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Sample records for intravenous iron analysis

  1. What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

      What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients? It dependent on the economic evaluation perspective!   Aim: To evaluate the health care cost for intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer®, Vifor) and intravenous iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject......-cost per mg iron is for iron carboxymaltose approximately double the cost of iron sucrose.   Patients and Methods: Data related to 111 IBD-patients treated with intravenous iron at Aarhus University Hospital from August 2005 until October 2009 was used for the economic evaluation. Analysis included......, utensils and ½ hour spend by a nurse per visit; showed approximately 150€ extra cost per 1000 mg Fe++ administrated, if iron carboxymaltose was chosen. In contrast the CEA including both BIA-values and patient-related costs (transportation and lost income) showed iron carboxymaltose to be more cost...

  2. Cost-minimization analysis favours intravenous ferric carboxymaltose over ferric sucrose for the ambulatory treatment of severe iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Calvet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Intravenous iron is widely used to treat iron deficiency in day-care units. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM allows administration of larger iron doses than iron sucrose (IS in each infusion (1000 mg vs. 200 mg. As FCM reduces the number of infusions required but is more expensive, we performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost impact of the two drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of infusions and the iron dose of 111 consecutive patients who received intravenous iron at a gastrointestinal diseases day-care unit from 8/2007 to 7/2008 were retrospectively obtained. Costs of intravenous iron drugs were obtained from the Spanish regulatory agencies. The accounting department of the Hospital determined hospital direct and indirect costs for outpatient iron infusion. Non-hospital direct costs were calculated on the basis of patient interviews. In the pharmacoeconomic model, base case mean costs per patient were calculated for administering 1000 mg of iron per infusion using FCM or 200 mg using IS. Sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were performed. RESULTS: Under baseline assumptions, the estimated cost of iron infusion per patient and year was €304 for IS and €274 for FCM, a difference of €30 in favour of FCM. Adding non-hospital direct costs to the model increased the difference to €67 (€354 for IS vs. €287 for FCM. A Monte Carlo simulation taking into account non-hospital direct costs favoured the use of FCM in 97% of simulations. CONCLUSION: In this pharmacoeconomic analysis, FCM infusion reduced the costs of iron infusion at a gastrointestinal day-care unit.

  3. Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose.

  4. Intravenous iron supplementation in children on hemodialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijn, E.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) are often absolute or functional iron deficient. There is little experience in treating these children with intravenous (i.v.) iron-sucrose. In this prospective study, different i.v. iron-sucrose doses were tested in

  5. Cost-minimization analysis favours intravenous ferric carboxymaltose over ferric sucrose or oral iron as preoperative treatment in patients with colon cancer and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Xavier; Gené, Emili; ÀngelRuíz, Miquel; Figuerola, Ariadna; Villoria, Albert; Cucala, Mercedes; Mearin, Fermín; Delgado, Salvadora; Calleja, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Ferric Carboxymaltose (FCM), Iron Sucrose (IS) and Oral Iron (OI) are alternative treatments for preoperative anaemia. To compare the cost implications, using a cost-minimization analysis, of three alternatives: FCM vs. IS vs. OI for treating iron-deficient anaemia before surgery in patients with colon cancer. Data from 282 patients with colorectal cancer and anaemia were obtained from a previous study. One hundred and eleven received FCS, 16 IS and 155 OI. Costs of intravenous iron drugs were obtained from the Spanish Regulatory Agency. Direct and indirect costs were obtained from the analytical accounting unit of the Hospital. In the base case mean costs per patient were calculated. Sensitivity analysis and probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Total costs per patient were 1827® in the FCM group, 2312® in the IS group and 2101® in the OI group. Cost savings per patient for FCM treatment were 485® compared to IS and 274® compared to OI. A Monte Carlo simulation favoured the use of FCM in 84.7% and 84.4% of simulations when compared to IS and OI, respectively. FCM infusion before surgery reduced costs in patients with colon cancer and iron-deficiency anaemia when compared with OI and IS.

  6. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, A; Işık, H; Radeke, H H; Dignass, A; Stein, J

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565. In June 2016, we systematically searched for studies analysing efficacy and safety of intravenous iron for IDA therapy in IBD. Primary outcome was therapy response, defined as Hb normalisation or increase ≥2 g/dL. Five randomised, controlled trials (n = 1143 patients) were included in a network meta-analysis. Only ferric carboxymaltose was significantly more effective than oral iron [OR=1.9, 95% CrI: (1.1;3.2)]. Rank probabilities showed ferric carboxymaltose to be most effective, followed by iron sucrose, iron isomaltose and oral iron. Pooled data from the systematic review (n = 1746 patients) revealed adverse event rates of 12.0%, 15.3%, 12.0%, 17.0% for ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran and iron isomaltose respectively. One drug-related serious adverse event (SAE) each was reported for ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside, and one possibly drug-related SAE for iron sucrose. Ferric carboxymaltose was the most effective intravenous iron formulation, followed by iron sucrose. In addition, ferric carboxymaltose tended to be better tolerated. Thus, nanocolloidal IV iron products exhibit differing therapeutic and safety characteristics and are not interchangeable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oral versus intravenous iron therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency with and without anemia in Germany – a real-world evidence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein J

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Stein,1,2 Jennifer Scarlet Haas,3 Siew Hwa Ong,4 Kathrin Borchert,3 Thomas Hardt,5 Elmira Lechat,4 Kerry Nip,5 Douglas Foerster,4 Sebastian Braun,3 Daniel C Baumgart6 1Interdisciplinary Crohn Colitis Center Rhein-Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, DGD Clinics Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of the J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 3Xcenda GmbH, Hannover, Germany; 4Vifor Pharma Ltd., Glattbrugg, Switzerland; 5Vifor Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany; 6Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency are common comorbidities associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD resulting in impaired quality of life and high health care costs. Intravenous iron has shown clinical benefit compared to oral iron therapy. Aim: This study aimed to compare health care outcomes and costs after oral vs intravenous iron treatment for IBD patients with iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (ID/A in Germany. Methods: IBD patients with ID/A were identified by ICD-10-GM codes and newly commenced iron treatment via ATC codes in 2013 within the InGef (formerly Health Risk Institute research claims database. Propensity score matching was performed to balance both treatment groups. Non-observable covariates were adjusted by applying the difference-in-differences (DID approach. Results: In 2013, 589 IBD patients with ID/A began oral and 442 intravenous iron treatment. After matching, 380 patients in each treatment group were analyzed. The intravenous group had fewer all-cause hospitalizations (37% vs 48% and ID/A-related hospitalizations (5% vs 14% than the oral iron group. The 1-year preobservation period comparison revealed significant health care cost differences between both groups. After adjusting for cost differences by DID method, total health care cost savings in the intravenous iron group were

  8. The importance of iron in long-term survival of maintenance hemodialysis patients treated with epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron: analysis of 9.5 years of prospectively collected data

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    Shukla Rakesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis the relationship to survival of hemoglobin level and administered epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron is controversial. The study aim was to determine effects on patient survival of administered epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron, and of hemoglobin and variables related to iron status. Methods The patients were 1774 treated by maintenance hemodialysis in 3 dialysis units in New York, NY from January 1998 to June, 2007. A patient-centered, coded, electronic patient record used in patient care enabled retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively. For survival analysis, patients were censored when transplanted, transferred to hemodialysis at home or elsewhere, peritoneal dialysis. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis was followed by multivariate analysis with Cox's regression, using as variables age, race, gender, major co-morbid conditions, epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron administered, and 15 laboratory tests. Results Median age was 59 years, epoetin-alfa (interquartile range 18,162 (12,099, 27,741 units/week, intravenous iron 301 (202, 455 mg/month, survival 789 (354, 1489 days. Median hemoglobin was 116 (110, 120g/L, transferrin saturation 29.7 (24.9, 35.1%, serum ferritin 526 (247, 833 μg/L, serum albumin 39.0 (36.3, 41.5 g/L. Survival was better the higher the hemoglobin, best with > 120 g/L. Epoetin-alfa effect on survival was weak but had statistically significant interaction with intravenous iron. For intravenous iron, survival was best with 1–202 mg/month, slightly worse with 202–455 mg/month; it was worst with no intravenous iron, only slightly better with > 455 mg/month. Survival was worst with transferrin saturation ≤ 16%, serum ferritin ≤ 100 μg/L, best with transferrin saturation > 25%, serum ferritin > 600 μg/L The effects of each of hemoglobin, intravenous iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin on survival were independently significant and

  9. Effect of intravenous iron use on hospitalizations in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a comparative effectiveness analysis from the DEcIDE-ESRD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangri, Navdeep; Miskulin, Dana C.; Zhou, Jing; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Michels, Wieneke M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; McDermott, Aidan; Crews, Deidra C.; Scialla, Julia J.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Jaar, Bernard G.; Meyer, Klemens; Ebony Boulware, L.; Cook, Courtney; Coresh, Josef; Crews, Deidra; Ephraim, Patti; Jaar, Bernard; Kim, Jeonyong; Liu, Yang; Luly, Jason; Michels, Wieneke; Scheel, Paul; Sozio, Stephen; Wu, Albert; Collins, Allan; Foley, Robert; Gilbertson, David; Guo, Haifeng; Heubner, Brooke; Herzog, Charles; Liu, Jiannong; St Peter, Wendy; Nally, Joseph; Arrigain, Susana; Jolly, Stacey; Konig, Vicky; Liu, Xiaobo; Navaneethan, Sankar; Schold, Jesse; Zager, Philip; Miskulin, Dana; Scialla, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous iron use in hemodialysis patients has greatly increased over the last decade, despite limited studies on the safety of iron. We studied the association of receipt of intravenous iron with hospitalizations in an incident cohort of hemodialysis patients. We examined 9544 patients from

  10. Intravenous Iron Sucrose versus Oral Iron in the Treatment of Pregnancy with Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingquan; Leng, Wenying; Wazir, Romel; Li, Jinhong; Yao, Qiang; Mi, Chen; Yang, Jing; Xing, Aiyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron therapy are the main therapies for iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), but there is still a debate regarding their efficacy and especially as to which one is the best choice during pregnancy. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing patients treated with intravenous iron sucrose (intravenous group) with those treated with oral iron (oral group) for IDA during pregnancy was performed. The primary outcomes of interest were mean maternal haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels at the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were treatment-related adverse events and foetal birth weight. Six randomised controlled trials, involving a total of 576 women, were included in the present review. Significant increases in haemoglobin [mean difference (MD), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-1.39; p = 0.002] and ferritin levels (MD, 63.32; 95% CI, 39.46-87.18; p < 0.00001) were observed in the intravenous group. Compared with the oral group, there were fewer adverse events in the intravenous group (risk ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.73; p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in birth weight between the two groups. For pregnant women who could not tolerate the side effects of oral treatment or required a rapid replacement of iron stores, intravenous iron sucrose was associated with fewer adverse events and was more effective than regular oral iron therapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...

