formula: see text] to be intrinsically disordered. Spin relaxation measurements indicate that the backbone amides of [Formula: see text] have significant mobility, explaining why high-resolution spectra are observed, but motion is reduced compared with an equivalently concentrated nonphase-separating control. Observation of a network of interchain interactions, as established by NOE spectroscopy, shows the importance of Phe and Arg interactions in driving the phase separation of Ddx4, while the salt dependence of both low- and high-concentration regions of phase diagrams establishes an important role for electrostatic interactions. The diffusion of a series of small probes and the compact but disordered 4E binding protein 2 (4E-BP2) protein in [Formula: see text] are explained by an excluded volume effect, similar to that found for globular protein solvents. No changes in structural propensities of 4E-BP2 dissolved in [Formula: see text] are observed, while changes to DNA and RNA molecules have been reported, highlighting the diverse roles that proteinaceous solvents play in dictating the properties of dissolved solutes.

  1. Insights into Unfolded Proteins from the Intrinsic ϕ/ψ Propensities of the AAXAA Host-Guest Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Vymetal, Jiri; Vondrasek, Jiri; Daggett, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Various host-guest peptide series are used by experimentalists as reference conformational states. One such use is as a baseline for random-coil NMR chemical shifts. Comparison to this random-coil baseline, through secondary chemical shifts, is used to infer protein secondary structure. The use of these random-coil data sets rests on the perception that the reference chemical shifts arise from states where there is little or no conformational bias. However, there is growing evidence that the conformational composition of natively and nonnatively unfolded proteins fail to approach anything that can be construed as random coil. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations of an alanine-based host-guest peptide series (AAXAA) as a model of unfolded and denatured states to examine the intrinsic propensities of the amino acids. We produced ensembles that are in good agreement with the experimental NMR chemical shifts and confirm that the sampling of the 20 natural amino acids in this peptide series is be far from random. Preferences toward certain regions of conformational space were both present and dependent upon the environment when compared under conditions typically used to denature proteins, i.e., thermal and chemical denaturation. Moreover, the simulations allowed us to examine the conformational makeup of the underlying ensembles giving rise to the ensemble-averaged chemical shifts. We present these data as an intrinsic backbone propensity library that forms part of our Structural Library of Intrinsic Residue Propensities to inform model building, to aid in interpretation of experiment, and for structure prediction of natively and nonnatively unfolded states. PMID:26789758

  2. Combining short- and long-range fluorescence reporters with simulations to explore the intramolecular dynamics of an intrinsically disordered protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Franziska; Haenni, Dominik; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Schuler, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are increasingly recognized as a class of molecules that can exert essential biological functions even in the absence of a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Understanding the conformational distributions and dynamics of these highly flexible proteins is thus essential for explaining the molecular mechanisms underlying their function. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for probing intramolecular distances and the rapid long-range distance dynamics in IDPs. To complement the information from FRET, we combine it with photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching to monitor local loop-closure kinetics at the same time and in the same molecule. Here we employed this combination to investigate the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The results show that both long-range dynamics and loop closure kinetics on the sub-microsecond time scale can be obtained reliably from a single set of measurements by the analysis with a comprehensive model of the underlying photon statistics including both FRET and PET. A more detailed molecular interpretation of the results is enabled by direct comparison with a recent extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of integrase. The simulations are in good agreement with experiment and can explain the deviation from simple models of chain dynamics by the formation of persistent local secondary structure. The results illustrate the power of a close combination of single-molecule spectroscopy and simulations for advancing our understanding of the dynamics and detailed mechanisms in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

  3. Intrinsic structural differences in the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Rivas, L; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    is that intrinsic structural determinants of the sequence of the N-terminal region of SP-C could define conformation, acylation and perhaps surface properties of the mature protein. To test this hypothesis we have synthesized peptides corresponding to the 13-residue N-terminal sequence of porcine and canine SP...... the packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) monolayers, the effects being always higher in anionic than in zwitterionic lipids, and also substantially higher in films containing canine peptide in comparison to porcine peptide. Acylation of cysteines at the N...

  4. Bioinformatic analysis and molecular modelling of human ameloblastin suggest a two-domain intrinsically unstructured calcium-binding protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymětal, Jiří; Slabý, I.; Spahr, A.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Lyngstadaas, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2008), s. 124-134 ISSN 0909-8836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ameloblastin * bioinformatic modelling * calcium * intrinsically unstructured protein Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2008

  5. Structural models of intrinsically disordered and calcium-bound folded states of a protein adapted for secretion

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Darragh P.; Hernandez, Belen; Durand, Dominique; Hourdel, Véronique; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Vachette, Patrice; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Ladant, Daniel; Brier, Sébastien; Chenal, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type I secretion systems, T1SS, to secrete virulence factors that contain calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) motifs. Here, we present structural models of an RTX protein, RD, in both its intrinsically disordered calcium-free Apo-state and its folded calcium-bound Holo-state. Apo-RD behaves as a disordered polymer chain comprising several statistical elements that exhibit local rigidity with residual secondary structure. Holo-RD is a f...

  6. Editing of misaligned 3'-termini by an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity residing in the PHP domain of a family X DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Benito; Lázaro, José M; Villar, Laurentino; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis gene yshC encodes a family X DNA polymerase (PolX(Bs)), whose biochemical features suggest that it plays a role during DNA repair processes. Here, we show that, in addition to the polymerization activity, PolX(Bs) possesses an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity specialized in resecting unannealed 3'-termini in a gapped DNA substrate. Biochemical analysis of a PolX(Bs) deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal polymerase histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, present in most of the bacterial/archaeal PolXs, as well as of this separately expressed protein region, allow us to state that the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) resides in its PHP domain. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of PolX(Bs) His339 and His341 residues, evolutionary conserved in the PHP superfamily members, demonstrated that the predicted metal binding site is directly involved in catalysis of the exonucleolytic reaction. The implications of the unannealed 3'-termini resection by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) in the DNA repair context are discussed.

  7. Marked variability in the extent of protein disorder within and between viral families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Pushker

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues, and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively. Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses, except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel

  8. Marked Variability in the Extent of Protein Disorder within and between Viral Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushker, Ravindra; Mooney, Catherine; Davey, Norman E.; Jacqué, Jean-Marc; Shields, Denis C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs) embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues), and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively). Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses), except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel instances of SLi

  9. HIPPI: highly accurate protein family classification with ensembles of HMMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-phuong Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given a new biological sequence, detecting membership in a known family is a basic step in many bioinformatics analyses, with applications to protein structure and function prediction and metagenomic taxon identification and abundance profiling, among others. Yet family identification of sequences that are distantly related to sequences in public databases or that are fragmentary remains one of the more difficult analytical problems in bioinformatics. Results We present a new technique for family identification called HIPPI (Hierarchical Profile Hidden Markov Models for Protein family Identification. HIPPI uses a novel technique to represent a multiple sequence alignment for a given protein family or superfamily by an ensemble of profile hidden Markov models computed using HMMER. An evaluation of HIPPI on the Pfam database shows that HIPPI has better overall precision and recall than blastp, HMMER, and pipelines based on HHsearch, and maintains good accuracy even for fragmentary query sequences and for protein families with low average pairwise sequence identity, both conditions where other methods degrade in accuracy. Conclusion HIPPI provides accurate protein family identification and is robust to difficult model conditions. Our results, combined with observations from previous studies, show that ensembles of profile Hidden Markov models can better represent multiple sequence alignments than a single profile Hidden Markov model, and thus can improve downstream analyses for various bioinformatic tasks. Further research is needed to determine the best practices for building the ensemble of profile Hidden Markov models. HIPPI is available on GitHub at https://github.com/smirarab/sepp .

  10. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  11. Minimal effects of macromolecular crowding on an intrinsically disordered protein: a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, David P; Argyle, Brian

    2014-02-18

    Small-angle neutron scattering was used to study the effects of macromolecular crowding by two globular proteins, i.e., bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and equine metmyoglobin, on the conformational ensemble of an intrinsically disordered protein, the N protein of bacteriophage λ. The λ N protein was uniformly labeled with (2)H, and the concentrations of D2O in the samples were adjusted to match the neutron scattering contrast of the unlabeled crowding proteins, thereby masking their contribution to the scattering profiles. Scattering from the deuterated λ N was recorded for samples containing up to 0.12 g/mL bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor or 0.2 g/mL metmyoglobin. The radius of gyration of the uncrowded protein was estimated to be 30 Å and was found to be remarkably insensitive to the presence of crowders, varying by scattering profiles were also used to estimate the fractal dimension of λ N, which was found to be ∼1.8 in the absence or presence of crowders, indicative of a well-solvated and expanded random coil under all of the conditions examined. These results are contrary to the predictions of theoretical treatments and previous experimental studies demonstrating compaction of unfolded proteins by crowding with polymers such as dextran and Ficoll. A computational simulation suggests that some previous treatments may have overestimated the effective volumes of disordered proteins and the variation of these volumes within an ensemble. The apparent insensitivity of λ N to crowding may also be due in part to weak attractive interactions with the crowding proteins, which may compensate for the effects of steric exclusion. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and

  13. The Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Proteins as Antagonists of Intrinsic and Innate Antiviral Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nevels

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The major immediate-early (IE gene of human cytomegalovirus (CMV is believed to have a decisive role in acute infection and its activity is an important indicator of viral reactivation from latency. Although a variety of gene products are expressed from this region, the 72-kDa IE1 and the 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoproteins are the most abundant and important. Both proteins have long been recognized as promiscuous transcriptional regulators. More recently, a critical role of the IE1 and IE2 proteins in counteracting nonadaptive host cell defense mechanisms has been revealed. In this review we will briefly summarize the available literature on IE1- and IE2-dependent mechanisms contributing to CMV evasion from intrinsic and innate immune responses.

  14. DisoMCS: Accurately Predicting Protein Intrinsically Disordered Regions Using a Multi-Class Conservative Score Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Wang

    Full Text Available The precise prediction of protein intrinsically disordered regions, which play a crucial role in biological procedures, is a necessary prerequisite to further the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of protein function. Here, we propose a novel predictor, DisoMCS, which is a more accurate predictor of protein intrinsically disordered regions. The DisoMCS bases on an original multi-class conservative score (MCS obtained by sequence-order/disorder alignment. Initially, near-disorder regions are defined on fragments located at both the terminus of an ordered region connecting a disordered region. Then the multi-class conservative score is generated by sequence alignment against a known structure database and represented as order, near-disorder and disorder conservative scores. The MCS of each amino acid has three elements: order, near-disorder and disorder profiles. Finally, the MCS is exploited as features to identify disordered regions in sequences. DisoMCS utilizes a non-redundant data set as the training set, MCS and predicted secondary structure as features, and a conditional random field as the classification algorithm. In predicted near-disorder regions a residue is determined as an order or a disorder according to the optimized decision threshold. DisoMCS was evaluated by cross-validation, large-scale prediction, independent tests and CASP (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction tests. All results confirmed that DisoMCS was very competitive in terms of accuracy of prediction when compared with well-established publicly available disordered region predictors. It also indicated our approach was more accurate when a query has higher homologous with the knowledge database.The DisoMCS is available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/disorder/.

  15. The intrinsic flexibility of the aptamer targeting the ribosomal protein S8 is a key factor for the molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autiero, Ida; Ruvo, Menotti; Improta, Roberto; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2018-04-01

    Aptamers are RNA/DNA biomolecules representing an emerging class of protein interactors and regulators. Despite the growing interest in these molecules, current understanding of chemical-physical basis of their target recognition is limited. Recently, the characterization of the aptamer targeting the protein-S8 has suggested that flexibility plays important functional roles. We investigated the structural versatility of the S8-aptamer by molecular dynamics simulations. Five different simulations have been conducted by varying starting structures and temperatures. The simulation of S8-aptamer complex provides a dynamic view of the contacts occurring at the complex interface. The simulation of the aptamer in ligand-free state indicates that its central region is intrinsically endowed with a remarkable flexibility. Nevertheless, none of the trajectory structures adopts the structure observed in the S8-aptamer complex. The aptamer ligand-bound is very rigid in the simulation carried out at 300 K. A structural transition of this state, providing insights into the aptamer-protein recognition process, is observed in a simulation carried out at 400 K. These data indicate that a key event in the binding is linked to the widening of the central region of the aptamer. Particularly relevant is switch of the A26 base from its ligand-free state to a location that allows the G13-C28 base-pairing. Intrinsic flexibility of the aptamer is essential for partner recognition. Present data indicate that S8 recognizes the aptamer through an induced-fit rather than a population-shift mechanism. The present study provides deeper understanding of the structural basis of the structural versatility of aptamers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The small heat shock proteins family : The long forgotten chaperones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, C.; Paul, C.; Seigneuric, R.; Kampinga, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins are a rather heterogeneous family of ATP-independent chaperones, some of which have been proven to block protein aggregation and help the cells to survive stressful conditions. Although much less studied than high molecular weight HSPs like HSP70/HSPA or HSP90/HSPC, their

  17. The SNARE protein family of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottram Jeremy C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite with a highly polarised cell shape that depends upon endocytosis and exocytosis from a single area of the plasma membrane, the flagellar pocket. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors are key components of the intracellular vesicle-mediated transports that take place in all eukaryotic cells. They are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the docking and fusion of vesicles with organelles. The recent availability of the genome sequence of L. major has allowed us to assess the complement of SNAREs in the parasite and to investigate their location in comparison with metazoans. Results Bioinformatic searches of the L. major genome revealed a total of 27 SNARE domain-containing proteins that could be classified in structural groups by phylogenetic analysis. 25 of these possessed the expected features of functional SNAREs, whereas the other two could represent kinetoplastid-specific proteins that might act as regulators of the SNARE complexes. Other differences of Leishmania SNAREs were the absence of double SNARE domain-containing and of the brevin classes of these proteins. Members of the Qa group of Leishmania SNAREs showed differential expressions profiles in the two main parasite forms whereas their GFP-tagging and in vivo expression revealed localisations in the Golgi, late endosome/lysosome and near the flagellar pocket. Conclusion The early-branching eukaryote L. major apparently possess a SNARE repertoire that equals in number the one of metazoans such as Drosophila, showing that the machinery for vesicle fusion is well conserved throughout the eukaryotes. However, the analysis revealed the absence of certain types of SNAREs found in metazoans and yeast, while suggesting the presence of original SNAREs as well as others with unusual localisation. This study also presented the intracellular localisation of the L. major SNAREs from the Qa group

  18. New subfamilies of major intrinsic proteins in fungi suggest novel transport properties in fungal channels: implications for the host-fungal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ravi Kumar; Prabh, Neel Duti; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2014-08-12

    Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) belong to the superfamily of Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) and are involved in the transport of water and neutral solutes across the membranes. MIP channels play significant role in plant-fungi symbiotic relationship and are believed to be important in host-pathogen interactions in human fungal diseases. In plants, at least five major MIP subfamilies have been identified. Fungal MIP subfamilies include orthodox aquaporins and five subgroups within aquaglyceroporins. XIP subfamily is common to both plants and fungi. In this study, we have investigated the extent of diversity in fungal MIPs and explored further evolutionary relationships with the plant MIP counterparts. We have extensively analyzed the available fungal genomes and examined nearly 400 fungal MIPs. Phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling exhibit the existence of a new MIP cluster distinct from any of the known fungal MIP subfamilies. All members of this cluster are found in microsporidia which are unicellular fungal parasites. Members of this family are small in size, charged and have hydrophobic residues in the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter and these features are shared by small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), one of the plant MIP subfamilies. We have also found two new subfamilies (δ and γ2) within the AQGP group. Fungal AQGPs are the most diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. We have also identified distinguishing features in loops E and D in the newly identified subfamilies indicating their possible role in channel transport and gating. Fungal SIP-like MIP family is distinct from any of the known fungal MIP families including orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. After XIPs, this is the second MIP subfamily from fungi that may have possible evolutionary link with a plant MIP subfamily. AQGPs in fungi are more diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. The aromatic/arginine selectivity filter of SIP

  19. Computing a new family of shape descriptors for protein structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter; Sinclair, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale 3D structure of a protein can be represented by the polygonal curve through the carbon a atoms of the protein backbone. We introduce an algorithm for computing the average number of times that a given configuration of crossings on such polygonal curves is seen, the average being...... taken over all directions in space. Hereby, we introduce a new family of global geometric measures of protein structures, which we compare with the so-called generalized Gauss integrals....

  20. The BPI-like/PLUNC family proteins in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas T; Haigh, Brendan J; Broadhurst, Marita K; Hood, Kylie A; Maqbool, Nauman J

    2011-08-01

    Members of the protein family having similarity to BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) (the BPI-like proteins), also known as the PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) family, have been found in a range of mammals; however, those in species other than human or mouse have been relatively little characterized. Analysis of the BPI-like proteins in cattle presents unique opportunities to investigate the function of these proteins, as well as address their evolution and contribution to the distinct physiology of ruminants. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the nature of the BPI-like locus in cattle, including the duplications giving rise to the multiple BSP30 (bovine salivary protein 30 kDa) genes from an ancestral gene in common with the single PSP (parotid secretory protein) gene found in monogastric species. Current knowledge of the expression of the BPI-like proteins in cattle is also presented, including their pattern of expression among tissues, which illustrate their independent regulation at sites of high pathogen exposure, and the abundance of the BSP30 proteins in saliva and salivary tissues. Finally, investigations of the function of the BSP30 proteins are presented, including their antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide-binding and bacterial aggregation activities. These results are discussed in relation to hypotheses regarding the physiological role of the BPI-like proteins in cattle, including the role they may play in host defence and the unique aspects of digestion in ruminants.

  1. Systems Proteomics View of the Endogenous Human Claudin Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Koval, Michael; Ranganathan, Shoba; Fanayan, Susan; Hancock, William S; Lundberg, Emma K; Beavis, Ronald C; Lane, Lydie; Duek, Paula; McQuade, Leon; Kelleher, Neil L; Baker, Mark S

    2016-02-05

    Claudins are the major transmembrane protein components of tight junctions in human endothelia and epithelia. Tissue-specific expression of claudin members suggests that this protein family is not only essential for sustaining the role of tight junctions in cell permeability control but also vital in organizing cell contact signaling by protein-protein interactions. How this protein family is collectively processed and regulated is key to understanding the role of junctional proteins in preserving cell identity and tissue integrity. The focus of this review is to first provide a brief overview of the functional context, on the basis of the extensive body of claudin biology research that has been thoroughly reviewed, for endogenous human claudin members and then ascertain existing and future proteomics techniques that may be applicable to systematically characterizing the chemical forms and interacting protein partners of this protein family in human. The ability to elucidate claudin-based signaling networks may provide new insight into cell development and differentiation programs that are crucial to tissue stability and manipulation.

  2. Intrinsic alterations in the partial molar volume on the protein denaturation: surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Isseki; Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2009-03-19

    The partial molar volume (PMV) of the protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) was calculated by all-atom MD simulation. Denatured CI2 showed almost the same average PMV value as that of native CI2. This is consistent with the phenomenological question of the protein volume paradox. Furthermore, using the surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach, spatial distributions of PMV were analyzed as a function of the distance from the CI2 surface. The profiles of the new R-dependent PMV indicate that, in denatured CI2, the reduction in the solvent electrostatic interaction volume is canceled out mainly by an increment in thermal volume in the vicinity of its surface. In addition, the PMV of the denatured CI2 was found to increase in the region in which the number density of water atoms is minimum. These results provide a direct and detailed picture of the mechanism of the protein volume paradox suggested by Chalikian et al.

  3. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  4. Liquid demixing of intrinsically disordered proteins is seeded by poly(ADP-ribose)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Neelsen, Kai J; Teloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    disordered proteins at DNA break sites. Demixing, which relies on electrostatic interactions between positively charged RGG repeats and negatively charged PAR, is amplified by aggregation-prone prion-like domains, and orchestrates the earliest cellular responses to DNA breakage. We propose that PAR...

  5. On the interaction between intrinsic proteins and phosphatidylglycerol in the membrane of Acholeplasma laidlawii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, E.M.; Wang, H.H.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1979-01-01

    About 30% of the phosphatidylglycerol in oleic acid-enriched Acholeplasma laidlawii membranes are not hydrolyzed at temperatures below 10 °C by phospholipase A2 from porcine pancreas. Removal of 53% of the membrane proteins by proteolysis did not reduce the size of this inaccessible

  6. Modulation of firing and synaptic transmission of serotonergic neurons by intrinsic G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMaejima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons project to virtually all regions of the CNS and are consequently involved in many critical physiological functions such as mood, sexual behavior, feeding, sleep/wake cycle, memory, cognition, blood pressure regulation, breathing and reproductive success. Therefore serotonin release and serotonergic neuronal activity have to be precisely controlled and modulated by interacting brain circuits to adapt to specific emotional and environmental states. We will review the current knowledge about G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels involved in the regulation of serotonergic system, how their regulation is modulating the intrinsic activity of serotonergic neurons and its transmitter release and will discuss the latest methods for controlling the modulation of serotonin release and intracellular signaling in serotonergic neurons in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Mcdermott, Joseph; Liu, Zijuan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2012-12-01

    Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

  8. Systems Proteomics View of the Endogenous Human Claudin Protein Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Koval, Michael; Ranganathan, Shoba; Fanayan, Susan; Hancock, William S.; Lundberg, Emma K.; Beavis, Ronald C.; Lane, Lydie; Duek, Paula; McQuade, Leon; Kelleher, Neil L.; Baker, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are the major transmembrane protein components of tight junctions in human endothelia and epithelia. Tissue-specific expression of claudin members suggests that this protein family is not only essential for sustaining the role of tight junctions in cell permeability control but also vital in organizing cell contact signaling by protein–protein interactions. How this protein family is collectively processed and regulated is key to understanding the role of junctional proteins in preserving cell identity and tissue integrity. The focus of this review is to first provide a brief overview of the functional context, on the basis of the extensive body of claudin biology research that has been thoroughly reviewed, for endogenous human claudin members and then ascertain existing and future proteomics techniques that may be applicable to systematically characterizing the chemical forms and interacting protein partners of this protein family in human. The ability to elucidate claudin-based signaling networks may provide new insight into cell development and differentiation programs that are crucial to tissue stability and manipulation. PMID:26680015

  9. Practical analysis of specificity-determining residues in protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoyen, Mónica; García-Martín, Juan A; Pazos, Florencio

    2016-03-01

    Determining the residues that are important for the molecular activity of a protein is a topic of broad interest in biomedicine and biotechnology. This knowledge can help understanding the protein's molecular mechanism as well as to fine-tune its natural function eventually with biotechnological or therapeutic implications. Some of the protein residues are essential for the function common to all members of a family of proteins, while others explain the particular specificities of certain subfamilies (like binding on different substrates or cofactors and distinct binding affinities). Owing to the difficulty in experimentally determining them, a number of computational methods were developed to detect these functional residues, generally known as 'specificity-determining positions' (or SDPs), from a collection of homologous protein sequences. These methods are mature enough for being routinely used by molecular biologists in directing experiments aimed at getting insight into the functional specificity of a family of proteins and eventually modifying it. In this review, we summarize some of the recent discoveries achieved through SDP computational identification in a number of relevant protein families, as well as the main approaches and software tools available to perform this type of analysis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The effect of phosphorylation on the salt-tolerance-related functions of the soybean protein PM18, a member of the group-3 LEA protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Meiyan; Cheng, Hua; Sun, Nan; Liu, Simu; Li, Shuiming; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Yizhi; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-11-01

    Enzymatically driven post-translated modifications (PTMs) usually happen within the intrinsically disordered regions of a target protein and can modulate variety of protein functions. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a family of the plant intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Despite their important roles in plant stress response, there is currently limited knowledge on the presence and functional and structural effects of phosphorylation on LEA proteins. In this study, we identified three phosphorylation sites (Ser 90 , Tyr 136 , and Thr 266 ) in the soybean PM18 protein that belongs to the group-3 LEA proteins. In yeast expression system, PM18 protein increased the salt tolerance of yeast, and the phosphorylation of this protein further enhanced its protective function. Further analysis revealed that Ser 90 and Tyr 136 are more important than Thr 266 , and these two sites might work cooperatively in regulating the salt resistance function of PM18. The circular dichroism analysis showed that PM18 protein was disordered in aqueous media, and phosphorylation did not affect the disordered status of this protein. However, phosphorylation promoted formation of more helical structure in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, in dedicated in vitro experiments, phosphorylated PM18 protein was able to better protect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the inactivation induced by the freeze-thaw cycles than its un- or dephosphorylated forms. All these data indicate that phosphorylation may have regulatory effects on the stress-tolerance-related function of LEA proteins. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed more light on functional and structural roles of phosphorylation in LEA proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissection of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered YAP protein and the transcription factor TEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrouze, Yannick; Bokhovchuk, Fedir; Meyerhofer, Marco; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Martin, Typhaine; Delaunay, Clara; Erdmann, Dirk; Schmelzle, Tobias; Chène, Patrick

    2017-04-21

    TEAD ( TEA /ATTS d omain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP ( Y es- a ssociated p rotein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the Ω-loop found in YAP.

  12. Direct detection of carbon and nitrogen nuclei for high-resolution analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins using NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E B; Kriwacki, R W

    2018-01-16

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is a powerful technique for characterizing the structural and dynamic properties of intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions (IDPs & IDRs). However, the application of NMR to IDPs has been limited by poor chemical shift dispersion in two-dimensional (2D) 1 H- 15 N heteronuclear correlation spectra. Among the various detection schemes available for heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy, 13 C direct-detection has become a mainstay for investigations of IDPs owing to the favorable chemical shift dispersion in 2D 13 C'- 15 N correlation spectra. Recent advances in cryoprobe technology have enhanced the sensitivity for direct detection of both 13 C and 15 N resonances at high magnetic field strengths, thus prompting the development of 15 N direct-detect experiments to complement established 13 C-detection experiments. However, the application of 15 N-detection has not been widely explored for IDPs. Here we compare 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N detection schemes for a variety of 2D heteronuclear correlation spectra and evaluate their performance on the basis of resolution, chemical shift dispersion, and sensitivity. We performed experiments with a variety of disordered systems ranging in size and complexity; from a small IDR (99 amino acids), to a large low complexity IDR (185 amino acids), and finally a ∼73 kDa folded homopentameric protein that also contains disordered regions (133 amino acids/monomer). We conclude that, while requiring high sample concentration and long acquisition times, 15 N-detection often offers enhanced resolution over other detection schemes in studies of disordered protein regions with low complexity sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family proteins: New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive efforts have been employed by the scientific communities worldwide, to identify and develop potential inhibitors of BET family BDs to regulate protein expression by inhibiting acetylated histone (H3/H4) interactions. Several small molecule inhibitors have been reported, which not only have high affinity, but also ...

  14. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. Methods To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD prot...

  15. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  16. The intrinsically disordered N-terminal arm of the brome mosaic virus coat protein specifically recognizes the RNA motif that directs the initiation of viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Alexander; Hoover, Haley; Smith, Edward; Clemmer, David E; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kao, C Cheng

    2018-01-09

    In the brome mosaic virus (BMV) virion, the coat protein (CP) selectively contacts the RNA motifs that regulate translation and RNA replication (Hoover et al., 2016. J. Virol. 90, 7748). We hypothesize that the unstructured N-terminal arm (NTA) of the BMV CP can specifically recognize RNA motifs. Using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that peptides containing the NTA of the CP were found to preferentially bind to an RNA hairpin motif that directs the initiation of BMV RNA synthesis. RNA binding causes the peptide to change from heterogeneous structures to a single family of structures. Fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence quenching and size exclusion chromatography experiments all confirm that the NTA can specific recognize the RNA motif. The peptide introduced into plants along with BMV virion increased accumulation of the BMV CP and accelerated the rate of minus-strand RNA synthesis. The intrinsically disordered BMV NTA could thus specifically recognize BMV RNAs to affect viral infection. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Advanced oxidation protein products induce chondrocyte apoptosis via receptor for advanced glycation end products-mediated, redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Liao, Cong-Rui; Pan, Ying; Zeng, Ji-Huan; Zheng, Shuai; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Lin, Qing-Song; Ye, Qing; Ye, Wen-Bin; Li, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is a primary cause of cartilage destruction in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel pro-inflammatory mediator, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with RA. However, the effect of AOPPs accumulation on chondrocyte apoptosis and the associated cellular mechanisms remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the plasma formation of AOPPs was enhanced in RA rats compared with normal. Then, chondrocyte were treated with AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in vitro. Exposure of chondrocyte to AOPPs activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was mediated by receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, AOPPs challenge triggered NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation which induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulted in activation of caspase family that eventually lead to apoptosis. Lastly, blockade of RAGE, instead of CD36, largely attenuated these signals. Our study demonstrated first time that AOPPs induce chondrocyte apoptosis via RAGE-mediated and redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway in vitro. These data implicates that AOPPs may represent a novel pathogenic factor that contributes to RA progression. Targeting AOPPs-triggered cellular mechanisms might emerge as a promising therapeutic option for patients with RA.

  18. Chitinase family GH18: evolutionary insights from the genomic history of a diverse protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Nathan N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitinases (EC.3.2.1.14 hydrolyze the β-1,4-linkages in chitin, an abundant N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine polysaccharide that is a structural component of protective biological matrices such as insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18 family of chitinases is an ancient gene family widely expressed in archea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mammals are not known to synthesize chitin or metabolize it as a nutrient, yet the human genome encodes eight GH18 family members. Some GH18 proteins lack an essential catalytic glutamic acid and are likely to act as lectins rather than as enzymes. This study used comparative genomic analysis to address the evolutionary history of the GH18 multiprotein family, from early eukaryotes to mammals, in an effort to understand the forces that shaped the human genome content of chitinase related proteins. Results Gene duplication and loss according to a birth-and-death model of evolution is a feature of the evolutionary history of the GH18 family. The current human family likely originated from ancient genes present at the time of the bilaterian expansion (approx. 550 mya. The family expanded in the chitinous protostomes C. elegans and D. melanogaster, declined in early deuterostomes as chitin synthesis disappeared, and expanded again in late deuterostomes with a significant increase in gene number after the avian/mammalian split. Conclusion This comprehensive genomic study of animal GH18 proteins reveals three major phylogenetic groups in the family: chitobiases, chitinases/chitolectins, and stabilin-1 interacting chitolectins. Only the chitinase/chitolectin group is associated with expansion in late deuterostomes. Finding that the human GH18 gene family is closely linked to the human major histocompatibility complex paralogon on chromosome 1, together with the recent association of GH18 chitinase activity with Th2 cell inflammation, suggests that its late expansion

  19. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  20. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase, a Tetrameric Protein with Intrinsically Disordered N-Termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojane, Purva P; Duff, Michael R; Bafna, Khushboo; Agarwal, Pratul; Stanley, Christopher; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2017-11-07

    R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a homotetramer with a single active site pore and no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. The R67 enzyme provides resistance to trimethoprim, an active site-directed inhibitor of Escherichia coli DHFR. Sixteen to twenty N-terminal amino acids are intrinsically disordered in the R67 dimer crystal structure. Chymotrypsin cleavage of 16 N-terminal residues results in an active enzyme with a decreased stability. The space sampled by the disordered N-termini of R67 DHFR was investigated using small angle neutron scattering. From a combined analysis using molecular dynamics and the program SASSIE ( http://www.smallangles.net/sassie/SASSIE_HOME.html ), the apoenzyme displays a radius of gyration (R g ) of 21.46 ± 0.50 Å. Addition of glycine betaine, an osmolyte, does not result in folding of the termini as the R g increases slightly to 22.78 ± 0.87 Å. SASSIE fits of the latter SANS data indicate that the disordered N-termini sample larger regions of space and remain disordered, suggesting they might function as entropic bristles. Pressure perturbation calorimetry also indicated that the volume of R67 DHFR increases upon addition of 10% betaine and decreased at 20% betaine because of the dehydration of the protein. Studies of the hydration of full-length R67 DHFR in the presence of the osmolytes betaine and dimethyl sulfoxide find around 1250 water molecules hydrating the protein. Similar studies with truncated R67 DHFR yield around 400 water molecules hydrating the protein in the presence of betaine. The difference of ∼900 waters indicates the N-termini are well-hydrated.