  12. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  13. Distinct in vitro Complement Activation by Various Intravenous Iron Preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, Julia Cordelia; Poppelaars, Felix; da Costa, Mariana Gaya; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Vlaam, Thomas P G; Daha, Mohamed R.; Berger, Stefan P.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) iron preparations are widely used in the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). All IV iron preparations carry a risk of causing hypersensitivity reactions. However, the pathophysiological mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesize that a

  14. Effect of intravenous iron use on hospitalizations in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a comparative effectiveness analysis from the DEcIDE-ESRD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, Navdeep; Miskulin, Dana C.; Zhou, Jing; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Michels, Wieneke M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; McDermott, Aidan; Crews, Deidra C.; Scialla, Julia J.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Jaar, Bernard G.; Meyer, Klemens; Ebony Boulware, L.; Ebony Boulware, L.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Cook, Courtney; Coresh, Josef; Crews, Deidra; Ephraim, Patti; Jaar, Bernard; Kim, Jeonyong; Liu, Yang; Luly, Jason; McDermott, Aidan; Michels, Wieneke; Scheel, Paul; Shafi, Tariq; Sozio, Stephen; Wu, Albert; Zhou, Jing; Collins, Allan; Foley, Robert; Gilbertson, David; Guo, Haifeng; Heubner, Brooke; Herzog, Charles; Liu, Jiannong; St Peter, Wendy; Nally, Joseph; Arrigain, Susana; Jolly, Stacey; Konig, Vicky; Liu, Xiaobo; Navaneethan, Sankar; Schold, Jesse; Zager, Philip; Miskulin, Dana; Meyer, Klemens; Scialla, Julia; Tangri, Navdeep; Michels, Wieneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Intravenous iron use in hemodialysis patients has greatly increased over the last decade, despite limited studies on the safety of iron. Methods We studied the association of receipt of intravenous iron with hospitalizations in an incident cohort of hemodialysis patients. We examined 9544 patients from Dialysis Clinic, Inc. (DCI). We ascertained intravenous iron use from DCI electronic medical record and USRDS data files, and hospitalizations through Medicare claims. We examined the association between iron exposure accumulated over 1-, 3- or 6-month time windows and incident hospitalizations in the follow-up period using marginal structural models accounting for time-dependent confounders. We performed sensitivity analyses including recurrent events models for multiple hospitalizations and models for combined outcome of hospitalization and death. Results There were 22 347 hospitalizations during a median follow-up of 23 months. Higher cumulative dose of intravenous iron was not associated with all-cause, cardiovascular or infectious hospitalizations [HR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77–1.22) for all-cause hospitalizations comparing >2100 mg versus 0–900 mg of iron over 6 months]. Findings were similar in models examining the risk of hospitalizations in 1- and 3-month windows [HR 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.99) and HR 0.88 (95% CI: 0.74–1.03), respectively] or the risk of combined outcome of hospitalization and death in the 6-month window [HR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.78–1.23)]. Conclusions Higher cumulative dose of intravenous iron may not be associated with increased risk of hospitalizations in hemodialysis patients. While clinical trials are needed, employing higher iron doses to reduce erythropoiesis-stimulating agents does not appear to increase morbidity in routine clinical care. PMID:25366328

  15. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

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    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  16. Clinical and biochemical features of some intravenous iron complexes

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    S. Yu. Abashin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anemia cases associated with iron deficiency. There are various therapeutic approaches to compensate iron deficiency. In some cases,a rapid restore of body iron is required, which is only possible with intravenous administration. Now a number of intravenous iron preparations are available, and each of them has not only advantages. Considering the drugs side effects, there was a need for drugs with high efficiency, low immunogenicity, and minimal toxicity. One of the decisions was to create preparations based on maltose and isomaltose. Such new intravenous iron preparations are ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside. Currently, there are no available clinical data that isomaltose and maltose preparations differ significantly with respect to adverse reactions associated with their immunogenicity. Based on study results isomaltose preparations in patients with dextran sensibilization should be used with caution. This is not completely exclude the possibility that both of these drugs can be an immune response trigger with a different specificity than the one on dextran develops. Preparations based on maltose, sucrose and gluconate were neutral in immunoprecipitation assay with dextran-reactive antibodies that determines their preference for patients with dextran sensibilisation. Other important properties of ferric carboxymaltose are: convenience of application and lack of oxidative stress that are determined by the slow iron release.

  17. Clinical and biochemical features of some intravenous iron complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Abashin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most anemia cases associated with iron deficiency. There are various therapeutic approaches to compensate iron deficiency. In some cases,a rapid restore of body iron is required, which is only possible with intravenous administration. Now a number of intravenous iron preparations are available, and each of them has not only advantages. Considering the drugs side effects, there was a need for drugs with high efficiency, low immunogenicity, and minimal toxicity. One of the decisions was to create preparations based on maltose and isomaltose. Such new intravenous iron preparations are ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside. Currently, there are no available clinical data that isomaltose and maltose preparations differ significantly with respect to adverse reactions associated with their immunogenicity. Based on study results isomaltose preparations in patients with dextran sensibilization should be used with caution. This is not completely exclude the possibility that both of these drugs can be an immune response trigger with a different specificity than the one on dextran develops. Preparations based on maltose, sucrose and gluconate were neutral in immunoprecipitation assay with dextran-reactive antibodies that determines their preference for patients with dextran sensibilisation. Other important properties of ferric carboxymaltose are: convenience of application and lack of oxidative stress that are determined by the slow iron release.

  18. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion or oral iron for treatment of fatigue after postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A

    2017-01-01

    -label, randomized controlled trial. Participants received intravenous iron (n = 97) or oral iron (n = 99), and completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and haematological and iron parameters were measured. Primary outcome was the aggregated change in physical...

  19. Role of preoperative intravenous iron therapy to correct anemia before major surgery: study protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Abdelsalam M; Meyer, Steven R; Bagshaw, Sean M; MacArthur, Roderick G; Carroll, Linda J

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative anemia is a common and potentially serious hematological problem in elective surgery and increases the risk for perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Transfusion is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Preoperative intravenous (IV) iron therapy has been proposed as an intervention to reduce perioperative transfusion; however, studies are generally small, limited, and inconclusive. We propose performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane-controlled trial registry, Scopus, registries of health technology assessment and clinical trials, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and conference proceedings in transfusion, hematology, and surgery. We will contact our study drug manufacturer for unpublished trials. Titles and abstracts will be identified and assessed by two reviewers for potential relevance. Eligible studies are: randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing preoperative administration of IV iron with placebo or standard of care to reduce perioperative blood transfusion in anemic patients undergoing major surgery. Screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal will be conducted independently by two authors. Data will be presented in evidence tables and in meta-analytic forest plots. Primary efficacy outcomes are change in hemoglobin concentration and proportion of patients requiring RBC transfusion. Secondary outcomes include number of units of blood or blood products transfused perioperatively, transfusion-related acute lung injury, neurologic complications, adverse events, postoperative infections, cardiopulmonary complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/readmission, length of hospital stay, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Continuous outcomes will be reported using calculated weighted mean differences. Meta-regression will be

  20. Complexity of intravenous iron nanoparticle formulations: implications for bioequivalence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Barton

    2017-11-01

    Intravenous iron formulations are a class of complex drugs that are commonly used to treat a wide variety of disease states associated with iron deficiency and anemia. Venofer® (iron-sucrose) is one of the most frequently used formulations, with more than 90% of dialysis patients in the United States receiving this formulation. Emerging data from global markets outside the United States, where many iron-sucrose similars or copies are available, have shown that these formulations may have safety and efficacy profiles that differ from the reference listed drug. This may be attributable to uncharacterized differences in physicochemical characteristics and/or differences in labile iron release. As bioequivalence evaluation guidance evolves, clinicians should be educated on these potential clinical issues before a switch to the generic formulation is made in the clinical setting. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Results of the First American Prospective Study of Intravenous Iron in Oral Iron-Intolerant Iron-Deficient Gravidas.

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    Auerbach, Michael; James, Stephanie E; Nicoletti, Melissa; Lenowitz, Steven; London, Nicola; Bahrain, Huzefa F; Derman, Richard; Smith, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Anemia affects up to 42% of gravidas. Neonatal iron deficiency is associated with low birth weight, delayed growth and development, and increased cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. While oral iron is convenient, up to 70% report significant gastrointestinal toxicity. Intravenous iron formulations allowing replacement in one visit with favorable side-effect profiles decrease rates of anemia with improved hemoglobin responses and maternal fetal outcomes. Seventy-four oral iron-intolerant, second- and third-trimester iron-deficient gravidas were questioned for oral iron intolerance and treated with intravenous iron. All received 1000 mg of low-molecular-weight iron dextran in 250 mL normal saline. Fifteen minutes after a test dose, the remainder was infused over the balance of 1 hour. Subjects were called at 1, 2, and 7 days to assess delayed reactions. Four weeks postinfusion or postpartum, hemoglobin levels and iron parameters were measured. Paired t test was used for hemoglobin and iron; 58/73 women were questioned about interval growth and development of their babies. Seventy-three of 74 enrolled subjects completed treatment. Sixty had paired pre- and posttreatment data. The mean pre- and posthemoglobin concentrations were 9.7 and 10.8 g/dL (P iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous iron has less toxicity and is more effective, supporting moving it closer to frontline therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravenous Iron Carboxymaltose as a Potential Therapeutic in Anemia of Inflammation.

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    Niklas Lofruthe

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron supplementation is an effective therapy in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, but controversial in anemia of inflammation (AI. Unbound iron can be used by bacteria and viruses for their replication and enhance the inflammatory response. Nowadays available high molecular weight iron complexes for intravenous iron substitution, such as ferric carboxymaltose, might be useful in AI, as these pharmaceuticals deliver low doses of free iron over a prolonged period of time. We tested the effects of intravenous iron carboxymaltose in murine AI: Wild-type mice were exposed to the heat-killed Brucella abortus (BA model and treated with or without high molecular weight intravenous iron. 4h after BA injection followed by 2h after intravenous iron treatment, inflammatory cytokines were upregulated by BA, but not enhanced by iron treatment. In long term experiments, mice were fed a regular or an iron deficient diet and then treated with intravenous iron or saline 14 days after BA injection. Iron treatment in mice with BA-induced AI was effective 24h after iron administration. In contrast, mice with IDA (on iron deficiency diet prior to BA-IA required 7d to recover from AI. In these experiments, inflammatory markers were not further induced in iron-treated compared to vehicle-treated BA-injected mice. These results demonstrate that intravenous iron supplementation effectively treated the murine BA-induced AI without further enhancement of the inflammatory response. Studies in humans have to reveal treatment options for AI in patients.

  3. Intravenous Iron Administration and Hypophosphatemia in Clinical Practice

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    S. Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parenteral iron formulations are frequently used to correct iron deficiency anemia (IDA and iron deficiency (ID. Intravenous formulation efficacy on ferritin and hemoglobin level improvement is greater than that of oral formulations while they are associated with lower gastrointestinal side effects. Ferric carboxymaltose- (FCM- related hypophosphatemia is frequent and appears without clinical significance. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, duration, and potential consequences of hypophosphatemia after iron injection. Patients and Methods. The medical records of all patients who underwent parenteral iron injection between 2012 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and postinjection hemoglobin, ferritin, plasma phosphate, creatinine, and vitamin D levels were assessed. Patients who developed moderate (range: 0.32–0.80 mmol/L or severe (<0.32 mmol/L hypophosphatemia were questioned for symptoms. Results. During the study period, 234 patients received iron preparations but 104 were excluded because of missing data. Among the 130 patients included, 52 received iron sucrose (FS and 78 FCM formulations. Among FS-treated patients, 22% developed hypophosphatemia versus 51% of FCM-treated patients, including 13% who developed profound hypophosphatemia. Hypophosphatemia severity correlated with the dose of FCM (p=0.04 but not with the initial ferritin, hemoglobin, or vitamin D level. Mean hypophosphatemia duration was 6 months. No immediate clinical consequence was found except for persistent fatigue despite anemia correction in some patients. Conclusions. Hypophosphatemia is frequent after parenteral FCM injection and may have clinical consequences, including persistent fatigue. Further studies of chronic hypophosphatemia long-term consequences, especially bone assessments, are needed.

  4. Single-dose intravenous iron for iron deficiency: a new paradigm.

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    Auerbach, Michael; Deloughery, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration. We realize safety concerns abound and therefore will analyze evidence based overstated concerns regarding serious adverse events highlighting unnecessary interventions for minor, self-limiting infusion reactions, which infrequently occur with intravenous iron administration. Recent data for the use of IV iron in a variety of clinic situations will be reviewed including women with heavy uterine bleeding, pregnancy, bariatric surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, and restless legs syndrome. Briefly discussed is the new frontier of IV iron's use in the prevention of acute (high altitude) mountain sickness. It is clear that in many clinical situations IV iron is a new and improved standard of care offering advantages over oral iron in efficacy, toxicity, and convenience to patients and health care providers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in anemic cancer patients without iron deficiency receiving darbepoetin alfa: a pilot study.

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    Mafodda, Antonino; Giuffrida, D; Prestifilippo, A; Azzarello, D; Giannicola, R; Mare, M; Maisano, R

    2017-09-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often used in treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Many studies have demonstrated an improved hemoglobin (Hb) response when ESA is combined with intravenous iron supplementation and a higher effectiveness of intravenous iron over traditional oral iron formulations. A new formulation of oral sucrosomial iron featuring an increased bioavailability compared to traditional oral formulations has recently become available and could provide a valid alternative to those by intravenous (IV) route. Our study evaluated the performance of sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in increasing hemoglobin in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa, as well as safety, need of transfusion, and quality of life (QoL). The present study considered a cohort of 64 patients with chemotherapy-related anemia (Hb >8 g/dL iron deficiency, scheduled to receive chemotherapy and darbepoetin. All patients received darbepoetin alfa 500 mcg once every 3 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of IV ferric gluconate 125 mg weekly or oral sucrosomial iron 30 mg daily. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the performance of oral sucrosomial iron in improving Hb response, compared to intravenous iron. The Hb response was defined as the Hb increase ≥2 g/dL from baseline or the attainment Hb ≥ 12 g/dL. There was no difference in the Hb response rate between the two treatment arms. Seventy one percent of patients treated with IV iron achieved an erythropoietic response, compared to 70% of patients treated with oral iron. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. There were also no differences in the proportion of patients requiring red blood cell transfusions and changes in QoL. Sucrosomial oral iron was better tolerated. In cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia receiving darbepoetin alfa, sucrosomial oral iron provides

  6. Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: Dosing Considerations

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    Todd A. Koch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for iron therapy dosing in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA, we conducted a study examining the benefits of a higher cumulative dose of intravenous (IV iron than what is typically administered. Methods. We first individually analyzed 5 clinical studies, averaging the total iron deficit across all patients utilizing a modified Ganzoni formula; we then similarly analyzed 2 larger clinical studies. For the second of the larger studies (Study 7, we also compared the efficacy and retreatment requirements of a cumulative dose of 1500 mg ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to 1000 mg iron sucrose (IS. Results. The average iron deficit was calculated to be 1531 mg for patients in Studies 1–5 and 1392 mg for patients in Studies 6-7. The percentage of patients who were retreated with IV iron between Days 56 and 90 was significantly (p<0.001 lower (5.6% in the 1500 mg group, compared to the 1000 mg group (11.1%. Conclusions. Our data suggests that a total cumulative dose of 1000 mg of IV iron may be insufficient for iron repletion in a majority of patients with IDA and a dose of 1500 mg is closer to the actual iron deficit in these patients.

  7. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia

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    João Ricardo Friedrisch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non- dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15 mg/kg; maximum of 1000 mg/infusion in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia.

  8. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for correction of post-transplant anaemia in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, David W; Tan, Ken-Soon; Miles, Rhianna; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Scott B; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Van Eps, Carolyn L; Nicol, David L

    2009-06-06

    Post-transplant anaemia remains a common problem after kidney transplantation, with an incidence ranging from nearly 80% at day 0 to about 25% at 1 year. It has been associated with poor graft outcome, and recently has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality.Our transplant unit routinely administers oral iron supplements to renal transplant recipients but this is frequently accompanied by side effects, mainly gastrointestinal intolerance. Intravenous iron is frequently administered to dialysis patients and we sought to investigate this mode of administration in transplant recipients after noticing less anaemia in several patients who had received intravenous iron just prior to being called in for transplantation. This study is a single-centre, prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled trial of oral versus intravenous iron supplements in renal transplant recipients and aims to recruit approximately 100 patients over a 12-month period. Patients will be randomised to receive a single dose of 500 mg iron polymaltose (intravenous iron group) or 2 ferrous sulphate slow-release tablets daily (oral iron group). The primary outcome is time to normalisation of haemoglobin post-transplant. Prospective power calculations have indicated that a minimum of 48 patients in each group would have to be followed up for 3 months in order to have a 90% probability of detecting a halving of the time to correction of haemoglobin levels to > or =110 g/l in iron-treated patients, assuming an alpha of 0.05. All eligible adult patients undergoing renal transplantation at the Princess Alexandra Hospital will be offered participation in the trial. Exclusion criteria will include iron overload (transferrin saturation >50% or ferritin >800 microg/l), or previous intolerance of either oral or intravenous iron supplements. If the trial shows a reduction in the time to correction of anaemia with intravenous iron or less side effects than oral iron, then intravenous iron may

  9. High dose intravenous iron, mineral homeostasis and intact FGF23 in normal and uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mace, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    High iron load might have a number of toxic effects in the organism. Recently intravenous (iv) iron has been proposed to induce elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia in iron deficient subjects. High levels of FGF23 are associated with increased mortal...

  10. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

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    Boturão-Neto E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF. Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  11. Macroscopic and microscopic biodistribution of intravenously administered iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Adwiteeya; Petryk, Alicia A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are being developed for use as a cancer treatment. They have demonstrated efficacy when used either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The success of IONP as a therapeutic tool depends on the delivery of a safe and controlled cytotoxic thermal dose to tumor tissue following activation with an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Prior to clinical approval, knowledge of IONP toxicity, biodistribution and physiological clearance is essential. This preliminary time-course study determines the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 110 nm dextran-coated IONP (iron) in mice, 7 days post systemic, at doses of 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight. Acute toxicity, manifested as changes in the behavior of mice, was only observed temporarily at 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight, the highest dose administered. Regardless of dose, mass spectrometry and histological analysis demonstrated over 3 mg Fe/g tissue in organs within the reticuloendotheilial system (i.e. liver, spleen, and lymph nodes). Other organs (brain, heart, lungs, and kidney) had less than 0.5 mg Fe/g tissue with iron predominantly confined to the organ vasculature.

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose in Iron Deficiency Anaemia During Post-partum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Roy, Priyankar; Gandhi, Khushali; Choudhary, Sumesh; Aggarwal, Rohina; Sokabaj, Shaheen

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the commonest treatable cause of postpartum anaemia. Parenteral iron therapy results in faster and higher replenishment of iron stores and correction of haemoglobin levels with better compliance. Ferric Carboxy Maltose is an effective and a safe option which can be administered intravenously in single total correction dose without any serious adverse effects.The study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ferric Carboxy Maltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in post-natal patients. It was an open, single arm study including 615 women with diagnosis of Iron deficiency anaemia and haemoglobin (Hb) levels between 4gm% and 11gm% from January 2013 to December 2016. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose(500-1500mg) was administered and the improvement in haemoglobin levels and iron stores were assessed after three weeks of total dose infusion. Out of the 615 women, 595 women were included in the analysis. Most of the women were in the age group of 27-30 years. Most of the women had mild anaemia as per World Health Organisation guidelines. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased over a period of three weeks after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. Other parameters like total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and Iron also had a significant improvement after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. No serious adverse events were observed after Ferric Carboxy Maltose. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose was an effective and a safe treatment option for iron deficiency anaemia and has an advantage of single administration of high doses without serious adverse effects.

  13. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA

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    Susann Neiser

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3 and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000 does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the

  14. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for correction of post-transplant anaemia in renal transplant patients

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    Mudge David W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transplant anaemia remains a common problem after kidney transplantation, with an incidence ranging from nearly 80% at day 0 to about 25% at 1 year. It has been associated with poor graft outcome, and recently has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Our transplant unit routinely administers oral iron supplements to renal transplant recipients but this is frequently accompanied by side effects, mainly gastrointestinal intolerance. Intravenous iron is frequently administered to dialysis patients and we sought to investigate this mode of administration in transplant recipients after noticing less anaemia in several patients who had received intravenous iron just prior to being called in for transplantation. Methods This study is a single-centre, prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled trial of oral versus intravenous iron supplements in renal transplant recipients and aims to recruit approximately 100 patients over a 12-month period. Patients will be randomised to receive a single dose of 500 mg iron polymaltose (intravenous iron group or 2 ferrous sulphate slow-release tablets daily (oral iron group. The primary outcome is time to normalisation of haemoglobin post-transplant. Prospective power calculations have indicated that a minimum of 48 patients in each group would have to be followed up for 3 months in order to have a 90% probability of detecting a halving of the time to correction of haemoglobin levels to ≥110 g/l in iron-treated patients, assuming an α of 0.05. All eligible adult patients undergoing renal transplantation at the Princess Alexandra Hospital will be offered participation in the trial. Exclusion criteria will include iron overload (transferrin saturation >50% or ferritin >800 μg/l, or previous intolerance of either oral or intravenous iron supplements. Discussion If the trial shows a reduction in the time to correction of anaemia with intravenous iron or less side

  15. Intravenous Iron Repletion Does Not Significantly Decrease Platelet Counts in CKD Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

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    Neville R. Dossabhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the effect of IV iron repletion on platelet (PLT counts in CKD patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review, including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran total dose infusion (TDI between 2002 and 2007. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin (Hgb, iron stores and PLT were recorded pre- and post-dose. Results. 153 patients received a total of 251 doses of TDI (mean ± SD = 971 ± 175 mg; age years and Creatinine  mg/dL. All CKD stages were represented (stage 4 commonest. Hgb and Fe stores improved post-TDI (. There was a very mild decrease in PLT (pre-TDI 255 versus post-TDI 244, . The mild reduction in PLT after TDI remained non-significant ( when data was stratified by molecular weight (MW of iron dextran used (low versus high, as well as by dose administered (<1000 versus ≥1000 mg. Linear regression analysis between pre-dose PLT and Tsat and Fe showed R2 of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion. Correction of iron deficiency did not significantly lower PLT in CKD patients, regardless of MW or dose used. Correlation of PLT to severity of iron deficiency was very weak.