  1. Phosducin-like proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum : implications for the phosducin family of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M; Knol, JC; Kortholt, A; Roelofs, J; Ruchira, [No Value; Postma, Marten; Visser, AJWG; Van Haastert, PJM; Knol, Jaco C.; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Retinal phosducin is known to sequester transducin Gbetagamma, thereby modulating transducin activity. Phos ducin is a member of a family of phosducin-like proteins (PhLP) found in eukaryotes. Phylogeny of 33 phosducin-like proteins from metazoa, plants and lower eukaryotes identified three distinct

  2. Proteus: a random forest classifier to predict disorder-to-order transitioning binding regions in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Söderquist, Fredrik; Wallner, Björn

    2017-05-01

    The focus of the computational structural biology community has taken a dramatic shift over the past one-and-a-half decades from the classical protein structure prediction problem to the possible understanding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) or proteins containing regions of disorder (IDPR). The current interest lies in the unraveling of a disorder-to-order transitioning code embedded in the amino acid sequences of IDPs/IDPRs. Disordered proteins are characterized by an enormous amount of structural plasticity which makes them promiscuous in binding to different partners, multi-functional in cellular activity and atypical in folding energy landscapes resembling partially folded molten globules. Also, their involvement in several deadly human diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases) makes them attractive drug targets, and important for a biochemical understanding of the disease(s). The study of the structural ensemble of IDPs is rather difficult, in particular for transient interactions. When bound to a structured partner, an IDPR adapts an ordered conformation in the complex. The residues that undergo this disorder-to-order transition are called protean residues, generally found in short contiguous stretches and the first step in understanding the modus operandi of an IDP/IDPR would be to predict these residues. There are a few available methods which predict these protean segments from their amino acid sequences; however, their performance reported in the literature leaves clear room for improvement. With this background, the current study presents `Proteus', a random forest classifier that predicts the likelihood of a residue undergoing a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to a potential partner protein. The prediction is based on features that can be calculated using the amino acid sequence alone. Proteus compares favorably with existing methods predicting twice as many true positives as the second best method (55

  3. Target Molecular Simulations of RecA Family Protein Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng-Tseng Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the RadA family mechanism is crucial to understanding the DNA SOS repair process. In a 2007 report, the archaeal RadA proteins function as rotary motors (linker region: I71-K88 such as shown in Figure 1. Molecular simulations approaches help to shed further light onto this phenomenon. We find 11 rotary residues (R72, T75-K81, M84, V86 and K87 and five zero rotary residues (I71, K74, E82, R83 and K88 in the simulations. Inclusion of our simulations may help to understand the RadA family mechanism.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: On the Accuracy of the TIP4P-D Water Model and the Representativeness of Protein Disorder Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, João; Skepö, Marie

    2016-07-12

    Here, we first present a follow-up to a previous work by our group on the problematic of molecular dynamics simulations of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) [ Henriques et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2015 , 11 , 3420 - 3431 ], using the recently developed TIP4P-D water model. When used in conjunction with the standard AMBER ff99SB-ILDN force field and applied to the simulation of Histatin 5, our IDP model, we obtain results which are in excellent agreement with the best performing IDP-suitable force field from the earlier study and with experiment. We then assess the representativeness of the IDP models used in these and similar studies, finding that most are too short in comparison to the average IDP and contain a bias toward hydrophilic amino acid residues. Moreover, several key order- and disorder-promoting residues are also found to be misrepresented. It seems appropriate for future studies to address these issues.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis copper-regulated protein SocB is an intrinsically disordered protein that folds upon interaction with a synthetic phospholipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Urszula; Hoffman, Morgan; Randles, Leah; Shi, Xiaoshan; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Stefanisko, Karen; Tarasova, Nadya I; Darwin, K Heran; Walters, Kylie J

    2016-02-01

    Multiple genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are regulated by copper including socAB (small orf induced by copper A and B), which is induced by copper and repressed by RicR (regulated in copper repressor). socA and socB encode hypothetical proteins of 61 and 54 amino acids, respectively. Here, we use biophysical and computational methods to evaluate the SocB structure. We find that SocB lacks evidence for secondary structure, with no thermal cooperative unfolding event, according to circular dichroism measurements. 2D NMR spectra similarly exhibit hallmarks of a disordered structural state, which is also supported by analyzing SocB diffusion. Altogether, these findings suggest that by itself SocB is intrinsically disordered. Interestingly, SocB interacts with a synthetic phospholipid bilayer and becomes helical, which suggests that it may be membrane-associated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo Simulations for Improved Conformational Sampling of Intrinsically Disordered Regions Tethered to Ordered Domains of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Lyle, Nicholas; Harmon, Tyler S; Pappu, Rohit V

    2014-08-12

    There is growing interest in the topic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Atomistic Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations based on novel implicit solvation models have yielded useful insights regarding sequence-ensemble relationships for IDPs modeled as autonomous units. However, a majority of naturally occurring IDPs are tethered to ordered domains. Tethering introduces additional energy scales and this creates the challenge of broken ergodicity for standard MMC sampling or molecular dynamics that cannot be readily alleviated by using generalized tempering methods. We have designed, deployed, and tested our adaptation of the Nested Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. We refer to our adaptation as Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo (HS-MMC) sampling. In this method, transitions out of energetic traps are enabled by the introduction of an auxiliary Markov chain that draws conformations for the disordered region from a Boltzmann distribution that is governed by an alternative potential function that only includes short-range steric repulsions and conformational restraints on the ordered domain. We show using multiple, independent runs that the HS-MMC method yields conformational distributions that have similar and reproducible statistical properties, which is in direct contrast to standard MMC for equivalent amounts of sampling. The method is efficient and can be deployed for simulations of a range of biologically relevant disordered regions that are tethered to ordered domains.

  7. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  8. Fairy tails: Flexibility and function of intrinsically disordered extensions in the photosynthetic world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eThieulin-Pardo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs, or protein fragments also called Intrinsically Disordered Regions (IDRs, display high flexibility as the result of their amino acid composition. They can adopt multiple roles. In globular proteins, IDRs are usually found as loops and linkers between secondary structure elements. However, not all disordered fragments are loops: some proteins bear an intrinsically disordered extension at their C- or N-terminus, and this flexibility can affect the protein as a whole. In this review, we focus on the disordered N- and C-terminal extensions of globular proteins from photosynthetic organisms. Using the examples of the A2B2-GAPDH and the α Rubisco activase isoform, we show that intrinsically disordered extensions can help regulate their host protein in response to changes in light, thereby participating in photosynthesis regulation. As IDPs are famous for their large number of protein partners, we used the examples of the NAC, bZIP, TCP and GRAS transcription factor families to illustrate the fact that intrinsically disordered extremities can allow a protein to have an increased number of partners, which directly affects its regulation. Finally, for proteins from the cryptochrome light receptor family, we describe how a new role for the photolyase proteins may emerge by the addition of an intrinsically disordered extension, while still allowing the protein to absorb blue light. This review has highlighted the diverse repercussions of the disordered extension on the regulation and function of their host protein and outlined possible future research avenues.

  9. A J-modulated protonless NMR experiment characterizes the conformational ensemble of the intrinsically disordered protein WIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozentur-Shkop, Eva; Goobes, Gil; Chill, Jordan H., E-mail: Jordan.Chill@biu.ac.il [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are multi-conformational polypeptides that lack a single stable three-dimensional structure. It has become increasingly clear that the versatile IDPs play key roles in a multitude of biological processes, and, given their flexible nature, NMR is a leading method to investigate IDP behavior on the molecular level. Here we present an IDP-tailored J-modulated experiment designed to monitor changes in the conformational ensemble characteristic of IDPs by accurately measuring backbone one- and two-bond J({sup 15}N,{sup 13}Cα) couplings. This concept was realized using a unidirectional (H)NCO {sup 13}C-detected experiment suitable for poor spectral dispersion and optimized for maximum coverage of amino acid types. To demonstrate the utility of this approach we applied it to the disordered actin-binding N-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein (WIP), a ubiquitous key modulator of cytoskeletal changes in a range of biological systems. One- and two-bond J({sup 15}N,{sup 13}Cα) couplings were acquired for WIP residues 2–65 at various temperatures, and in denaturing and crowding environments. Under native conditions fitted J-couplings identified in the WIP conformational ensemble a propensity for extended conformation at residues 16–23 and 45–60, and a helical tendency at residues 28–42. These findings are consistent with a previous study of the based upon chemical shift and RDC data and confirm that the WIP{sup 2–65} conformational ensemble is biased towards the structure assumed by this fragment in its actin-bound form. The effects of environmental changes upon this ensemble were readily apparent in the J-coupling data, which reflected a significant decrease in structural propensity at higher temperatures, in the presence of 8 M urea, and under the influence of a bacterial cell lysate. The latter suggests that crowding can cause protein unfolding through protein–protein interactions that stabilize the unfolded

  10. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsching, Keith J.; Hong, Mei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ( 13 C– 13 C, 15 N– 13 C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 13 C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ∼94 % of the 13 C NMR data and almost all 15 N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the 13 C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra-residue cross peaks by inspection or by using a

  11. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsching, Keith J., E-mail: kfritzsc@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Hong, Mei [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus, E-mail: srohr@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ({sup 13}C–{sup 13}C, {sup 15}N–{sup 13}C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 {sup 13}C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ∼94 % of the {sup 13}C NMR data and almost all {sup 15}N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the {sup 13}C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra

  12. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  13. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křeček, Pavel; Skůpa, Petr; Libus, Jiří; Naramoto, S.; Tejos, R.; Friml, J.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2009), s. 249.1-249.11 ISSN 1474-760X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380904; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601630703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PIN protein family * auxin efflux carriers * auxin transport Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.626, year: 2009

  14. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, Pavel; Skupa, Petr; Libus, Jirí; Naramoto, Satoshi; Tejos, Ricardo; Friml, Jirí; Zazímalová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies.

  15. Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fofanov Viacheslav Y

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations caused by a wide range of physico-chemical and biological sources directly influence the function of a protein. For enzymatic proteins, the structure and chemistry of the catalytic binding site residues can be loosely defined as a substructure of the protein. Comparative analysis of drug-receptor substructures across and within species has been used for lead evaluation. Substructure-level similarity between the binding sites of functionally similar proteins has also been used to identify instances of convergent evolution among proteins. In functionally homologous protein families, shared chemistry and geometry at catalytic sites provide a common, local point of comparison among proteins that may differ significantly at the sequence, fold, or domain topology levels. Results This paper describes two key results that can be used separately or in combination for protein function analysis. The Family-wise Analysis of SubStructural Templates (FASST method uses all-against-all substructure comparison to determine Substructural Clusters (SCs. SCs characterize the binding site substructural variation within a protein family. In this paper we focus on examples of automatically determined SCs that can be linked to phylogenetic distance between family members, segregation by conformation, and organization by homology among convergent protein lineages. The Motif Ensemble Statistical Hypothesis (MESH framework constructs a representative motif for each protein cluster among the SCs determined by FASST to build motif ensembles that are shown through a series of function prediction experiments to improve the function prediction power of existing motifs. Conclusions FASST contributes a critical feedback and assessment step to existing binding site substructure identification methods and can be used for the thorough investigation of structure-function relationships. The application of MESH allows for an automated

  16. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of

  17. Roles of Soybean Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein GmPIP2;9 in Drought Tolerance and Seed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins play an essential role in water uptake and transport in vascular plants. The soybean genome contains a total of 22 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP genes. To identify candidate PIPs important for soybean yield and stress tolerance, we studied the transcript levels of all 22 soybean PIPs. We found that a GmPIP2 subfamily member, GmPIP2;9, was predominately expressed in roots and developing seeds. Here, we show that GmPIP2;9 localized to the plasma membrane and had high water channel activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using transgenic soybean plants expressing a native GmPIP2;9 promoter driving a GUS-reporter gene, it was found high GUS expression in the roots, in particular, in the endoderm, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the roots of transgenic plants. In addition, GmPIP2;9 was also highly expressed in developing pods. GmPIP2;9 expression significantly increased in short term of polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated drought stress treatment. GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased tolerance to drought stress in both solution cultures and soil plots. Drought stress in combination with GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased net CO2 assimilation of photosynthesis, stomata conductance, and transpiration rate, suggesting that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing transgenic plants were less stressed than wild-type (WT plants. Furthermore, field experiments showed that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants had significantly more pod numbers and larger seed sizes than WT plants. In summary, the study demonstrated that GmPIP2;9 has water transport activity. Its relative high expression levels in roots and developing pods are in agreement with the phenotypes of GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants in drought stress tolerance and seed development.

  18. The importance of ADAM family proteins in malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walkiewicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of reports about the role of adamalysins (ADAM in malignant tumors are being published. To date, more than 30 representatives of this group, out of which about 20 occur in humans, have been described. The ADAM family is a homogeneous group of proteins which regulate, from the stage of embryogenesis, a series of processes such as cell migration, adhesion, and cell fusion. Half of them have proteolytic activity and are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the disintegration of certain protein complexes, thereby regulating the bioavailability of various growth factors. Many of these functions have a direct role in the processes of carcinogenesis and promoting the growth of tumor, which affect some signaling pathways, including those related to insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2, vascular growth factor (VEGF, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and the EGFR/HER pathway. Another branch of studies is the evaluation of the possibility of using members of ADAM family proteins in the diagnosis, especially in breast, colon and non- small cell lung cancer. The detection of concentrations of adamalysin in serum, urine and pleural aspirates might contribute to the development of methods of early diagnosis of cancer and monitoring the therapy. However, both the role of adamalysins in the development and progression of tumors and their importance as a diagnostic and predictive further research still need to be checked on large groups of patients.

  19. [The importance of ADAM family proteins in malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Gętek, Monika; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa

    2016-02-11

    Increasing numbers of reports about the role of adamalysins (ADAM) in malignant tumors are being published. To date, more than 30 representatives of this group, out of which about 20 occur in humans, have been described. The ADAM family is a homogeneous group of proteins which regulate, from the stage of embryogenesis, a series of processes such as cell migration, adhesion, and cell fusion. Half of them have proteolytic activity and are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the disintegration of certain protein complexes, thereby regulating the bioavailability of various growth factors. Many of these functions have a direct role in the processes of carcinogenesis and promoting the growth of tumor, which affect some signaling pathways, including those related to insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2), vascular growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the EGFR/HER pathway. Another branch of studies is the evaluation of the possibility of using members of ADAM family proteins in the diagnosis, especially in breast, colon and non- small cell lung cancer. The detection of concentrations of adamalysin in serum, urine and pleural aspirates might contribute to the development of methods of early diagnosis of cancer and monitoring the therapy. However, both the role of adamalysins in the development and progression of tumors and their importance as a diagnostic and predictive further research still need to be checked on large groups of patients.

  20. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  1. Hydrogen bond networks determine emergent mechanical and thermodynamic properties across a protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallakyan Sargis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gram-negative bacteria use periplasmic-binding proteins (bPBP to transport nutrients through the periplasm. Despite immense diversity within the recognized substrates, all members of the family share a common fold that includes two domains that are separated by a conserved hinge. The hinge allows the protein to cycle between open (apo and closed (ligated conformations. Conformational changes within the proteins depend on a complex interplay of mechanical and thermodynamic response, which is manifested as an increase in thermal stability and decrease of flexibility upon ligand binding. Results We use a distance constraint model (DCM to quantify the give and take between thermodynamic stability and mechanical flexibility across the bPBP family. Quantitative stability/flexibility relationships (QSFR are readily evaluated because the DCM links mechanical and thermodynamic properties. We have previously demonstrated that QSFR is moderately conserved across a mesophilic/thermophilic RNase H pair, whereas the observed variance indicated that different enthalpy-entropy mechanisms allow similar mechanical response at their respective melting temperatures. Our predictions of heat capacity and free energy show marked diversity across the bPBP family. While backbone flexibility metrics are mostly conserved, cooperativity correlation (long-range couplings also demonstrate considerable amount of variation. Upon ligand removal, heat capacity, melting point, and mechanical rigidity are, as expected, lowered. Nevertheless, significant differences are found in molecular cooperativity correlations that can be explained by the detailed nature of the hydrogen bond network. Conclusion Non-trivial mechanical and thermodynamic variation across the family is explained by differences within the underlying H-bond networks. The mechanism is simple; variation within the H-bond networks result in altered mechanical linkage properties that directly affect

  2. On the Exciton Coupling between Two Chlorophyll Pigments in the Absence of a Protein Environment: Intrinsic Effects Revealed by Theory and Experiment (German ed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    other micro - environmental effects. In pioneering experiments, Shafizadeh et al.[13] utilized two-color pump-probe spectroscopy to mea- sure the lowest...Chlorophyll Pigments in the Absence of a Protein Environment : Intrinsic Effects Revealed by Theory and Experiment Bruce F. Milne,* Christina Kjær, Jørgen...alone can produce a large portion of the color shift observed in photosynthetic macro - molecular assemblies. The absorption wavelengths of

  3. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  4. The NOX Family of Proteins Is Also Present in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Christine; Cherrier, Mickaël V; Dias Mirandela, Gaëtan; Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Stasia, Marie José; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Fieschi, Franck; Dupuy, Jérôme

    2017-11-07

    Transmembrane NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes have been so far only characterized in eukaryotes. In most of these organisms, they reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and, depending on the presence of additional domains, are called NOX or dual oxidases (DUOX). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, have been traditionally considered accidental toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, during the last decade it has become evident that both O 2 •- and H 2 O 2 are key players in complex signaling networks and defense. A well-studied example is the production of O 2 •- during the bactericidal respiratory burst of phagocytes; this production is catalyzed by NOX2. Here, we devised and applied a novel algorithm to search for additional NOX genes in genomic databases. This procedure allowed us to discover approximately 23% new sequences from bacteria (in relation to the number of NOX-related sequences identified by the authors) that we have added to the existing eukaryotic NOX family and have used to build an expanded phylogenetic tree. We cloned and overexpressed the identified nox gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae and confirmed that it codes for an NADPH oxidase. The membrane of the S. pneumoniae NOX protein (SpNOX) shares many properties with its eukaryotic counterparts, such as affinity for NADPH and flavin adenine dinucleotide, superoxide dismutase and diphenylene iodonium inhibition, cyanide resistance, oxygen consumption, and superoxide production. Traditionally, NOX enzymes in eukaryotes are related to functions linked to multicellularity. Thus, the discovery of a large family of NOX-related enzymes in the bacterial world brings up fascinating questions regarding their role in this new biological context. IMPORTANCE NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes have not yet been reported in bacteria. Here, we carried out computational and experimental studies to provide the first characterization of a prokaryotic NOX. Out of 996 prokaryotic proteins showing

  5. Docking Validation Resources: Protein Family and Ligand Flexibility Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Balius, Trent E.; Rizzo, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    A database consisting of 780 ligand-receptor complexes, termed SB2010, has been derived from the Protein Databank to evaluate the accuracy of docking protocols for regenerating bound ligand conformations. The goal is to provide easily accessible community resources for development of improved procedures to aid virtual screening for ligands with a wide range of flexibilities. Three core experiments using the program DOCK, which employ rigid (RGD), fixed anchor (FAD), and flexible (FLX) protocols, were used to gauge performance by several different metrics: (1) global results, (2) ligand flexibility, (3) protein family, and (4) crossdocking. Global spectrum plots of successes and failures vs rmsd reveal well-defined inflection regions, which suggest the commonly used 2 Å criteria is a reasonable choice for defining success. Across all 780 systems, success tracks with the relative difficulty of the calculations: RGD (82.3%) > FAD (78.1%) > FLX (63.8%). In general, failures due to scoring strongly outweigh those due to sampling. Subsets of SB2010 grouped by ligand flexibility (7-or-less, 8-to-15, and 15-plus rotatable bonds) reveal success degrades linearly for FAD and FLX protocols, in contrast to RGD which remains constant. Despite the challenges associated with FLX anchor orientation and on-the-fly flexible growth, success rates for the 7-or-less (74.5%), and in particular the 8-to-15 (55.2%) subset, are encouraging. Poorer results for the very flexible 15-plus set (39.3%) indicate substantial room for improvement. Family-based success appears largely independent of ligand flexibility suggesting a strong dependence on the binding site environment. For example, zinc-containing proteins are generally problematic despite moderately flexible ligands. Finally, representative crossdocking examples, for carbonic anhydrase, thermolysin, and neuraminidase families, show the utility of family-based analysis for rapid identification of particularly good or bad docking trends

  6. A Deg-protease family protein in marine Synechococcus is involved in outer membrane protein organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Kayra Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deg-family proteases are a periplasm-associated group of proteins that are known to be involved in envelope stress responses and are found in most microorganisms. Orthologous genes SYNW2176 (in strain WH8102 and sync_2523 (strain CC9311 are predicted members of the Deg-protease family and are among the few genes induced by copper stress in both open ocean and coastal marine Synechococcus strains. In contrast to the lack of a phenotype in a similar knockout in Synechocystis PCC6803, a SYNW2176 knockout mutant in strain WH8102 was much more resistant to copper than the wild-type. The mutant also exhibited a significantly altered outer membrane protein composition which may contribute to copper resistance, longer lag phase after transfer, low-level consistent alkaline phosphatase activity, and an inability to induce high alkaline phosphatase activity in response to phosphate stress. This phenotype suggests a protein-quality-control role for SYNW2176, the absence of which leads to a constitutively activated stress response. Deg-protease family proteins in this ecologically important cyanobacterial group thus help to determine outer membrane responses to both nutrients and toxins.

  7. Glucuronidation as a mechanism of intrinsic drug resistance in colon cancer cells: contribution of drug transport proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Zelcer, Noam; Allen, John D.; Yao, Denggao; Boyd, Gary; Maliepaard, Mark; Friedberg, Thomas H.; Smyth, John F.; Jodrell, Duncan I.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently shown that drug conjugation catalysed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) functions as an intrinsic mechanism of resistance to the topoisomerase I inhibitors 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and NU/ICRF 505 in human colon cancer cells and now report on the role of drug transport in

  8. The IAP Protein Family, SMAC Mimetics and Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, Alex; Miura, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Since the acquired resistance of cells to apoptosis is one of the major hallmarks of cancer, the endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis can be regarded as promising targets in the design of anticancer therapeutics. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are able to regulate numerous other cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, as well as proinflammatory and immune responses. Study of the IAP family as target molecules in targeted therapies has recently focused on SMAC mimetics as synthetic IAP antagonists that have been under development as promising therapeutics. To overview the background of IAP proteins and to focus on the development of SMAC mimetics, the present review first looks at the mechanisms of IAP proteins' antiapoptotic activities and those for controlling those activities; then the SMAC mimetics, including birinapant, LCL161, and DEBIO1143/AT-406, and their clinical trials are introduced. To further clarify the processes to exert the efficacies of SMAC mimetics, it is necessary to determine therapeutic biomarkers that predict and assess them, which may include caspases and factors in the TNFα pathway.

  9. The cryptochrome-photolyase protein family in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sarah; Juhas, Matthias; Jäger, Stefanie; Kottke, Tilman; Büchel, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    The cryptochrome - photolyase family (CPF) consists of homologous flavoproteins having completely different functions involving DNA repair, circadian rhythm and/or photoreception. From the original photolyases, working either as (6-4) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases, the animal- and plant-type cryptochromes, respectively, evolved and also the more intermediate DASH cryptochromes. Whereas animal cryptochromes work mostly in clock-related functions, plant cryptochromes are also directly involved in developmental processes such as hypocotyl elongation or flower induction. In diatoms, all types of cryptochromes and photolyases were predicted from genome sequences. However, up to now only two proteins have been characterised in more detail, CPF1 and CryP. CPF1 is related to animal-type cryptochromes, but works as a (6-4) photolyase in addition to having photoreceptor functions. It was shown to interact with the CLOCK:Bmal1 heterodimer in a heterologous system, and thus is probably involved in clock-related processes. Moreover, CPF1 directly influences transcription. The latter was also true for CryP, which is a cryptochrome distantly related to plant-type cryptochromes. In addition, CryP influences light-harvesting protein accumulation. For all diatom cryptochromes, down-stream signalling has to proceed via interaction partners different from the classical proteins involved in cryptochrome signalling in higher plants, because these candidates are missing in diatoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Folding dynamics of a family of beta-sheet proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Denis

    2008-03-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) consist of ten anti-parallel beta strands and two small alpha helices. The beta strands are arranged into two nearly orthogonal five-strand beta sheets that surround the interior cavity, which binds unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. In the brain isoform (BFABP), these are very important for the development of the central nervous system and neuron differentiation. Furthermore, BFABP is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer and neuronal degenerative disorders. In this work, site-directed spin labeling combined with EPR techniques have been used to study the folding mechanism of BFABP. In the first series of studies, we labeled the two Cys residues at position 5 and 80 in the wild type protein with an EPR spin marker; in addition, two singly labeled mutants at positions 5 and 80 in the C80A and C5A mutants, respectively, were also produced and used as controls. The changes in the distances between the two residues were examined by a pulsed EPR method, DEER (Double Electron Electron Resonance), as a function of guanidinium hydrochloride concentration. The results were compared with those from CW EPR, circular dichroism and fluorescence measurements, which provide the information regarding sidechain mobility, secondary structure and tertiary structure, respectively. The results will be discussed in the context of the folding mechanism of the family of fatty acid binding proteins.

  11. Characterization and quantification of intact 26S proteasome proteins by real-time measurement of intrinsic fluorescence prior to top-down mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Russell

    Full Text Available Quantification of gas-phase intact protein ions by mass spectrometry (MS is impeded by highly-variable ionization, ion transmission, and ion detection efficiencies. Therefore, quantification of proteins using MS-associated techniques is almost exclusively done after proteolysis where peptides serve as proxies for estimating protein abundance. Advances in instrumentation, protein separations, and informatics have made large-scale sequencing of intact proteins using top-down proteomics accessible to the proteomics community; yet quantification of proteins using a top-down workflow has largely been unaddressed. Here we describe a label-free approach to determine the abundance of intact proteins separated by nanoflow liquid chromatography prior to MS analysis by using solution-phase measurements of ultraviolet light-induced intrinsic fluorescence (UV-IF. UV-IF is measured directly at the electrospray interface just prior to the capillary exit where proteins containing at least one tryptophan residue are readily detected. UV-IF quantification was demonstrated using commercially available protein standards and provided more accurate and precise protein quantification than MS ion current. We evaluated the parallel use of UV-IF and top-down tandem MS for quantification and identification of protein subunits and associated proteins from an affinity-purified 26S proteasome sample from Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified 26 unique proteins and quantified 13 tryptophan-containing species. Our analyses discovered previously unidentified N-terminal processing of the β6 (PBF1 and β7 (PBG1 subunit - such processing of PBG1 may generate a heretofore unknown additional protease active site upon cleavage. In addition, our approach permitted the unambiguous identification and quantification both isoforms of the proteasome-associated protein DSS1.

  12. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  13. PATtyFams: Protein families for the microbial genomes in the PATRIC database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Davis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build accurate protein families is a fundamental operation in bioinformatics that influences comparative analyses, genome annotation and metabolic modeling. For several years we have been maintaining protein families for all microbial genomes in the PATRIC database (Pathosystems Resource Integration Center, patricbrc.org in order to drive many of the comparative analysis tools that are available through the PATRIC website. However, due to the burgeoning number of genomes, traditional approaches for generating protein families are becoming prohibitive. In this report, we describe a new approach for generating protein families, which we call PATtyFams. This method uses the k-mer-based function assignments available through RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology to rapidly guide family formation, and then differentiates the function-based groups into families using a Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL. This new approach for generating protein families is rapid, scalable and has properties that are consistent with alignment-based methods.

  14. Constitutively active signaling by the G protein βγ-subunit mediates intrinsically increased phosphodiesterase-4 activity in human asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Hu

    Full Text Available Signaling by the Gβγ subunit of Gi protein, leading to downstream c-Src-induced activation of the Ras/c-Raf1/MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway and its upregulation of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 activity, was recently shown to mediate the heightened contractility in proasthmatic sensitized isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM, as well as allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in an in vivo animal model of allergic asthma. This study investigated whether cultured human ASM (HASM cells derived from asthmatic donor lungs exhibit constitutively increased PDE activity that is attributed to intrinsically upregulated Gβγ signaling coupled to c-Src activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK1/2 cascade. We show that, relative to normal cells, asthmatic HASM cells constitutively exhibit markedly increased intrinsic PDE4 activity coupled to heightened Gβγ-regulated phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2, and direct co-localization of the latter with the PDE4D isoform. These signaling events and their induction of heightened PDE activity are acutely suppressed by treating asthmatic HASM cells with a Gβγ inhibitor. Importantly, along with increased Gβγ activation, asthmatic HASM cells also exhibit constitutively increased direct binding of the small Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, Rap1GAP, to the α-subunit of Gi protein, which serves to cooperatively facilitate Ras activation and, thereby, enable enhanced Gβγ-regulated ERK1/2-stimulated PDE activity. Collectively, these data are the first to identify that intrinsically increased signaling via the Gβγ subunit, facilitated by Rap1GAP recruitment to the α-subunit, mediates the constitutively increased PDE4 activity detected in asthmatic HASM cells. These new findings support the notion that interventions targeted at suppressing Gβγ signaling may lead to novel approaches to treat asthma.

  15. Submission to GenBank of the Plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) Subfamily in Cotton – GenBank Accession No. GU998827-GU998830 and GenBank Accession TPA;inferential No. BK007045-BK007052

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) are one of the five aquaporin protein subfamilies. Aquaporin proteins are known to facilitate water transport through biological membranes. In order to identify NIP aquaporin gene candidates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), in silico and molecular clon...

  16. A phosphorylation-motif for tuneable helix stabilisation in intrinsically disordered proteins - Lessons from the sodium proton exchanger 1 (NHE1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Lambrughi, Matteo; Terkelsen, Thilde Bagger

    2017-01-01

    ). Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that two out of those six phosphorylation sites had a stabilizing effect on transient helices. One of these was further investigated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy as well as by molecular dynamic simulations, which confirmed the stabilizing effect...... of relevance for understanding disease-promoting mutations that for example interfere with signalling for instance through constitutive active and often cancer-promoting signalling.......-spread role in phosphorylation-mediated regulation of intrinsically disordered proteins. The identification of such motifs is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of cellular signalling, and is crucial for the development of predictors for the structural effect of phosphorylation; a tool...

  17. The production of intrinsically labeled milk and meat protein is feasible and provides functional tools for human nutrition research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Sikkema, J.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Administration of labeled, free amino acids does not allow direct assessment of in vivo dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Consequently, dietary protein sources with labeled amino acids incorporated within their protein matrix are required. The aim of the present study was to produce

  18. Targeting protein-protein interactions with trimeric ligands: high affinity inhibitors of the MAGUK protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Klaus B; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Wilbek, Theis S; Nielsen, Line S; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins.

  19. The NOX Family of Proteins Is Also Present in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hajjar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmembrane NADPH oxidase (NOX enzymes have been so far only characterized in eukaryotes. In most of these organisms, they reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and, depending on the presence of additional domains, are called NOX or dual oxidases (DUOX. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including superoxide, have been traditionally considered accidental toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, during the last decade it has become evident that both O2•− and H2O2 are key players in complex signaling networks and defense. A well-studied example is the production of O2•− during the bactericidal respiratory burst of phagocytes; this production is catalyzed by NOX2. Here, we devised and applied a novel algorithm to search for additional NOX genes in genomic databases. This procedure allowed us to discover approximately 23% new sequences from bacteria (in relation to the number of NOX-related sequences identified by the authors that we have added to the existing eukaryotic NOX family and have used to build an expanded phylogenetic tree. We cloned and overexpressed the identified nox gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae and confirmed that it codes for an NADPH oxidase. The membrane of the S. pneumoniae NOX protein (SpNOX shares many properties with its eukaryotic counterparts, such as affinity for NADPH and flavin adenine dinucleotide, superoxide dismutase and diphenylene iodonium inhibition, cyanide resistance, oxygen consumption, and superoxide production. Traditionally, NOX enzymes in eukaryotes are related to functions linked to multicellularity. Thus, the discovery of a large family of NOX-related enzymes in the bacterial world brings up fascinating questions regarding their role in this new biological context.

  20. Distribution of protein kinase Mzeta and the complete protein kinase C isoform family in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, M U; Benedikz, Eirikur; Hernandez, I

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of at least ten isoforms, nine of which are expressed in brain (alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, straightepsilon, eta, zeta, iota/lambda). Our previous studies have shown that many of these PKCs participate in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region...... Mzeta (PKMzeta). In this study, we used immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques with isoform-specific antisera to examine the distribution of the complete family of PKC isozymes and PKMzeta in rat brain. Each form of PKC showed a widespread distribution in the brain with a distinct regional pattern...... of high and low levels of expression. PKMzeta, the predominant form of PKM in brain, had high levels in hippocampus, frontal and occipital cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, each isoform was expressed in a characteristic pattern, with zeta prominent in the CA1 stratum radiatum...

  1. Editing of misaligned 3′-termini by an intrinsic 3′–5′ exonuclease activity residing in the PHP domain of a family X DNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Benito; Lázaro, José M.; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis gene yshC encodes a family X DNA polymerase (PolXBs), whose biochemical features suggest that it plays a role during DNA repair processes. Here, we show that, in addition to the polymerization activity, PolXBs possesses an intrinsic 3′–5′ exonuclease activity specialized in resecting unannealed 3′-termini in a gapped DNA substrate. Biochemical analysis of a PolXBs deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal polymerase histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, present in most of the bacterial/archaeal PolXs, as well as of this separately expressed protein region, allow us to state that the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity of PolXBs resides in its PHP domain. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of PolXBs His339 and His341 residues, evolutionary conserved in the PHP superfamily members, demonstrated that the predicted metal binding site is directly involved in catalysis of the exonucleolytic reaction. The implications of the unannealed 3′-termini resection by the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity of PolXBs in the DNA repair context are discussed. PMID:18776221

  2. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  3. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  4. Monoubiquitination of Tob/BTG family proteins competes with degradation-targeting polyubiquitination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toru; Kim, Minsoo; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Masato; Oyama, Masaaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Tob/BTG family proteins are monoubiquitinated in the absence of E3s in vitro. → Monoubiquitination sites of Tob are identified by mass spectrometry. → The monoubiquitination event correlates with lower levels of polyubiquitination. -- Abstract: Tob belongs to the anti-proliferative Tob/BTG protein family. The expression level of Tob family proteins is strictly regulated both transcriptionally and through post-translational modification. Ubiquitin (Ub)/proteosome-dependent degradation of Tob family proteins is critical in controlling cell cycle progression and DNA damage responses. Various Ub ligases (E3s) are responsible for degradation of Tob protein. Here, we show that Tob family proteins undergo monoubiquitination even in the absence of E3s in vitro. Determination of the ubiquitination site(s) in Tob by mass spectrometric analysis revealed that two lysine residues (Lys48 and Lys63) located in Tob/BTG homology domain are ubiquitinated. A mutant Tob, in which both Lys48 and Lys63 are substituted with alanine, is more strongly polyubiquitinated than wild-type Tob in vivo. These data suggest that monoubiquitination of Tob family proteins confers resistance against polyubiquitination, which targets proteins for degradation. The strategy for regulating the stability of Tob family proteins suggests a novel role for monoubiquitination.