  16. Comparative evaluation of nephrotoxicity and management by macrophages of intravenous pharmaceutical iron formulations.

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    James R Connor

    Full Text Available There is a significant clinical need for effective treatment of iron deficiency. A number of compounds that can be administered intravenously have been developed. This study examines how the compounds are handled by macrophages and their relative potential to provoke oxidative stress.Human kidney (HK-2 cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and renal cortical homogenates were exposed to pharmaceutical iron preparations. Analyses were performed for indices of oxidative stress and cell integrity. In addition, in macrophages, iron uptake and release and cytokine secretion was monitored.HK-2 cell viability was decreased by iron isomaltoside and ferumoxytol and all compounds induced lipid peroxidation. In the renal cortical homogenates, lipid peroxidation occurred at lowest concentrations with ferric carboxymaltose, iron dextran, iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. In the macrophages, iron sucrose caused loss of cell viability. Iron uptake was highest for ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside and lowest for iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. Iron was released as secretion of ferritin or as ferrous iron via ferroportin. The latter was blocked by hepcidin. Exposure to ferric carboxymaltose and iron dextran resulted in release of tumor necrosis factor α.Exposure to iron compounds increased cell stress but was tissue and dose dependent. There was a clear difference in the handling of iron from the different compounds by macrophages that suggests in vivo responses may differ.

  17. High dose intravenous iron, mineral homeostasis and intact FGF23 in normal and uremic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background High iron load might have a number of toxic effects in the organism. Recently intravenous (iv) iron has been proposed to induce elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia in iron deficient subjects. High levels of FGF23 are associated with increased mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. CKD patients are often treated with iv iron therapy in order to maintain iron stores and erythropoietin responsiveness, also in the case of not being iron depleted. Therefore, the effect of a single high iv dose of two different iron preparations, iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), on plasma levels of FGF23 and phosphate was examined in normal and uremic iron repleted rats. Methods Iron was administered iv as a single high dose of 80 mg/kg bodyweight and the effects on plasma levels of iFGF23, phosphate, Ca2+, PTH, transferrin, ferritin and iron were examined in short and long term experiments (n = 99). Blood samples were obtained at time 0, 30, 60, 180 minutes, 24 and 48 hours and in a separate study after 1 week. Uremia was induced by 5/6-nephrectomy. Results Nephrectomized rats had significant uremia, hyperparathyroidism and elevated FGF23. Iron administration resulted in significant increases in plasma ferritin levels. No significant differences were seen in plasma levels of iFGF23, phosphate and PTH between the experimental groups at any time point within 48 hours or at 1 week after infusion of the iron compounds compared to vehicle. Conclusions In non-iron depleted normal and uremic rats a single high dose of either of two intravenous iron preparations, iron isomaltoside 1000, and ferric carboxymaltose, had no effect on plasma levels of iFGF23 and phosphate for up to seven days. PMID:24373521

  18. [Preoperative intravenous iron as a strategy for blood saving in surgery for hip fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rubio, Nieves; Llorens Eizaguerri, María; Seral García, Belén; Burillo Fuertes, Pilar; Ranera García, Miguel; Albareda Albareda, Jorge

    2013-11-02

    To determine whether administration of intravenous iron in a patient diagnosed with hip fracture reduces the need for blood transfusion. A retrospective observational case-control study was performed comparing a control group of 63 patients diagnosed with hip fracture with another group of 57 patients treated with parenteral iron. Demographic, clinical condition/clinical record and hematometric differences of the case-control patients were described. We analyzed the morbidity (post-surgical infection) and mortality rate. SPSS(®) was used for statistical studies. Being statistically significant, after the administration of intravenous iron sucrose, the need of blood transfusion was reduced in the case group, as well as the quantity of concentrates required (1.37 vs 0.6). In the case group, there was a statistically significant decreasing trend in hospital mortality rate (case group: 0.8%/control group: 8.3%). It was not been proven the relation between the decrease in nosocomial infection and the administration of intravenous iron The administration of intravenous iron sucrose in patients diagnosed with hip fracture before surgery could be effective blood saving measure in this type of trauma surgery. Furthermore, its use has been reliable without causing any side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K

    2013-01-01

    In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA)....

  20. Intravenous iron isomaltoside treatment of women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars L; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore if intravenous iron isomaltoside (Monofer®) leads to a better relief of fatigue than current treatment practice with oral iron in women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a subanalysis of a single......-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in women suffering from postpartum hemorrhage. Participants were randomized 1:1 to 1200 mg iron isomaltoside or current treatment practice with oral iron. We measured fatigue by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Edinburgh Postnatal...... isomaltoside. Significant differences in other fatigue and depression scores and hematological parameters were observed and all in favor of iron isomaltoside. There were no differences in side effects between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage, a single...

  1. Core size determination and structural characterization of intravenous iron complexes by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Petrochenko, Peter; Chen, Lynn; Wong, Sook Yee; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Zheng, Jiwen

    2016-05-30

    Understanding physicochemical properties of intravenous (IV) iron drug products is essential to ensure the manufacturing process is consistent and streamlined. The history of physicochemical characterization of IV iron complex formulations stretches over several decades, with disparities in iron core size and particle morphology as the major source of debate. One of the main reasons for this controversy is room temperature sample preparation artifacts, which affect accurate determination of size, shape and agglomeration/aggregation of nanoscale iron particles. The present study is first to report the ultra-fine iron core structures of four IV iron complex formulations, sodium ferric gluconate, iron sucrose, low molecular weight iron dextran and ferumoxytol, using a cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) preservation technique, as opposed to the conventional room temperature (RT-TEM) technique. Our results show that room temperature preparation causes nanoparticle aggregation and deformation, while cryo-TEM preserves IV iron colloidal suspension in their native frozen-hydrated and undiluted state. In contrast to the current consensus in literature, all four IV iron colloids exhibit a similar morphology of their iron oxide cores with a spherical shape, narrow size distribution and an average size of 2nm. Moreover, out of the four tested formulations, ferumoxytol exhibits a cluster-like community of several iron carbohydrate particles which likely accounts for its large hydrodynamic size of 25nm, measured with dynamic light scattering. Our findings outline a suitable method for identifying colloidal nanoparticle core size in the native state, which is increasingly important for manufacturing and design control of complex drug formulations, such as IV iron drug products. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

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    Alka Kriplani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001 after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l (P<0.001. Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%.Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its

  3. Anemia management: development of a rapid-access anemia and intravenous iron service

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    Radia D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Radia,1 Ibrahim Momoh,2 Richard Dillon,1 Yvonne Francis,1 Laura Cameron,1 Toni-Lee Fagg,1 Hannah Overland,1 Susan Robinson,1 Claire N Harrison11Haematology Department, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Bupa Home Healthcare, Harlow, UKAbstract: This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC's development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product's contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients' quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors' experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility.Keywords: hemoglobin, iron deficiency, ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran, iron isomaltoside

  4. Efficiency of Original versus Generic Intravenous Iron Formulations in Patients on Haemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lara, Maria Antonia; Garcia-Montemayor, Victoria Eugenia; Canton, Petra; Soriano, Sagrario; Aljama, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aims The appropriate use of intravenous (IV) iron is essential to minimise the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The clinical efficacy of generic IV iron compared to the original formulation is controversial. We evaluated the changes that were induced after switching from a generic IV iron to an original formulation in a stable, prevalent haemodialysis (HD) population. Methods A total of 342 patients were included, and the follow-up period was 56 weeks for each formulation. Anaemia parameters and doses of ESA and IV iron were prospectively recorded before and after the switch from generic to original IV iron. Results To maintain the same haemoglobin (Hb) levels after switching from the generic to the original formulation, the requirements for IV iron doses were reduced by 34.3% (from 52.8±33.9 to 34.7±31.8mg/week, p<0.001), and the ESA doses were also decreased by 12.5% (from 30.6±23.6 to 27±21μg/week, p<0.001). The erythropoietin resistance index declined from 8.4±7.7 to 7.4±6.7 IU/kg/week/g/dl after the switch from the generic to the original drug (p = 0.001). After the switch, the transferrin saturation ratio (TSAT) and serum ferritin levels rose by 6.8%(p<0.001) and 12.4%(p = 0.001), respectively. The mortality rate was similar for both periods. Conclusions The iron and ESA requirements are lower with the original IV iron compared to the generic drug. In addition, the uses of the original formulation results in higher ferritin and TSAT levels despite the lower dose of IV iron. Further studies are necessary to analyse the adverse effects of higher IV iron dosages. PMID:26322790

  5. INTRAVENOUS IRON-SUCROSE COMPLEX THERAPY IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA- A STUDY IN TERTIARY CENTRE

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    Todak Taba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy continues to be a major public health problem with 54.96% of the pregnant population suffering from it in our setup. Despite the National Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme, anaemia complicating pregnancy continues to be a widespread problem with adverse effects on maternal and foetal outcome. The aim of the study is to find out an alternate iron therapy in the form of intravenous iron-sucrose and to determine its therapeutic effectiveness, safety and compliance in the management of anaemic expectant mother and to compare it with that of conventional oral iron therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Imphal. 100 pregnant women in second or third trimester with mild or moderate anaemia were selected, 50 as study group (intravenous iron and 50 as controls (oral iron. Initial evaluation included complete blood count and serum ferritin level and reevaluated on the 14th and 28th day of initiation of therapy. RESULTS Majority of patients (42% in the study as well as control group were between 26-30 years of age. The mean ± SD increase in haemoglobin and ferritin levels on 28th day were 2.66 ± 0.34 gm/dL and 27.65 ± 1.80 ng/mL in study group and 1.55 ± 0.23 gm/dL and 16.89 ± 0.76 ng/mL in control group respectively, both of which were statistically significant. CONCLUSION The mean haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels throughout the treatment were significantly higher in the intravenous ironsucrose group than in the orally administered iron group and significantly higher number of patients achieved the target haemoglobin of 11.0 gm/dL after 28 days of treatment. This reduces the blood transfusion rates in pregnant women with severe anaemia near term.