  5. Monoubiquitination of Tob/BTG family proteins competes with degradation-targeting polyubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toru, E-mail: toru@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kim, Minsoo [Division of Bacterial Infection, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Watanabe, Masato [Department of Medical Genome Science, School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8562 (Japan); Oyama, Masaaki [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Tsumoto, Kouhei [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Medical Genome Science, School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8562 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, 1919-1 Onna-son, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Tob/BTG family proteins are monoubiquitinated in the absence of E3s in vitro. {yields} Monoubiquitination sites of Tob are identified by mass spectrometry. {yields} The monoubiquitination event correlates with lower levels of polyubiquitination. -- Abstract: Tob belongs to the anti-proliferative Tob/BTG protein family. The expression level of Tob family proteins is strictly regulated both transcriptionally and through post-translational modification. Ubiquitin (Ub)/proteosome-dependent degradation of Tob family proteins is critical in controlling cell cycle progression and DNA damage responses. Various Ub ligases (E3s) are responsible for degradation of Tob protein. Here, we show that Tob family proteins undergo monoubiquitination even in the absence of E3s in vitro. Determination of the ubiquitination site(s) in Tob by mass spectrometric analysis revealed that two lysine residues (Lys48 and Lys63) located in Tob/BTG homology domain are ubiquitinated. A mutant Tob, in which both Lys48 and Lys63 are substituted with alanine, is more strongly polyubiquitinated than wild-type Tob in vivo. These data suggest that monoubiquitination of Tob family proteins confers resistance against polyubiquitination, which targets proteins for degradation. The strategy for regulating the stability of Tob family proteins suggests a novel role for monoubiquitination.

  6. TIS11 Family Proteins and Their Roles in Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression of mRNAs containing adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs in their 3 untranslated regions is mediated by a number of different proteins that interact with these elements to either stabilise or destabilise them. The present review concerns the TPA-inducible sequence 11 (TIS11 protein family, a small family of proteins, that appears to interact with ARE-containing mRNAs and promote their degradation. This family of proteins has been extensively studied in the past decade. Studies have focussed on determining their biochemical functions, identifying their target mRNAs, and determining their roles in cell functions and diseases.

  7. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions with Trimeric Ligands: High Affinity Inhibitors of the MAGUK Protein Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus B; Kedström, Linda Maria Haugaard; Wilbek, Theis S

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the ......PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95...... linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic...

  8. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnhammer Erik L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins.

  9. Intrinsic properties and plasma membrane trafficking route of Src family kinase SH4 domains sensitive to retargeting by HIV-1 Nef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Amanda J; Wombacher, Rebecka; Fackler, Oliver T

    2018-03-27

    The HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef enhances viral replication by modulating multiple host cell pathways, including tuning the activation state of infected CD4 T lymphocytes to optimize virus spread. For this, Nef inhibits anterograde transport of the Src family kinase (SFK) Lck toward the plasma membrane (PM). This leads to retargeting of the kinase to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), while the intracellular transport of a related SFK, Fyn, is unaffected by Nef. The 18 amino acid SH4 domain membrane anchor of Lck is necessary and sufficient for Nef-mediated retargeting, but other details of this process are not known. The goal of this study was therefore to identify characteristics of SH4 domains responsive to Nef and the transport machinery used. Screening a panel of SFK SH4 domains revealed two groups that were sensitive or insensitive for TGN retargeting by Nef, as well as the importance of the amino acid at position 8 for determining Nef-sensitivity. Anterograde transport of Nef-sensitive domains was characterized by slower delivery to the PM and initial targeting to Golgi membranes, where transport was arrested in the presence of Nef. For Nef-sensitive SH4 domains, ectopic expression of the lipoprotein binding chaperone (LPC) Unc119a or the GTPase Arl3 or reduction of their endogenous expression phenocopied the effect of Nef. Together, these results suggest that (i) analogous to K-Ras, Nef-sensitive SH4 domains are transported to the PM by a cycle of solubilization and membrane insertion and (ii) intrinsic properties define SH4 domains as cargo of this Nef-sensitive LPC-GTPase transport cycle. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The gene expression profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma by a network analysis approach shows a dominance of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) between hub nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sakshi; Colonna, Giovanni; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Bergantino, Francesca; Cammarota, Marcella; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the transcriptomic data from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after viral HCV infection at the various stages of the disease by means of a networking analysis using the publicly available E-MTAB-950 dataset. The data was compared with those obtained in our group from HepG2 cells, a cancer cell line that lacks the viral infection. By sequential pruning of data, and also taking into account the data from cells of healthy patients as blanks, we were able to obtain a distribution of hub genes for the various stages that characterize the disease and finally, we isolated a metabolic sub-net specific to HCC alone. The general picture is that the basic organization to energetically and metabolically sustain the cells in both the normal and diseased conditions is the same, but a complex cluster of sub-networks controlled by hub genes drives the HCC progression with high metabolic flexibility and plasticity. In particular, we have extracted a sub-net of genes strictly correlated to other hub genes of the network from HepG2 cells, but specific for the HCC and mainly devoted to: (i) control at chromatin levels of cell division; (ii) control of ergastoplasmatic stress through protein degradation and misfolding; (iii) control of the immune response also through an increase of mature T-cells in the thymus. This sub-net is characterized by 26 hub genes coding for intrinsically disordered proteins with a high ability to interact with numerous molecular partners. Moreover, we have also noted that periphery molecules, that is, with one or very few interactions (e.g., cytokines or post-translational enzymes), which do not have a central role in the clusters that make up the global metabolic network, essentially have roles as information transporters. The results evidence a strong presence of intrinsically disordered proteins with key roles as hubs in the sub-networks that characterize the various stages of the disease, conferring a structural plasticity to

  11. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  12. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agentsinvolved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viralresistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane alterations such as ...

  13. Insights into Unfolded Proteins from the Intrinsic phi/psi Propensities of the AAXAA Host-Guest Series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Towse, C. L.; Vymětal, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří; Daggett, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2016), s. 348-361 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : polyproline-II helix * beta-sheet protein * random-coil behavior Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  14. Comparative and functional analysis of the widely occurring family of Nep1-like proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oome, Stan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325800847; van den Ackerveken, Guido|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113853254

    2014-01-01

    Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are best known for their cytotoxic activity in dicot plants. NLP are taxonomically widespread among microbes with very different lifestyles. To learn more about this enigmatic protein family, we analyzed more than 500 available NLP protein sequences from fungi, oomycetes,

  15. The human PNMA family: novel neuronal proteins implicated in paraneoplastic neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Martina; Jenne, Dieter; Voltz, Raymond

    2005-12-01

    Using sera from patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, several novel neuronal autoantigens such as the paraneoplastic Ma antigens (PNMA) have been identified. Here, we report the correction and completion of the previously published prototype member PNMA1, the brain and testis restricted expression of a third member (PNMA3) and the sequences for further partially uncharacterized members of this novel neuronal protein family. Murine and rat orthologs exist for this protein family. By analogy to the pro-apoptotic MOAP1, similar functional interactions may exist between members of the PNMA family and the bcl-2 family.

  16. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-11-25

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in tissue developments, cell-cell communications, cell polarity control, and cellular signal transductions. Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the functions of the signature guanylate kinase domain (GK) of MAGUKs are poorly understood. Here we show that the GK domain of DLG1/SAP97 binds to asymmetric cell division regulatory protein LGN in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The structure of the DLG1 SH3-GK tandem in complex with a phospho-LGN peptide reveals that the GMP-binding site of GK has evolved into a specific pSer/pThr-binding pocket. Residues both N- and C-terminal to the pSer are also critical for the specific binding of the phospho-LGN peptide to GK. We further demonstrate that the previously reported GK domain-mediated interactions of DLGs with other targets, such as GKAP/DLGAP1/SAPAP1 and SPAR, are also phosphorylation dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that other MAGUK GKs also function as phospho-peptide-binding modules. The discovery of the phosphorylation-dependent MAGUK GK/target interactions indicates that MAGUK scaffold-mediated signalling complex organizations are dynamically regulated.

  17. Identification and characterization of GmPDIL7, a soybean ER membrane-bound protein disulfide isomerase family protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Aya; Matsusaki, Motonori; Masuda, Taro; Urade, Reiko

    2017-02-01

    Most proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possess intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds, which play an important role in the conformational stability and function of proteins. Hence, eukaryotic cells contain protein disulfide bond formation pathways such as the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) system in the ER lumen. In this study, we identified soybean PDIL7 (GmPDIL7), a novel soybean ER membrane-bound PDI family protein, and determined its enzymatic properties. GmPDIL7 has a putative N-terminal signal sequence, a thioredoxin domain with an active center motif (CGHC), and a putative C-terminal transmembrane region. Likewise, we demonstrated that GmPDIL7 is ubiquitously expressed in soybean tissues and is localized in the ER membrane. Furthermore, GmPDIL7 associated with other soybean PDI family proteins in vivo and GmPDIL7 mRNA was slightly upregulated under ER stress. The redox potential of recombinant GmPDIL7 expressed in Escherichia coli was -187 mV, indicating that GmPDIL7 could oxidize unfolded proteins. GmPDIL7 exhibited a dithiol oxidase activity level that was similar to other soybean PDI family proteins. However, the oxidative refolding activity of GmPDIL7 was lower than other soybean PDI family proteins. GmPDIL7 was well oxidized by GmERO1. Taken together, our results indicated that GmPDIL7 primarily plays a role as a supplier of disulfide bonds in nascent proteins for oxidative folding on the ER membrane. The nucleotide sequence data for the GmPDIL7 cDNA are available in the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) databases under the accession numbers LC158001. Protein disulfide isomerase: EC 5.3.4.1. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Impacts of a new transcription factor family: mammalian GCM proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemolhosseini, Said; Wegner, Michael

    2004-09-13

    GCM proteins constitute a small transcription factor family with a DNA-binding domain exhibiting a novel fold composed of two subdomains rigidly held together by coordination of one of two structural zinc cations. In all known cases, GCM proteins exert the role of master regulators: the prototypical family member determines gliogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, whereas mammalian GCM proteins orchestrate divergent aspects of development and physiology in placenta, kidney, thymus, and parathyroid gland. Recent data point to an involvement of GCM proteins in different pathological contexts, such as preeclampsia, hyper- or hypoparathyroidism, and parathyroid gland tumors.

  19. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agents involved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viral resistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane ...

  20. Computing a new family of shape descriptors for protein structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter; Sinclair, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale 3D structure of a protein can be represented by the polygonal curve through the carbon a atoms of the protein backbone. We introduce an algorithm for computing the average number of times that a given configuration of crossings on such polygonal curves is seen, the average being...

  1. The Tudor domain protein Spindlin1 is involved in intrinsic antiviral defense against incoming hepatitis B Virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ducroux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV replicates from a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA that remains as an episome within the nucleus of infected cells and serves as a template for the transcription of HBV RNAs. The regulatory protein HBx has been shown to be essential for cccDNA transcription in the context of infection. Here we identified Spindlin1, a cellular Tudor-domain protein, as an HBx interacting partner. We further demonstrated that Spindlin1 is recruited to the cccDNA and inhibits its transcription in the context of infection. Spindlin1 knockdown induced an increase in HBV transcription and in histone H4K4 trimethylation at the cccDNA, suggesting that Spindlin1 impacts on epigenetic regulation. Spindlin1-induced transcriptional inhibition was greater for the HBV virus deficient for the expression of HBx than for the HBV WT virus, suggesting that HBx counteracts Spindlin1 repression. Importantly, we showed that the repressive role of Spindlin1 is not limited to HBV transcription but also extends to other DNA virus that replicate within the nucleus such as Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1. Taken together our results identify Spindlin1 as a critical component of the intrinsic antiviral defense and shed new light on the function of HBx in HBV infection.

  2. Using amino acid correlation and community detection algorithms to identify functional determinants in protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bleicher

    Full Text Available Correlated mutation analysis has a long history of interesting applications, mostly in the detection of contact pairs in protein structures. Based on previous observations that, if properly assessed, amino acid correlation data can also provide insights about functional sub-classes in a protein family, we provide a complete framework devoted to this purpose. An amino acid specific correlation measure is proposed, which can be used to build networks summarizing all correlation and anti-correlation patterns in a protein family. These networks can be submitted to community structure detection algorithms, resulting in subsets of correlated amino acids which can be further assessed by specific parameters and procedures that provide insight into the relationship between different communities, the individual importance of community members and the adherence of a given amino acid sequence to a given community. By applying this framework to three protein families with contrasting characteristics (the Fe/Mn-superoxide dismutases, the peroxidase-catalase family and the C-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family, we show how our method and the proposed parameters and procedures are related to biological characteristics observed in these protein families, highlighting their potential use in protein characterization and gene annotation.

  3. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.elias@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Liebschner, Dorothee [CRM2, Nancy Université (France); Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric [AFMB, Université Aix-Marseille II (France)

    2011-01-01

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated.

  4. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Mikael; Liebschner, Dorothee; Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric

    2011-01-01

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated

  5. In vitro assembly into virus-like particles is an intrinsic quality of Pichia pastoris derived HCV core protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Rivero, Nelson; Rodriguez, Armando; Musacchio, Alexis; Falcon, Viviana; Suarez, Viana M.; Martinez, Gillian; Guerra, Ivis; Paz-Lago, Dalila; Morera, Yanelys; Rosa, Maria C. de la; Morales-Grillo, Juan; Duenas-Carrera, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Different variants of hepatitis C virus core protein (HCcAg) have proved to self-assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, difficulties in obtaining purified mature HCcAg have limited these studies. In this study, a high degree of monomeric HCcAg purification was accomplished using chromatographic procedures under denaturing conditions. Size exclusion chromatography and sucrose density gradient centrifugation of renatured HCcAg (in the absence of structured RNA) under reducing conditions suggested that it assembled into empty capsids. The electron microscopy analysis of renatured HCcAg showed the presence of spherical VLPs with irregular shapes and an average diameter of 35 nm. Data indicated that HCcAg monomers assembled in vitro into VLPs in the absence of structured RNA, suggesting that recombinant HCcAg used in this work contains all the information necessary for the assembly process. However, they also suggest that some cellular factors might be required for the proper in vitro assembly of capsids

  6. TMC and EVER genes belong to a larger novel family, the TMC gene family encoding transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutai Hideki

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the transmembrane cochlear expressed gene 1 (TMC1 cause deafness in human and mouse. Mutations in two homologous genes, EVER1 and EVER2 increase the susceptibility to infection with certain human papillomaviruses resulting in high risk of skin carcinoma. Here we report that TMC1, EVER1 and EVER2 (now TMC6 and TMC8 belong to a larger novel gene family, which is named TMC for trans membrane channel-like gene family. Results Using a combination of iterative database searches and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR experiments we assembled contigs for cDNA encoding human, murine, puffer fish, and invertebrate TMC proteins. TMC proteins of individual species can be grouped into three subfamilies A, B, and C. Vertebrates have eight TMC genes. The majority of murine TMC transcripts are expressed in most organs; some transcripts, however, in particular the three subfamily A members are rare and more restrictively expressed. Conclusion The eight vertebrate TMC genes are evolutionary conserved and encode proteins that form three subfamilies. Invertebrate TMC proteins can also be categorized into these three subfamilies. All TMC genes encode transmembrane proteins with intracellular amino- and carboxyl-termini and at least eight membrane-spanning domains. We speculate that the TMC proteins constitute a novel group of ion channels, transporters, or modifiers of such.

  7. A family of related proteins is encoded by the major Drosophila heat shock gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    At least four proteins of 70,000 to 75,000 molecular weight (70-75K) were synthesized from mRNA which hybridized with a cloned heat shock gene previously shown to be localized to the 87A and 87C heat shock puff sites. These in vitro-synthesized proteins were indistinguishable from in vivo-synthesized heat shock-induced proteins when analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of the pattern of this group of proteins synthesized in vivo during a 5-min pulse or during continuous labeling indicates that the 72-75K proteins are probably not kinetic precursors to the major 70K heat shock protein. Partial digestion products generated with V8 protease indicated that the 70-75K heat shock proteins are closely related, but that there are clear differences between them. The partial digestion patterns obtained from heat shock proteins from the Kc cell line and from the Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster are very similar. Genetic analysis of the patterns of 70-75K heat shock protein synthesis indicated that the genes encoding at least two of the three 72-75K heat shock proteins are located outside of the major 87A and 87C puff sites

  8. Enhancing the prediction of protein pairings between interacting families using orthology information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazos Florencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has repeatedly been shown that interacting protein families tend to have similar phylogenetic trees. These similarities can be used to predicting the mapping between two families of interacting proteins (i.e. which proteins from one family interact with which members of the other. The correct mapping will be that which maximizes the similarity between the trees. The two families may eventually comprise orthologs and paralogs, if members of the two families are present in more than one organism. This fact can be exploited to restrict the possible mappings, simply by impeding links between proteins of different organisms. We present here an algorithm to predict the mapping between families of interacting proteins which is able to incorporate information regarding orthologues, or any other assignment of proteins to "classes" that may restrict possible mappings. Results For the first time in methods for predicting mappings, we have tested this new approach on a large number of interacting protein domains in order to statistically assess its performance. The method accurately predicts around 80% in the most favourable cases. We also analysed in detail the results of the method for a well defined case of interacting families, the sensor and kinase components of the Ntr-type two-component system, for which up to 98% of the pairings predicted by the method were correct. Conclusion Based on the well established relationship between tree similarity and interactions we developed a method for predicting the mapping between two interacting families using genomic information alone. The program is available through a web interface.

  9. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most...... diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed...

  10. Peroxisomal Proteostasis Involves a Lon Family Protein That Functions as Protease and Chaperone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Williams, Chris; Kikhney, Alexey; Opaliński, Łukasz; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; de Boer, Rinse; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are subject to continuous quality control for optimal proteostasis. The knowledge of peroxisome quality control systems is still in its infancy. Here we show that peroxisomes contain a member of the Lon family of proteases (Pln). We show that Pln is a heptameric protein and acts as an

  11. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2010-01-01

    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  12. Cell cycle regulation by the retinoblastoma family of growth inhibitory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Beijersbergen, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The retinoblastoma family of growth-inhibitory proteins act by binding and inhibiting several proteins with growth-stimulatory activity, the most prominent of which is the cellular transcription factor E2F. In higher organisms, progression through the cell division cycle is accompanied by the

  13. Characterization of a DUF820 family protein Alr3200 of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-14

    Oct 14, 2016 ... The hypothetical protein 'Alr3200' of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 is highly conserved among cyanobacterial species. It is a member of the DUF820 (Domain of Unknown Function) protein family, and is predicted to have a. DNase domain. Biochemical analysis revealed a Mg(II)-dependent DNase activity ...

  14. Characterization of a DUF820 family protein Alr3200 of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hypothetical protein 'Alr3200' of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 is highly conserved among cyanobacterialspecies. It is a member of the DUF820 (Domain of Unknown Function) protein family, and is predicted to have aDNase domain. Biochemical analysis revealed a Mg(II)-dependent DNase activity for Alr3200 with a ...

  15. Indispensable roles of mammalian Cbl family proteins as negative regulators of protein tyrosine kinase signaling: Insights from in vivo models

    OpenAIRE

    Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    All higher eukaryotes utilize protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) as molecular switches to control a variety of cellular signals. Notably, many PTKs have been identified as proto-oncogenes whose aberrant expression, mutations or co-option by pathogens can lead to human malignancies. Thus, it is obvious that PTK functions must be precisely regulated in order to maintain homeostasis of an organism. Investigations over the past fifteen years have revealed that members of the Cbl family proteins can ...

  16. Defining Sequence Space and Reaction Products within the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase (AtzD)/Barbiturase Protein Family

    OpenAIRE

    Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Erickson, Jasmine S.; Cameron, Stephan M.; Cho, Seunghee; Dodge, Anthony G.; Richman, Jack E.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases (AtzD) and barbiturases are homologous, found almost exclusively in bacteria, and comprise a rare protein family with no discernible linkage to other protein families or an X-ray structural class. There has been confusion in the literature and in genome projects regarding the reaction products, the assignment of individual sequences as either cyanuric acid hydrolases or barbiturases, and spurious connection of this family to another protein family. The present study h...

  17. P1 peptidase–a mysterious protein of family Potyviridae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coding region for P1 peptidase is located at the very beginning of the viral genome of the family Potyviridae. Until recently P1 was thought of as serine peptidase with ... Jana Rohožková1 Milan Navrátil1. Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 783 71, Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic ...

  18. The DNABII family of proteins is comprised of the only nucleoid associated proteins required for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Buzzo, John; Rocco, Christopher J; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Goodman, Steven D

    2017-12-12

    Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone-like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI-induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biofilms from the middle ear. Given the essential role of DNABII proteins in maintaining the structure of an NTHI biofilm, we investigated whether any of the other nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) expressed by NTHI might play a similar role, thereby serving as additional target(s) for intervention. We demonstrated that although several NAPs including H-NS, CbpA, HfQ and Dps are present within the biofilm extracellular matrix, only the DNABII family of proteins is critical for the structural integrity of the biofilms formed by NTHI. We have also demonstrated that IHF and HU are located at distinct regions within the extracellular matrix of NTHI biofilms formed in vitro, indicative of independent functions of these two proteins. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The PEF family proteins sorcin and grancalcin interact in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian; Tarabykina, Svetlana; la Cour, Jonas Marstrand

    2003-01-01

    The penta-EF hand (PEF) family of calcium binding proteins includes grancalcin, peflin, sorcin, calpain large and small subunits as well as ALG-2. Systematic testing of the heterodimerization abilities of the PEF proteins using the yeast two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays...... be a way to regulate and fine tune processes mediated by calcium binding proteins of the penta-EF hand type....

  20. Arabidopsis PPP family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases: many targets but few engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-09-01

    The major plant serine/threonine protein phosphatases belong to the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family. Over the past few years the complement of Arabidopsis thaliana PPP family of catalytic subunits has been cataloged and many regulatory subunits identified. Specific roles for PPPs have been characterized, including roles in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling, in phototropism, in regulating the target of rapamycin pathway, and in cell stress responses. In this review, we provide a framework for understanding the PPP family by exploring the fundamental role of the phosphatase regulatory subunits that drive catalytic engine specificity. Although there are fewer plant protein phosphatases compared with their protein kinase partners, their function is now recognized to be as dynamic and as regulated as that of protein kinases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Power and Limits of Sequence Similarity Based Clustering of Proteins Into Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiwie, Christian; Röttger, Richard

    2017-01-01

    important to also unravel the proteomic repertoire of an organism. A classical computational approach for detecting protein families is a sequence-based similarity calculation coupled with a subsequent cluster analysis. In this work we have intensively analyzed various clustering tools on a large scale. We...... used the data to investigate the behavior of the tools' parameters underlining the diversity of the protein families. Furthermore, we trained regression models for predicting the expected performance of a clustering tool for an unknown data set and aimed to also suggest optimal parameters...... in an automated fashion. Our analysis demonstrates the benefits and limitations of the clustering of proteins with low sequence similarity indicating that each protein family requires its own distinct set of tools and parameters. All results, a tool prediction service, and additional supporting material is also...

  2. The Role of BCL2 Family of Apoptosis Regulator Proteins in Acute and Chronic Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Tzifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disturbance of apoptosis molecular signaling pathways is involved in carcinogenesis. BCL2 family of proteins is the hallmark of apoptosis regulation. In the last decade, new members of BCL2 gene family were discovered and cloned and were found to be differentially expressed in many types of cancer. BCL2 protein family, through its role in regulation of apoptotic pathways, is possibly related to cancer pathophysiology and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. It is well known that leukemias are haematopoietic malignancies characterized by biological diversity, varied cytogenetics, different immunophenotype profiles, and diverse outcome. Current research focuses on the prognostic impact and specific role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of leukemias. The understanding of the molecular pathways that participate in the biology of leukemias may lead to the design of new therapies which may improve patients' survival. In the present paper, we describe current knowledge on the role of BCL2 apoptosis regulator proteins in acute and chronic leukemias.

  3. Selecting protein families for environmental features based on manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingpeng; Xu, Weiwei; Park, E K; Li, Guangrong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, statistics and machine learning have been developed to identify functional or taxonomic features of environmental features or physiological status. Important proteins (or other functional and taxonomic entities) to environmental features can be potentially used as biosensors. A major challenge is how the distribution of protein and gene functions embodies the adaption of microbial communities across environments and host habitats. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization method for linear regression to adapt the challenge. The approach is inspired by local linear embedding (LLE) and we call it a manifold-constrained regularization for linear regression (McRe). The novel regularization procedure also has potential to be used in solving other linear systems. We demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the approach in both simulation and real data.

  4. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E; Brenner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal natural history to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ε amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition.

  5. Evolutionary gradient of predicted nuclear localization signals (NLS)-bearing proteins in genomes of family Planctomycetaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Yang, Ruifu; Huang, Chen; Liao, Qiwen; Fan, Guangyi; Sun, Chenghang; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-04-04

    The nuclear envelope is considered a key classification marker that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes. However, this marker does not apply to the family Planctomycetaceae, which has intracellular spaces divided by lipidic intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). Nuclear localization signal (NLS), a short stretch of amino acid sequence, destines to transport proteins from cytoplasm into nucleus, and is also associated with the development of nuclear envelope. We attempted to investigate the NLS motifs in Planctomycetaceae genomes to demonstrate the potential molecular transition in the development of intracellular membrane system. In this study, we identified NLS-like motifs that have the same amino acid compositions as experimentally identified NLSs in genomes of 11 representative species of family Planctomycetaceae. A total of 15 NLS types and 170 NLS-bearing proteins were detected in the 11 strains. To determine the molecular transformation, we compared NLS-bearing protein abundances in the 11 representative Planctomycetaceae genomes with them in genomes of 16 taxonomically varied microorganisms: nine bacteria, two archaea and five fungi. In the 27 strains, 29 NLS types and 1101 NLS-bearing proteins were identified, principal component analysis showed a significant transitional gradient from bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to fungi on their NLS-bearing protein abundance profiles. Then, we clustered the 993 non-redundant NLS-bearing proteins into 181 families and annotated their involved metabolic pathways. Afterwards, we aligned the ten types of NLS motifs from the 13 families containing NLS-bearing proteins among bacteria, Planctomycetaceae or fungi, considering their diversity, length and origin. A transition towards increased complexity from non-planctomycete bacteria to Planctomycetaceae to archaea and fungi was detected based on the complexity of the 10 types of NLS-like motifs in the 13 NLS-bearing proteins families. The results of this study reveal that

  6. Amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide and Bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) peptides from Bcl-2 family proteins induce apoptosis through different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Kyun; Choi, Kyoung-Han; Peng, Jun; He, Feng; Zhang, Zhi; Weisleder, Noah; Lin, Jialing; Ma, Jianjie

    2011-03-18

    Bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) peptides are potent cancer therapeutic reagents that target regulators of apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. However, their cytotoxic effects are affected by different expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. We recently found that the amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP) from Bfl-1, a bifunctional Bcl-2 family member, produced strong pro-apoptotic activity by permeabilizing the mitochondrial outer membrane. Here, we test whether the activity of ATAP requires other cellular factors and whether ATAP has an advantage over the BH3 peptides in targeting cancer cells. Confocal microscopic imaging illustrates specific targeting of ATAP to mitochondria, whereas BH3 peptides show diffuse patterns of cytosolic distribution. Although the pro-apoptotic activities of BH3 peptides are largely inhibited by either overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL or nullification of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak in cells, the pro-apoptotic function of ATAP is not affected by these cellular factors. Reconstitution of synthetic ATAP into liposomal membranes results in release of fluorescent molecules of the size of cytochrome c from the liposomes, suggesting that the membrane permeabilizing activity of ATAP does not require additional protein factors. Because ATAP can target to the mitochondrial membrane and its pro-apoptotic activity does not depend on the content of Bcl-2 family proteins, it represents a promising candidate for anti-cancer drugs that can potentially overcome the intrinsic apoptosis-resistant nature of cancer cells.

  7. Five and four dimensional experiments for robust backbone resonance assignment of large intrinsically disordered proteins: application to Tau3x protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żerko, Szymon; Byrski, Piotr; Włodarczyk-Pruszyński, Paweł; Górka, Michał; Ledolter, Karin; Masliah, Eliezer; Konrat, Robert; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2016-01-01

    New experiments dedicated for large IDPs backbone resonance assignment are presented. The most distinctive feature of all described techniques is the employment of MOCCA-XY16 mixing sequences to obtain effective magnetization transfers between carbonyl carbon backbone nuclei. The proposed 4 and 5 dimensional experiments provide a high dispersion of obtained signals making them suitable for use in the case of large IDPs (application to 354 a. a. residues of Tau protein 3x isoform is presented) as well as provide both forward and backward connectivities. What is more, connecting short chains interrupted with proline residues is also possible. All the experiments employ non-uniform sampling.

  8. Five and four dimensional experiments for robust backbone resonance assignment of large intrinsically disordered proteins: application to Tau3x protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żerko, Szymon; Byrski, Piotr; Włodarczyk-Pruszyński, Paweł; Górka, Michał [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre (Poland); Ledolter, Karin [University of Vienna, Department of Computational and Structural Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories (Austria); Masliah, Eliezer [University of California, San Diego, Departments of Neuroscience and Pathology (United States); Konrat, Robert [University of Vienna, Department of Computational and Structural Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories (Austria); Koźmiński, Wiktor, E-mail: kozmin@chem.uw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    New experiments dedicated for large IDPs backbone resonance assignment are presented. The most distinctive feature of all described techniques is the employment of MOCCA-XY16 mixing sequences to obtain effective magnetization transfers between carbonyl carbon backbone nuclei. The proposed 4 and 5 dimensional experiments provide a high dispersion of obtained signals making them suitable for use in the case of large IDPs (application to 354 a. a. residues of Tau protein 3x isoform is presented) as well as provide both forward and backward connectivities. What is more, connecting short chains interrupted with proline residues is also possible. All the experiments employ non-uniform sampling.

  9. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  10. The multi-protein family of sulfotransferases in plants: composition, occurrence, substrate specificity, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Felix; Krause, Florian; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    All members of the sulfotransferase (SOT, EC 2.8.2.-) protein family transfer a sulfuryl group from the donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an appropriate hydroxyl group of several classes of substrates. The primary structure of these enzymes is characterized by a histidine residue in the active site, defined PAPS binding sites and a longer SOT domain. Proteins with this SOT domain occur in all organisms from all three domains, usually as a multi-protein family. Arabidopsis thaliana SOTs, the best characterized SOT multi-protein family, contains 21 members. The substrates for several plant enzymes have already been identified, such as glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, flavonoids, and salicylic acid. Much information has been gathered on desulfo-glucosinolate (dsGl) SOTs in A. thaliana. The three cytosolic dsGl SOTs show slightly different expression patterns. The recombinant proteins reveal differences in their affinity to indolic and aliphatic dsGls. Also the respective recombinant dsGl SOTs from different A. thaliana ecotypes differ in their kinetic properties. However, determinants of substrate specificity and the exact reaction mechanism still need to be clarified. Probably, the three-dimensional structures of more plant proteins need to be solved to analyze the mode of action and the responsible amino acids for substrate binding. In addition to A. thaliana, more plant species from several families need to be investigated to fully elucidate the diversity of sulfated molecules and the way of biosynthesis catalyzed by SOT enzymes.

  11. A new heterogeneous family of telomerically encoded Cryptosporidium proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Hunter, Paul R; McDonald, Vincent; Elwin, Kristin; Chalmers, Rachel M; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is predominantly caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasites the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and anthroponotic Cryptosporidium hominis which diverge phenotypically in respect to host range and virulence. Using comparative genomics we identified two genes displaying overt heterogeneity between species. Although initial work suggested both were species specific, Cops-1 for C. parvum and Chos-1 for C. hominis, subsequent study identified an abridged ortholog of Cops-1 in C. hominis. Cops-1 and Chos-1 showed limited, but significant, similarity to each other and share common features: (i) telomeric location: Cops-1 is the last gene on chromosome 2, whilst Chos-1 is the first gene on chromosome 5, (ii) encode circa 50-kDa secreted proteins with isoelectric points above 10, (iii) are serine rich, and (iv) contain internal nucleotide repeats. Importantly, Cops-1 sequence contains specific SNPs with good discriminatory power useful epidemiologically. C. parvum-infected patient sera recognized a 50-kDa protein in antigen preparations of C. parvum but not C. hominis, consistent with Cops-1 being antigenic for patients. Interestingly, anti-Cops-1 monoclonal antibody (9E1) stained oocyst content and sporozoite surface of C. parvum only. This study provides a new example of protozoan telomeres as rapidly evolving contingency loci encoding putative virulence factors. PMID:23467513

  12. Three members of the 6-cys protein family of Plasmodium play a role in gamete fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R van Dijk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47 also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.

  13. WCS120 protein family and proteins soluble upon boiling in cold-acclimated winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitamvas, P.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Prasil, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    analysis of total sample of proteins soluble upon boiling showed seven COR proteins in the CA samples and only three COR proteins in the NA samples of cultivar Mironovskaya 808 (MIR). In conclusion, the Level of the accumulation of WCS120, WCS66 and WCS40 distinguished our two frost-tolerant winter wheat...

  14. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Architecture and regulation of HtrA-family proteins involved in protein quality control and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Guido; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Protein quality control is vital for all living cells and sophisticated molecular mechanisms have evolved to prevent the excessive accumulation of unfolded proteins. High-temperature requirement A (HtrA) proteases have been identified as important ATP-independent quality-control factors in most species. HtrA proteins harbor a serine-protease domain and at least one peptide-binding PDZ domain to ensure efficient removal of misfolded or damaged proteins. One distinctive property of HtrAs is their ability to assemble into complex oligomers. Whereas all examined HtrAs are capable of forming pyramidal 3-mers, higher-order complexes consisting of up to 24 molecules have been reported. Tight control of chaperone and protease function is of pivotal importance in preventing deleterious HtrA-protease activity. In recent years, structural biology provided detailed insights into the molecular basis of the regulatory mechanisms, which include unique intramolecular allosteric signaling cascades and the dynamic switching of oligomeric states of HtrA proteins. Based on these results, functional models for many family members have been developed. The HtrA protein family represents a remarkable example of how structural and functional diversity is attained from the assembly of simple molecular building blocks.

  16. The Rh protein family: gene evolution, membrane biology, and disease association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Han; Ye, Mao

    2010-04-01

    The Rh (Rhesus) genes encode a family of conserved proteins that share a structural fold of 12 transmembrane helices with members of the major facilitator superfamily. Interest in this family has arisen from the discovery of Rh factor's involvement in hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn, and of its homologs widely expressed in epithelial tissues. The Rh factor and Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG), with epithelial cousins RhBG and RhCG, form four subgroups conferring upon vertebrates a genealogical commonality. The past decade has heralded significant advances in understanding the phylogenetics, allelic diversity, crystal structure, and biological function of Rh proteins. This review describes recent progress on this family and the molecular insights gleaned from its gene evolution, membrane biology, and disease association. The focus is on its long evolutionary history and surprising structural conservation from prokaryotes to humans, pointing to the importance of its functional role, related to but distinct from ammonium transport proteins.

  17. Sifting through genomes with iterative-sequence clustering produces a large, phylogenetically diverse protein-family resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Jospin, Guillaume; Wu, Dongying; Langille, Morgan G I; Pollard, Katherine S; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2012-10-13

    New computational resources are needed to manage the increasing volume of biological data from genome sequencing projects. One fundamental challenge is the ability to maintain a complete and current catalog of protein diversity. We developed a new approach for the identification of protein families that focuses on the rapid discovery of homologous protein sequences. We implemented fully automated and high-throughput procedures to de novo cluster proteins into families based upon global alignment similarity. Our approach employs an iterative clustering strategy in which homologs of known families are sifted out of the search for new families. The resulting reduction in computational complexity enables us to rapidly identify novel protein families found in new genomes and to perform efficient, automated updates that keep pace with genome sequencing. We refer to protein families identified through this approach as "Sifting Families," or SFams. Our analysis of ~10.5 million protein sequences from 2,928 genomes identified 436,360 SFams, many of which are not represented in other protein family databases. We validated the quality of SFam clustering through statistical as well as network topology-based analyses. We describe the rapid identification of SFams and demonstrate how they can be used to annotate genomes and metagenomes. The SFam database catalogs protein-family quality metrics, multiple sequence alignments, hidden Markov models, and phylogenetic trees. Our source code and database are publicly available and will be subject to frequent updates (http://edhar.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/sifting_families/).

  18. Endeavour to simplify the frustrated concept of protein-ammonium family ionic liquid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Indrani; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2015-08-28

    The large amount of attention earned by ionic liquids (ILs) in the various physical and chemical sciences has been attributed to their unique, designer nature. In the past few years, the role of ILs in protein folding/unfolding has been rapidly growing. In light of the increasing importance of ILs, it is desirable to systematize the ion effects on protein properties such as structure stability, activity and enantioselectivity. Various studies available in the literature show ILs as a potential solvent medium for many enzymatic reactions, as well as in various protein folding/unfolding studies. Various reviews by many researchers focus on the synthesis, application and general properties of the ILs, however a review focussing on the effect of various ILs on the activity, structure and stability of proteins is still missing. Also, according to the best of our knowledge there is no single review available throughout the literature that focuses on the effect of the same family of ILs on different proteins. Therefore, it is a priority to obtain complete knowledge of the biomolecules, particularly amino acids (AAs) and proteins in a particular IL family. The focus of the present perspective is to investigate the performance of a list of proteins and protein model compounds in the presence of ammonium-based ILs. This perspective presents a survey of all the key developments from the available reports and also our past and present experience related to proteins and ammonium-based ILs. Additionally, we have tried to put the available information in chronological order in most of the cases. The use of ammonium family ILs as a co-solvent for various proteins model compounds and proteins has been outlined. This perspective can act as a barometer for reckoning the various advancements made in this field and can also galvanize further investigation of various untouched aspects of this research area.

  19. Cartilage acidic protein 1, a new member of the beta-propeller protein family with amyloid propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Liliana; Morgado, Isabel; Guerreiro, Marta; Cardoso, João C R; Melo, Eduardo P; Power, Deborah M

    2017-02-01

    Cartilage acidic protein1 (CRTAC1) is an extracellular matrix protein of chondrogenic tissue in humans and its presence in bacteria indicate it is of ancient origin. Structural modeling of piscine CRTAC1 reveals it belongs to the large family of beta-propeller proteins that in mammals have been associated with diseases, including amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's. In order to characterize the structure/function evolution of this new member of the beta-propeller family we exploited the unique characteristics of piscine duplicate genes Crtac1a and Crtac1b and compared their structural and biochemical modifications with human recombinant CRTAC1. We demonstrate that CRTAC1 has a beta-propeller structure that has been conserved during evolution and easily forms high molecular weight thermo-stable aggregates. We reveal for the first time the propensity of CRTAC1 to form amyloid-like structures, and hypothesize that the aggregating property of CRTAC1 may be related to its disease-association. We further contribute to the general understating of CRTAC1's and beta-propeller family evolution and function. Proteins 2017; 85:242-255. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Identification of novel restriction endonuclease-like fold families among hypothetical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Lisa N; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2005-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases and other nucleic acid cleaving enzymes form a large and extremely diverse superfamily that display little sequence similarity despite retaining a common core fold responsible for cleavage. The lack of significant sequence similarity between protein families makes homology inference a challenging task and hinders new family identification with traditional sequence-based approaches. Using the consensus fold recognition method Meta-BASIC that combines sequence profiles with predicted protein secondary structure, we identify nine new restriction endonuclease-like fold families among previously uncharacterized proteins and predict these proteins to cleave nucleic acid substrates. Application of transitive searches combined with gene neighborhood analysis allow us to confidently link these unknown families to a number of known restriction endonuclease-like structures and thus assign folds to the uncharacterized proteins. Finally, our method identifies a novel restriction endonuclease-like domain in the C-terminus of RecC that is not detected with structure-based searches of the existing PDB database.

  1. A Protein Domain and Family Based Approach to Rare Variant Association Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tom G.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Rivas, Manuel A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Campbell, Colin; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Gaunt, Tom R.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has become common practice to analyse large scale sequencing data with statistical approaches based around the aggregation of rare variants within the same gene. We applied a novel approach to rare variant analysis by collapsing variants together using protein domain and family coordinates, regarded to be a more discrete definition of a biologically functional unit. Methods Using Pfam definitions, we collapsed rare variants (Minor Allele Frequency ≤ 1%) together in three different ways 1) variants within single genomic regions which map to individual protein domains 2) variants within two individual protein domain regions which are predicted to be responsible for a protein-protein interaction 3) all variants within combined regions from multiple genes responsible for coding the same protein domain (i.e. protein families). A conventional collapsing analysis using gene coordinates was also undertaken for comparison. We used UK10K sequence data and investigated associations between regions of variants and lipid traits using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Results We observed no strong evidence of association between regions of variants based on Pfam domain definitions and lipid traits. Quantile-Quantile plots illustrated that the overall distributions of p-values from the protein domain analyses were comparable to that of a conventional gene-based approach. Deviations from this distribution suggested that collapsing by either protein domain or gene definitions may be favourable depending on the trait analysed. Conclusion We have collapsed rare variants together using protein domain and family coordinates to present an alternative approach over collapsing across conventionally used gene-based regions. Although no strong evidence of association was detected in these analyses, future studies may still find value in adopting these approaches to detect previously unidentified association signals. PMID:27128313

  2. A Protein Domain and Family Based Approach to Rare Variant Association Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available It has become common practice to analyse large scale sequencing data with statistical approaches based around the aggregation of rare variants within the same gene. We applied a novel approach to rare variant analysis by collapsing variants together using protein domain and family coordinates, regarded to be a more discrete definition of a biologically functional unit.Using Pfam definitions, we collapsed rare variants (Minor Allele Frequency ≤ 1% together in three different ways 1 variants within single genomic regions which map to individual protein domains 2 variants within two individual protein domain regions which are predicted to be responsible for a protein-protein interaction 3 all variants within combined regions from multiple genes responsible for coding the same protein domain (i.e. protein families. A conventional collapsing analysis using gene coordinates was also undertaken for comparison. We used UK10K sequence data and investigated associations between regions of variants and lipid traits using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT.We observed no strong evidence of association between regions of variants based on Pfam domain definitions and lipid traits. Quantile-Quantile plots illustrated that the overall distributions of p-values from the protein domain analyses were comparable to that of a conventional gene-based approach. Deviations from this distribution suggested that collapsing by either protein domain or gene definitions may be favourable depending on the trait analysed.We have collapsed rare variants together using protein domain and family coordinates to present an alternative approach over collapsing across conventionally used gene-based regions. Although no strong evidence of association was detected in these analyses, future studies may still find value in adopting these approaches to detect previously unidentified association signals.

  3. Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases with Molecular Simulations: Understanding the Roles of Artificial and Pathological Missense Mutations in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Related to Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkid Coskuner-Weber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β and α-synuclein are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, which are at the center of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathologies, respectively. These IDPs are extremely flexible and do not adopt stable structures. Furthermore, both amyloid-β and α-synuclein can form toxic oligomers, amyloid fibrils and other type of aggregates in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Experimentalists face challenges in investigating the structures and thermodynamic properties of these IDPs in their monomeric and oligomeric forms due to the rapid conformational changes, fast aggregation processes and strong solvent effects. Classical molecular dynamics simulations complement experiments and provide structural information at the atomic level with dynamics without facing the same experimental limitations. Artificial missense mutations are employed experimentally and computationally for providing insights into the structure-function relationships of amyloid-β and α-synuclein in relation to the pathologies of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Furthermore, there are several natural genetic variations that play a role in the pathogenesis of familial cases of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which are related to specific genetic defects inherited in dominant or recessive patterns. The present review summarizes the current understanding of monomeric and oligomeric forms of amyloid-β and α-synuclein, as well as the impacts of artificial and pathological missense mutations on the structural ensembles of these IDPs using molecular dynamics simulations. We also emphasize the recent investigations on residual secondary structure formation in dynamic conformational ensembles of amyloid-β and α-synuclein, such as β-structure linked to the oligomerization and fibrillation mechanisms related to the pathologies of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This information represents an important foundation for the successful and

  4. Carcinoembryonic antigen family receptor recognition by gonococcal Opa proteins requires distinct combinations of hypervariable Opa protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Martine P; Kao, David; Hogan, Daniel M; Grant, Christopher C R; Belland, Robert J

    2002-04-01

    Neisserial Opa proteins function as a family of adhesins that bind heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) or carcinoembryonic antigen family (CEACAM) receptors on human host cells. In order to define the CEACAM binding domain on Opa proteins, we tested the binding properties of a series of gonococcal (strain MS11) recombinants producing mutant and chimeric Opa proteins with alterations in one or more of the four surface-exposed loops. Mutagenesis demonstrated that the semivariable domain, present in the first loop, was completely dispensable for CEACAM binding. In contrast, the two hypervariable (HV) regions present in the second and third loops were essential for binding; deletion of either domain resulted in loss of receptor recognition. Deletion of the fourth loop resulted in a severe decrease in Opa expression at the cell surface and could therefore not be tested for CEACAM binding. Chimeric Opa variants, containing combinations of HV regions derived from different CEACAM binding Opa proteins, lost most of their receptor binding activity. Some chimeric variants gained HSPG binding activity. Together, our results indicate that full recognition of CEACAM receptors by Opa proteins requires a highly coordinate interplay between both HV regions. Furthermore, shuffling of HV regions may result in novel HSPG receptor binding activity.

  5. FAM20: an evolutionarily conserved family of secreted proteins expressed in hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos Everardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoiesis is a complex developmental process controlled by a large number of factors that regulate stem cell renewal, lineage commitment and differentiation. Secreted proteins, including the hematopoietic growth factors, play critical roles in these processes and have important biological and clinical significance. We have employed representational difference analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed during experimentally induced myeloid differentiation in the murine EML hematopoietic stem cell line. Results One identified clone encoded a previously unidentified protein of 541 amino acids that contains an amino terminal signal sequence but no other characterized domains. This protein is a member of family of related proteins that has been named family with sequence similarity 20 (FAM20 with three members (FAM20A, FAM20B and FAM20C in mammals. Evolutionary comparisons revealed the existence of a single FAM20 gene in the simple vertebrate Ciona intestinalis and the invertebrate worm Caenorhabditis elegans and two genes in two insect species, Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Six FAM20 family members were identified in the genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes and five members in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mouse Fam20a protein was ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line and found to be a bona fide secreted protein and efficient secretion was dependent on the integrity of the signal sequence. Expression analysis revealed that the Fam20a gene was indeed differentially expressed during hematopoietic differentiation and that the other two family members (Fam20b and Fam20c were also expressed during hematcpoiesis but that their mRNA levels did not vary significantly. Likewise FAM20A was expressed in more limited set of human tissues than the other two family members. Conclusions The FAM20 family represents a new family of secreted proteins with potential functions in regulating

  6. Nature of protein family signatures: insights from singular value analysis of position-specific scoring matrices.

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    Akira R Kinjo

    Full Text Available Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs are useful for detecting weak homology in protein sequence analysis, and they are thought to contain some essential signatures of the protein families. In order to elucidate what kind of ingredients constitute such family-specific signatures, we apply singular value decomposition to a set of PSSMs and examine the properties of dominant right and left singular vectors. The first right singular vectors were correlated with various amino acid indices including relative mutability, amino acid composition in protein interior, hydropathy, or turn propensity, depending on proteins. A significant correlation between the first left singular vector and a measure of site conservation was observed. It is shown that the contribution of the first singular component to the PSSMs act to disfavor potentially but falsely functionally important residues at conserved sites. The second right singular vectors were highly correlated with hydrophobicity scales, and the corresponding left singular vectors with contact numbers of protein structures. It is suggested that sequence alignment with a PSSM is essentially equivalent to threading supplemented with functional information. In addition, singular vectors may be useful for analyzing and annotating the characteristics of conserved sites in protein families.

  7. The SSX Family of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Target Proteins for Tumor Therapy

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    Heath A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs represent an expanding class of tumor-associated proteins defined on the basis of their tissue-restricted expression to testis or ovary germline cells and frequent ectopic expression in tumor tissue. The expression of CTA in MHC class I-deficient germline cells makes these proteins particularly attractive as immunotherapeutic targets because they serve as essentially tumor-specific antigens for MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, because CTAs are expressed in many types of cancer, any therapeutic developed to target these antigens might have efficacy for multiple cancer types. Of particular interest among CTAs is the synovial sarcoma X chromosome breakpoint (SSX family of proteins, which includes ten highly homologous family members. Expression of SSX proteins in tumor tissues has been associated with advanced stages of disease and worse patient prognosis. Additionally, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SSX proteins have been demonstrated in patients with tumors of varying histological origin, which indicates that natural immune responses can be spontaneously generated to these antigens in cancer patients. The current review will describe the history and identification of this family of proteins, as well as what is known of their function, expression in normal and malignant tissues, and immunogenicity.

  8. Comparative Proteomics of Mouse Tears and Saliva: Evidence from Large Protein Families for Functional Adaptation

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    Robert C. Karn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We produced a tear proteome of the genome mouse, C57BL/6, that contained 139 different protein identifications: 110 from a two-dimensional (2D gel with subsequent trypsin digestion, 19 from a one-dimensional (1D gel with subsequent trypsin digestion and ten from a 1D gel with subsequent Asp-N digestion. We compared this tear proteome with a C57BL/6 mouse saliva proteome produced previously. Sixteen of the 139 tear proteins are shared between the two proteomes, including six proteins that combat microbial growth. Among the 123 other tear proteins, were members of four large protein families that have no counterparts in humans: Androgen-binding proteins (ABPs with different members expressed in the two proteomes, Exocrine secreted peptides (ESPs expressed exclusively in the tear proteome, major urinary proteins (MUPs expressed in one or both proteomes and the mouse-specific Kallikreins (subfamily b KLKs expressed exclusively in the saliva proteome. All four families have members with suggested roles in mouse communication, which may influence some aspect of reproductive behavior. We discuss this in the context of functional adaptation involving tear and saliva proteins in the secretions of mouse lacrimal and salivary glands, respectively.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis reveals dynamic evolution of the poly(A)-binding protein gene family in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R; Liu, Renyi

    2014-11-25

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and functions to maintain the integrity of the mRNA while promoting protein synthesis through its interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G and eIF4B. PABP is encoded by a single gene in yeast and marine algae but during plant evolution the PABP gene family expanded substantially, underwent sequence divergence into three subclasses, and acquired tissue-specificity in gene family member expression. Although such changes suggest functional specialization, the size of the family and its sequence divergence have complicated an understanding of which gene family members may be foundational and which may represent more recent expansions of the family to meet the specific needs of speciation. Here, we examine the evolution of the plant PABP gene family to provide insight into these aspects of the family that may yield clues into the function of individual family members. The PABP gene family had expanded to two members by the appearance of fresh water algae and four members in non-vascular plants. In lycophytes, the first sequence divergence yielding a specific class member occurs. The earliest members of the gene family share greatest similarity to those modern members whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues, suggesting that supporting reproductive-associated gene expression is the most conserved function of this family. A family member sharing similarity to modern vegetative-associated members first appears in gymnosperms. Further elaboration of the reproductive-associated and vegetative-associated members occurred during the evolution of flowering plants. Expansion of the plant PABP gene family began prior to the colonization of land. By the evolution of lycophytes, the first class member whose expression is confined to reproductive tissues in higher plants had appeared. A second class member whose expression is vegetative-associated appeared in

  10. Potential molecular mimicry between the human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope proteins and myelin proteins in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Joseph, Blessy; Whittall, Trevor

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. The major target molecules for the immune response are the myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and proteolipid protein but the aetiology of the disease is as yet poorly understood. The HLA Class II allele DRB1*1501 in particular as well as DRB5*0101 and the expression of human endogenous retroviral envelope proteins have been linked to multiple sclerosis but the molecular mechanisms relating these remain to be elucidated. We hypothesised that cross-reactive peptide epitopes in retroviral envelope proteins and myelin proteins that can be presented by the two Class II DR molecules may play a role in initiating multiple sclerosis. Sequence homologies between retroviral envelope and myelin proteins and in silico predictions of peptides derived from them that are able to bind to the two Class II alleles were examined to test the hypothesis. The results support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry in peptide epitopes from envelope proteins of the HERV-W family of endogenous retroviruses and myelin proteins is possible and could potentially trigger multiple sclerosis. Mimicry between syncytin-1, a HERV-W envelope protein that is expressed during placentation, and myelin proteins may also explain the higher prevalence of multiple sclerosis in women. Experiments to test the ability of the identified peptide epitopes to activate T H cells are required to confirm the present findings. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast and simple protein-alignment-guided assembly of orthologous gene families from microbiome sequencing reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Daniel H; Tappu, Rewati; Bazinet, Adam L; Xie, Chao; Cummings, Michael P; Nieselt, Kay; Williams, Rohan

    2017-01-25

    Microbiome sequencing projects typically collect tens of millions of short reads per sample. Depending on the goals of the project, the short reads can either be subjected to direct sequence analysis or be assembled into longer contigs. The assembly of whole genomes from metagenomic sequencing reads is a very difficult problem. However, for some questions, only specific genes of interest need to be assembled. This is then a gene-centric assembly where the goal is to assemble reads into contigs for a family of orthologous genes. We present a new method for performing gene-centric assembly, called protein-alignment-guided assembly, and provide an implementation in our metagenome analysis tool MEGAN. Genes are assembled on the fly, based on the alignment of all reads against a protein reference database such as NCBI-nr. Specifically, the user selects a gene family based on a classification such as KEGG and all reads binned to that gene family are assembled. Using published synthetic community metagenome sequencing reads and a set of 41 gene families, we show that the performance of this approach compares favorably with that of full-featured assemblers and that of a recently published HMM-based gene-centric assembler, both in terms of the number of reference genes detected and of the percentage of reference sequence covered. Protein-alignment-guided assembly of orthologous gene families complements whole-metagenome assembly in a new and very useful way.

  12. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein family gene family in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Mizhen; Sun, Xin; Li, Yu; Mu, Qian; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Pengyu; Fang, Jinggui

    2014-01-25

    The FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the large peptidyl-prolylcis-trans isomerase superfamily. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete strawberry genome sequences allowed the identification of 23 FKBP genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Chromosome scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the strawberry genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of FaFKBPs analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between strawberry FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of FaFKBPs genes results revealed that most FaFKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few FaFKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. These data not only contribute to some better understanding of the complex regulation of the strawberry FKBP gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in strawberry functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular basis for amino acid sensing by family C G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Family C of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate receptors, two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B1-2)) subunits forming the heterodimeric GABA(B) receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor, three taste1 receptors (T1R1-3), a promiscuous L-alpha;-amino......-2) and T1R2-3 receptor, all receptors are either activated or positively modulated by amino acids. In this review, we outline mutational, biophysical and structural studies which have elucidated the interaction of the amino acids with the Venus flytrap domains, molecular mechanisms of receptor selectivity...... acid receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) and seven orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are dimeric receptors characterized by a large extracellular Venus flytrap domain which bind the endogenous agonists. Except from the GABA(B1...

  14. Variability and action mechanism of a family of anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus.

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    Bernard Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ticks are blood feeding arachnids that characteristically take a long blood meal. They must therefore counteract host defence mechanisms such as hemostasis, inflammation and the immune response. This is achieved by expressing batteries of salivary proteins coded by multigene families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in-depth analysis of a tick multigene family and describe five new anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus. Compared to previously described Ixodes anticomplement proteins, these segregated into a new phylogenetic group or subfamily. These proteins have a novel action mechanism as they specifically bind to properdin, leading to the inhibition of C3 convertase and the alternative complement pathway. An excess of non-synonymous over synonymous changes indicated that coding sequences had undergone diversifying selection. Diversification was not associated with structural, biochemical or functional diversity, adaptation to host species or stage specificity but rather to differences in antigenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anticomplement proteins from I. ricinus are the first inhibitors that specifically target a positive regulator of complement, properdin. They may provide new tools for the investigation of role of properdin in physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. They may also be useful in disorders affecting the alternative complement pathway. Looking for and detecting the different selection pressures involved will help in understanding the evolution of multigene families and hematophagy in arthropods.

  15. Protein topology determines cysteine oxidation fate: the case of sulfenyl amide formation among protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelipe, Lucas A; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Gauto, Diego; Marti, Marcelo A; Turjanski, Adrián G

    2015-03-01

    Cysteine residues have a rich chemistry and play a critical role in the catalytic activity of a plethora of enzymes. However, cysteines are susceptible to oxidation by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, leading to a loss of their catalytic function. Therefore, cysteine oxidation is emerging as a relevant physiological regulatory mechanism. Formation of a cyclic sulfenyl amide residue at the active site of redox-regulated proteins has been proposed as a protection mechanism against irreversible oxidation as the sulfenyl amide intermediate has been identified in several proteins. However, how and why only some specific cysteine residues in particular proteins react to form this intermediate is still unknown. In the present work using in-silico based tools, we have identified a constrained conformation that accelerates sulfenyl amide formation. By means of combined MD and QM/MM calculation we show that this conformation positions the NH backbone towards the sulfenic acid and promotes the reaction to yield the sulfenyl amide intermediate, in one step with the concomitant release of a water molecule. Moreover, in a large subset of the proteins we found a conserved beta sheet-loop-helix motif, which is present across different protein folds, that is key for sulfenyl amide production as it promotes the previous formation of sulfenic acid. For catalytic activity, in several cases, proteins need the Cysteine to be in the cysteinate form, i.e. a low pKa Cys. We found that the conserved motif stabilizes the cysteinate by hydrogen bonding to several NH backbone moieties. As cysteinate is also more reactive toward ROS we propose that the sheet-loop-helix motif and the constraint conformation have been selected by evolution for proteins that need a reactive Cys protected from irreversible oxidation. Our results also highlight how fold conservation can be correlated to redox chemistry regulation of protein function.

  16. Trends in genome dynamics among major orders of insects revealed through variations in protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2015-08-07

    Insects belong to a class that accounts for the majority of animals on earth. With over one million identified species, insects display a huge diversity and occupy extreme environments. At present, there are dozens of fully sequenced insect genomes that cover a range of habitats, social behavior and morphologies. In view of such diverse collection of genomes, revealing evolutionary trends and charting functional relationships of proteins remain challenging. We analyzed the relatedness of 17 complete proteomes representative of proteomes from insects including louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes, as well as an out-group from the crustaceans. The analyzed proteomes mostly represented the orders of Hymenoptera and Diptera. The 287,405 protein sequences from the 18 proteomes were automatically clustered into 20,933 families, including 799 singletons. A comprehensive analysis based on statistical considerations identified the families that were significantly expanded or reduced in any of the studied organisms. Among all the tested species, ants are characterized by an exceptionally high rate of family gain and loss. By assigning annotations to hundreds of species-specific families, the functional diversity among species and between the major clades (Diptera and Hymenoptera) is revealed. We found that many species-specific families are associated with receptor signaling, stress-related functions and proteases. The highest variability among insects associates with the function of transposition and nucleic acids processes (collectively coined TNAP). Specifically, the wasp and ants have an order of magnitude more TNAP families and proteins relative to species that belong to Diptera (mosquitoes and flies). An unsupervised clustering methodology combined with a comparative functional analysis unveiled proteomic signatures in the major clades of winged insects. We propose that the expansion of TNAP families in Hymenoptera potentially contributes to the accelerated

  17. Bridging the molecular and biological functions of the oxysterol-binding protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrangelo, Antonietta; Ridgway, Neale D

    2018-03-13

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large eukaryotic gene family that transports and regulates the metabolism of sterols and phospholipids. The original classification of the family based on oxysterol-binding activity belies the complex dual lipid-binding specificity of the conserved OSBP homology domain (OHD). Additional protein- and membrane-interacting modules mediate the targeting of select OSBP/ORPs to membrane contact sites between organelles, thus positioning the OHD between opposing membranes for lipid transfer and metabolic regulation. This unique subcellular location, coupled with diverse ligand preferences and tissue distribution, has identified OSBP/ORPs as key arbiters of membrane composition and function. Here, we will review how molecular models of OSBP/ORP-mediated intracellular lipid transport and regulation at membrane contact sites relate to their emerging roles in cellular and organismal functions.

  18. The concept of the CCN protein family revisited: a centralized coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    The wide array of biological properties attributed to the CCN family of proteins (Perbal in Lancet 363(9402):62-64, 2004) led me to reconsider the possible relationship and roles that these proteins may play as a team, instead of acting on their own as individual regulators in various signaling pathways. The dynamic model which I present in this review stems from the contribution of the biological properties that we established for CCN3, one of the three founding members of the CCN family, which was identified by our group as the first CCN protein showing growth inhibitory properties (1992), expressed mainly in quiescent cells (1996), and showing anti-tumor activities in several cellular models both ex vivo and in vivo. At the present time CCN3 is the only member of the family that has been reported to negatively act on the progression of the cell cycle. The unique dual localisation of CCN3 in the nucleus and outside cells, either at the membrane or in the extracellular matrix, that I first established in 1999, and that now appears to be shared by several other CCN proteins, is a unique essential feature which can no longer be ignored. Based on the structural and functional properties of CCN3, shared by most of the CCN family members, I propose an « all in one » concept in which CCN proteins are team members with specific functions that are aimed at the same goal. This model accounts both for the functional specificity of the various CCN proteins, their sequential and opposite or complementary effects in various biological context, and for the biological consequences of their physical interaction and biological cross-regulation.

  19. A comprehensive software suite for protein family construction and functional site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Renfrew Haft

    Full Text Available In functionally diverse protein families, conservation in short signature regions may outperform full-length sequence comparisons for identifying proteins that belong to a subgroup within which one specific aspect of their function is conserved. The SIMBAL workflow (Sites Inferred by Metabolic Background Assertion Labeling is a data-mining procedure for finding such signature regions. It begins by using clues from genomic context, such as co-occurrence or conserved gene neighborhoods, to build a useful training set from a large number of uncharacterized but mutually homologous proteins. When training set construction is successful, the YES partition is enriched in proteins that share function with the user's query sequence, while the NO partition is depleted. A selected query sequence is then mined for short signature regions whose closest matches overwhelmingly favor proteins from the YES partition. High-scoring signature regions typically contain key residues critical to functional specificity, so proteins with the highest sequence similarity across these regions tend to share the same function. The SIMBAL algorithm was described previously, but significant manual effort, expertise, and a supporting software infrastructure were required to prepare the requisite training sets. Here, we describe a new, distributable software suite that speeds up and simplifies the process for using SIMBAL, most notably by providing tools that automate training set construction. These tools have broad utility for comparative genomics, allowing for flexible collection of proteins or protein domains based on genomic context as well as homology, a capability that can greatly assist in protein family construction. Armed with this new software suite, SIMBAL can serve as a fast and powerful in silico alternative to direct experimentation for characterizing proteins and their functional interactions.

  20. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments.

  1. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments. (topical review)

  2. Conservation and divergence of C-terminal domain structure in the retinoblastoma protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liban, Tyler J.; Medina, Edgar M.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Sengupta, Satyaki; Henry, R. William; Buchler, Nicolas E.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Duke); (MSU)

    2017-04-24

    The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the homologous pocket proteins p107 and p130 negatively regulate cell proliferation by binding and inhibiting members of the E2F transcription factor family. The structural features that distinguish Rb from other pocket proteins have been unclear but are critical for understanding their functional diversity and determining why Rb has unique tumor suppressor activities. We describe here important differences in how the Rb and p107 C-terminal domains (CTDs) associate with the coiled-coil and marked-box domains (CMs) of E2Fs. We find that although CTD–CM binding is conserved across protein families, Rb and p107 CTDs show clear preferences for different E2Fs. A crystal structure of the p107 CTD bound to E2F5 and its dimer partner DP1 reveals the molecular basis for pocket protein–E2F binding specificity and how cyclin-dependent kinases differentially regulate pocket proteins through CTD phosphorylation. Our structural and biochemical data together with phylogenetic analyses of Rb and E2F proteins support the conclusion that Rb evolved specific structural motifs that confer its unique capacity to bind with high affinity those E2Fs that are the most potent activators of the cell cycle.

  3. Slipins: ancient origin, duplication and diversification of the stomatin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J Peter W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomatin is a membrane protein that was first isolated from human red blood cells. Since then, a number of stomatin-like proteins have been identified in all three domains of life. The conservation among these proteins is remarkable, with bacterial and human homologs sharing 50 % identity. Despite being associated with a variety of diseases such as cancer, kidney failure and anaemia, precise functions of these proteins remain unclear. Results We have constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of all 'stomatin-like' sequences that share a 150 amino acid domain. We show these proteins comprise an ancient family that arose early in prokaryotic evolution, and we propose a new nomenclature that reflects their phylogeny, based on the name "slipin" (stomatin-like protein. Within prokaryotes there are two distinct subfamilies that account for the two different origins of the eight eukaryotic stomatin subfamilies, one of which gave rise to eukaryotic SLP-2, renamed here "paraslipin". This was apparently acquired through the mitochondrial endosymbiosis and is widely distributed amongst the major kingdoms. The other prokaryotic subfamily gave rise to the ancestor of the remaining seven eukaryotic subfamilies. The highly diverged "alloslipin" subfamily is represented only by fungal, viral and ciliate sequences. The remaining six subfamilies, collectively termed "slipins", are confined to metazoa. Protostome stomatin, as well as a newly reported arthropod subfamily slipin-4, are restricted to invertebrate groups, whilst slipin-1 (previously SLP-1 is present in nematodes and higher metazoa. In vertebrates, the stomatin family expanded considerably, with at least two duplication events giving rise to podocin and slipin-3 subfamilies (previously SLP-3, with the retained ancestral sequence giving rise to vertebrate stomatin. Conclusion Stomatin-like proteins have their origin in an ancient duplication event that occurred early on in the evolution

  4. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins in the neuroprotection by rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Feng; He, Shuang; Kang, Ji-Feng; Xu, Qian; Hu, Ya-Cen; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Chun-Yu; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-01-01

    Rasagiline, a novel monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has a mild to moderate effect in relieving Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms as well as unique neuroprotective effects. Previous studies demonstrated rasagiline protect neurons by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. Our study aimed to study whether Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins, which were reported closely associated with neurodegenerative disease, were involved in the neuroprotective effect of rasagiline. We found that after the administration of 1-methy1-4-phenvl-1,2,3,6-tetrahvdropvridine (MPTP), BAG2 and BAG5 proteins were up-regulated in the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons of PD mouse model. A further increase of BAG2 and BAG5 was detected after intragastric administration of rasagiline to post-MPTP lesioned mice. Thus, the current study proved the association of BAG family proteins with PD, and suggested the involvement and a positive role of BAG2, BAG5 in the neuroprotection of rasagiline. These preliminary results implicate a novel pathway for further study on neuroprotection of rasagiline.