  6. Short-term effect of preoperative intravenous iron therapy in colorectal cancer patients with anemia: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Michael Jordi; Dekker, Jan Willem; Bruns, Emma; Borstlap, Wernard; Jeekel, Johannes; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Schipperus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In the treatment of preoperative anemia, which is associated with increased postoperative morbidity, iron supplementation can replace blood transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of preoperative intravenous (IV) iron infusion in optimizing

  7. Prevention of blood transfusion with intravenous iron in gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athibovonsuk, Punnada; Manchana, Tarinee; Sirisabya, Nakarin

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of intravenous iron and oral iron for prevention of blood transfusions in gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Sixty-four non anemic gynecologic cancer patients receiving adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy were stratified and randomized according to baseline hemoglobin levels and chemotherapy regimen. The study group received 200mg of intravenous iron sucrose immediately after each chemotherapy infusion. The control group received oral ferrous fumarate at a dose of 200mg three times a day. Complete blood count was monitored before each chemotherapy infusion. Blood transfusions were given if hemoglobin level was below 10mg/dl. There were 32 patients in each group. No significant differences in baseline hemoglobin levels and baseline characteristics were demonstrated between both groups. Nine patients (28.1%) in the study group and 18 patients (56.3%) in the control group required blood transfusion through 6 cycles of chemotherapy (p=0.02). Fewer median number of total packed red cell units were required in the study group compared to the control group (0 and 0.5 unit, respectively, p=0.04). Serious adverse events and hypersensitivity reactions were not reported. However, constipation was significantly higher in the control group (3.1% and 40.6%, p=gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, associated with less constipation than the oral formulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion versus red blood cell transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A

    2017-01-01

    ) isomaltoside or RBC transfusion (n = 6). Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and blood samples were drawn at inclusion, daily during the first week and at weeks 3, 8 and 12. RESULTS: We screened 162 women and included 13 (8......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no randomized trials comparing intravenous iron to RBC transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of randomizing women with severe postpartum anaemia secondary to postpartum...... haemorrhage to RBC transfusion or intravenous iron, and to describe patient-reported outcomes, and haematological and iron parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with a postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 1000 ml and an Hb between 5·6 and 8·1 g/dl were randomized to 1500 mg of intravenous iron (n = 7...

  9. Management of inflammatory bowel disease-related anemia and iron deficiency with specific reference to the role of intravenous iron in current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Aksan, Ayşegül; Farrag, Karima; Dignass, Axel; Radeke, Heinfried H

    2017-11-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, impacting disease prognosis, morbidity, hospitalization rates and time lost from work. While iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic inflammation predominate, combinations of hematimetric and biochemical markers facilitate the diagnosis and targeted therapy of other etiologies according to their underlying pathophysiological causes. Intravenous iron replacement is currently recommended in IBD patients with moderate to severe anemia or intolerance to oral iron. Areas covered: This review examines the impact, pathophysiology and diagnostics of iron deficiency and anemia, compares the characteristics and safety profiles of available oral and intravenous iron preparations, and highlights issues which require consideration in decision making for therapy administration and monitoring. Expert opinion: Modern intravenous iron formulations have been shown to be safe and effective in IBD patients, allowing rapid anemia correction and repletion of iron stores. While traditional oral iron preparations are associated with increased inflammation, negative effects on the microbiome, and poor tolerance and compliance, first clinical trial data indicate that newer oral compounds such as ferric maltol and sucrosomial iron offer improved tolerability and may thus offer a viable alternative for the future.

  10. Intravenous Iron Dextran as a Component of Anemia Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report of Safety and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenar Yessayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to demonstrate safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID during treatment of anemic stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Methods. Efficacy data was obtained by retrospective chart review of 150 consecutively enrolled patients. Patients were assigned per protocol to oral or IV iron, with IV iron given to those with lower iron stores and/or hemoglobin. Iron and darbepoetin were administered to achieve and maintain hemoglobin at 10–12 g/dL. Efficacy endpoints were mean hemoglobin and change in iron indices approximately 30 and 60 days after enrollment. Safety data was obtained by retrospective review of reported adverse drug events (ADEs following 1699 infusions of LMWID (0.5–1.0 g. Results. Mean hemoglobin, iron saturation, and ferritin increased significantly from baseline to 60 days in patients assigned to LMWID (hemoglobin: 11.3 versus 9.4 g/dL; iron saturation: 24% versus 12.9%; ferritin: 294.7 versus 134.7 ng/mL; all . Iron stores and hemoglobin were maintained in the group assigned to oral iron. Of 1699 iron dextran infusions, three ADEs occurred. Conclusions. Treatment of anemia in CKD stages 3 and 4 with LMWID and darbepoetin is efficacious. The serious ADE rate was 0.06% per infusion.

  11. Optimizing preoperative haemoglobin in major orthopaedic surgery using intravenous iron with or without erythropoietin. An epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basora, M; Colomina, M J; Tio, M; Mora, L; Sánchez-Etayo, G; Salazar, F; Ciércoles, E; Paños, M; Guerrero, E; Berge, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous iron treatment, with or without associated erythropoietin (rHuEPO), measured as haemoglobin (Hb) increase. The relationships between the Hb increase and parameters used to evaluate anaemia were analysed. Retrospective observational study carried out in two third-level hospitals between January 2005 and December 2009. The study included patients with iron deficiency anaemia scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery and treated with intravenous iron sucrose alone or associated with rHuEPO. Treatment efficacy was analysed based on the Hb increase from baseline to just before surgery. A total of 412 patients who received a median of 800mg of iron sucrose were included; 125 of them (30.4%) additionally received 2.4 vials of rHuEPO. The Hb increase was 0.8 (1.1) g/dL in patients treated with intravenous iron and 1.5 (1.3) g/dL in those additionally given rHuEPO(P<.01). The percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (r=0.52) and soluble transferrin receptor (r=0.59) value were significantly correlated to the Hb increase in patients receiving iron. In patients with iron deficiency anaemia, the effectiveness of iron sucrose treatment to optimize Hb before surgery was moderate; adjuvant administration of erythropoietin improved the results. Determination of functional iron status parameters may improve the treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron Supplementation, Response in Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Analysis of Five Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okam, Maureen M; Koch, Todd A; Tran, Minh-Ha

    2017-08-01

    Oral iron-replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for iron-deficiency anemia, but it is often poorly tolerated or ineffective. Hemoglobin response at day 14 of oral iron may be useful in assessing whether and when to transition patients from oral to intravenous (IV) iron. Pooled data from 5 randomized trials were analyzed to compare oral and IV iron-replacement therapy for iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment criteria and assignment to oral versus IV iron were defined per protocol; this analysis included only subjects receiving oral iron. Responders were subjects with ≥1.0-g/dL increases in hemoglobin at day 14, and nonresponders were those with smaller increases. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated for association with hemoglobin response at multiple timepoints. Most subjects (72.8%) were classified as responders. The proportion of subjects with hemoglobin increases ≥1.0, ≥2.0, and ≥3.0 g/dL was greatest among those with postpartum anemia, intermediate among those with heavy uterine bleeding or gastrointestinal-related causes of anemia, and lowest among those with other causes; this proportion was also significantly greater among responders than nonresponders. A ≥1.0-g/dL increase in hemoglobin on day 14 most accurately predicted satisfactory overall hemoglobin response to oral iron on day 42/56 (sensitivity 90.1%; specificity 79.3%; positive and negative predictive values of 92.9% and 72.7%, respectively). Iron-replacement therapy improved quality of life and reduced fatigue. Hemoglobin responses <1.0 g/dL at day 14 of oral iron identify subjects with iron-deficiency anemia who should be transitioned to IV iron supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation in lung tissue of rats exposed to different intravenous iron compounds

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    Toblli JE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli,1 Gabriel Cao,1 Jorge F Giani,2 Fernando P Dominici,2 Margarita Angerosa1 1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Institute of Chemistry and Biophysics-Biochemistry (UBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is a frequent complication in clinical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and excessive blood loss. Given the ability of iron to catalyze redox reactions, iron therapy can be associated with oxidative stress. The lung is uniquely susceptible to oxidative stress, and little is known about the effects of intravenous iron treatment in this organ. This study characterized changes in markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation in the lung of non-iron deficient, non-anemic rats treated with five weekly doses (40 mg iron per kg body weight of low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID, iron sucrose (IS, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, ferumoxytol (FMX, iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM, or saline (control. Rats treated with LMWID, FMX, or IIM showed significant changes in most measures of oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and iron deposition compared to the saline-treated controls, with greatest changes in the LMWID treatment group. Increases in products of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein nitrosation (nitrotyrosine were consistent with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, Cu,Zn-SOD, GPx, decreases in antioxidative capacity (reduced:oxidized GSH ratio, increased levels of transcription factors involved in the inflammatory pathway (NF-κB, HIF-1α, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, markers of macrophage infiltration (ED-1, and iron deposition (Prussian blue, ferritin. Since changes in measured

  14. Efficacy of Intravenous Iron Sucrose in Hemodialysis Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghui; Wu, Jinglin; Jia, Qiang

    2017-03-12

    BACKGROUND Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder in hemodialysis (HD) patients that causes sleep disturbances and diminished quality of life. Because iron deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of RLS, we sought to investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) iron sucrose on symptoms of RLS in HD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of 1000 mg iron sucrose versus normal saline as placebo. Patients were evaluated at baseline and 2 weeks after the last injection. The severity of RLS was assessed using the International RLS Study Group rating scale (IRLS). Blood samples were taken to measure iron parameters reflecting the iron status, including serum ferritin (SF) concentration, percentage transferrin saturation (TSAT%) and hemoglobin (Hb), and other biochemical parameters as safety assessments, including creatinine (Cr), urea, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and the index of urea clearance (Kt/V). Adverse events were monitored in all subjects during the period of infusion. RESULTS After 2 weeks, IRLS scores decreased more in the IV-iron group (-7.38±2.03) than in the placebo group (-0.81±2.61) (P=0.000). Serum ferritin, TSAT, and hemoglobin increased more in the IV-iron group (227.63±77.64 µg/L; 26.06±7.77%; 13.98±3.62g/L, respectively) than in the placebo group (SF, p=0.000; TSAT, p=0.000; Hb, p=0.000, respectively). There were no significant differences between IV-iron and placebo groups in Cr, urea, iPTH, and Kt/V. No adverse effects were observed in the study. CONCLUSIONS IV iron sucrose is a safe and effective treatment for reducing RLS symptoms in HD patients over the short-term.

  15. Economic evaluation of intravenous iron treatments in the management of anemia patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragoulakis V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vassilis Fragoulakis1, Georgia Kourlaba1, Dimitris Goumenos2, Manousos Konstantoulakis3, Nikolaos Maniadakis11Department of Health Services Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, 2Department of Medicine University Hospital of Patras, Patras, 3Department of Medicine, Athens Medical School, Athens, GreecePurpose: To conduct an economic evaluation comparing Ferinject® (ferric carboxymaltose [FCM] with Venofer® (iron sucrose [IS] and CosmoFer® (low-molecular-weight iron dextran [LMWID] in the management of iron deficiency anemia in Greece.Patients and methods: A cost-minimization analysis was conducted since there are no clear data indicating that one of these regimens is superior to the others in terms of efficacy. Main data inputs were based on bibliography and validated by clinicians. The economic evaluation was conducted for inpatients (ie, surgical patients or patients hospitalized due to a disease related to chronic or acute blood loss and outpatients (eg, nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients, separately. Analysis was carried out from a National Health Service (NHS perspective and also from a patient perspective. Total cost treatment reflects the cost of drugs, the cost of all resources expended in patient management such as the cost of disposables for each infusion, the monitoring costs during infusion (salaries of personnel, other hospital expenses, the cost for management of adverse events, the productivity loss, and the traveling cost for patients.Results: In the case of outpatients, the mean total cost per patient in the FCM arm was €198.6, in the IS arm €627.7, and in the LMWID arm, €510.5. For inpatients the mean total cost was estimated at €189.2 for FCM while it was €419.9 and €228.8 for IS and LMWID, respectively. Budget impact analysis for a typical Greek hospital with 100 patients revealed that the total cost of FCM (inpatients analysis was 113% and 15.4% lower against their comparators. In an

  16. [Intravenous iron, functional recovery and delirium in patients with hip fracture. FEDEREF study. Single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial. 2014-001923-53: EudraCT number].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza Galindo, Rafael; Llorente Gutiérrez, Jesús; Pérez González, José Luis; Mora Casado, Asunción; Blanco Díaz, David; Escalera Alonso, Javier; Morales Fernández, Adoración; Molano Ortiz, Cristina; García López, Beredys Esmirla; Del Amo Del Arco, Nazaret; Barro Ordovas, Juan Pablo; Arias Muñana, Estefanía; Neira Álvarez, Marta; Sanz Rosa, David; Gómez Cerezo, Jorge Fco

    There are no previous studies evaluating the effect of intravenous iron therapy on functional and cognitive status of patients with hip fracture (HF). A single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel treatment, clinical trial has been designed to assess the efficacy of intravenous iron therapy during the peri-operative period in elderly patients suffering from a HF. Blinding will be ensured by the packaging of the drug infusion system. On days 1, 3, and 5 from admission, the intervention group will receive 200mg Venofer® (iron sucrose) diluted in 100ml saline, and the control group 100ml saline, also on days 1, 3 and 5. Patients will received conventional treatment in ortho-geriatric unit of the Hospital Infanta Sofia. Functional variables (activities of daily living and walking), cognitive (cognitive status and delirium), surgical, demographic and clinical characteristics will be collected during admission in order to assess the impact of treatment. A safety analysis of the treatment will also performed. Patients will be followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The study will attempt to provide evidence on the impact of the intravenous iron administration on functional recovery. It will be determined whether iron therapy negatively affects the incidence of post-operative delirium. Finally, report will be presented on the safety data of intravenous iron in elderly HF patients, as well as the impact on allogenic blood transfusion savings. The inclusion of elderly HF patients admitted to an ortho-geriatric unit, in a clinical trial, will help to improve the knowledge of the treatment impact on a usual scenario, and provide useful data for use in other units. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. High incidence of iron depletion and restless leg syndrome (RLS) in regular blood donors: intravenous iron sucrose substitution more effective than oral iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Schneider, K; Ulfberg, J

    2010-11-01

    Iron depletion is common in regular blood donors. The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency and severity of iron depletion in regular blood donors and whether IV iron is more effective than oral to avoid iron depletion and symptoms thereof, especially restless legs syndrome (RLS). One hundred and twenty blood donors with at least five previous whole blood donations were randomized to receive either IV iron sucrose (Venofer(®), RenaPharma/Vifor, Uppsala, Sweden), 200 mg, or to 20×100 mg of oral iron sulphate (Duroferon(®), GlaxoSmithKline, Stockholm, Sweden), after each blood donation during 1 year. Iron status and RLS incidence and severity were investigated. Iron status was generally poor among regular blood donors, especially in women, with a high incidence of iron depletion (>20%) and RLS (18%). The IV iron group increased storage iron to a greater extent than the oral iron group after 12 months (P=0·0043). Female donors were more responsive to IV iron sucrose compared to oral iron sulphate, particularly female donors below 50 years of age. RLS severity scores were significantly lower in the IV iron group. The two treatments were safe. Iron status is poor in regular blood donors, restless legs syndrome is common, and the routine iron supplementation is insufficient. IV iron sucrose substitutes iron loss in blood donors more efficiently compared with oral iron sulphate, especially in women. Iron substitution to blood donors should be individualized and based on P-ferritin monitoring. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. A budget impact analysis of parenteral iron treatments for iron deficiency anemia in the UK: reduced resource utilization with iron isomaltoside 1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock RF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard F Pollock,1 Gorden Muduma2 1Ossian Health Economics and Communications GmbH, Basel, Switzerland; 2Pharmacosmos A/S, Holbaek, Denmark Background and aims: The reported prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA varies widely but estimates suggest that 3% of men and 8% of women have IDA in the UK. Parenteral iron is indicated for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron or requiring rapid iron replenishment. This study evaluated differences in the cost of treating these patients with iron isomaltoside (Monofer®, IIM relative to other intravenous iron formulations. Methods: A budget impact model was developed to evaluate the cost of using IIM relative to ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject®, FCM, low molecular weight iron dextran (Cosmofer®, LMWID, and iron sucrose (Venofer®, IS in patients with IDA. To establish iron need, iron deficits were modeled using a simplified dosing table. The base case analysis was conducted over 1 year in patients with IDA with mean bodyweight of 82.4 kg (SD 22.5 kg and hemoglobin levels of 9.99 g/dL (SD 1.03 g/dL based on an analysis of patient characteristics in IDA trials. Costs were modeled using UK health care resource groups. Results: Using IIM required 1.3 infusions to correct the mean iron deficit, compared with 1.3, 1.8, and 7.7 with LMWID, FCM, and IS, respectively. Patients using IIM required multiple infusions in 35% of cases, compared with 35%, 77%, and 100% of patients with LMWID, FCM, and IS, respectively. Total costs were estimated to be GBP 451 per patient with IIM or LMWID, relative to GBP 594 with FCM (a GBP 143 or 24% saving with IIM or GBP 2,600 with IS (a GBP 2,149 or 83% saving with IIM. Conclusion: Using IIM or LMWID in place of FCM or IS resulted in a marked reduction in the number of infusions required to correct iron deficits in patients with IDA. The reduction in infusions was accompanied by substantial reductions in cost relative to FCM and IS over 1 year. Keywords: iron

  19. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered by high single-dose infusions or standard medical care for the treatment of fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Norgaard, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    randomised controlled studies have compared the clinical efficacy and safety of standard medical care with intravenous administration of iron supplementation after postpartum haemorrhage.The primary objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of an intravenous high single-dose of iron isomaltoside...... medical care. Healthy parturients with a singleton pregnancy will be included within 48 hours after delivery.Participants will complete structured questionnaires that focus on several dimensions of fatigue and mental health (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...... Inventory. The primary objective will be considered to have been met if an intravenous high single dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 is shown to be superior to standard medical care in women after postpartum haemorrhage regarding physical fatigue.For claiming superiority, we set the minimal clinically relevant...

  20. Differences in the reporting rates of serious allergic adverse events from intravenous iron by country and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, George R; Verhoef, Jan-Jaap

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have compared rates of adverse events between intravenous (IV) iron preparations; however, there has been no comparison of adverse event rates by country and population. To compare rates of adverse events to IV iron products by country and population. All adverse events reported from 18 countries from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2009 were obtained for iron dextran (ID), iron sucrose (IS), IS similars (ISS), and sodium ferric gluconate (FG). Rates of all adverse events and serious adverse events (anaphylaxis plus other serious allergic reactions) were calculated as number of events per gram of iron sold (gFe) per million inhabitants (mil) × 10-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the risks of adverse events between products. Iron use ranged from 1 gFe/mil (Poland) to 48,674 gFe/mil (Italy). Rates of all adverse events (reports/gFe/mil × 10-3) varied: for IS, it ranged from 0 (Poland, Austria, Czech Republic) to 1,222 (Ireland); for FG, from 3.3 (Czech Republic) to 183.6 (United States); for ID, from 0.9 (Turkey) to 46,875 (Switzerland). There were no reports of adverse events in ISS. In a subset of countries that used 2 or more iron products and had more than 1 serious adverse event, rates (reports/gFe/mil × 10-3) of all adverse events and serious adverse events were lowest for IS (39.8 and 1.7), intermediate for FG (54.8 and 4.5), and greatest for ID (337.7 and 20.5). IS had lower risks for all adverse events (OR, 0.63; PID. FG had lower risks for all adverse events (OR, 0.20; PID. Considerable international variation existed in the extent and choice of iron product and adverse event reporting, suggesting under-reporting in some instances. Clinicians should appreciate the differential risks between available products, and should critically review local reporting practices.