  5. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Fusion Protein Tuberculosis Vaccine Combining Five Esx Family Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhi-Hao; Sun, Rui-Feng; Lin, Chen; Chen, Fu-Zeng; Mai, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Xu, Zi-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    One strategy to develop the next generation of tuberculosis vaccines is to construct subunit vaccines based on T cell antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the vaccine potential of a fusion protein combining EsxB, EsxD, EsxG, EsxU, and EsxM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ). This recombinant protein, named BM, was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli . Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with purified BM protein formulated in Freund's incomplete adjuvant induced the production of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-2) and multifunctional CD4 + T cells. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with BM protein followed by intravenous challenge with Mycobacterium bovis BCG resulted in better levels of protection than the two leading antigens, Ag85A and PPE18. Taken together, these results indicate that BM is a protective antigen. Future studies to combine BM with other antigens and evaluate its effectiveness as a booster of BCG or as a therapeutic vaccine are warranted.

  6. Golgi coiled-coil proteins contain multiple binding sites for Rab family G proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinka, Rita; Gillingham, Alison K.; Kondylis, Vangelis; Munro, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Vesicles and other carriers destined for the Golgi apparatus must be guided to the correct cisternae. Golgins, long coiled-coil proteins that localize to particular Golgi subdomains via their C termini, are candidate regulators of vesicle sorting. In this study, we report that the GRIP domain

  7. Stealth proteins: in silico identification of a novel protein family rendering bacterial pathogens invisible to host immune defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sperisen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  8. Stealth Proteins: In Silico Identification of a Novel Protein Family Rendering Bacterial Pathogens Invisible to Host Immune Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  9. Pu-Erh Tea Extract Induces the Degradation of FET Family Proteins Involved in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available FET family proteins consist of fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS, Ewing's sarcoma (EWS, and TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15. Mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, and FET family proteins are associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a fatal neurodegenerative disease. There is currently no cure for this disease and few effective treatments are available. Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. The results of this study revealed that components of a pu-erh tea extract (PTE interacted with FET family proteins but not with TDP-43 or SOD1. PTE induced the degradation of FET family proteins but had no effects on TDP-43 or SOD1. The most frequently occurring ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutant protein, R521C FUS/TLS, was also degraded in the presence of PTE. Furthermore, ammonium chloride, a lysosome inhibitor, but not lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, reduced the degradation of FUS/TLS protein by PTE. PTE significantly reduced the incorporation of R521C FUS/TLS into stress granules under stress conditions. These findings suggest that PTE may have beneficial health effects, including preventing the onset of FET family protein-associated neurodegenerative diseases and delaying the progression of ALS by inhibiting the cytoplasmic aggregation of FET family proteins.

  10. Identification and functionality prediction of pathogenesis-related protein 1 from legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Meenakshi; Mathur, Monika; Gurjar, Gayatri; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2017-11-01

    The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in plants is one of the important responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Large number of identified PR proteins has been categorized into 17 functional families based on their structure, phylogenetics, and biological activities. However, they are not widely studied in legume crops. Using 29 PR1 proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, as query, here we have predicted 92 candidate PR1 proteins through the PSI-BLAST and HMMER programs. These candidate proteins were comprehensively analyzed with, multiple sequence alignment, domain architecture studies, signal peptide, and motif extraction followed by phylogenetic analysis. Further, response of two candidate PR1 proteins from chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri attack was validated using qRT-PCR followed by their 3D structure prediction. To decipher mode of action for PR1s, docking of pathogen extracellular matrix components along with fungal elicitors was performed with two chickpea PR1 proteins. Based on these findings, we propose carbohydrate to be the unique pathogen-recognition feature for PR1 proteins and β-glucanase activity via β-glucan binding or modification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pentraxin family of proteins interact specifically with phosphorylcholine and/or phosphorylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, R A; Dahlbäck, B; Coe, J E; Nelsestuen, G L

    1992-05-26

    Pentraxins are a family of serum proteins characterized by five identical subunits that are noncovalently linked. The two major types of pentraxins are C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP). CRP proteins are identified by their calcium-dependent interaction with phosphorylcholine. This study showed that SAP also bound to phosphorylated compounds but had a high specificity for phosphorylethanolamine. Thus, human CRP and SAP show high specificity that is complementary for the related compounds, phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine, respectively. This relationship suggests a complementary and/or related function for the pentraxins. Pentraxins from other species were also examined. Mouse SAP showed binding interactions and specificity similar to human SAP. Female protein (FP) from hamster and rat CRP showed a hybrid specificity and bound to both phosphorylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine. All of the proteins that bound phosphorylethanolamine also associated with human C4b-binding protein (C4BP). With the exception of human and rat CRP, all the proteins also bound to vesicles containing acidic phospholipids. All of these binding interactions were calcium-dependent and mutually exclusive, suggesting that they involved the same site on the protein. These findings suggest possible ways to examine the function of the pentraxins.

  12. Complement factor H family proteins in their non-canonical role as modulators of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Schneider, Andrea E; Kárpáti, Éva; Sándor, Noémi

    2018-01-04

    Complement factor H is a major regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The factor H-related proteins are less characterized, but recent data indicate that they rather promote complement activation. These proteins have some common ligands with factor H and have both overlapping and distinct functions depending on domain composition and the degree of conservation of amino acid sequence. Factor H and some of the factor H-related proteins also appear in a non-canonical function that is beyond their role in the modulation of complement activation. This review covers our current understanding on this emerging role of factor H family proteins in modulating the activation and function of various cells by binding to receptors or receptor ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  14. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Kelly J; Liu, Yuting; Cai, Yingying; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-01

    Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  15. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  16. WCS120 protein family and proteins soluble upon boiling in cold-acclimated winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítámvás, P.; Saalbach, G.; Prášil, I.T.; Čapková, Věra; Opatrná, J.; Ahmed, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 9 (2007), s. 1197-1207 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Cold acclimation * COR proteins * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2007

  17. A combinatorial approach to detect coevolved amino acid networks in protein families of variable divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baussand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.

  18. InterPro: an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Terri K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Biswas, Margaret; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Durbin, Richard; Falquet, Laurent; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gouzy, Jerome; Griffith-Jones, Sam; Haft, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Peyruc, David; Ponting, Chris P; Servant, Florence; Sigrist, Christian J A

    2002-09-01

    The exponential increase in the submission of nucleotide sequences to the nucleotide sequence database by genome sequencing centres has resulted in a need for rapid, automatic methods for classification of the resulting protein sequences. There are several signature and sequence cluster-based methods for protein classification, each resource having distinct areas of optimum application owing to the differences in the underlying analysis methods. In recognition of this, InterPro was developed as an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, to rationalise the complementary efforts of the individual protein signature database projects. The member databases - PRINTS, PROSITE, Pfam, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs - form the InterPro core. Related signatures from each member database are unified into single InterPro entries. Each InterPro entry includes a unique accession number, functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant member database(s). Release 4.0 of InterPro (November 2001) contains 4,691 entries, representing 3,532 families, 1,068 domains, 74 repeats and 15 sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (2,141,621 InterPro hits from 586,124 SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL protein sequences). The database is freely accessible for text- and sequence-based searches.

  19. The retinoblastoma protein binds to a family of E2F transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, J A; Saito, M; Vidal, M

    1993-01-01

    for E2F-2 and E2F-3 were mapped to 1p36 and 6q22, respectfully, confirming their independence from E2F-1. However, the E2F-2 and E2F-3 proteins are closely related to E2F-1. Both E2F-2 and E2F-3 bound to wild-type but not mutant E2F recognition sites, and they bound specifically to the retinoblastoma...... of a family of proteins....

  20. iPfam: a database of protein family and domain interactions found in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Robert D; Miller, Benjamin L; Clements, Jody; Bateman, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The database iPfam, available at http://ipfam.org, catalogues Pfam domain interactions based on known 3D structures that are found in the Protein Data Bank, providing interaction data at the molecular level. Previously, the iPfam domain-domain interaction data was integrated within the Pfam database and website, but it has now been migrated to a separate database. This allows for independent development, improving data access and giving clearer separation between the protein family and interactions datasets. In addition to domain-domain interactions, iPfam has been expanded to include interaction data for domain bound small molecule ligands. Functional annotations are provided from source databases, supplemented by the incorporation of Wikipedia articles where available. iPfam (version 1.0) contains >9500 domain-domain and 15 500 domain-ligand interactions. The new website provides access to this data in a variety of ways, including interactive visualizations of the interaction data.

  1. Sifting through genomes with iterative-sequence clustering produces a large, phylogenetically diverse protein-family resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpton Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New computational resources are needed to manage the increasing volume of biological data from genome sequencing projects. One fundamental challenge is the ability to maintain a complete and current catalog of protein diversity. We developed a new approach for the identification of protein families that focuses on the rapid discovery of homologous protein sequences. Results We implemented fully automated and high-throughput procedures to de novo cluster proteins into families based upon global alignment similarity. Our approach employs an iterative clustering strategy in which homologs of known families are sifted out of the search for new families. The resulting reduction in computational complexity enables us to rapidly identify novel protein families found in new genomes and to perform efficient, automated updates that keep pace with genome sequencing. We refer to protein families identified through this approach as “Sifting Families,” or SFams. Our analysis of ~10.5 million protein sequences from 2,928 genomes identified 436,360 SFams, many of which are not represented in other protein family databases. We validated the quality of SFam clustering through statistical as well as network topology–based analyses. Conclusions We describe the rapid identification of SFams and demonstrate how they can be used to annotate genomes and metagenomes. The SFam database catalogs protein-family quality metrics, multiple sequence alignments, hidden Markov models, and phylogenetic trees. Our source code and database are publicly available and will be subject to frequent updates (http://edhar.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/sifting_families/.

  2. Sifting through genomes with iterative-sequence clustering produces a large, phylogenetically diverse protein-family resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background New computational resources are needed to manage the increasing volume of biological data from genome sequencing projects. One fundamental challenge is the ability to maintain a complete and current catalog of protein diversity. We developed a new approach for the identification of protein families that focuses on the rapid discovery of homologous protein sequences. Results We implemented fully automated and high-throughput procedures to de novo cluster proteins into families based upon global alignment similarity. Our approach employs an iterative clustering strategy in which homologs of known families are sifted out of the search for new families. The resulting reduction in computational complexity enables us to rapidly identify novel protein families found in new genomes and to perform efficient, automated updates that keep pace with genome sequencing. We refer to protein families identified through this approach as “Sifting Families,” or SFams. Our analysis of ~10.5 million protein sequences from 2,928 genomes identified 436,360 SFams, many of which are not represented in other protein family databases. We validated the quality of SFam clustering through statistical as well as network topology–based analyses. Conclusions We describe the rapid identification of SFams and demonstrate how they can be used to annotate genomes and metagenomes. The SFam database catalogs protein-family quality metrics, multiple sequence alignments, hidden Markov models, and phylogenetic trees. Our source code and database are publicly available and will be subject to frequent updates (http://edhar.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/sifting_families/). PMID:23061897

  3. Characterization of the deleted in autism 1 protein family: implications for studying cognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of commonly occurring, highly-heritable developmental disabilities. Human genes c3orf58 or Deleted In Autism-1 (DIA1 and cXorf36 or Deleted in Autism-1 Related (DIA1R are implicated in ASD and mental retardation. Both gene products encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. As evolutionary medicine has emerged as a key tool for understanding increasing numbers of human diseases, we have used an evolutionary approach to study DIA1 and DIA1R. We found DIA1 conserved from cnidarians to humans, indicating DIA1 evolution coincided with the development of the first primitive synapses. Nematodes lack a DIA1 homologue, indicating Caenorhabditis elegans is not suitable for studying all aspects of ASD etiology, while zebrafish encode two DIA1 paralogues. By contrast to DIA1, DIA1R was found exclusively in vertebrates, with an origin coinciding with the whole-genome duplication events occurring early in the vertebrate lineage, and the evolution of the more complex vertebrate nervous system. Strikingly, DIA1R was present in schooling fish but absent in fish that have adopted a more solitary lifestyle. An additional DIA1-related gene we named DIA1-Like (DIA1L, lacks a signal peptide and is restricted to the genomes of the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae. Evidence for remarkable DIA1L gene expansion was found in B. floridae. Amino acid alignments of DIA1 family gene products revealed a potential Golgi-retention motif and a number of conserved motifs with unknown function. Furthermore, a glycine and three cysteine residues were absolutely conserved in all DIA1-family proteins, indicating a critical role in protein structure and/or function. We have therefore identified a new metazoan protein family, the DIA1-family, and understanding the biological roles of DIA1-family members will have implications for our understanding of autism and mental

  4. Characterization of the deleted in autism 1 protein family: implications for studying cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azhari; Harrop, Sean P; Bishop, Naomi E

    2011-01-19

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of commonly occurring, highly-heritable developmental disabilities. Human genes c3orf58 or Deleted In Autism-1 (DIA1) and cXorf36 or Deleted in Autism-1 Related (DIA1R) are implicated in ASD and mental retardation. Both gene products encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. As evolutionary medicine has emerged as a key tool for understanding increasing numbers of human diseases, we have used an evolutionary approach to study DIA1 and DIA1R. We found DIA1 conserved from cnidarians to humans, indicating DIA1 evolution coincided with the development of the first primitive synapses. Nematodes lack a DIA1 homologue, indicating Caenorhabditis elegans is not suitable for studying all aspects of ASD etiology, while zebrafish encode two DIA1 paralogues. By contrast to DIA1, DIA1R was found exclusively in vertebrates, with an origin coinciding with the whole-genome duplication events occurring early in the vertebrate lineage, and the evolution of the more complex vertebrate nervous system. Strikingly, DIA1R was present in schooling fish but absent in fish that have adopted a more solitary lifestyle. An additional DIA1-related gene we named DIA1-Like (DIA1L), lacks a signal peptide and is restricted to the genomes of the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae. Evidence for remarkable DIA1L gene expansion was found in B. floridae. Amino acid alignments of DIA1 family gene products revealed a potential Golgi-retention motif and a number of conserved motifs with unknown function. Furthermore, a glycine and three cysteine residues were absolutely conserved in all DIA1-family proteins, indicating a critical role in protein structure and/or function. We have therefore identified a new metazoan protein family, the DIA1-family, and understanding the biological roles of DIA1-family members will have implications for our understanding of autism and mental retardation.

  5. Assignment of protein sequences to existing domain and family classification systems: Pfam and the PDB

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qifang; Dunbrack, Roland L.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Automating the assignment of existing domain and protein family classifications to new sets of sequences is an important task. Current methods often miss assignments because remote relationships fail to achieve statistical significance. Some assignments are not as long as the actual domain definitions because local alignment methods often cut alignments short. Long insertions in query sequences often erroneously result in two copies of the domain assigned to the query. Divergent r...

  6. Molecular properties of Zic4 and Zic5 proteins: functional diversity within Zic family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Akira; Inoue, Takashi; Mikoshiba, Katuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The Zic-family proteins control various developmental processes. Previous studies have shown that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 can act as transcriptional regulators, and that their functions are repressed by I-mfa, which has been identified as a repressor for basic helix-loop-helix-type transcriptional factors. Here, we investigated the molecular properties of the Zic4 and Zic5 proteins. Zic4/Zic5 showed DNA-binding activity to the Gli-binding sequence, similar to Zic1/Zic2/Zic3 proteins. However, Zic4/Zic5 did not exhibit any significant transcriptional activation ability nor they bind to I-mfa differently from Zic1/Zic2/Zic3. The nuclear localization of Zic4/Zic5 was not affected by the presence of the I-mfa protein, whereas the Zic1/Zic2/Zic3 proteins were translocated to the cytoplasmic compartment in the presence of I-mfa. The difference may be attributable to the dissimilarity of the N-terminal region between the Zic1/Zic2/Zic3 and Zic4/Zic5 proteins, since the binding of the Zic1/Zic2/Zic3 proteins to I-mfa occurs through their N-terminal regions

  7. Silent information regulator 2 family of NAD- dependent histone/protein deacetylases generates a unique product, 1-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, K G; Landry, J; Sternglanz, R; Denu, J M

    2000-12-19

    Conflicting reports have suggested that the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) protein family employs NAD(+) to ADP-ribosylate histones [Tanny, J. C., Dowd, G. J., Huang, J., Hilz, H. & Moazed, D. (1999) Cell 99, 735-745; Frye, R. A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 260, 273-279], deacetylate histones [Landry, J., Sutton, A., Tafrov, S. T., Heller, R. C., Stebbins, J., Pillus, L. & Sternglanz, R. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 5807-5811; Smith, J. S., Brachmann, C. B., Celic, I., Kenna, M. A., Muhammad, S., Starai, V. J., Avalos, J. L., Escalante-Semerena, J. C., Grubmeyer, C., Wolberger, C. & Boeke, J. D. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 6658-6663], or both [Imai, S., Armstrong, C. M., Kaeberlein, M. & Guarente, L. (2000) Nature (London) 403, 795-800]. Uncovering the true enzymatic function of SIR2 is critical to the basic understanding of its cellular function. Therefore, we set out to authenticate the reaction products and to determine the intrinsic catalytic mechanism. We provide direct evidence that the efficient histone/protein deacetylase reaction is tightly coupled to the formation of a previously unidentified acetyl-ADP-ribose product (1-O-acetyl-ADP ribose). One molecule of NAD(+) and one molecule of acetyl-lysine are readily catalyzed to one molecule of deacetylated lysine, nicotinamide, and 1-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. A unique reaction mechanism involving the attack of enzyme-bound acetate or the direct attack of acetyl-lysine on an oxocarbenium ADP-ribose intermediate is proposed. We suggest that the reported histone/protein ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is a low-efficiency side reaction that can be explained through the partial uncoupling of the intrinsic deacetylation and acetate transfer to ADP-ribose.

  8. Functionality of intrinsic disorder in tumor necrosis factor-α and its receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N; El-Baky, Nawal Abd; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Sabry, Amira; Mattar, Ehab H; Uversky, Alexey V; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2017-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine that exerts potent cytotoxic effects on solid tumor cells, while not affecting their normal counterparts. It is also known that TNF-α exerts many of its biological functions via interaction with specific receptors. To understand the potential roles of intrinsic disorder in the functioning of this important cytokine, we explored the peculiarities of intrinsic disorder distribution in human TNF-α and its homologs from various species, ranging from zebrafish to chimpanzee. We also studied the peculiarities of intrinsic disorder distribution in human TNF-α receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Analysis revealed that cytoplasmic domains of TNF-α and its receptors are expected to be highly disordered. Furthermore, although the sequence identities of analyzed TNF-α homologs range from 99.57% (between human and chimpanzee proteins) to 22.33% (between frog and fish proteins), their intrinsic disorder profiles are characterized by a remarkable similarity. These observations indicate that the peculiarities of distribution of the intrinsic disorder propensity within the amino acid sequences are evolutionary conserved, and therefore could be of functional importance for this family of proteins. We also show that disordered and flexible regions of human TNF-α and its TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors are crucial for some of their biological activities. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Bioinformatic Characterization of the Trimeric Intracellular Cation-Specific Channel Protein Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Abe L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Trimeric intracellular cation-specific (TRIC) channels are integral to muscle excitation–contraction coupling. TRIC channels provide counter-ionic flux when calcium is rapidly transported from intracellular stores to the cell cytoplasm. Until recently, knowledge of the presence of these proteins was limited to animals. We analyzed the TRIC family and identified a profusion of prokaryotic family members with topologies and motifs similar to those of their eukaryotic counterparts. Prokaryotic members far outnumber eukaryotic members, and although none has been functionally characterized, the evidence suggests that they function as secondary carriers. The presence of fused N- or C-terminal domains of known biochemical functions as well as genomic context analyses provide clues about the functions of these prokaryotic homologs. They are proposed to function in metabolite (e.g., amino acid/ nucleotide) efflux. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRIC channel homologs diverged relatively early during evolutionary history and that horizontal gene transfer was frequent in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. Topological analyses of TRIC channels revealed that these proteins possess seven putative transmembrane segments (TMSs), which arose by intragenic duplication of a three-TMS polypeptide-encoding genetic element followed by addition of a seventh TMS at the C terminus to give the precursor of all current TRIC family homologs. We propose that this family arose in prokaryotes. PMID:21519847

  10. GH32 family activity: a topological approach through protein contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Sara; Di Paola, Luisa; Giuliani, Alessandro; Ridolfi, Alessandra; De Gara, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The application of Protein Contact Networks methodology allowed to highlight a novel response of border region between the two domains to substrate binding. Glycoside hydrolases (GH) are enzymes that mainly hydrolyze the glycosidic bond between two carbohydrates or a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. These enzymes are involved in many fundamental and diverse biological processes in plants. We have focused on the GH32 family, including enzymes very similar in both sequence and structure, each having however clear specificities of substrate preferences and kinetic properties. Structural and topological differences among proteins of the GH32 family have been here identified by means of an emerging approach (Protein Contact network, PCN) based on the formalization of 3D structures as contact networks among amino-acid residues. The PCN approach proved successful in both reconstructing the already known functional domains and in identifying the structural counterpart of the properties of GH32 enzymes, which remain uncertain, like their allosteric character. The main outcome of the study was the discovery of the activation upon binding of the border (cleft) region between the two domains. This reveals the allosteric nature of the enzymatic activity for all the analyzed forms in the GH32 family, a character yet to be highlighted in biochemical studies. Furthermore, we have been able to recognize a topological signature (graph energy) of the different affinity of the enzymes towards small and large substrates.

  11. PHOG-BLAST – a new generation tool for fast similarity search of protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Andrey A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to compare protein profiles frequently arises in various protein research areas: comparison of protein families, domain searches, resolution of orthology and paralogy. The existing fast algorithms can only compare a protein sequence with a protein sequence and a profile with a sequence. Algorithms to compare profiles use dynamic programming and complex scoring functions. Results We developed a new algorithm called PHOG-BLAST for fast similarity search of profiles. This algorithm uses profile discretization to convert a profile to a finite alphabet and utilizes hashing for fast search. To determine the optimal alphabet, we analyzed columns in reliable multiple alignments and obtained column clusters in the 20-dimensional profile space by applying a special clustering procedure. We show that the clustering procedure works best if its parameters are chosen so that 20 profile clusters are obtained which can be interpreted as ancestral amino acid residues. With these clusters, only less than 2% of columns in multiple alignments are out of clusters. We tested the performance of PHOG-BLAST vs. PSI-BLAST on three well-known databases of multiple alignments: COG, PFAM and BALIBASE. On the COG database both algorithms showed the same performance, on PFAM and BALIBASE PHOG-BLAST was much superior to PSI-BLAST. PHOG-BLAST required 10–20 times less computer memory and computation time than PSI-BLAST. Conclusion Since PHOG-BLAST can compare multiple alignments of protein families, it can be used in different areas of comparative proteomics and protein evolution. For example, PHOG-BLAST helped to build the PHOG database of phylogenetic orthologous groups. An essential step in building this database was comparing protein complements of different species and orthologous groups of different taxons on a personal computer in reasonable time. When it is applied to detect weak similarity between protein families, PHOG-BLAST is less

  12. Attenuation of the ELAV1-like protein HuR sensitizes adenocarcinoma cells to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by increasing the translation of caspase-2L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, C; Doller, A; Imre, G; Badawi, A; Schmid, T; Schulz, S; Steinmeyer, N; Pfeilschifter, J; Rajalingam, K; Eberhardt, W

    2014-07-10

    Caspase-2 represents the most conserved member of the caspase family, which exhibits features of both initiator and effector caspases. Using ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-immunoprecipitation assay, we identified the proapoptotic caspase-2L encoding mRNA as a novel target of the ubiquitous RNA-binding protein HuR in DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells. Unexpectedly, crosslinking-RNP and RNA probe pull-down experiments revealed that HuR binds exclusively to the caspase-2-5' untranslated region (UTR) despite that the 3' UTR of the mRNA bears several adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements representing the prototypical HuR binding sites. By using RNAi-mediated loss-of-function approach, we observed that HuR regulates the mRNA and in turn the protein levels of caspase-2 in a negative manner. Silencing of HuR did not affect the stability of caspase-2 mRNA but resulted in an increased redistribution of caspase-2 transcripts from RNP particles to translational active polysomes implicating that HuR exerts a direct repressive effect on caspase-2 translation. Consistently, in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of an upstream caspase-2-5'UTR was strongly impaired after the addition of recombinant HuR, whereas translation of caspase-2 coding region without the 5'UTR is not affected by HuR confirming the functional role of the caspase-2-5'UTR. Functionally, an elevation in caspase-2 level by HuR knockdown correlated with an increased sensitivity of cells to apoptosis induced by staurosporine- and pore-forming toxins as implicated by their significant accumulation in the sub G1 phase and an increase in caspase-2, -3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, respectively. Importantly, HuR knockdown cells remained insensitive toward STS-induced apoptosis if cells were additionally transfected with caspase-2-specific siRNAs. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that HuR by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-2-driven apoptosis may essentially

  13. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  14. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  15. TGF-β mimic proteins form an extended gene family in the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Danielle J; Harcus, Yvonne; White, Madeleine P J; Gregory, William F; Nahler, Janina; Stephens, Ian; Toke-Bjolgerud, Edward; Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Alasdair; McSorley, Henry J; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-03-03

    We recently reported the discovery of a new parasite-derived protein that functionally mimics the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The Heligmosomoides polygyrus TGF-β Mimic (Hp-TGM) shares no homology to any TGF-β family member, however it binds the mammalian TGF-β receptor and induces expression of Foxp3, the canonical transcription factor of both mouse and human regulatory T cells. Hp-TGM consists of five atypical Complement Control Protein (CCP, Pfam 00084) domains, each lacking certain conserved residues and 12-15 amino acids longer than the 60-70 amino acids consensus domain, but with a recognizable 3-cysteine, tryptophan, cysteine motif. We now report on the identification of a family of nine related Hp-TGM homologues represented in the secreted proteome and transcriptome of H. polygyrus. Recombinant proteins from five of the nine new TGM members were tested for TGF-β activity, but only two were functionally active in an MFB-F11 reporter assay, and by the induction of T cell Foxp3 expression. Sequence comparisons reveal that proteins with functional activity are similar or identical to Hp-TGM across the first three CCP domains, but more variable in domains 4 and 5. Inactive proteins diverged in all domains, or lacked some domains entirely. Testing truncated versions of Hp-TGM confirmed that domains 1-3 are essential for full activity in vitro, while domains 4 and 5 are not required. Further studies will elucidate whether these latter domains fulfill other functions in promoting host immune regulation during infection and if the more divergent family members play other roles in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  17. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Matsumori, Haruka [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel [Department of Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Goldberg, Ilya G. [Image Informatics and Computational Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriko [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Harata, Masahiko, E-mail: mharata@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  18. Evolution of the Yellow/Major Royal Jelly Protein family and the emergence of social behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Mark David; Albert, Stefan; Kucharski, Robert; Prusko, Carsten; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2006-11-01

    The genomic architecture underlying the evolution of insect social behavior is largely a mystery. Eusociality, defined by overlapping generations, parental brood care, and reproductive division of labor, has most commonly evolved in the Hymenopteran insects, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. In this species, the Major Royal Jelly Protein (MRJP) family is required for all major aspects of eusocial behavior. Here, using data obtained from the A. mellifera genome sequencing project, we demonstrate that the MRJP family is encoded by nine genes arranged in an approximately 60-kb tandem array. Furthermore, the MRJP protein family appears to have evolved from a single progenitor gene that encodes a member of the ancient Yellow protein family. Five genes encoding Yellow-family proteins flank the genomic region containing the genes encoding MRJPs. We describe the molecular evolution of these protein families. We then characterize developmental-stage-specific, sex-specific, and caste-specific expression patterns of the mrjp and yellow genes in the honey bee. We review empirical evidence concerning the functions of Yellow proteins in fruit flies and social ants, in order to shed light on the roles of both Yellow and MRJP proteins in A. mellifera. In total, the available evidence suggests that Yellows and MRJPs are multifunctional proteins with diverse, context-dependent physiological and developmental roles. However, many members of the Yellow/MRJP family act as facilitators of reproductive maturation. Finally, it appears that MRJP protein subfamily evolution from the Yellow protein family may have coincided with the evolution of honey bee eusociality.

  19. Génolevures: protein families and synteny among complete hemiascomycetous yeast proteomes and genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, David J.; Martin, Tiphaine; Nikolski, Macha; Cayla, Cyril; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Durrens, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The Génolevures online database (http://cbi.labri.fr/Genolevures/ and http://genolevures.org/) provides exploratory tools and curated data sets relative to nine complete and seven partial genome sequences determined and manually annotated by the Génolevures Consortium, to facilitate comparative genomic studies of Hemiascomycete yeasts. The 2008 update to the Génolevures database provides four new genomes in complete (subtelomere to subtelomere) chromosome sequences, 50 000 protein-coding and tRNA genes, and in silico analyses for each gene element. A key element is a novel classification of conserved multi-species protein families and their use in detecting synteny, gene fusions and other aspects of genome remodeling in evolution. Our purpose is to release high-quality curated data from complete genomes, with a focus on the relations between genes, genomes and proteins. PMID:19015150

  20. Identification of an evolutionary conserved SURF-6 domain in a family of nucleolar proteins extending from human to yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzikov, Mikhail; Zatsepina, Olga; Magoulas, Charalambos

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian SURF-6 protein is localized in the nucleolus, yet its function remains elusive in the recently characterized nucleolar proteome. We discovered by searching the Protein families database that a unique evolutionary conserved SURF-6 domain is present in the carboxy-terminal of a novel family of eukaryotic proteins extending from human to yeast. By using the enhanced green fluorescent protein as a fusion protein marker in mammalian cells, we show that proteins from distantly related taxonomic groups containing the SURF-6 domain are localized in the nucleolus. Deletion sequence analysis shows that multiple regions of the SURF-6 protein are capable of nucleolar targeting independently of the evolutionary conserved domain. We identified that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae member of the SURF-6 family, named rrp14 or ykl082c, has been categorized in yeast databases to interact with proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis and cell polarity. These results classify SURF-6 as a new family of nucleolar proteins in the eukaryotic kingdom and point out that SURF-6 has a distinct domain within the known nucleolar proteome that may mediate complex protein-protein interactions for analogous processes between yeast and mammalian cells

  1. A new family of giardial cysteine-rich non-VSP protein genes and a novel cyst protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Davids

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Giardia lamblia cyst wall is necessary for survival in the environment and host infection, we tested the hypothesis that it contains proteins other than the three known cyst wall proteins. Serial analysis of gene expression during growth and encystation revealed a gene, "HCNCp" (High Cysteine Non-variant Cyst protein, that was upregulated late in encystation, and that resembled the classic Giardia variable surface proteins (VSPs that cover the trophozoite plasmalemma. HCNCp is 13.9% cysteine, with many "CxxC" tetrapeptide motifs and a transmembrane sequence near the C-terminus. However, HCNCp has multiple "CxC" motifs rarely found in VSPs, and does not localize to the trophozoite plasmalemma. Moreover, the HCNCp C-terminus differed from the canonical VSP signature. Full-length epitope-tagged HCNCp expressed under its own promoter was upregulated during encystation with highest expression in cysts, including 42 and 21 kDa C-terminal fragments. Tagged HCNCp targeted to the nuclear envelope in trophozoites, and co-localized with cyst proteins to encystation-specific secretory vesicles during encystation. HCNCp defined a novel trafficking pathway as it localized to the wall and body of cysts, while the cyst proteins were exclusively in the wall. Unlike VSPs, HCNCp is expressed in at least five giardial strains and four WB subclones expressing different VSPs. Bioinformatics identified 60 additional large high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMp containing > or = 20 CxxC/CxC's lacking the VSP-specific C-terminal CRGKA. HCMp were absent or rare in other model or parasite genomes, except for Tetrahymena thermophila with 30. MEME analysis classified the 61 gHCMp genes into nine groups with similar internal motifs. Our data suggest that HCNCp is a novel invariant cyst protein belonging to a new HCMp family that is abundant in the Giardia genome. HCNCp and the other HCMp provide a rich source for developing parasite-specific diagnostic reagents

  2. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  3. Phylogenetic distribution and membrane topology of the LytR-CpsA-Psr protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial cell wall is the target of many antibiotics and cell envelope constituents are critical to host-pathogen interactions. To combat resistance development and virulence, a detailed knowledge of the individual factors involved is essential. Members of the LytR-CpsA-Psr family of cell envelope-associated attenuators are relevant for β-lactam resistance, biofilm formation, and stress tolerance, and they are suggested to play a role in cell wall maintenance. However, their precise function is still unknown. This study addresses the occurrence as well as sequence-based characteristics of the LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins. Results A comprehensive list of LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins was established, and their phylogenetic distribution and clustering into subgroups was determined. LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins were present in all Gram-positive organisms, except for the cell wall-deficient Mollicutes and one strain of the Clostridiales. In contrast, the majority of Gram-negatives did not contain LytR-CpsA-Psr family members. Despite high sequence divergence, the LytR-CpsA-Psr domains of different subclusters shared a highly similar, predicted mixed a/β-structure, and conserved charged residues. PhoA fusion experiments, using MsrR of Staphylococcus aureus, confirmed membrane topology predictions and extracellular location of its LytR-CpsA-Psr domain. Conclusion The LytR-CpsA-Psr domain is unique to bacteria. The presence of diverse subgroups within the LytR-CpsA-Psr family might indicate functional differences, and could explain variations in phenotypes of respective mutants reported. The identified conserved structural elements and amino acids are likely to be important for the function of the domain and will help to guide future studies of the LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins.