  1. Intravenous iron replacement therapy in eugonadal males with iron-deficiency anemia: Effects on pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters; A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate semen parameters and to assess serum FSH, LH, Testosterone (T concentrations before and 12 weeks after intravenous iron therapy (800-1200 mg elemental iron therapy - IVI in adults with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA. Materials and Methods: We studied 11 eugonadal adults with IDA, aged 40 ± 5 years, due to defective intake of iron. Anemia was diagnosed when hemoglobin (Hb was equal or below 10 g/dl. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC and ferritin concentrations confirmed the diagnosis of IDA. Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T were measured. Semen parameters were evaluated before and 6-7 weeks after IVI therapy. Results: After IVI therapy and correction of anemia, a significant increase of Hb from 8.1 ± 1.17 g/dL to 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL was observed and was associated with an increase of T (from 12.22 ± 1.4 nmol/L to 15.9 ± 0.96 nmol/L; P < 0.001, FSH (from 2.82 ± 0.87 to 3.82 ± 1.08 IU/L; P = 0.007, and LH (from 2.27 ± 0.9 to 3.82 ± 1.5 IU/L; P = 0.0002. Total sperm count (TSC increased significantly from 72 ± 17.5 million/ml to 158 ± 49 million/mL (P < 0.001, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM increased from 22 ± 9.4 to 69 ± 30 million/ml (P < 0.001, and sperms with normal morphology (NM increased from 33 ± 5 to 56 ± 7 million/ml (P < 0.001. Increment in Hb concentration was correlated significantly with LH, FSH, and T concentrations after IVI (r = 0.69 and r = 0.44, r = 0.75, respectively; P < 0.01. The increment in serum T was correlated significantly with increments in the TSC and total sperm motility and RPM (r = 0.66, 0.43, and 0.55, respectively; P < 0.001 but not with gonadotrophin levels. Conclusion: Our study proved for the first time, to our knowledge, that correction of IDA with IVI is associated with significant enhancement of sperm parameters and increased concentrations of serum LH, FSH, and T. These effects on spermatogenesis are reached by an unknown mechanism and

  2. Synthesis and analysis of some iron vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, H.; Salah Eldin, E.; Mohammed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous sulfate tablets and syrup were prepared according to the pharmaceutical methods. Two types of biologically related iron salts, namely ferrous citrate and glycinate were prepared as potential iron supplements. The quantitative analysis of iron in these samples was determined using two techniques, atomic absorption spectrophotometery and uv-visible spectroscopy. The amount of iron was found to be 0.52-0.60 mg in tablet and 0.805-0.840g/100 ml in the syrup respectively. The percentage of Fe in the two ferrous citrate samples and ferrous glycinate sample were found to be 88.65%, 26.22% and 60.63% respectively. (Author)

  3. Monosodium glutamate for simple photometric iron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    Simple photometric method for iron analysis using monosodium glutamate (MSG) was proposed. The method could be used as an alternative method, which was technically simple, economic, quantitative, readily available, scientifically sound and environmental friendly. Rapid reaction of iron (III) with glutamate in sodium chloride-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH 2) to form red-brown complex was served as a basis in the photometric determination, which obeyed the range of iron (III) concentration 1.6 – 80 µg/ml. This method could be applied to determine iron concentration in soil with satisfactory results (accuracy and precision) compared to other photometric and atomic absorption spectrometry results.

  4. Rapid excretion of gallium-67 isotope in an iron-overloaded patient receiving high-dose intravenous deferoxamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.L.; Manno, C.S.

    1988-12-01

    A 23 year-old black male with homozygous sickle cell disease (Hb SS disease) and transfusional iron overload was admitted for evaluation of response to intravenous deferoxamine (DFO) therapy. Soon after admission, the patient suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and during his subsequent hospitalization developed a persistent fever of undetermined origin (f.u.o.). Included in the diagnostic evaluation of fever was a gallium 67 scan (Ga-67), which was initially nondiagnostic because of Ga-67 citrate's preferential chelation by DFO. After DFO was discontinued, a repeat scan demonstrated a lesion above the left kidney. To our knowledge the unusual interaction in vivo of DFO with Ga-67 citrate has not been reported in the clinical literature. With the anticipated increased use of chelation therapy for patients with transfusional iron overload, this interaction may be encountered more frequently. DFO should be discontinued before the use of Ga-67 scanning in this clinical situation, or an alternative isotopic scan, such as indium-labelled white cells, should be considered.

  5. [Failure mode effect analysis applied to preparation of intravenous cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Rubio, M D; Marín-Gil, R; Muñoz-de la Corte, R; Velázquez-López, M D; Gil-Navarro, M V; Bautista-Paloma, F J

    2016-01-01

    To proactively identify risks in the preparation of intravenous cytostatic drugs, and to prioritise and establish measures to improve safety procedures. Failure Mode Effect Analysis methodology was used. A multidisciplinary team identified potential failure modes of the procedure through a brainstorming session. The impact associated with each failure mode was assessed with the Risk Priority Number (RPN), which involves three variables: occurrence, severity, and detectability. Improvement measures were established for all identified failure modes, with those with RPN>100 considered critical. The final RPN (theoretical) that would result from the proposed measures was also calculated and the process was redesigned. A total of 34 failure modes were identified. The initial accumulated RPN was 3022 (range: 3-252), and after recommended actions the final RPN was 1292 (range: 3-189). RPN scores >100 were obtained in 13 failure modes; only the dispensing sub-process was free of critical points (RPN>100). A final reduction of RPN>50% was achieved in 9 failure modes. This prospective risk analysis methodology allows the weaknesses of the procedure to be prioritised, optimize use of resources, and a substantial improvement in the safety of the preparation of cytostatic drugs through the introduction of double checking and intermediate product labelling. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Optoelectronic iron detectors for pharmaceutical flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkowska, Natalia; Koncki, Robert; Strzelak, Kamil

    2017-10-25

    Compact flow-through optoelectronic detectors fabricated by pairing of light emitting diodes have been applied for development of economic flow analysis systems dedicated for iron ions determination. Three analytical methods with different chromogens selectively recognizing iron ions have been compared. Ferrozine and ferene S based methods offer higher sensitivity and slightly lower detection limits than method with 1,10-phenantroline, but narrower ranges of linear response. Each system allows detection of iron in micromolar range of concentration with comparable sample throughput (20 injections per hour). The developed flow analysis systems have been successfully applied for determination of iron in diet supplements. The utility of developed analytical systems for iron release studies from drug formulations has also been demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential protein analysis of serum exosomes post-intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Qi-Fang; Jin, Jing-Jie; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhou-Ping; Xie, Xiao-Fei; Gu, Xiao-Qiong; Gao, Xue-Juan; Jia, Hong-Ling

    2017-11-01

    Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function. Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  8. Disturbance of ion environment and immune regulation following biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles injected intravenously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jong Sung

    2016-01-22

    Although it is expected that accumulation of metal oxide nanoparticles that can induce redox reaction in the biological system may influence ion homeostasis and immune regulation through generation of free radicals, the relationship is still unclear. In this study, mice received magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (M-FeNPs, 2 and 4 mg/kg) a single via the tail vein, and their distribution in tissues was investigated over time (1, 4, and 13 weeks). In addition, we evaluated the effects on homeostasis of redox reaction-related elements, the ion environment and immune regulation. The iron level in tissues reached at the maximum on 4 weeks after injection and M-FeNPs the most distributed in the spleen at 13 weeks. Additionally, levels of redox reaction-related elements in tissues were notably altered since 1 week post-injection. While levels of K(+) and Na(+) in tissue tended to decrease with time, Ca(2+) levels reached to the maximum at 4 weeks post-injection. On 13 weeks post-injection, the increased percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils, the enhanced release of LDH, and the elevated secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 were clearly observed in the blood of M-FeNP-treated mice compared to the control. While expression of antigen presentation related-proteins and the maturation of dendritic cells were markedly inhibited following distribution of M-FeNPs, the expression of several chemokines, including CXCR2, CCR5, and CD123, was enhanced on the splenocytes of the treated groups. Taken together, we suggest that accumulation of M-FeNPs may induce adverse health effects by disturbing homeostasis of the immune regulation and ion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety analysis of an ancient iron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Young Gak; Yoon, Byeng Hyun; Lim, Jae Kyun; Lee, Sung Bum

    2002-01-01

    Safety analysis of an ancient iron structure, Danggan, constructed over than a thousand years ago was performed. The structure is consisted of 24 iron cylinders of which the total height is about 15.4 m. The analysis was done by the ultrasonic test to measure thickness of each cylinder, the radiographic test to investigate the inside of cylinders, the measurement of inclination of the structure and the structural analysis to estimate the stress level applied by the wind. Results showed that Danggan structure was on state being well safe at present, but it could be dangerous when the inclination of the structure becomes severely progressive.

  10. Analysis of nucleation modelling in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tutum, Cem Celal; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of nodular graphite at inclusions in ductile iron during eutectic solidification has been investigated. The experimental part of this work deals with casting of ductile iron samples with two different inoculants in four different thicknesses. Chemical analysis, metallogra...

  11. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic 59Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Severin, Gregory; Andreasen, Hans B.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial iron supplements Monofer((R)) and Cosmofer((R)) were intrinsically radiolabeled with Fe-59 for the purpose of tracing iron absorption in vivo. Optimized procedures aimed at introducing Fe-59 into the macromolecular construct in a form that was as chemically equivalent to the matrix iron...... as possible. This was determined by challenging the labeled constructs with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) followed by separation by size-exclusion and measurements of radioactivity and iron in the eluted fractions. The final procedures were simple and involved heating aqueous dispersions...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  13. [Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics in decompensated heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ying-ying; Tang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping

    2013-08-13

    To explore whether ultrafiltration is superior to intravenous diuretics in ameliorating fluid overload and preserving renal functions in decompensated heart failure patients. By searching in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Springer, WanFang, CQVIP, CNKI and CBM database as well as related Chinese journals, qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for meta-analysis by Revman 5.0 and STATA 10.0. Six RCTs were included with 241 patients in ultrafiltration group and 240 patients in intravenous diuretics group. Pooled analyses demonstrated ultrafiltration was superior to intravenous diuretics in the aspects of weight loss (WMD = 1.44 kg, 95%CI:0.33-2.55 kg, P = 0.01) and fluid removal (WMD = 1.23 kg, 95%CI:0.63-1.82 kg, P diuretics in mitigating fluid overload. No intergroup difference was observed in renal function preservation, mortality or rehospitalization.

  14. Beneficial effects of long-term intravenous iron therapy with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with symptomatic heart failure and iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponikowski, Piotr; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Ertl, Georg; Komajda, Michel; Mareev, Viacheslav; McDonagh, Theresa; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Tavazzi, Luigi; Levesque, Victoria; Mori, Claudio; Roubert, Bernard; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ruschitzka, Frank; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and safety of long-term i.v. iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and results CONFIRM-HF was a multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 304 ambulatory symptomatic HF patients with

  15. Preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids can reduce postoperative acute pain following total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangcheng; Liu, Jinglong; Sun, Ganghe

    2017-09-01

    The ability of preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids to control pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been examined in many studies, but it remains controversial. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids for postoperative pain management after TKA. We systematically searched RCTs from electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Wanfang Database, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. The outcomes included visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after TKA; the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV); blood glucose at 6 and 24 hours after TKA; and the occurrence of infection. Of the identified studies, a total of 11 RCTs involving 1000 patients (glucocorticoids = 501, control = 499) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with a placebo, preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids significantly reduced VAS scores at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, with decreases of 3.63 points, 6.81 points, 10.40 points, and 3.15 points, respectively, on a 110-point VAS. Moreover, intravenous glucocorticoids were associated with significant decreases of 19.4% and 16.8% in the occurrence of nausea and vomiting, respectively. However, intravenous glucocorticoids were also associated with increased blood glucose with no clinical importance at 6 hours after TKA. No significant difference was found in the occurrence of infection or in blood glucose at 24 hours after TKA. Preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids are an effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and PONV in patients following TKA. More studies are necessary to identify the optimal dose and type of glucocorticoids for maximal pain control.