  4. Assignment of protein sequences to existing domain and family classification systems: Pfam and the PDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qifang; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2012-11-01

    Automating the assignment of existing domain and protein family classifications to new sets of sequences is an important task. Current methods often miss assignments because remote relationships fail to achieve statistical significance. Some assignments are not as long as the actual domain definitions because local alignment methods often cut alignments short. Long insertions in query sequences often erroneously result in two copies of the domain assigned to the query. Divergent repeat sequences in proteins are often missed. We have developed a multilevel procedure to produce nearly complete assignments of protein families of an existing classification system to a large set of sequences. We apply this to the task of assigning Pfam domains to sequences and structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We found that HHsearch alignments frequently scored more remotely related Pfams in Pfam clans higher than closely related Pfams, thus, leading to erroneous assignment at the Pfam family level. A greedy algorithm allowing for partial overlaps was, thus, applied first to sequence/HMM alignments, then HMM-HMM alignments and then structure alignments, taking care to join partial alignments split by large insertions into single-domain assignments. Additional assignment of repeat Pfams with weaker E-values was allowed after stronger assignments of the repeat HMM. Our database of assignments, presented in a database called PDBfam, contains Pfams for 99.4% of chains >50 residues. The Pfam assignment data in PDBfam are available at http://dunbrack2.fccc.edu/ProtCid/PDBfam, which can be searched by PDB codes and Pfam identifiers. They will be updated regularly.

  5. Defining sequence space and reaction products within the cyanuric acid hydrolase (AtzD)/barbiturase protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffernick, Jennifer L; Erickson, Jasmine S; Cameron, Stephan M; Cho, Seunghee; Dodge, Anthony G; Richman, Jack E; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2012-09-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases (AtzD) and barbiturases are homologous, found almost exclusively in bacteria, and comprise a rare protein family with no discernible linkage to other protein families or an X-ray structural class. There has been confusion in the literature and in genome projects regarding the reaction products, the assignment of individual sequences as either cyanuric acid hydrolases or barbiturases, and spurious connection of this family to another protein family. The present study has addressed those issues. First, the published enzyme reaction products of cyanuric acid hydrolase are incorrectly identified as biuret and carbon dioxide. The current study employed (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to show that cyanuric acid hydrolase releases carboxybiuret, which spontaneously decarboxylates to biuret. This is significant because it revealed that homologous cyanuric acid hydrolases and barbiturases catalyze completely analogous reactions. Second, enzymes that had been annotated incorrectly in genome projects have been reassigned here by bioinformatics, gene cloning, and protein characterization studies. Third, the AtzD/barbiturase family has previously been suggested to consist of members of the amidohydrolase superfamily, a large class of metallohydrolases. Bioinformatics and the lack of bound metals both argue against a connection to the amidohydrolase superfamily. Lastly, steady-state kinetic measurements and observations of protein stability suggested that the AtzD/barbiturase family might be an undistinguished protein family that has undergone some resurgence with the recent introduction of industrial s-triazine compounds such as atrazine and melamine into the environment.

  6. PfEMP1 – A Parasite Protein Family of Key Importance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Immunity and Pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T R

    2015-01-01

    to be a central element in the pathogenesis of the disease. It is mediated by the interaction of parasite ligands on the erythrocyte surface and a range of host receptor molecules in many organs and tissues. Among several proteins and protein families implicated in this process, the P. falciparum erythrocyte...... membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of high-molecular weight and highly variable antigens appears to be the most prominent. In this chapter, we aim to provide a systematic overview of the current knowledge about these proteins, their structure, their function, how they are presented on the erythrocyte...

  7. The CREC family, a novel family of multiple EF-hand, low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins localised to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Vorum, H

    2000-01-01

    The CREC family consists of a number of recently discovered multiple (up to seven) EF-hand proteins that localise to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells. At present, the family includes reticulocalbin, ERC-55/TCBP-49/E6BP, Cab45, calumenin and crocalbin/CBP-50. Similar proteins are found...... in quite diverse invertebrate organisms such as DCB-45 and SCF in Drosophila melanogaster, SCF in Bombyx mori, CCB-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pfs40/PfERC in Plasmodium falciparum. The Ca(2+) affinity is rather low with dissociation constants around 10(-4)-10(-3) M. The proteins may participate in Ca......(2+)-regulated activities. Recent evidence has been obtained that some CREC family members are involved in pathological activities such as malignant cell transformation, mediation of the toxic effects of snake venom toxins and putative participation in amyloid formation. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-21...

  8. TIR-X and TIR-NBS proteins: two new families related to disease resistance TIR-NBS-LRR proteins encoded in Arabidopsis and other plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Blake C; Morgante, Michele; Michelmore, Richard W

    2002-10-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain is found in one of the two large families of homologues of plant disease resistance proteins (R proteins) in Arabidopsis and other dicotyledonous plants. In addition to these TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) R proteins, we identified two families of TIR-containing proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis Col-0 genome. The TIR-X (TX) family of proteins lacks both the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and the leucine rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of the R proteins, while the TIR-NBS (TN) proteins contain much of the NBS, but lack the LRR. In Col-0, the TX family is encoded by 27 genes and three pseudogenes; the TN family is encoded by 20 genes and one pseudogene. Using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), expression was detected at low levels for approximately 85% of the TN-encoding genes. Expression was detected for only approximately 40% of the TX-encoding genes, again at low levels. Physical map data and phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple genomic duplication events have increased the numbers of TX and TN genes in Arabidopsis. Genes encoding TX, TN and TNL proteins were demonstrated in conifers; TX and TN genes are present in very low numbers in grass genomes. The expression, prevalence, and diversity of TX and TN genes suggests that these genes encode functional proteins rather than resulting from degradation or deletions of TNL genes. These TX and TN proteins could be plant analogues of small TIR-adapter proteins that function in mammalian innate immune responses such as MyD88 and Mal.

  9. Biochemical characterization of Sf9 Sp-family-like protein factors reveals interesting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheedi, S; Ramachandran, A; Ehtesham, N Z; Hasnain, S E

    2007-01-01

    We earlier documented the involvement of novel Sp-family-like protein factors in transcription from the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter [Ramachandran et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276: 23440-23449]. These zinc-dependent Sp-like factors bind to two putative Sp-factor-binding motifs, present within the AcSp sequence upstream of the polh promoter, with very high affinity (K(d) = 2.1 x 10(-12) M). Like other polh-promoter-associated host transcription factors, these Sp-like factors display tolerance to high ion concentrations up to even 3 M NaCl. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated a probable cross-talk between the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) Sp-family-like proteins and the TFIID complex. In complementary experiments, specific replacements of the Sp-factor-binding motifs with TATA-like elements resulted in expression of a luciferase reporter gene to almost the same level as that obtained with a wild-type native construct. Our results point to the possibility of the involvement of TFIID and Sf9 Sp protein interaction in transcription from the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter.

  10. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. ► Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. ► Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. ► DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. ► DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  11. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  12. Transcriptional activation capacity of the novel PLAG family of zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, K; Voz, M L; Hensen, K; Meyen, E; Van de Ven, W J

    1998-09-04

    We have isolated and characterized two novel cDNAs encoding C2H2 zinc finger proteins showing high sequence homology to PLAG1, a protein ectopically activated by promoter swapping or promoter substitution in pleomorphic adenomas with chromosomal abnormalities at chromosome 8q12. PLAG1 and the two new PLAG1 family members (PLAGL1 and PLAGL2) constitute a novel subfamily of zinc finger proteins that recognize DNA and/or RNA. To examine the potential of the three human proteins to modulate transcription, we constructed several PLAG/GAL4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins and measured their ability to activate transcription of a reporter gene construct in different mammalian cell lines and in yeast. Although the carboxyl-terminal part of PLAGL1 shows strong overall transcriptional activity in mesenchymal (COS-1) and epithelial cells (293), both PLAG1 and PLAGL2 transactivate in mesenchymal cells only if depleted from a repressing region. This effect is less profound in epithelial cells. These data suggest that the activation in pleomorphic adenomas of PLAG1 most likely results in uncontrolled activation of downstream target genes.

  13. BIS2Analyzer: a server for co-evolution analysis of conserved protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteri, Francesco; Nadalin, Francesca; Champeimont, Raphaël; Carbone, Alessandra

    2017-07-03

    Along protein sequences, co-evolution analysis identifies residue pairs demonstrating either a specific co-adaptation, where changes in one of the residues are compensated by changes in the other during evolution or a less specific external force that affects the evolutionary rates of both residues in a similar magnitude. In both cases, independently of the underlying cause, co-evolutionary signatures within or between proteins serve as markers of physical interactions and/or functional relationships. Depending on the type of protein under study, the set of available homologous sequences may greatly differ in size and amino acid variability. BIS2Analyzer, openly accessible at http://www.lcqb.upmc.fr/BIS2Analyzer/, is a web server providing the online analysis of co-evolving amino-acid pairs in protein alignments, especially designed for vertebrate and viral protein families, which typically display a small number of highly similar sequences. It is based on BIS2, a re-implemented fast version of the co-evolution analysis tool Blocks in Sequences (BIS). BIS2Analyzer provides a rich and interactive graphical interface to ease biological interpretation of the results. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR assignments for the Cyanothece 51142 protein cce_0567: a protein associated with nitrogen fixation in the DUF683 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchko, Garry W; Sofia, Heidi J

    2008-06-01

    Cyanothece 51142 contains a 78-residue protein, cce_0567, that falls into the DUF683 family of proteins associated with nitrogen fixation. Here we report the assignment of most of the main chain and 13C(beta) side chain resonances of the approximately 40 kDa homo-tetramer.

  15. Structural basis for antagonizing a host restriction factor by C7 family of poxvirus host-range proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Krumm, Brian; Li, Yongchao; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Productive viral replication requires overcoming many barriers posed by the host innate immune system. Human sterile alpha motif domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) is a newly identified antiviral factor that is specifically targeted by poxvirus proteins belonging to the C7 family of host-range factors. Here we provide the first, to our knowledge, atomic view of two functionally divergent proteins from the C7 family and determine the molecular basis that dictates whether they can target SAMD9 effecti...

  16. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    , investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality......The superfamily of the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) is the largest family of membrane-associated receptors. GPCRs are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous human diseases, and they constitute an estimated 30-40% of all drug targets. During the last two decades......, GPCR oligomerization has been extensively studied using methods like bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and today, receptor-receptor interactions within the GPCR superfamily is a well-established phenomenon. Evidence of the impact of GPCR oligomerization on, e.g., ligand binding, receptor...

  17. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi [University of Patras, 26505 Rio, Patras (Greece); Perrakis, Anastassis, E-mail: a.perrakis@nki.nl [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-31

    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  18. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  19. Spider Glue Proteins Have Distinct Architectures Compared with Traditional Spidroin Family Members*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M.; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

  20. Phylogenomic analysis reveals dynamic evolutionary history of the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia T Levine

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin is the gene-poor, satellite-rich eukaryotic genome compartment that supports many essential cellular processes. The functional diversity of proteins that bind and often epigenetically define heterochromatic DNA sequence reflects the diverse functions supported by this enigmatic genome compartment. Moreover, heterogeneous signatures of selection at chromosomal proteins often mirror the heterogeneity of evolutionary forces that act on heterochromatic DNA. To identify new such surrogates for dissecting heterochromatin function and evolution, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gene family across 40 million years of Drosophila evolution. Our study expands this gene family from 5 genes to at least 26 genes, including several uncharacterized genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The 21 newly defined HP1s introduce unprecedented structural diversity, lineage-restriction, and germline-biased expression patterns into the HP1 family. We find little evidence of positive selection at these HP1 genes in both population genetic and molecular evolution analyses. Instead, we find that dynamic evolution occurs via prolific gene gains and losses. Despite this dynamic gene turnover, the number of HP1 genes is relatively constant across species. We propose that karyotype evolution drives at least some HP1 gene turnover. For example, the loss of the male germline-restricted HP1E in the obscura group coincides with one episode of dramatic karyotypic evolution, including the gain of a neo-Y in this lineage. This expanded compendium of ovary- and testis-restricted HP1 genes revealed by our study, together with correlated gain/loss dynamics and chromosome fission/fusion events, will guide functional analyses of novel roles supported by germline chromatin.

  1. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-qi An

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bis-(3',5' cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d∼2 µM. Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence.

  2. Recognition of DNA modified with antitumor cisplatin by p53-family proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivoňková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2009), s. 265-266 ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040701; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/07/P476; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : p53-family proteins * interaction * DNA modification Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  3. Studying the co-evolution of protein families with the Mirrortree web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Pazos, Florencio

    2010-05-15

    The Mirrortree server allows to graphically and interactively study the co-evolution of two protein families, and investigate their possible interactions and functional relationships in a taxonomic context. The server includes the possibility of starting from single sequences and hence it can be used by non-expert users. The web server is freely available at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/mtserver. It was tested in the main web browsers. Adobe Flash Player is required at the client side to perform the interactive assessment of co-evolution. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Enzyme promiscuity in the hormone-sensitive lipase family of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Manco; Luigia, Merone; Elena, Porzio; Yan, Feng; Luigi, Mandrich

    2012-02-01

    The number of enzymes endowed with the capacity to catalyse other reactions than the main, physiological one, a feature that has been called promiscuity, is increasing at a fast pace. Promiscuity is a highly pervasive phenomenon that is present at each level of life complexity. For enzymes, promiscuity encompasses interesting aspects related to their physiological role, evolution and biotechnological applications. Herein, at first we will describe some general aspects of enzyme promiscuity and then we will report some examples from the α/β hydrolase superfamily of proteins, with particular emphasis to the hormone-sensitive lipase family.

  5. ProtoNet 6.0: organizing 10 million protein sequences in a compact hierarchical family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Nadav; Karsenty, Solange; Stern, Amos; Linial, Nathan; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    ProtoNet 6.0 (http://www.protonet.cs.huji.ac.il) is a data structure of protein families that cover the protein sequence space. These families are generated through an unsupervised bottom-up clustering algorithm. This algorithm organizes large sets of proteins in a hierarchical tree that yields high-quality protein families. The 2012 ProtoNet (Version 6.0) tree includes over 9 million proteins of which 5.5% come from UniProtKB/SwissProt and the rest from UniProtKB/TrEMBL. The hierarchical tree structure is based on an all-against-all comparison of 2.5 million representatives of UniRef50. Rigorous annotation-based quality tests prune the tree to most informative 162,088 clusters. Every high-quality cluster is assigned a ProtoName that reflects the most significant annotations of its proteins. These annotations are dominated by GO terms, UniProt/Swiss-Prot keywords and InterPro. ProtoNet 6.0 operates in a default mode. When used in the advanced mode, this data structure offers the user a view of the family tree at any desired level of resolution. Systematic comparisons with previous versions of ProtoNet are carried out. They show how our view of protein families evolves, as larger parts of the sequence space become known. ProtoNet 6.0 provides numerous tools to navigate the hierarchy of clusters.

  6. Xanthurenic acid translocates proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins into mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Otto M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous molecule produced by tryptophan degradation, produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Its accumulation can be observed in aging-related diseases, e.g. senile cataract and infectious disease. We previously reported that xanthurenic acid provokes apoptosis, and now present a study of the response of mitochondria to xanthurenic acid. Results Xanthurenic acid at 10 or 20 μM in culture media of human aortic smooth muscle cells induces translocation of the proteins Bax, Bak, Bclxs, and Bad into mitochondria. In 20 μM xanthurenic acid, Bax is also translocated to the nucleus. In isolated mitochondria xanthurenic acid leads to Bax and Bclxs oligomerization, accumulation of Ca2+, and increased oxygen consumption. Conclusion Xanthurenic acid interacts directly with Bcl-2 family proteins, inducing mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial functions.

  7. T cell inactivation by poxviral B22 family proteins increases viral virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alzhanova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections with monkeypox, cowpox and weaponized variola virus remain a threat to the increasingly unvaccinated human population, but little is known about their mechanisms of virulence and immune evasion. We now demonstrate that B22 proteins, encoded by the largest genes of these viruses, render human T cells unresponsive to stimulation of the T cell receptor by MHC-dependent antigen presentation or by MHC-independent stimulation. In contrast, stimuli that bypass TCR-signaling are not inhibited. In a non-human primate model of monkeypox, virus lacking the B22R homologue (MPXVΔ197 caused only mild disease with lower viremia and cutaneous pox lesions compared to wild type MPXV which caused high viremia, morbidity and mortality. Since MPXVΔ197-infected animals displayed accelerated T cell responses and less T cell dysregulation than MPXV US2003, we conclude that B22 family proteins cause viral virulence by suppressing T cell control of viral dissemination.

  8. The Aspergillus fumigatus Damage Resistance Protein Family Coordinately Regulates Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Azole Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol is a major and specific component of the fungal plasma membrane, and thus, the cytochrome P450 enzymes (Erg proteins that catalyze ergosterol synthesis have been selected as valuable targets of azole antifungals. However, the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has developed worldwide resistance to azoles largely through mutations in the cytochrome P450 enzyme Cyp51 (Erg11. In this study, we demonstrate that a cytochrome b5-like heme-binding damage resistance protein (Dap family, comprised of DapA, DapB, and DapC, coordinately regulates the functionality of cytochrome P450 enzymes Erg5 and Erg11 and oppositely affects susceptibility to azoles. The expression of all three genes is induced in an azole concentration-dependent way, and the decreased susceptibility to azoles requires DapA stabilization of cytochrome P450 protein activity. In contrast, overexpression of DapB and DapC causes dysfunction of Erg5 and Erg11, resulting in abnormal accumulation of sterol intermediates and further accentuating the sensitivity of ΔdapA strains to azoles. The results of exogenous-hemin rescue and heme-binding-site mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the heme binding of DapA contributes the decreased azole susceptibility, while DapB and -C are capable of reducing the activities of Erg5 and Erg11 through depletion of heme. In vivo data demonstrate that inactivated DapA combined with activated DapB yields an A. fumigatus mutant that is easily treatable with azoles in an immunocompromised mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to the single Dap proteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we suggest that this complex Dap family regulatory system emerged during the evolution of fungi as an adaptive means to regulate ergosterol synthesis in response to environmental stimuli.

  9. The RNPP family of quorum-sensing proteins in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Jorge; Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Guarneros, Gabriel; de la Torre, Mayra

    2010-07-01

    Quorum sensing is one of several mechanisms that bacterial cells use to interact with each other and coordinate certain physiological processes in response to cell density. This mechanism is mediated by extracellular signaling molecules; once a critical threshold concentration has been reached, a target sensor kinase or response regulator is activated (or repressed), facilitating the expression of quorum sensing-dependent genes. Gram-positive bacteria mostly use oligo-peptides as signaling molecules. These cells have a special kind of quorum-sensing systems in which the receptor protein interacts directly with its cognate signaling peptide. The receptors are either Rap phosphatases or transcriptional regulators and integrate the protein family RNPP, from Rap, Npr, PlcR, and PrgX. These quorum-sensing systems control several microbial processes, like sporulation, virulence, biofilm formation, conjugation, and production of extracellular enzymes. Insights of the mechanism of protein-signaling peptide binding as well as the molecular interaction among receptor protein, signaling peptide, and target DNA have changed some earlier perceptions. In spite of the increased knowledge and the potential biotechnological applications of these quorum-sensing systems, few examples on engineering for biotechnological applications have been published. Real applications will arise only when researchers working in applied microbiology and biotechnology are aware of the importance of quorum-sensing systems for health and bioprocess applications.

  10. The XMAP215-family protein DdCP224 is required for cortical interactions of microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestermann Andrea

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions of peripheral microtubule tips with the cell cortex are of crucial importance for nuclear migration, spindle orientation, centrosome positioning and directional cell movement. Microtubule plus end binding proteins are thought to mediate interactions of microtubule tips with cortical actin and membrane proteins in a dynein-dependent manner. XMAP215-family proteins are main regulators of microtubule plus end dynamics but so far they have not been implicated in the interactions of microtubule tips with the cell cortex. Results Here we show that overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of DdCP224, the Dictyostelium XMAP215 homologue, caused a collapse of the radial microtubule cytoskeleton, whereby microtubules lost contact with the cell cortex and were dragged behind like a comet tail of an unusually motile centrosome. This phenotype was indistinguishable from mutants overexpressing fragments of the dynein heavy chain or intermediate chain. Moreover, it was accompanied by dispersal of the Golgi apparatus and reduced cortical localization of the dynein heavy chain indicating a disrupted dynein/dynactin interaction. The interference of DdCP224 with cortical dynein function is strongly supported by the observations that DdCP224 and its N-terminal fragment colocalize with dynein and coimmunoprecipitate with dynein and dynactin. Conclusions Our data show that XMAP215-like proteins are required for the interaction of microtubule plus ends with the cell cortex in interphase cells and strongly suggest that this function is mediated by dynein.

  11. Trichinella spiralis: genome database searches for the presence and immunolocalization of protein disulphide isomerase family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, C P; Clemente, I; Mendes, T; Novo, C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nurse cells in host muscle cells during Trichinella spiralis infection is a key step in the infective mechanism. Collagen trimerization is set up via disulphide bond formation, catalysed by protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). In T. spiralis, some PDI family members have been identified but no localization is described and no antibodies specific for T. spiralis PDIs are available. In this work, computational approaches were used to search for non-described PDIs in the T. spiralis genome database and to check the cross-reactivity of commercial anti-human antibodies with T. spiralis orthologues. In addition to a previously described PDI (PDIA2), endoplasmic reticulum protein (ERp57/PDIA3), ERp72/PDIA4, and the molecular chaperones calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX) and immunoglobulin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein (BIP/GRP78), we identified orthologues of the human thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins (TMX1, TMX2 and TMX3) in the genome protein database, as well as ERp44 (PDIA10) and endoplasmic reticulum disulphide reductase (ERdj5/PDIA19). Immunocytochemical staining of paraffin sections of muscle infected by T. spiralis enabled us to localize some orthologues of the human PDIs (PDIA3 and TMX1) and the chaperone GRP78. A theoretical three-dimensional model for T. spiralis PDIA3 was constructed. The localization and characteristics of the predicted linear B-cell epitopes and amino acid sequence of the immunogens used for commercial production of anti-human PDIA3 antibodies validated the use of these antibodies for the immunolocalization of T. spiralis PDIA3 orthologues. These results suggest that further study of the role of the PDIs and chaperones during nurse cell formation is desirable.

  12. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque 1818, Tetraspanin Membrane Protein Family: Characterization and Expression Analysis of CD81 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD81, also known as the target of an antiproliferative antibody 1 (TAPA-1), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immune functions. In this report, we characterized and analyzed expression of the channel catfish CD81 transcript. T...

  13. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Bcl-2 Family Proteins for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Ashiq; Azmi, Asfar S.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a complex etiology and displays a wide range of cellular escape pathways that allow it to resist different treatment modalities. Crucial signaling molecules that function downstream of the survival pathways, particularly at points where several of these pathways crosstalk, provide valuable targets for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs. Bcl-2 family member proteins are anti-apoptotic molecules that are known to be overexpressed in most cancers including PC. The anti-apoptotic machinery has been linked to the observed resistance developed to chemotherapy and radiation and therefore is important from the targeted drug development point of view. Over the past ten years, our group has extensively studied a series of small molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 against PC and provide solid preclinical platform for testing such novel drugs in the clinic. This review examines the efficacy, potency, and function of several small molecule inhibitor drugs targeted to the Bcl-2 family of proteins and their preclinical progress against PC. This article further focuses on compounds that have been studied the most and also discusses the anti-cancer potential of newer class of Bcl-2 drugs

  14. ADAM and ADAMTS Family Proteins and Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: A Structural Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Takeda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM family proteins constitute a major class of membrane-anchored multidomain proteinases that are responsible for the shedding of cell-surface protein ectodomains, including the latent forms of growth factors, cytokines, receptors and other molecules. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs are major components in most viper venoms. SVMPs are primarily responsible for hemorrhagic activity and may also interfere with the hemostatic system in envenomed animals. SVMPs are phylogenetically most closely related to ADAMs and, together with ADAMs and related ADAM with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family proteinases, constitute adamalysins/reprolysins or the M12B clan (MEROPS database of metalloproteinases. Although the catalytic domain structure is topologically similar to that of other metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases, the M12B proteinases have a modular structure with multiple non-catalytic ancillary domains that are not found in other proteinases. Notably, crystallographic studies revealed that, in addition to the conserved metalloproteinase domain, M12B members share a hallmark cysteine-rich domain designated as the “ADAM_CR” domain. Despite their name, ADAMTSs lack disintegrin-like structures and instead comprise two ADAM_CR domains. This review highlights the current state of our knowledge on the three-dimensional structures of M12B proteinases, focusing on their unique domains that may collaboratively participate in directing these proteinases to specific substrates.

  15. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha activates Src-family kinases and controls integrin-mediated responses in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Muranjan, M; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fyn and c-Src are two of the most widely expressed Src-family kinases. Both are strongly implicated in the control of cytoskeletal organization and in the generation of integrin-dependent signalling responses in fibroblasts. These proteins are representative of a large family of tyros......BACKGROUND: Fyn and c-Src are two of the most widely expressed Src-family kinases. Both are strongly implicated in the control of cytoskeletal organization and in the generation of integrin-dependent signalling responses in fibroblasts. These proteins are representative of a large family...... established, no corresponding phosphatases have been identified that, under physiological conditions, function as positive regulators of c-Src and Fyn in fibroblasts. RESULTS: Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Fibroblasts derived from...

  16. A conserved function in phosphatidylinositol metabolism for mammalian Vps13 family proteins.

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    Jae-Sook Park

    Full Text Available The Vps13 protein family is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding the family member VPS13A lead to the neurodegenerative disorder chorea-acanthocytosis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is just a single version of VPS13, thereby simplifying the task of unraveling its molecular function(s. While VPS13 was originally identified in yeast by its role in vacuolar sorting, recent studies have revealed a completely different function for VPS13 in sporulation, where VPS13 regulates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4P levels in the prospore membrane. This discovery raises the possibility that the disease phenotype associated with vps13A mutants in humans is due to misregulation of PtdIns(4P in membranes. To determine whether VPS13A affects PtdIns(4P in membranes from mammalian neuronal cells, phosphatidylinositol phosphate pools were compared in PC12 tissue culture cells in the absence or presence of VPS13A. Consistent with the yeast results, the localization of PtdIns(4P is specifically altered in VPS13A knockdown cells while other phosphatidylinositol phosphates appear unaffected. In addition, VPS13A is necessary to prevent the premature degeneration of neurites that develop in response to Nerve Growth Factor. The regulation of PtdIns(4P is therefore a conserved function of the Vps13 family and may play a role in the maintenance of neuronal processes in mammals.

  17. Plastid gene expression and plant development require a plastidic protein of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor family.

    OpenAIRE

    Babiychuk, Elena; Vandepoele, Klaas; Wissing, Josef; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; De Rycke, Riet; Akbari, Hana; Joubès, Jérôme; Beeckman, Tom; Jänsch, Lothar; Frentzen, Margrit; Van Montagu, Marc C E; Kushnir, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Plastids are DNA-containing organelles unique to plant cells. In Arabidopsis, one-third of the genes required for embryo development encode plastid-localized proteins. To help understand the role of plastids in embryogenesis and postembryonic development, we characterized proteins of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family, which in animal models, comprises DNA-binding regulators of mitochondrial transcription. Of 35 Arabidopsis mTERF proteins, 11 are plastid-localiz...

  18. Primary structure of a multimeric protein, homologous to the PEP-utilizing enzyme family and isolated from a hyperthermophilic archaebacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicicopol, C; Peters, J; Kellermann, J; Baumeister, W

    1994-12-19

    A large protein complex (approx. 2000 kDa) was found in the cytosol of the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Staphylothermus marinus. The purified protein was shown to be a homomultimer of 93 kDa subunits, the primary structure of which was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. The protein belongs to the family of phosphoenolpyruvate-utilizing enzymes and represents the first member characterized in archaebacteria. Its homomultimeric organisation differs from the typically dimeric structure of its eubacterial and eukaryotic counterparts.

  19. Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharman-Biz, Amirhossein; Gao, Hui; Ghiasvand, Reza; Zhao, Chunyan; Zendehdel, Kazem; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for statistical analyses. We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01). Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer

  20. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  1. Crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B reveal a dynamic, modular architecture of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2007-05-29

    Catrocollastatin/vascular apoptosis-inducing protein (VAP)2B is a metalloproteinase from Crotalus atrox venom, possessing metalloproteinase/disintegrin/cysteine-rich (MDC) domains that bear the typical domain architecture of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. Here we describe crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B in three different crystal forms, representing the first reported crystal structures of a member of the monomeric class of this family of proteins. The overall structures show good agreement with both monomers of atypical homodimeric VAP1. Comparison of the six catrocollastatin/VAP2B monomer structures and the structures of VAP1 reveals a dynamic, modular architecture that may be important for the functions of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

  2. Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein (MBD) Family: Epigenomic Read-Outs Functions and Roles in Tumorigenesis and Psychiatric Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of the heritable changes on gene expression that are responsible for the regulation of development and that have an impact on several diseases. However, it is of equal importance to understand how epigenetic machinery works. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mark and is generally associated with the regulation of gene expression through the repression of promoter activity and by affecting genome stability. Therefore, the ability of the cell to interpret correct methylation marks and/or the correct interpretation of methylation plays a role in many diseases. The major family of proteins that bind methylated DNA is the methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, or the MBDs. Here, we discuss the structure that makes these proteins a family, the main functions and interactions of all protein family members and their role in human disease such as psychiatric disorders and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification of Heat Shock Protein families and J-protein types by incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's general PseAAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Kabir, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2015-11-01

    Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are the substantial ingredients for cell growth and viability, which are found in all living organisms. HSPs manage the process of folding and unfolding of proteins, the quality of newly synthesized proteins and protecting cellular homeostatic processes from environmental stress. On the basis of functionality, HSPs are categorized into six major families namely: (i) HSP20 or sHSP (ii) HSP40 or J-proteins types (iii) HSP60 or GroEL/ES (iv) HSP70 (v) HSP90 and (vi) HSP100. Identification of HSPs family and sub-family through conventional approaches is expensive and laborious. It is therefore, highly desired to establish an automatic, robust and accurate computational method for prediction of HSPs quickly and reliably. Regard, a computational model is developed for the prediction of HSPs family. In this model, protein sequences are formulated using three discrete methods namely: Split Amino Acid Composition, Pseudo Amino Acid Composition, and Dipeptide Composition. Several learning algorithms are utilized to choice the best one for high throughput computational model. Leave one out test is applied to assess the performance of the proposed model. The empirical results showed that support vector machine achieved quite promising results using Dipeptide Composition feature space. The predicted outcomes of proposed model are 90.7% accuracy for HSPs dataset and 97.04% accuracy for J-protein types, which are higher than existing methods in the literature so far. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Coat Protein and NIa Protease of Two Potyviridae Family Members Independently Confer Superinfection Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; French, Roy

    2016-12-01

    Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. Although SIE has been described in diverse viruses infecting plants, humans, and animals, its mechanisms, including involvement of specific viral determinants, are just beginning to be elucidated. In this study, SIE determinants encoded by two economically important wheat viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae), were identified in gain-of-function experiments that used heterologous viruses to express individual virus-encoded proteins in wheat. Wheat plants infected with TriMV expressing WSMV P1, HC-Pro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, NIa-VPg, or NIb cistrons permitted efficient superinfection by WSMV expressing green fluorescent protein (WSMV-GFP). In contrast, wheat infected with TriMV expressing WSMV NIa-Pro or coat protein (CP) substantially excluded superinfection by WSMV-GFP, suggesting that both of these cistrons are SIE effectors encoded by WSMV. Importantly, SIE is due to functional WSMV NIa-Pro or CP rather than their encoding RNAs, as altering the coded protein products by minimally changing RNA sequences led to abolishment of SIE. Deletion mutagenesis further revealed that elicitation of SIE by NIa-Pro requires the entire protein while CP requires only a 200-amino-acid (aa) middle fragment (aa 101 to 300) of the 349 aa. Strikingly, reciprocal experiments with WSMV-mediated expression of TriMV proteins showed that TriMV CP, and TriMV NIa-Pro to a lesser extent, likewise excluded superinfection by TriMV-GFP. Collectively, these data demonstrate that WSMV- and TriMV-encoded CP and NIa-Pro proteins are effectors of SIE and that these two proteins trigger SIE independently of each other. Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction that prevents secondary

  5. Improved detection of remote homologues using cascade PSI-BLAST: influence of neighbouring protein families on sequence coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Swati; Mutt, Eshita; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Sankaran, Sandhya; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2013-01-01

    Development of sensitive sequence search procedures for the detection of distant relationships between proteins at superfamily/fold level is still a big challenge. The intermediate sequence search approach is the most frequently employed manner of identifying remote homologues effectively. In this study, examination of serine proteases of prolyl oligopeptidase, rhomboid and subtilisin protein families were carried out using plant serine proteases as queries from two genomes including A. thaliana and O. sativa and 13 other families of unrelated folds to identify the distant homologues which could not be obtained using PSI-BLAST. We have proposed to start with multiple queries of classical serine protease members to identify remote homologues in families, using a rigorous approach like Cascade PSI-BLAST. We found that classical sequence based approaches, like PSI-BLAST, showed very low sequence coverage in identifying plant serine proteases. The algorithm was applied on enriched sequence database of homologous domains and we obtained overall average coverage of 88% at family, 77% at superfamily or fold level along with specificity of ~100% and Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.91. Similar approach was also implemented on 13 other protein families representing every structural class in SCOP database. Further investigation with statistical tests, like jackknifing, helped us to better understand the influence of neighbouring protein families. Our study suggests that employment of multiple queries of a family for the Cascade PSI-BLAST searches is useful for predicting distant relationships effectively even at superfamily level. We have proposed a generalized strategy to cover all the distant members of a particular family using multiple query sequences. Our findings reveal that prior selection of sequences as query and the presence of neighbouring families can be important for covering the search space effectively in minimal computational time. This study also

  6. Improved detection of remote homologues using cascade PSI-BLAST: influence of neighbouring protein families on sequence coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Kaushik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of sensitive sequence search procedures for the detection of distant relationships between proteins at superfamily/fold level is still a big challenge. The intermediate sequence search approach is the most frequently employed manner of identifying remote homologues effectively. In this study, examination of serine proteases of prolyl oligopeptidase, rhomboid and subtilisin protein families were carried out using plant serine proteases as queries from two genomes including A. thaliana and O. sativa and 13 other families of unrelated folds to identify the distant homologues which could not be obtained using PSI-BLAST. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have proposed to start with multiple queries of classical serine protease members to identify remote homologues in families, using a rigorous approach like Cascade PSI-BLAST. We found that classical sequence based approaches, like PSI-BLAST, showed very low sequence coverage in identifying plant serine proteases. The algorithm was applied on enriched sequence database of homologous domains and we obtained overall average coverage of 88% at family, 77% at superfamily or fold level along with specificity of ~100% and Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.91. Similar approach was also implemented on 13 other protein families representing every structural class in SCOP database. Further investigation with statistical tests, like jackknifing, helped us to better understand the influence of neighbouring protein families. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that employment of multiple queries of a family for the Cascade PSI-BLAST searches is useful for predicting distant relationships effectively even at superfamily level. We have proposed a generalized strategy to cover all the distant members of a particular family using multiple query sequences. Our findings reveal that prior selection of sequences as query and the presence of neighbouring families can be important for

  7. The Drosophila DOCK family protein Sponge is required for development of the air sac primordium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Kazushge; Anh Suong, Dang Ngoc; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp

    2017-05-15

    Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family genes are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. DOCK family proteins mainly regulate actin filament polymerization and/or depolymerization and are GEF proteins, which contribute to cellular signaling events by activating small G proteins. Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to mammalian DOCK3/DOCK4, and plays a role in embryonic central nervous system development, R7 photoreceptor cell differentiation, and adult thorax development. In order to conduct further functional analyses on Spg in vivo, we examined its localization in third instar larval wing imaginal discs. Immunostaining with purified anti-Spg IgG revealed that Spg mainly localized in the air sac primordium (ASP) in wing imaginal discs. Spg is therefore predicted to play an important role in the ASP. The specific knockdown of Spg by the breathless-GAL4 driver in tracheal cells induced lethality accompanied with a defect in ASP development and the induction of apoptosis. The monitoring of ERK signaling activity in wing imaginal discs by immunostaining with anti-diphospho-ERK IgG revealed reductions in the ERK signal cascade in Spg knockdown clones. Furthermore, the overexpression of D-raf suppressed defects in survival and the proliferation of cells in the ASP induced by the knockdown of Spg. Collectively, these results indicate that Spg plays a critical role in ASP development and tracheal cell viability that is mediated by the ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Spg mainly localizes in the air sac primordium in wing imaginal discs. • Spg plays a critical role in air sac primordium development. • Spg positively regulates the ERK signal cascade.

  8. Modeling of folds and folding pathways for some protein families of (α + β)- and (α/β)-classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, Alexey B; Efimov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, updated structural trees for α/β-proteins containing five- and seven-segment (α/β)-motifs are represented. Novel structural motifs occurring in some families of (α + β)- and (α/β)-proteins are also characterized. Databases of these proteins have been compiled from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) and the corresponding structural trees have been constructed. The classification of these proteins has been developed and organized as an extension of the PCBOST database, which is available at http://strees.protres.ru . In total, the updated Protein Classification Based on Structural Trees database contains 11 structural trees, 106 levels, 635 folds, 4911 proteins and domains, and 14,202 PDB entries.

  9. Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP) family in Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Pan, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs), also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity.

  10. Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP family in Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Qing Shao

    Full Text Available The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs, also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity.

  11. CGRP Receptor Family and Accessory Protein Localization: Implications for Predicted Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin are functionally related neuropeptides. Certain of these peptides mediate their action through receptors which have common components, such as the receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs and CGRP-receptor component protein, as well as possibly through other distinct receptors. Specifically, the molecular pharmacology of CGRP and adrenomedullin is determined by coexpression of one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR. Additionally, through formation of another hetero-oligomer, RAMPs also govern the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor, which in association with RAMP1 or RAMP3, binds amylin with high affinity. We have used multiple approaches to discern the regional and cellular expression of these various receptor components and binding sites for the above neuropeptides in multiple species and in different tissues. Techniques applied include in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and radioligand autoradiography. These data allow further understanding of both the complexity of receptor-receptor component and receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. Interestingly, these localization data suggest that RAMPs may interact with receptors additional to those already identified for the CGRP family and may be involved in binding innate neuropeptides or other neurotransmitters which are not members of the calcitonin gene-related peptide fam

  12. Distinct roles of the RasGAP family proteins in C. elegans associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurkó, M Dávid; Csermely, Péter; Sőti, Csaba; Steták, Attila

    2015-10-15

    The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes. We show that gap-1 contribute redundantly with gap-3 to the chemosensation of volatile compounds, gap-1 plays a major role in associative learning, while gap-2 and gap-3 are predominantly required for short- and long-term associative memory. Our results also suggest that the C. elegans Ras orthologue let-60 is involved in multiple processes during learning and memory. Thus, we show that the different classes of RasGAP proteins are all involved in cognitive function and their complex interplay ensures the proper formation and storage of novel information in C. elegans.

  13. Intrinsic insulin secretion capacity might be preserved by discontinuing anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody treatment in 'anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody-induced' fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Gota; Saito, Daigo; Nakajima, Ritsuko; Hatano, Masako; Noguchi, Yuichi; Kurihara, Susumu; Katayama, Shigehiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Shimada, Akira

    2018-03-01

    Intrinsic insulin secretion capacity may be preserved by discontinuing anti-PD-1 antibody treatment in 'anti-PD-1 antibody-induced'fulminant type 1 diabetes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. An IgaA/UmoB Family Protein from Serratia marcescens Regulates Motility, Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis, and Secondary Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Nicholas A; Brothers, Kimberly M; Callaghan, Jake D; Passerini, Angelina M; Sigindere, Cihad; Hill, Preston J; Liu, Xinyu; Wozniak, Daniel J; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2018-03-15

    Secondary metabolites are an important source of pharmaceuticals and key modulators of microbe-microbe interactions. The bacterium Serratia marcescens is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of eubacteria and produces a number of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we screened for novel regulators of secondary metabolites synthesized by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens and found mutations in a gene for an uncharacterized UmoB/IgaA family member here named gumB Mutation of gumB conferred a severe loss of the secondary metabolites prodigiosin and serratamolide. The gumB mutation conferred pleiotropic phenotypes, including altered biofilm formation, highly increased capsular polysaccharide production, and loss of swimming and swarming motility. These phenotypes corresponded to transcriptional changes in fimA , wecA , and flhD Unlike other UmoB/IgaA family members, gumB was found to be not essential for growth in S. marcescens , yet igaA from Salmonella enterica , yrfF from Escherichia coli , and an uncharacterized predicted ortholog from Klebsiella pneumoniae complemented the gumB mutant secondary metabolite defects, suggesting highly conserved function. These data support the idea that UmoB/IgaA family proteins are functionally conserved and extend the known regulatory influence of UmoB/IgaA family proteins to the control of competition-associated secondary metabolites and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE IgaA/UmoB family proteins are found in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria, which are of environmental and public health importance. IgaA/UmoB family proteins are thought to be inner membrane proteins that report extracellular stresses to intracellular signaling pathways that respond to environmental challenge. This study introduces a new member of the IgaA/UmoB family and demonstrates a high degree of functional similarity between IgaA/UmoB family proteins. Moreover, this study extends the phenomena controlled by Iga

  15. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  16. Comparative genomics of the family Vibrionaceae reveals the wide distribution of genes encoding virulence-associated proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Hong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all these strains, known as the pangenome, are distributed. Information about the core, accessory and panproteome of this family can show how, for example, genes encoding virulence-associated proteins are distributed and help us understand how virulence emerges. Results We deduced the complete set of orthologs for eleven strains from this family. The core proteome consists of 1,882 orthologous groups, which is 28% of the 6,629 orthologous groups in this family. There were 4,411 accessory orthologous groups (i.e., proteins that occurred in from 2 to 10 proteomes and 5,584 unique proteins (encoded once on only one of the eleven genomes. Proteins that have been associated with virulence in V. cholerae were widely distributed across the eleven genomes, but the majority was found only on the genomes of the two V. cholerae strains examined. Conclusions The proteomes are reflective of the differing evolutionary trajectories followed by different strains to similar phenotypes. The composition of the proteomes supports the notion that genetic exchange among species of the Vibrionaceae is widespread and that this exchange aids these species in adapting to their environments.

  17. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-11-01

    GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin-Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  18. The MRJP/YELLOW protein family of Apis mellifera: identification of new members in the EST library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Klaudiny, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Major royal jelly proteins (named MRJP1-5) of honeybee (Apis mellifera), yellow proteins of Drosophila, together with putative proteins found in several bacteria, form a protein family termed the MRJP/yellow family. Members of the family exert diverse physiological functions and amongst eukaryotes appear to be restricted to the order Insecta. MRJPs constitute about 90% of total protein of royal jelly, which is secreted by nurse bees to feed the queen and growing larvae. We looked for mrjp and yellow homologues in a honeybee brain expressed sequence tags (EST) library. In addition to the five mrjp cDNAs previously characterized, we found three additional cDNAs encoding novel MRJPs and importantly, two cDNAs coding for orthologues of Drosophila yellow proteins. One yellow cDNA and all three cDNAs coding for the novel MRJPs were assembled completely, the sequence of the other yellow homologue was partially assembled. The data we present here supports the view that repeated duplications and functional divergence occurred during the evolution of MRJPs in honeybees, with even closely related MRJPs appearing to perform diverse physiological functions. Conversely, yellow protein orthologues appear to be conserved and thus candidates for maintaining the former function(s) of yellow proteins.

  19. Intrinsically Disordered Enamel Matrix Protein Ameloblastin Forms Ribbon-like Supramolecular Structures via an N-terminal Segment Encoded by Exon 5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wald, Tomáš; Osičková, Adriana; Šulc, Miroslav; Benada, Oldřich; Semerádtová, A.; Řežábková, Lenka; Veverka, Václav; Bednárová, Lucie; Malý, J.; Macek, Pavel; Šebo, Peter; Slabý, Ivan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Osička, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 288, č. 31 (2013), s. 22333-22345 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/0427 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : Ameloblastin * Extracellular Matrix Proteins * Amelogenin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CE - Biochemistry (FGU-C) Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2013

  20. Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify a family of chlorhexidine efflux proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A.; Jackson, Scott M.; Penesyan, Anahit; Patching, Simon G.; Tetu, Sasha G.; Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Brown, Melissa H.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Paulsen, Ian. T.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic or disinfectant in both hospital and community settings. A number of bacterial species display resistance to this membrane-active biocide. We examined the transcriptomic response of a representative nosocomial human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, to chlorhexidine to identify the primary chlorhexidine resistance elements. The most highly up-regulated genes encoded components of a major multidrug efflux system, AdeAB. The next most highly overexpressed gene under chlorhexidine stress was annotated as encoding a hypothetical protein, named here as AceI. Orthologs of the aceI gene are conserved within the genomes of a broad range of proteobacterial species. Expression of aceI or its orthologs from several other γ- or β-proteobacterial species in Escherichia coli resulted in significant increases in resistance to chlorhexidine. Additionally, disruption of the aceI ortholog in Acinetobacter baylyi rendered it more susceptible to chlorhexidine. The AceI protein was localized to the membrane after overexpression in E. coli. This protein was purified, and binding assays demonstrated direct and specific interactions between AceI and chlorhexidine. Transport assays using [14C]-chlorhexidine determined that AceI was able to mediate the energy-dependent efflux of chlorhexidine. An E15Q AceI mutant with a mutation in a conserved acidic residue, although unable to mediate chlorhexidine resistance and transport, was still able to bind chlorhexidine. Taken together, these data are consistent with AceI being an active chlorhexidine efflux protein and the founding member of a family of bacterial drug efflux transporters. PMID:24277845

  1. A mosquito hemolymph odorant-binding protein family member specifically binds juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Hwan; Pham, Van; Jablonka, Willy; Goodman, Walter G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2017-07-27

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. In adult mosquitoes, it is essential for maturation of the ovary and normal male reproductive behavior, but how JH distribution and activity is regulated after secretion is unclear. Here, we report a new type of specific JH-binding protein, given the name mosquito juvenile hormone-binding protein (mJHBP), which circulates in the hemolymph of pupal and adult Aedes aegypti males and females. mJHBP is a member of the odorant-binding protein (OBP) family, and orthologs are present in the genomes of Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquito species. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that mJHBP specifically binds JH II and JH III but not eicosanoids or JH derivatives. mJHBP was crystallized in the presence of JH III and found to have a double OBP domain structure reminiscent of salivary “long” D7 proteins of mosquitoes. We observed that a single JH III molecule is contained in the N-terminal domain binding pocket that is closed in an apparent conformational change by a C-terminal domain-derived α-helix. The electron density for the ligand indicated a high occupancy of the natural 10R enantiomer of JH III. Of note, mJHBP is structurally unrelated to hemolymph JHBP from lepidopteran insects. A low level of expression of mJHBP in Ae. aegypti larvae suggests that it is primarily active during the adult stage where it could potentially influence the effects of JH on egg development, mating behavior, feeding, or other processes.

  2. Structural basis for antagonizing a host restriction factor by C7 family of poxvirus host-range proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Krumm, Brian; Li, Yongchao; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Human sterile alpha motif domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) protein is a host restriction factor for poxviruses, but it can be overcome by some poxvirus host-range proteins that share homology with vaccinia virus C7 protein. To understand the mechanism of action for this important family of host-range factors, we determined the crystal structures of C7 and myxoma virus M64, a C7 family member that is unable to antagonize SAMD9. Despite their different functions and only 23% sequence identity, the two proteins have very similar overall structures, displaying a previously unidentified fold comprised of a compact 12-stranded antiparallel β-sandwich wrapped in two short α helices. Extensive structure-guided mutagenesis of C7 identified three loops clustered on one edge of the β sandwich as critical for viral replication and binding with SAMD9. The loops are characterized with functionally important negatively charged, positively charged, and hydrophobic residues, respectively, together forming a unique "three-fingered molecular claw." The key residues of the claw are not conserved in two C7 family members that do not antagonize SAMD9 but are conserved in distantly related C7 family members from four poxvirus genera that infect diverse mammalian species. Indeed, we found that all in the latter group of proteins bind SAMD9. Taken together, our data indicate that diverse mammalian poxviruses use a conserved molecular claw in a C7-like protein to target SAMD9 and overcome host restriction.

  3. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Atg8 Family of Proteins-Modulating Shape and Functionality of Autophagic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahzadeh, Iman; Schwarten, Melanie; Gensch, Thomas; Willbold, Dieter; Weiergräber, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process involving an accumulation of alterations on various organizational levels, which finally compromises viability and limits the lifespan of organisms. It is now well-established that many aspects of aging can be positively affected by (macro)autophagy, a mechanism of self-digestion found in virtually all eukaryotic cells. A comprehensive understanding of autophagy is thus expected to not only deepen our insight into the mechanisms of aging but to also open up new avenues toward increasing the healthy lifespan in humans. In this review, we focus on the Atg8 family of ubiquitin-like proteins, which play a crucial role in the autophagy process by virtue of their unique mode of reversible membrane association.

  5. Comparative evaluation of low-molecular-mass proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies members of the ESAT-6 family as immunodominant T-cell antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt, R L; Oettinger, T; Rosenkrands, I

    2000-01-01

    ), and the well-described ESAT-6 antigen. Genetic analyses demonstrated that TB10.4 as well as CFP10 belongs to the ESAT-6 family of low-mass proteins, whereas TB7.3 is a low-molecular-mass protein outside this family. The proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their immunogenicity was tested...

  6. LowMACA: exploiting protein family analysis for the identification of rare driver mutations in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Giorgio E M; de Pretis, Stefano; Riva, Laura; Pelizzola, Mattia; Céol, Arnaud; Costanza, Jole; Müller, Heiko; Zammataro, Luca

    2016-02-09

    The increasing availability of resequencing data has led to a better understanding of the most important genes in cancer development. Nevertheless, the mutational landscape of many tumor types is heterogeneous and encompasses a long tail of potential driver genes that are systematically excluded by currently available methods due to the low frequency of their mutations. We developed LowMACA (Low frequency Mutations Analysis via Consensus Alignment), a method that combines the mutations of various proteins sharing the same functional domains to identify conserved residues that harbor clustered mutations in multiple sequence alignments. LowMACA is designed to visualize and statistically assess potential driver genes through the identification of their mutational hotspots. We analyzed the Ras superfamily exploiting the known driver mutations of the trio K-N-HRAS, identifying new putative driver mutations and genes belonging to less known members of the Rho, Rab and Rheb subfamilies. Furthermore, we applied the same concept to a list of known and candidate driver genes, and observed that low confidence genes show similar patterns of mutation compared to high confidence genes of the same protein family. LowMACA is a software for the identification of gain-of-function mutations in putative oncogenic families, increasing the amount of information on functional domains and their possible role in cancer. In this context LowMACA emphasizes the role of genes mutated at low frequency otherwise undetectable by classical single gene analysis. LowMACA is an R package available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/LowMACA.html. It is also available as a GUI standalone downloadable at: https://cgsb.genomics.iit.it/wiki/projects/LowMACA.

  7. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  8. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchang; Wei, Wenhui; Lei, Sheng; Lin, Jingxia; Srinivas, Swaminath; Feng, Youjun

    2018-04-10

    Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin) conferred by Neisseria eptA , the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , etc.), rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and p hospho e thanol a mine [PEA] transferase) are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE EptA and MCR-1 and -2 remodel the outer membrane, rendering bacteria resistant to colistin, a final resort against carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveal parallel PE lipid substrate-recognizing cavities, which explains intrinsic and

  9. Actin filament-associated protein 1 (AFAP-1) is a key mediator in inflammatory signaling-induced rapid attenuation of intrinsic P-gp function in human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Yutaro; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify regulatory molecule(s) involved in the inflammatory signaling-induced decrease in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that may occur in brain diseases. We confirmed that in vivo P-gp efflux activity at the BBB was decreased without any change in P-gp protein expression level in a mouse model of acute inflammation induced by 3 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide. In a human BBB model cell line (human brain capillary endothelial cells; hCMEC/D3), 1-h treatment with 10 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; an inflammatory mediator) rapidly reduced P-gp efflux activity, but had no effect on P-gp protein expression level. To clarify the non-transcriptional mechanism that causes the decrease in intrinsic efflux activity of P-gp in acute inflammation, we applied comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare hCMEC/D3 cells treated with TNF-α and vehicle (control). Actin filament-associated protein-1 (AFAP-1), MAPK1, and transcription factor AP-1 (AP-1) were significantly phosphorylated in TNF-α-treated cells, and were selected as candidate proteins. In validation experiments, knockdown of AFAP-1 expression blocked the reduction in P-gp efflux activity by TNF-α treatment, whereas inhibition of MAPK function or knockdown of AP-1 expression did not. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics revealed that the reduction in P-gp activity by TNF-α did not require any change in P-gp protein expression levels in the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrate that AFAP-1 is a key mediator in the inflammatory signaling-induced, translocation-independent rapid attenuation of P-gp efflux activity in human brain capillary endothelial cells. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. F-BAR family proteins, emerging regulators for cell membrane dynamic changes-from structure to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suxuan; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhao, Xianxian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-09

    Eukaryotic cell membrane dynamics change in curvature during physiological and pathological processes. In the past ten years, a novel protein family, Fes/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins, has been identified to be the most important coordinators in membrane curvature regulation. The F-BAR domain family is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily that is associated with dynamic changes in cell membrane. However, the molecular basis in membrane structure regulation and the biological functions of F-BAR protein are unclear. The pathophysiological role of F-BAR protein is unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of structure and function in the BAR domain superfamily, classifies F-BAR family proteins into nine subfamilies based on domain structure, and characterizes F-BAR protein structure, domain interaction, and functional relevance. In general, F-BAR protein binds to cell membrane via F-BAR domain association with membrane phospholipids and initiates membrane curvature and scission via Src homology-3 (SH3) domain interaction with its partner proteins. This process causes membrane dynamic changes and leads to seven important cellular biological functions, which include endocytosis, phagocytosis, filopodium, lamellipodium, cytokinesis, adhesion, and podosome formation, via distinct signaling pathways determined by specific domain-binding partners. These cellular functions play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We further summarize F-BAR protein expression and mutation changes observed in various diseases and developmental disorders. Considering the structure feature and functional implication of F-BAR proteins, we anticipate that F-BAR proteins modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes via transferring extracellular materials, regulating cell trafficking and mobility, presenting antigens, mediating extracellular matrix degradation, and transmitting

  11. A member of the CPW-WPC protein family is expressed in and localized to the surface of developing ookinetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Tachibana, Mayumi; Jenwithisuk, Rachaneeporn; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Torii, Motomi; Ishino, Tomoko

    2013-04-15

    Despite the development of malaria control programs, billions of people are still at risk for this infectious disease. Recently, the idea of the transmission-blocking vaccine, which works by interrupting the infection of mosquitoes by parasites, has gained attention as a promising strategy for malaria control and eradication. To date, a limited number of surface proteins have been identified in mosquito-stage parasites and investigated as potential targets for transmission-blocking vaccines. Therefore, for the development of effective transmission-blocking strategies in epidemic areas, it is necessary to identify novel zygote/ookinete surface proteins as candidate antigens. Since the expression of many zygote/ookinete proteins is regulated post-transcriptionally, proteins that are regulated by well-known translational mediators were focused. Through in silico screening, CPW-WPC family proteins were selected as potential zygote/ookinete surface proteins. All experiments were performed in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii XNL. mRNA and protein expression profiles were examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively, over the course of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Protein function was also investigated by the generation of gene-disrupted transgenic parasites. The CPW-WPC protein family, named after the unique WxC repeat domains, is highly conserved among Plasmodium species. It is revealed that CPW-WPC mRNA transcripts are transcribed in gametocytes, while CPW-WPC proteins are expressed in zygote/ookinete-stage parasites. Localization analysis reveals that one of the CPW-WPC family members, designated as PyCPW-WPC-1, is a novel zygote/ookinete stage-specific surface protein. Targeted disruption of the pycpw-wpc-1 gene caused no obvious defects during ookinete and oocyst formation, suggesting that PyCPW-WPC-1 is not essential for mosquito-stage parasite development. It is demonstrated that PyCPW-WPC-1 can be classified as a novel, post

  12. Clan CD of cysteine peptidases as an example of evolutionary divergences in related protein families across plant clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Ines; Garcia, Francisco J; Martinez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses are powerful tools that can be used to analyze the presence, conservation, and evolution of protein families and to elucidate issues concerning their function. To deal with these questions, we have chosen the clan CD of cysteine peptidases, which is formed by different protein families that play key roles in plants. An evolutionary comparative analysis of clan CD cysteine peptidases in representative species of different taxonomic groups that appeared during the evolution of the Viridiplantae was performed. The results obtained indicates: i) C13 GPI:protein transamidases, C14 metacaspases I, and C50 separases are present in all taxonomic groups; ii) C13 legumains and C14 metacaspases II are absent in some basal algae groups; iii) C11 clostripains have only been found in the two Chlorophyceae species; iv) C25 gingipains and C80 RTX toxins have not been found in plants. Moreover, gene duplication events could have been associated in some families to the increasing complexities acquired in land plants. These findings have demonstrated that comparative genomics is useful to provide valuable insights on the differential evolution of the related peptidase families belonging to clan CD in plant clades. The low number of protein members suggests a restricted physiological role for these peptidase families, mainly in algae species.

  13. Identification of an AP2-family protein that is critical for malaria liver stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiroh Iwanaga

    Full Text Available Liver-stage malaria parasites are a promising target for drugs and vaccines against malaria infection. However, little is currently known about gene regulation in this stage. In this study, we used the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and showed that an AP2-family transcription factor, designated AP2-L, plays a critical role in the liver-stage development of the parasite. AP2-L-depleted parasites proliferated normally in blood and in mosquitoes. However, the ability of these parasites to infect the liver was approximately 10,000 times lower than that of wild-type parasites. In vitro assays showed that the sporozoites of these parasites invaded hepatocytes normally but that their development stopped in the middle of the liver schizont stage. Expression profiling using transgenic P. berghei showed that fluorescent protein-tagged AP2-L increased rapidly during the liver schizont stage but suddenly disappeared with the formation of the mature liver schizont. DNA microarray analysis showed that the expression of several genes, including those of parasitophorous vacuole membrane proteins, was significantly decreased in the early liver stage of AP2-L-depleted parasites. Investigation of the targets of this transcription factor should greatly promote the exploration of liver-stage antigens and the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatocyte infection by malaria parasites.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of the transformation sensitive epithelial marker stratifin. A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H

    1993-01-01

    tissues showed that polypeptides comigrating with proteins 9124, 9125 and 9126 are ubiquitous and highly expressed in the brain. Stratifin, however, was present only in cultured epithelial cells and was most abundant in fetal and adult human tissues enriched in stratified squamous keratinising epithelium......We have identified a family of abundant acidic human keratinocyte proteins with apparent molecular masses ranging between 30,000 and 31,100 (isoelectric focussing sample spot proteins 9109 (epithelial marker stratifin), 9124, 9125, 9126 and 9231 in the master two-dimensional gel database of human...

  15. Automatic discovery of cross-family sequence features associated with protein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krings Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for predicting protein function directly from amino acid sequences are useful tools in the study of uncharacterised protein families and in comparative genomics. Until now, this problem has been approached using machine learning techniques that attempt to predict membership, or otherwise, to predefined functional categories or subcellular locations. A potential drawback of this approach is that the human-designated functional classes may not accurately reflect the underlying biology, and consequently important sequence-to-function relationships may be missed. Results We show that a self-supervised data mining approach is able to find relationships between sequence features and functional annotations. No preconceived ideas about functional categories are required, and the training data is simply a set of protein sequences and their UniProt/Swiss-Prot annotations. The main technical aspect of the approach is the co-evolution of amino acid-based regular expressions and keyword-based logical expressions with genetic programming. Our experiments on a strictly non-redundant set of eukaryotic proteins reveal that the strongest and most easily detected sequence-to-function relationships are concerned with targeting to various cellular compartments, which is an area already well studied both experimentally and computationally. Of more interest are a number of broad functional roles which can also be correlated with sequence features. These include inhibition, biosynthesis, transcription and defence against bacteria. Despite substantial overlaps between these functions and their corresponding cellular compartments, we find clear differences in the sequence motifs used to predict some of these functions. For example, the presence of polyglutamine repeats appears to be linked more strongly to the "transcription" function than to the general "nuclear" function/location. Conclusion We have developed a novel and useful approach for

  16. Differential regulation of plasma proteins between members of a family with homozygous HbE and HbEβ-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Halder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report we’ve compared the plasma protein profiles of 4 individuals in a family. Father and the younger son both are hemoglobin (Hb Eβ-thalassemic {Cod 26 (G-A/IVS 1- 5 (G-C}, but the father never requires transfusion, whereas the younger son requires monthly blood transfusion. Mother and the elder son are HbEE {Cod 26 (G-A/Cod 26 (GA} without any history of transfusion. Proteomic study was done on the plasma fraction of the blood following ammonium sulphate precipitation. Proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis, expression of proteins compared by densitometry and proteins identified by tandem MALDI mass spectrometry. Proteins responsible in hemolysis, hypercoagulation and hemoglobin scavenging have shown differential regulation, establishing the relation between the differences in the levels of plasma proteins with the progression of the disease phenotype, manifested in the extent of transfusion dependence of the patient.

  17. Two ancient bacterial-like PPP family phosphatases from Arabidopsis are highly conserved plant proteins that possess unique properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2011-12-01

    Protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by the opposing actions of protein kinases and phosphatases, is a cornerstone of cellular signaling and regulation. Since their discovery, protein phosphatases have emerged as highly regulated enzymes with specificity that rivals their counteracting kinase partners. However, despite years of focused characterization in mammalian and yeast systems, many protein phosphatases in plants remain poorly or incompletely characterized. Here, we describe a bioinformatic, biochemical, and cellular examination of an ancient, Bacterial-like subclass of the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family designated the Shewanella-like protein phosphatases (SLP phosphatases). The SLP phosphatase subcluster is highly conserved in all plants, mosses, and green algae, with members also found in select fungi, protists, and bacteria. As in other plant species, the nucleus-encoded Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SLP phosphatases (AtSLP1 and AtSLP2) lack genetic redundancy and phylogenetically cluster into two distinct groups that maintain different subcellular localizations, with SLP1 being chloroplastic and SLP2 being cytosolic. Using heterologously expressed and purified protein, the enzymatic properties of both AtSLP1 and AtSLP2 were examined, revealing unique metal cation preferences in addition to a complete insensitivity to the classic serine/threonine PPP protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin. The unique properties and high conservation of the plant SLP phosphatases, coupled to their exclusion from animals, red algae, cyanobacteria, archaea, and most bacteria, render understanding the function(s) of this new subclass of PPP family protein phosphatases of particular interest.

  18. A chemometric analysis of ligand-induced changes in intrinsic fluorescence of folate binding protein indicates a link between altered conformational structure and physico-chemical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Susanne W; Holm, Jan; Hansen, Steen Ingemann

    2009-01-01

    Ligand binding alters the conformational structure and physico-chemical characteristics of bovine folate binding protein (FBP). For the purpose of achieving further information we analyzed ligand (folate and methotrexate)-induced changes in the fluorescence landscape of FBP. Fluorescence excitation...... of folate accords fairly well with the disappearance of strongly hydrophobic tryptophan residues from the solvent-exposed surface of FBP. The PARAFAC has thus proven useful to establish a hitherto unexplained link between parallel changes in conformational structure and physico-chemical characteristics...... of FBP induced by folate binding. Parameters for ligand binding derived from PARAFAC analysis of the fluorescence data were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those obtained from binding of radiofolate to FBP. Herein, methotrexate exhibited a higher affinity for FBP than in competition...

  19. TcTASV: a novel protein family in trypanosoma cruzi identified from a subtractive trypomastigote cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elizabeth A; Ziliani, María; Agüero, Fernán; Bernabó, Guillermo; Sánchez, Daniel O; Tekiel, Valeria

    2010-10-05

    The identification and characterization of antigens expressed in Trypanosoma cruzi stages that parasitize mammals are essential steps for the development of new vaccines and diagnostics. Genes that are preferentially expressed in trypomastigotes may be involved in key processes that define the biology of trypomastigotes, like cell invasion and immune system evasion. With the initial aim of identifying trypomastigote-specific expressed tags, we constructed and sequenced an epimastigote-subtracted trypomastigote cDNA library (library TcT-E). More than 45% of the sequenced clones of the library could not be mapped to previously annotated mRNAs or proteins. We validated the presence of these transcripts by reverse northern blot and northern blot experiments, therefore providing novel information about the mRNA expression of these genes in trypomastigotes. A 280-bp consensus element (TcT-E element, TcT-Eelem) located at the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of many different open reading frames (ORFs) was identified after clustering the TcT-E dataset. Using an RT-PCR approach, we were able to amplify different mature mRNAs containing the same TcT-Eelem in the 3' UTR. The proteins encoded by these ORFs are members of a novel surface protein family in T. cruzi, (which we named TcTASV for T. cruzi Trypomastigote, Alanine, Serine and Valine rich proteins). All members of the TcTASV family have conserved coding amino- and carboxy-termini, and a central variable core that allows partitioning of TcTASV proteins into three subfamilies. Analysis of the T. cruzi genome database resulted in the identification of 38 genes/ORFs for the whole TcTASV family in the reference CL-Brener strain (lineage II). Because this protein family was not found in other trypanosomatids, we also looked for the presence of TcTASV genes in other evolutionary lineages of T. cruzi, sequencing 48 and 28 TcTASVs members from the RA (lineage II) and Dm28 (lineage I) T. cruzi strains respectively. Detailed

  20. TcTASV: a novel protein family in trypanosoma cruzi identified from a subtractive trypomastigote cDNA library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A García

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification and characterization of antigens expressed in Trypanosoma cruzi stages that parasitize mammals are essential steps for the development of new vaccines and diagnostics. Genes that are preferentially expressed in trypomastigotes may be involved in key processes that define the biology of trypomastigotes, like cell invasion and immune system evasion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the initial aim of identifying trypomastigote-specific expressed tags, we constructed and sequenced an epimastigote-subtracted trypomastigote cDNA library (library TcT-E. More than 45% of the sequenced clones of the library could not be mapped to previously annotated mRNAs or proteins. We validated the presence of these transcripts by reverse northern blot and northern blot experiments, therefore providing novel information about the mRNA expression of these genes in trypomastigotes. A 280-bp consensus element (TcT-E element, TcT-Eelem located at the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of many different open reading frames (ORFs was identified after clustering the TcT-E dataset. Using an RT-PCR approach, we were able to amplify different mature mRNAs containing the same TcT-Eelem in the 3' UTR. The proteins encoded by these ORFs are members of a novel surface protein family in T. cruzi, (which we named TcTASV for T. cruzi Trypomastigote, Alanine, Serine and Valine rich proteins. All members of the TcTASV family have conserved coding amino- and carboxy-termini, and a central variable core that allows partitioning of TcTASV proteins into three subfamilies. Analysis of the T. cruzi genome database resulted in the identification of 38 genes/ORFs for the whole TcTASV family in the reference CL-Brener strain (lineage II. Because this protein family was not found in other trypanosomatids, we also looked for the presence of TcTASV genes in other evolutionary lineages of T. cruzi, sequencing 48 and 28 TcTASVs members from the RA (lineage II and Dm28

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2003-01-01

    A central tenet of economics is that individuals respond to incentives. For psychologists and sociologists, in contrast, rewards and punishments are often counterproductive, because they undermine "intrinsic motivation". We reconcile these two views, showing how performance incentives offered by an informed principal (manager, teacher, parent) can adversely impact an agent's (worker, child) perception of the task, or of his own abilities. Incentives are then only weak reinforcers in the short...

  2. A guild of 45 CRISPR-associated (Cas protein families and multiple CRISPR/Cas subtypes exist in prokaryotic genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Haft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs are a family of DNA direct repeats found in many prokaryotic genomes. Repeats of 21-37 bp typically show weak dyad symmetry and are separated by regularly sized, nonrepetitive spacer sequences. Four CRISPR-associated (Cas protein families, designated Cas1 to Cas4, are strictly associated with CRISPR elements and always occur near a repeat cluster. Some spacers originate from mobile genetic elements and are thought to confer "immunity" against the elements that harbor these sequences. In the present study, we have systematically investigated uncharacterized proteins encoded in the vicinity of these CRISPRs and found many additional protein families that are strictly associated with CRISPR loci across multiple prokaryotic species. Multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models have been built for 45 Cas protein families. These models identify family members with high sensitivity and selectivity and classify key regulators of development, DevR and DevS, in Myxococcus xanthus as Cas proteins. These identifications show that CRISPR/cas gene regions can be quite large, with up to 20 different, tandem-arranged cas genes next to a repeat cluster or filling the region between two repeat clusters. Distinctive subsets of the collection of Cas proteins recur in phylogenetically distant species and correlate with characteristic repeat periodicity. The analyses presented here support initial proposals of mobility of these units, along with the likelihood that loci of different subtypes interact with one another as well as with host cell defensive, replicative, and regulatory systems. It is evident from this analysis that CRISPR/cas loci are larger, more complex, and more heterogeneous than previously appreciated.

  3. Functional studies of ssDNA binding ability of MarR family protein TcaR from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available The negative transcription regulator of the ica locus, TcaR, regulates proteins involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG. Absence of TcaR increases PNAG production and promotes biofilm formation in Staphylococci. Previously, the 3D structure of TcaR in its apo form and its complex structure with several antibiotics have been analyzed. However, the detailed mechanism of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR family proteins such as TcaR is unclear and only restricted on the binding ability of double-strand DNA (dsDNA. Here we show by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, electron microscopy (EM, circular dichroism (CD, and Biacore analysis that TcaR can interact strongly with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, thereby identifying a new role in MarR family proteins. Moreover, we show that TcaR preferentially binds 33-mer ssDNA over double-stranded DNA and inhibits viral ssDNA replication. In contrast, such ssDNA binding properties were not observed for other MarR family protein and TetR family protein, suggesting that the results from our studies are not an artifact due to simple charge interactions between TcaR and ssDNA. Overall, these results suggest a novel role for TcaR in regulation of DNA replication. We anticipate that the results of this work will extend our understanding of MarR family protein and broaden the development of new therapeutic strategies for Staphylococci.

  4. Evaluation of the Selectivity and Cysteine Dependence of Inhibitors across the Regulator of G Protein-Signaling Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael P; Bodle, Christopher R; Roman, David L

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery more than 20 years ago, regulators of G protein-signaling (RGS) proteins have received considerable attention as potential drug targets because of their ability to modulate G α activity. Efforts to identify small molecules capable of inhibiting the protein-protein interactions between activated G α subunits and RGS proteins have yielded a substantial number of inhibitors, especially toward the well studied RGS4. These efforts also determined that many of these small molecules inhibit the protein-protein interactions through covalent modification of cysteine residues within the RGS domain that are located distal to the G α -binding interface. As some of these cysteine residues are highly conserved within the RGS family, many of these inhibitors display activity toward multiple RGS family members. In this work, we sought to determine the selectivity of these small-molecule inhibitors against 12 RGS proteins, as well as against the cysteine-null mutants for 10 of these proteins. Using both biochemical and cell-based methods to assess G α -RGS complex formation and G α enzymatic activity, we found that several previously identified RGS4 inhibitors were active against other RGS members, such as RGS14, with comparable or greater potency. Additionally, for every compound tested, activity was dependent on the presence of cysteine residues. This work defines the selectivity of commercially available RGS inhibitors and provides insight into the RGS family members for which drug discovery efforts may be most likely to succeed. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  6. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins...

  7. The Crystal Structure of Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals a New Family of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein-Like Proteins in Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, William; Haouz, Ahmed; Graña, Martin; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Betton, Jean-Michel; Cole, Stewart T.; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2007-01-01

    The gene Rv0813c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is conserved within the order Actinomycetales but absent elsewhere. The crystal structure of Rv0813c reveals a new family of proteins that resemble the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) found in eukaryotes. Rv0813c adopts the 10-stranded β-barrel fold typical of FABPs but lacks the double-helix insert that covers the entry to the binding site in the eukaryotic proteins. The barrel encloses a deep cavity, at the bottom of which a small cyclic ligand was found to bind to the hydroxyl group of Tyr192. This residue is part of a conserved Arg-X-Tyr motif much like the triad that binds the carboxylate group of fatty acids in FABPs. Most of the residues forming the internal surface of the cavity are conserved in homologous protein sequences found in CG-rich prokaryotes, strongly suggesting that Rv0813c is a member of a new family of bacterial FABP-like proteins that may have roles in the recognition, transport, and/or storage of small molecules in the bacterial cytosol. PMID:17172346

  8. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  9. Characterization of the BTB-MATH protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    The BTB proteins are defined by a highly conserved protein-protein-interaction motif BTB/POZ (Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex/POX Virus and Zink finger), often combined with a secondary protein- or DNA-binding domain. In plants and animals the association of BTB proteins with Cullin3 proteins was demonstrated. As subunits of multimeric Ubiquitin-ligases CUL3-BTB complexes mediate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrate proteins, and by this regulating diverse biological pro...

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  11. Cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Fernando M; Bonni, Azad; Sousa, Mónica M

    2014-01-01

    Although neurons execute a cell intrinsic program of axonal growth during development, following the establishment of connections, the developmental growth capacity declines. Besides environmental challenges, this switch largely accounts for the failure of adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate. Here, we discuss the cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration, including not only the regulation of transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms, but also the modulation of local protein translation, retrograde and anterograde axonal transport, and microtubule dynamics. We further explore the causes underlying the failure of CNS neurons to mount a vigorous regenerative response, and the paradigms demonstrating the activation of cell intrinsic axon growth programs. Finally, we present potential mechanisms to support axon regeneration, as these may represent future therapeutic approaches to promote recovery following CNS injury and disease. PMID:24531721

  12. A first-principles model of early evolution: emergence of gene families, species, and preferred protein folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin B Zeldovich

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we develop a microscopic physical model of early evolution where phenotype--organism life expectancy--is directly related to genotype--the stability of its proteins in their native conformations-which can be determined exactly in the model. Simulating the model on a computer, we consistently observe the "Big Bang" scenario whereby exponential population growth ensues as soon as favorable sequence-structure combinations (precursors of stable proteins are discovered. Upon that, random diversity of the structural space abruptly collapses into a small set of preferred proteins. We observe that protein folds remain stable and abundant in the population at timescales much greater than mutation or organism lifetime, and the distribution of the lifetimes of dominant folds in a population approximately follows a power law. The separation of evolutionary timescales between discovery of new folds and generation of new sequences gives rise to emergence of protein families and superfamilies whose sizes are power-law distributed, closely matching the same distributions for real proteins. On the population level we observe emergence of species--subpopulations that carry similar genomes. Further, we present a simple theory that relates stability of evolving proteins to the sizes of emerging genomes. Together, these results provide a microscopic first-principles picture of how first-gene families developed in the course of early evolution.

  13. A direct role for the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps33 as a template for SNARE assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W; Jeffrey, Philip D; Zick, Michael; Phillips, Ben P; Wickner, William T; Hughson, Frederick M

    2015-09-04

    Fusion of intracellular transport vesicles requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and Sec1/Munc18-family (SM) proteins. Membrane-bridging SNARE complexes are critical for fusion, but their spontaneous assembly is inefficient and may require SM proteins in vivo. We report x-ray structures of Vps33, the SM subunit of the yeast homotypic fusion and vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS) complex, bound to two individual SNAREs. The two SNAREs, one from each membrane, are held in the correct orientation and register for subsequent complex assembly. Vps33 and potentially other SM proteins could thus act as templates for generating partially zipped SNARE assembly intermediates. HOPS was essential to mediate SNARE complex assembly at physiological SNARE concentrations. Thus, Vps33 appears to catalyze SNARE complex assembly through specific SNARE motif recognition. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Myocardial Ablation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2 Decreases Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through an Anti-Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fan

    Full Text Available Studies from our lab have shown that decreasing myocardial G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 activity and expression can prevent heart failure progression after myocardial infarction. Since GRK2 appears to also act as a pro-death kinase in myocytes, we investigated the effect of cardiomyocyte-specific GRK2 ablation on the acute response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. To do this we utilized two independent lines of GRK2 knockout (KO mice where the GRK2 gene was deleted in only cardiomyocytes either constitutively at birth or in an inducible manner that occurred in adult mice prior to I/R. These GRK2 KO mice and appropriate control mice were subjected to a sham procedure or 30 min of myocardial ischemia via coronary artery ligation followed by 24 hrs reperfusion. Echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements showed significantly improved post-I/R cardiac function in both GRK2 KO lines, which correlated with smaller infarct sizes in GRK2 KO mice compared to controls. Moreover, there was significantly less TUNEL positive myocytes, less caspase-3, and -9 but not caspase-8 activities in GRK2 KO mice compared to control mice after I/R injury. Of note, we found that lowering cardiac GRK2 expression was associated with significantly lower cytosolic cytochrome C levels in both lines of GRK2 KO mice after I/R compared to corresponding control animals. Mechanistically, the anti-apoptotic effects of lowering GRK2 expression were accompanied by increased levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and increased activation of Akt after I/R injury. These findings were reproduced in vitro in cultured cardiomyocytes and GRK2 mRNA silencing. Therefore, lowering GRK2 expression in cardiomyocytes limits I/R-induced injury and improves post-ischemia recovery by decreasing myocyte apoptosis at least partially via Akt/Bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial protection and implicates mitochondrial-dependent actions, solidifying GRK2 as a pro-death kinase in the heart.

  15. Direct Involvement of Retinoblastoma Family Proteins in DNA Repair by Non-homologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Cook

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in DNA double-strand break (DSB repair lead to genetic instability, a recognized cause of cancer initiation and evolution. We report that the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1 is required for DNA DSB repair by canonical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ. Support of cNHEJ involves a mechanism independent of RB1’s cell-cycle function and depends on its amino terminal domain with which it binds to NHEJ components XRCC5 and XRCC6. Cells with engineered loss of RB family function as well as cancer-derived cells with mutational RB1 loss show substantially reduced levels of cNHEJ. RB1 variants disabled for the interaction with XRCC5 and XRCC6, including a cancer-associated variant, are unable to support cNHEJ despite being able to confer cell-cycle control. Our data identify RB1 loss as a candidate driver of structural genomic instability and a causative factor for cancer somatic heterogeneity and evolution.

  16. Characterization of a polymorphic family of integral membrane proteins in promastigotes of different Leishmania species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, F M; Murray, P J; Ji, H; Simpson, R J; Osborn, A H; Cappai, R; Handman, E

    1994-09-01

    Antibodies raised against a Leishmania major recombinant promastigote surface antigen 2 (PSA-2) fragment recognized three major polypeptides of approximate M(r) 96,000, 80,000 and 50,000 in promastigotes of three Israeli isolates of L. major including the cloned line LRC-L137-V121, but detected a different array of polypeptides in other L. major isolates. The pattern was different both in number of polypeptides detected and their molecular weight. The antibodies to L. major PSA-2 also recognized polypeptides in L. tropica, L. donovani and very weakly in L. mexicana promastigotes and in Crithidia lucilliae. The number and size of the polypeptides was different in each species. In addition to the membrane-bound PSA-2 polypeptides we identified water-soluble forms of PSA-2 released in promastigote culture supernatants. Peptide maps of the various L. major PSA-2 membrane polypeptides showed they were different from each other. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the three polypeptides expressed by L. major showed they are similar but distinct, consistent with being members of a polymorphic family. Because of the extensive sequence similarity between the PSA-2 genes it has been difficult to assign protein products to individual genes. As a first step towards solving this problem, we have transfected into L. mexicana a genomic clone of a L. major PSA-2 gene and shown that it produces a M(r) 35,000 polypeptide recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to L. major PSA-2.

  17. Expression of S100 protein family members in normal skin and sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Okano, Shinji; Takahara, Masakazu; Chiba, Takahito; Tu, Yating; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    Despite our growing knowledge regarding the biology of S100 family proteins in cancers and internal diseases, limited data are available with their distribution in normal skin and in sweat gland tumors. To study the expression and distribution pattern of multiple S100 proteins in normal skin and in the tumors of sweat glands. Immunohistological staining was performed using S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8/9, S100A11, and S100P in 41 cases of various kinds of sweat gland tumors and in 13 cases of normal skin. In normal skin, S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P staining were observed in the sweat glands. S100A2 positively stained in the outer layer of the eccrine duct. S100A6 immunolabeling was observed in the secretory portion of the eccrine gland. Myoepithelial cells of the apocrine gland were positive for S100A2 and S100A6. S100A7 was positive in the acrosyringium, ductal, and secretory portions of the eccrine gland and in the inner layer of the apocrine gland. Intense S100P staining was detected in the inner layer of the acrosyringium and eccrine ducts. Langerhans cells and melanocytes showed strong immunoreactivity to S100A4. Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) expressed S100A7 and S100P with partial S100A6 and S1004 staining. Eccrine poroma expressed S100A2 and S100A7 with partial labeling with S100A6. Syringoma expressed S100A2, S1007, and S100P. Apocrine hidrocystoma expressed S100A2 with partial S100A6 and S100A7 immunoreactivity. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum expressed S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P. S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P proteins are specifically involved in structure-related distribution and are potentially useful for differential diagnoses of sweat gland tumors. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A lepidopteran-specific gene family encoding valine-rich midgut proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothini Odman-Naresh

    Full Text Available Many lepidopteran larvae are serious agricultural pests due to their feeding activity. Digestion of the plant diet occurs mainly in the midgut and is facilitated by the peritrophic matrix (PM, an extracellular sac-like structure, which lines the midgut epithelium and creates different digestive compartments. The PM is attracting increasing attention to control lepidopteran pests by interfering with this vital function. To identify novel PM components and thus potential targets for insecticides, we performed an immunoscreening with anti-PM antibodies using an expression library representing the larval midgut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We identified three cDNAs encoding valine-rich midgut proteins of M. sexta (MsVmps, which appear to be loosely associated with the PM. They are members of a lepidopteran-specific family of nine VMP genes, which are exclusively expressed in larval stages in M. sexta. Most of the MsVMP transcripts are detected in the posterior midgut, with the highest levels observed for MsVMP1. To obtain further insight into Vmp function, we expressed MsVMP1 in insect cells and purified the recombinant protein. Lectin staining and glycosidase treatment indicated that MsVmp1 is highly O-glycosylated. In line with results from qPCR, immunoblots revealed that MsVmp1 amounts are highest in feeding larvae, while MsVmp1 is undetectable in starving and molting larvae. Finally using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrated that MsVmp1 localizes to the cytosol of columnar cells, which secrete MsVmp1 into the ectoperitrophic space in feeding larvae. In starving and molting larvae, MsVmp1 is found in the gut lumen, suggesting that the PM has increased its permeability. The present study demonstrates that lepidopteran species including many agricultural pests have evolved a set of unique proteins that are not found in any other taxon and thus may reflect an important adaptation in the highly specialized lepidopteran

  19. The claudin family of proteins in human malignancy: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Ding,1,2 Zhe Lu,2,4 Qun Lu,2,3 Yan-Hua Chen2,3 1Department of Oncology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 3Leo W. Jenkins Cancer Center, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA; 4Department of Basic Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Tight junctions, or zonula occludens, are the most apical component of the junctional complex and provide one form of cell–cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells. Nearly 90% of malignant tumors are derived from the epithelium. Loss of cell–cell adhesion is one of the steps in the progression of cancer to metastasis. At least three main tight junction family proteins have been discovered: occludin, claudin, and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM. Claudins are the most important structural and functional components of tight junction integral membrane proteins, with at least 24 members in mammals. They are crucial for the paracellular flux of ions and small molecules. Overexpression or downregulation of claudins is frequently observed in epithelial-derived cancers. However, molecular mechanisms by which claudins affect tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. As the pivotal proteins in epithelial cells, altered expression and distribution of different claudins have been reported in a wide variety of human malignancies, including pancreatic, colonic, lung, ovarian, thyroid, prostate, esophageal, and breast cancers. In this review, we will give the readers an overall picture of the changes in claudin expression observed in various cancers and their mechanisms of regulation. Downregulation of claudins contributes to epithelial transformation by increasing the paracellular permeability of nutrients and growth factors to cancerous cells. In the cases of upregulation of claudin expression, the barrier function of the cancerous

  20. The IQD Family of Calmodulin-Binding Proteins Links Calcium Signaling to Microtubules, Membrane Subdomains, and the Nucleus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Romina; Stamm, Gina; Hause, Gerd; Mitra, Dipannita; Abel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling and dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton are essential processes for the coordination and control of plant cell shape and cell growth. Calmodulin (CaM) and closely related calmodulin-like (CML) polypeptides are principal sensors of Ca2+ signals. CaM/CMLs decode and relay information encrypted by the second messenger via differential interactions with a wide spectrum of targets to modulate their diverse biochemical activities. The plant-specific IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family emerged as possibly the largest class of CaM-interacting proteins with undefined molecular functions and biological roles. Here, we show that the 33 members of the IQD family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) differentially localize, using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins, to multiple and distinct subcellular sites, including microtubule (MT) arrays, plasma membrane subdomains, and nuclear compartments. Intriguingly, the various IQD-specific localization patterns coincide with the subcellular patterns of IQD-dependent recruitment of CaM, suggesting that the diverse IQD members sequester Ca2+-CaM signaling modules to specific subcellular sites for precise regulation of Ca2+-dependent processes. Because MT localization is a hallmark of most IQD family members, we quantitatively analyzed GFP-labeled MT arrays in Nicotiana benthamiana cells transiently expressing GFP-IQD fusions and observed IQD-specific MT patterns, which point to a role of IQDs in MT organization and dynamics. Indeed, stable overexpression of select IQD proteins in Arabidopsis altered cellular MT orientation, cell shape, and organ morphology. Because IQDs share biochemical properties with scaffold proteins, we propose that IQD families provide an assortment of platform proteins for integrating CaM-dependent Ca2+ signaling at multiple cellular sites to regulate cell function, shape, and growth. PMID:28115582

  1. The IQD Family of Calmodulin-Binding Proteins Links Calcium Signaling to Microtubules, Membrane Subdomains, and the Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürstenbinder, Katharina; Möller, Birgit; Plötner, Romina; Stamm, Gina; Hause, Gerd; Mitra, Dipannita; Abel, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Calcium (Ca 2+ ) signaling and dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton are essential processes for the coordination and control of plant cell shape and cell growth. Calmodulin (CaM) and closely related calmodulin-like (CML) polypeptides are principal sensors of Ca 2+ signals. CaM/CMLs decode and relay information encrypted by the second messenger via differential interactions with a wide spectrum of targets to modulate their diverse biochemical activities. The plant-specific IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family emerged as possibly the largest class of CaM-interacting proteins with undefined molecular functions and biological roles. Here, we show that the 33 members of the IQD family in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) differentially localize, using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins, to multiple and distinct subcellular sites, including microtubule (MT) arrays, plasma membrane subdomains, and nuclear compartments. Intriguingly, the various IQD-specific localization patterns coincide with the subcellular patterns of IQD-dependent recruitment of CaM, suggesting that the diverse IQD members sequester Ca 2+ -CaM signaling modules to specific subcellular sites for precise regulation of Ca 2+ -dependent processes. Because MT localization is a hallmark of most IQD family members, we quantitatively analyzed GFP-labeled MT arrays in Nicotiana benthamiana cells transiently expressing GFP-IQD fusions and observed IQD-specific MT patterns, which point to a role of IQDs in MT organization and dynamics. Indeed, stable overexpression of select IQD proteins in Arabidopsis altered cellular MT orientation, cell shape, and organ morphology. Because IQDs share biochemical properties with scaffold proteins, we propose that IQD families provide an assortment of platform proteins for integrating CaM-dependent Ca 2+ signaling at multiple cellular sites to regulate cell function, shape, and growth. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence (Als) Family Vignettes: A Review of Als Protein Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Lois L.; Cota, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Approximately two decades have passed since the description of the first gene in the Candida albicans ALS (agglutinin-like sequence) family. Since that time, much has been learned about the composition of the family and the function of its encoded cell-surface glycoproteins. Solution of the structure of the Als adhesive domain provides the opportunity to evaluate the molecular basis for protein function. This review article is formatted as a series of fundamental questions and explores the diversity of the Als proteins, as well as their role in ligand binding, aggregative effects, and attachment to abiotic surfaces. Interaction of Als proteins with each other, their functional equivalence, and the effects of protein abundance on phenotypic conclusions are also examined. Structural features of Als proteins that may facilitate invasive function are considered. Conclusions that are firmly supported by the literature are presented while highlighting areas that require additional investigation to reveal basic features of the Als proteins, their relatedness to each other, and their roles in C. albicans biology. PMID:27014205

  3. Eubacterial SpoVG homologs constitute a new family of site-specific DNA-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Jutras

    Full Text Available A site-specific DNA-binding protein was purified from Borrelia burgdorferi cytoplasmic extracts, and determined to be a member of the highly conserved SpoVG family. This is the first time a function has been attributed to any of these ubiquitous bacterial proteins. Further investigations into SpoVG orthologues indicated that the Staphylococcus aureus protein also binds DNA, but interacts preferentially with a distinct nucleic acid sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping between the S. aureus and B. burgdorferi proteins identified that a 6-residue stretch of the SpoVG α-helix contributes to DNA sequence specificity. Two additional, highly conserved amino acid residues on an adjacent β-sheet are essential for DNA-binding, apparently by contacts with the DNA phosphate backbone. Results of these studies thus identified a novel family of bacterial DNA-binding proteins, developed a model of SpoVG-DNA interactions, and provide direction for future functional studies on these wide-spread proteins.

  4. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 - a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Jasmin K; Hassan, Karl; Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E; Bechthold, Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T; Henderson, Peter J F; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the "unknown major facilitator family-2" (UMF-2). BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105) in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF-2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria.

  5. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 - a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin K Kroeger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the unknown major facilitator family 2 (UMF 2. BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in E. coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105 in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF 2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria.

  6. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 – a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Hassan, Karl; Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E.; Bechthold, Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the “unknown major facilitator family-2” (UMF-2). BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105) in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF-2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria. PMID:26528249

  7. Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ningjia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity. Results We have identified 156 genes in Anopheles gambiae that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters. Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle. Conclusion The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other Anopheles genes.

  8. A novel firmicute protein family related to the actinobacterial resuscitation-promoting factors by non-orthologous domain displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finan Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Micrococcus luteus growth and resuscitation from starvation-induced dormancy is controlled by the production of a secreted growth factor. This autocrine resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf is the founder member of a family of proteins found throughout and confined to the actinobacteria (high G + C Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this work was to search for and characterise a cognate gene family in the firmicutes (low G + C Gram-positive bacteria and obtain information about how they may control bacterial growth and resuscitation. Results In silico analysis of the accessory domains of the Rpf proteins permitted their classification into several subfamilies. The RpfB subfamily is related to a group of firmicute proteins of unknown function, represented by YabE of Bacillus subtilis. The actinobacterial RpfB and firmicute YabE proteins have very similar domain structures and genomic contexts, except that in YabE, the actinobacterial Rpf domain is replaced by another domain, which we have called Sps. Although totally unrelated in both sequence and secondary structure, the Rpf and Sps domains fulfil the same function. We propose that these proteins have undergone "non-orthologous domain displacement", a phenomenon akin to "non-orthologous gene displacement" that has been described previously. Proteins containing the Sps domain are widely distributed throughout the firmicutes and they too fall into a number of distinct subfamilies. Comparative analysis of the accessory domains in the Rpf and Sps proteins, together with their weak similarity to lytic transglycosylases, provide clear evidence that they are muralytic enzymes. Conclusions The results indicate that the firmicute Sps proteins and the actinobacterial Rpf proteins are cognate and that they control bacterial culturability via enzymatic modification of the bacterial cell envelope.

  9. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Baldassi

    Full Text Available In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids, exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  10. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Zamparo, Marco; Feinauer, Christoph; Procaccini, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation) have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids), exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i) the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii) the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  11. Phylogenetic Reconstruction Shows Independent Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondrial Transcription Factors from an Ancient Family of RNA Methyltransferase Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aj Harris; Goldman, Aaron David

    2018-04-25

    Here, we generate a robust phylogenetic framework for the rRNA adenine N(6)-methyltransferase (RAMTase) protein family that shows a more ancient and complex evolutionary history within the family than previously reported. RAMTases occur universally by descent across the three domains of life, and typical orthologs within the family perform methylation of the small subunits of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). However, within the RAMTase family, two different groups of mitochondrial transcription factors, mtTFB1 and mtTFB2, have evolved in eukaryotes through neofunctionalization. Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that mtTFB1 and mtTFB2 comprise sister clades that arose via gene duplication, which occurred sometime following the endosymbiosis event that produced the mitochondrion. Through dense and taxonomically broad sampling of RAMTase family members especially within bacteria, we found that these eukaryotic mitochondrial transcription factors, mtTFB1 and mtTFB2, have independent origins in phylogenetically distant clades such that their divergence most likely predates the last universal common ancestor of life. The clade of mtTFB2s comprises orthologs in Opisthokonts and the clade of mtTFB1s includes orthologs in Amoebozoa and Metazoa. Thus, we clearly demonstrate that the neofunctionalization producing the transcription factor function evolved twice independently within the RAMTase family. These results are consistent with and help to elucidate outcomes from prior experimental studies, which found that some members of mtTFB1 still perform the ancestral rRNA methylation function, and the results have broader implications for understanding the evolution of new protein functions. Our phylogenetic reconstruction is also in agreement with prior studies showing two independent origins of plastid RAMTases in Viridiplantae and other photosynthetic autotrophs. We believe that this updated phylogeny of RAMTases should provide a robust evolutionary framework for ongoing

  12. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis

  13. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang, E-mail: wangdang511@126.com; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  14. A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family : multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp. is a major health burden in tropical countries. The development of new control tools, including vaccines and drugs, is urgently needed. The availability of genome sequences from several malaria parasite species provides a basis on which to identify new potential intervention targets. Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite protein R45, a vaccine candidate, led us identify a new gene family. Results Orthologs to the P. falciparum trophozoite protein R45 were detected exclusively in protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, including several Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. All family members are hybrid genes with a conserved C-terminal protein kinase domain of a novel type, recently called FIKK kinase, associated with a non conserved N-terminal region without any known functional signature. While a single copy gene was detected in most species, considerable gene expansion was observed in P. falciparum and its closest phylogenic relative P. reichenowi, with 20 and six copies, respectively, each with a distinct N-terminal domain. Based on full length protein sequence, pairs of orthologs were observed in closely related species, such as P. berghei and P.y. yoelii, P. vivax and P. knowlesi, or P. reichenowi and P. falciparum. All 20 P. falciparum paralogs possess a canonical Plasmodium export element downstream of a signal / anchor sequence required for exportation outside the parasitophorous vacuole. This is consistent with the reported association of the trophozoite protein R45, the only paralog characterised to date, with the infected red blood cell membrane. Interestingly, most genes are located in the subtelomeric region of chromosomes, in association with other multigene families contributing to the remodelling of the infected red blood cell membrane, in particular the ring erythrocyte surface

  15. Abnormal swelling of the peritrophic membrane in Eri silkworm gut caused by MLX56 family defense proteins with chitin-binding and extensin domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Kotaro; Shimura, Sachiko; Ueno, Chihiro; Arakawa, Toru; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    MLX56 family defense proteins, MLX56 and its close homolog LA-b, are chitin-binding defense proteins found in mulberry latex that show strong growth-inhibitions against caterpillars when fed at concentrations as low as 0.01%. MLX56 family proteins contain a unique structure with an extensin domain surrounded by two hevein-like chitin-binding domains, but their defensive modes of action remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the effects of MLX56 family proteins on the peritrophic membrane (PM), a thin and soft membrane consisting of chitin that lines the midgut lumen of insects. We observed an abnormally thick (>1/5 the diameter of midgut) hard gel-like membrane consisted of chitin and MLX56 family proteins, MLX56 and LA-b, in the midgut of the Eri silkworms, Samia ricini, fed a diet containing MLX56 family proteins, MLX56 and LA-b. When polyoxin AL, a chitin-synthesis-inhibitor, was added to the diet containing MLX56 family proteins, the toxicity of MLX56 family proteins disappeared and PM became thinner and fragmented. These results suggest that MLX56 family proteins, through their chitin-binding domains, bind to the chitin framework of PM, then through their extensin-domain (gum arabic-like structure), which functions as swelling agent, expands PM into an abnormally thick membrane that inhibits the growth of insects. This study shows that MLX56 family proteins are plant defense lectins with a totally unique mode of action, and reveals the functions of extensin domains and arabinogalactan proteins as swelling (gel-forming) agents of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [From dualism to multiplicity: seeing BCL-2 family proteins and cell death with new eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cell death has many links to the concept of death itself, defined as the opposite of life. Achievements obtained through research on apoptosis have apparently allowed us to transcend this Manichean view. Death is no longer outside, but rather inside living systems, as a constitutive force at work within the living matter. Whereas the death of cells can be positive and breed "creation" (e.g. during morphogenesis), its dysregulation can also cause or contribute to fatal diseases including cancer. It is tempting to apply this biological discourse to illuminate the relations between life and death, taken in general terms, but does this generalization actually hold? Is this discourse not essentially a metaphor? If cell death is considered as a vital aspect of various biological processes, then are we not faced with some vitalistic conception of death? Are there one or more meanings to the word "death"? Does the power to self-destruct act in opposition to other key features of living entities, or rather in juxtaposition to them? In this article, we first describe how the field of cell death has been developed on the basis of perceived and built dichotomies, mirroring the original opposition between life and death. We detail the limitations of the current paradigm of apoptosis regulation by BCL-2 family proteins, which nicely illustrate the problem of binary thinking in biology. Last, we try to show a way out of this dualistic matrix, by drawing on the notions of multiplicity, complexity, diversity, evolution and contingency. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  17. PSAP induces a unique Apaf-1 and Smac-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway independent of Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zeng, Linlin; Gao, Wei; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Fu, Xueqi; Xu, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    Presenilin-associated protein (PSAP) has been identified as a mitochondrial proapoptotic protein. However, the mechanism by which PSAP induces apoptosis remains unknown. To this end, we have established an inducible expression system. Using this system, we have examined the roles of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins, cytochrome c, Smac (Smac/Diablo, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP binding protein with low PI), and Apaf-1 (apoptotic protease-activating factor) in PSAP-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that knockdown of Apaf-1 abolished PSAP-induced caspase activation and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, indicating that the apoptosome formation triggered by cytochrome c is crucial for PSAP-induced apoptosis. Our data also demonstrate that knockdown of Smac abolished PSAP-induced caspase activation and PARP cleavage, indicating that, in addition to Apaf-1 or apoptosome formation, Smac is also essential for PSAP-induced apoptosis. However, interestingly, our data demonstrate that overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL did not protect cells from PSAP-induced apoptosis, and that knockdown of Bid, Bax, and Bak had no effect on PSAP-induced cytochrome c and Smac release, indicating that PSAP-induced apoptosis is not regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins. These results strongly suggest that PSAP evokes mitochondrial apoptotic cascades via a novel mechanism that is not regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins, but that both the formation of cytochrome c-Apaf-1 apoptosome and the presence of Smac are absolutely required for PSAP-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How do Proteins Misfold and Aggregate?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    samrat

    Brain. Alzheimer's disease. Intrinsically disordered. Tau protein. Brain. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy α-helical. Prion protein. Protein deposit. Disease. Type of structure. Amyloido- genic proteins. Skin & muscle. Injection-localized amyloidosis. Largely α - helical. Insulin. Brain. Parkinson's disease. Intrinsically.

  19. Solution NMR structures reveal a distinct architecture and provide first structures for protein domain family PF04536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eletsky, Alexander; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K; Montelione, Gaetano T; Szyperski, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The protein family (Pfam) PF04536 is a broadly conserved domain family of unknown function (DUF477), with more than 1,350 members in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. High-quality NMR structures of the N-terminal domain comprising residues 41-180 of the 684-residue protein CG2496 from Corynebacterium glutamicum and the N-terminal domain comprising residues 35-182 of the 435-residue protein PG0361 from Porphyromonas gingivalis both exhibit an α/β fold comprised of a four-stranded β-sheet, three α-helices packed against one side of the sheet, and a fourth α-helix attached to the other side. In spite of low sequence similarity (18%) assessed by structure-based sequence alignment, the two structures are globally quite similar. However, moderate structural differences are observed for the relative orientation of two of the four helices. Comparison with known protein structures reveals that the α/β architecture of CG2496(41-180) and PG0361(35-182) has previously not been characterized. Moreover, calculation of surface charge potential and identification of surface clefts indicate that the two domains very likely have different functions.

  20. A novel family of Toxoplasma IMC proteins displays a hierarchical organization and functions in coordinating parasite division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh R Beck

    2