  16. Combined intravenous and topical tranexamic acid versus intravenous use alone in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jie; Wang, Haibo; Zheng, Bai; Rui, Min; Wang, Yehua

    2016-12-01

    The tranexamic acid (TXA) can reduce surgical perioperative blood loss. However, the optimal regimen of tranexamic acid remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of combined intravenous and topical tranexamic acid versus intravenous use alone in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty. PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane library and OVID were searched. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating combined intravenous and topical TXA versus intravenous alone in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty were included. The relative risk (RR) or the mean difference (MD) for dichotomous or continuous data was calculated respectively, and heterogeneity was analyzed by chi-square and I 2 tests. A total of five RCTs met the inclusion criteria were included. The meta-analysis indicated that there was statistically significant difference favoring the combined group in total blood loss(MD = -160.90, 95% CI[-201.26, -120.54]), P transfusion requirements(RR = 0.29, 95% CI[0.12,0.70], P = 0.006) and length of hospital stays (MD = -0.21, 95%CI[-0.40, -0.02], P = 0.03). Both groups showed similar outcomes regarding thromboembolic complications(RR = 0.84, 95% CI[0.26,2.70], P = 0.76). Based on our study, Combined use of intravenous and topical TXA is more effective than intravenous TXA alone in primary total knee or hip arthroplasty without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications. Further high quality studies with more patients are needed in future studies. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients with Iron Deficiency at a Hospital Outpatient Clinic: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Real-World Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Robalo Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM is an intravenous iron formulation to correct iron deficiency. Although its use has been extensively studied in clinical trials, real-world evidence regarding FCM treatment is scarce. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of FCM treatment in patients with iron deficiency, with or without anemia, at a hospital outpatient clinic. Data was collected retrospectively from medical records. During this 2-year study, 459 patients were included. Mean age was 58.6 ± 17.5 years and most patients received cumulative FCM doses of 501–1000 mg (63.2%. Six weeks after administration of FCM, efficacy endpoints hemoglobin increase ≥2 g/dL, hemoglobin increase ≥3 g/dL, and transferrin saturation > 20% were attained by 41%, 20%, and 63% of patients, respectively. Patients who received higher FCM doses showed significant reduced odds of not achieving hemoglobin increase ≥2 g/dL (501–1000 mg, adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.62; 1001–3000 mg, OR: 0.19, 95% CI 0.07–0.49, compared to 500 mg doses. Treatment-emergent adverse events were documented in <4% of patients. In conclusion, FCM treatment was effective and well-tolerated by outpatients with iron deficiency at a hospital clinic, and its dosage should be adjusted to improve iron deficiency management in clinical practice.

  18. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  19. A metabolomic analysis of two intravenous lipid emulsions in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Kalish

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition (PN, including intravenous lipid administration, is a life-saving therapy but can be complicated by cholestasis and liver disease. The administration of intravenous soy bean oil (SO has been associated with the development of liver disease, while the administration of intravenous fish oil (FO has been associated with the resolution of liver disease. The biochemical mechanism of this differential effect is unclear. This study compares SO and FO lipid emulsions in a murine model of hepatic steatosis, one of the first hits in PN-associated liver disease.We established a murine model of hepatic steatosis in which liver injury is induced by orally feeding mice a PN solution. C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive PN alone (a high carbohydrate diet (HCD, PN plus intravenous FO (Omegaven®; Fresenius Kabi AG, Bad Homburg VDH, Germany, PN plus intravenous SO (Intralipid®; Fresenius Kabi AG, Bad Homburg v.d.H., Germany, for Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, or a chow diet. After 19 days, liver tissue was harvested from all animals and subjected to metabolomic profiling.The administration of an oral HCD without lipid induced profound hepatic steatosis. SO was associated with macro- and microvesicular hepatic steatosis, while FO largely prevented the development of steatosis. 321 detectable compounds were identified in the metabolomic analysis. HCD induced de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidative stress. Both FO and SO relieved some of the metabolic shift towards de novo lipogenesis, but FO offered additional advantages in terms of lipid peroxidation and the generation of inflammatory precursors.Improved lipid metabolism combined with reduced oxidative stress may explain the protective effect offered by intravenous FO in vivo.

  20. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  1. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  2. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  4. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  5. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  6. Intravenous iron administration for post-operative anaemia management after colorectal cancer surgery in clinical practice: a single-centre, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso-Morales, María Jesús; Vives, Roser; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Pallisera-Lloveras, Anna; Pontes, Caridad

    2018-03-05

    Evidence on the role of intravenous iron (IVI) supplementation after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery is rather scant. This study was aimed at assessing the benefit of postoperative IVI administration after elective CRC surgery at our institution. This was a single-centre, retrospective observational study including all patients who underwent CRC surgery during 2014. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) <13 g/dL, regardless of gender. Anaemic patients received 200 mg IVI up to three times a week to cover iron deficiency (IVI group). Those who did not receive IVI were placed on standard care (NIVI group). The primary outcome was the proportion of anaemic patients on post-operative day (POD)1 and POD30. Secondary outcomes included Hb changes from POD1 to POD30, transfusion requirements and complication rates. Of the 159 patients studied, 139 (87%) presented with anaemia: 47 (34%) of these received post-operative IVI and 92 (66%) did not. Patients in the IVI group had lower POD1 Hb levels compared to those in the NIVI group (p=0.001). On POD30, only 103 had their Hb measured (34 IVI, 69 NIVI). Anaemia was more prevalent and more severe among the patients in the IVI group (p=0.027), despite their greater increment in Hb (2.0±1.5 g/dL vs 1.1±1.2 g/dL; p=0.001). Eleven patients needed post-operative transfusions (7 IVI, 4 NIVI; p=0.044). There were no differences in post-operative complication rates between the groups. No IVI-related adverse events were recorded DISCUSSION: Compared with standard care, post-operative IVI administration to anaemic patients improved the recovery of Hb levels at POD30, without increasing post-operative complications.

  7. Usefulness of Iron Deficiency Correction in Management of Patients With Heart Failure [from the Registry Analysis of Iron Deficiency-Heart Failure (RAID-HF) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienbergen, Harm; Pfister, Otmar; Hochadel, Matthias; Michel, Stephan; Bruder, Oliver; Remppis, Björn Andrew; Maeder, Micha Tobias; Strasser, Ruth; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Hambrecht, Rainer

    2016-12-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62.2%), despite participation of the centers in a registry focusing on ID and despite guideline recommendation to determine iron status. In patients with determined iron status, a prevalence of 54.7% (505 patients) for ID was observed. Iron therapy was performed in only 8.5% of the iron-deficient patients with HF; 2.6% were treated with intravenous iron therapy. The patients with iron therapy were characterized by a high rate of symptomatic HF and anemia. In conclusion, despite strong evidence of beneficial effects of iron therapy on symptoms and rehospitalizations, diagnostic and therapeutic efforts on ID in HF are low in the actual clinical practice, and the awareness to diagnose and treat ID in HF should be strongly enforced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of infrared analysis of iron in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, I. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study has concluded that quantitative infrared analysis can be employed to determine the concentration of iron in zircon. The spectral transmission curves have shown that the iron absorption band is located at 1.15 microns. These curves also revealed a second absorption band at 1.49 microns. The source of this second peak is not known; but it exhibits some features which suggest its dependance on natural α-recoil damage. 23 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  9. Comment on Neiser et al. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Claes C; Andreasen, Hans B

    2017-01-10

    All IV iron complexes carry a risk of potentially fatal allergic type hypersensitivity reactions. The mechanism(s) behind these reactions is unknown but the limited data available suggests that classic IgE mediated allergy is exceedingly rare, if ever occurring. Iron-carbohydrate molecules are complex nano-particles and trying to reduce the risk of serious hypersensitivity to antibody binding of an artificial antibody seems meaningless. A recently published analysis of safety data from randomized clinical trials confirms the method reported by Neiser to be useless to predict reaction risk. In conclusion, the study by Neiser et al. is biased, contains no new information, and has no clinical relevance. We are concerned that the association of the authors with a commercial entity has caused a conflict of interest that biases not only the results, but the entire experimental setup against competitors. (Comment on Neiser et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci . 2016 , 17 , 1185, doi:10.3390/ijms17071185).

  10. Efficacy and safety of non-intravenous midazolam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of non-intravenous midazolam for treating status epilepticus (SE in children.  Methods Taking midazolam, status epilepticus and children both in Chinese and English as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data, assisted by manual searching and Google Scholar, in order to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs about non-intravenous midazolam for treating SE in children from January 2000 to January 2015. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literatures. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results There were a total of 258 records after preliminary searching, and 6 RCTs involving 766 episodes were finally included after excluding duplicate ones and those which did not meet the inclusion criteria. The results were as follows: 1 midazolam via intranasal administration was as effective as intravenous diazepam in achieving seizure control in children (RD = -0.070, 95%CI: -0.200—0.060, P = 0.290. However, non-intravenous (intranasal or buccal midazolam showed better effects on seizure control than rectal diazepam (RD = 0.170, 95% CI: 0.030—0.320; P = 0.020. 2 The mean time from arrival at hospital to cessation was not significantly different between intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam (SMD = -1.570, 95%CI: -3.280—0.140; P = 0.070. 3 There was no statistical difference between intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam for the time from giving drug to cessation (SMD = 0.240, 95%CI: -0.110—0.590; P = 0.170. 4 There was no statistical difference on the occurrence rate of adverse drug reactions between non-intravenous midazolam and intravenous or non-intravenous diazepam (RD = -0.010, 95% CI: -0.030—0.200; P = 0.500.  Conclusions Non-intravenous midazolam is safe and effective in the treatment for status epilepticus in children. However, the

  11. X-ray CT analysis on archaeological iron based artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takashi; Gunji, Eiichi

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion analysis was carried out on twenty iron-plates, which had been dug out at the 6th Yamato ancient tomb (Nara-shi). It was evaluated through the inner-structural analysis by X-ray CT and the XRD and chemical analysis of the rusts that the most iron-plates had been buried in a slightly oxidizing environment and the maximum corrosion depth was 1.6 mm for about 1500 years. The analysis result of the extreme-value data indicates that the maximum depth of an overpack is estimated to be 2.5-2.7 mm. A part of small iron-plates were supposed to have been buried in an oxidizing environment, and about 1 mm-thick rust layers with cavities existed and the corrosion amount was figured out to be about 0.3 mm. (author)

  12. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  15. An integrated safety analysis of intravenous ibuprofen (Caldolor® in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southworth SR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephen R Southworth,1 Emily J Woodward,2 Alex Peng,2 Amy D Rock21North Mississippi Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Clinic, PLLC, Tupelo, MS, 2Department of Research and Development, Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc., Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Intravenous (IV nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as IV ibuprofen are increasingly used as a component of multimodal pain management in the inpatient and outpatient settings. The safety of IV ibuprofen as assessed in ten sponsored clinical studies is presented in this analysis. Overall, 1,752 adult patients have been included in safety and efficacy trials over 11 years; 1,220 of these patients have received IV ibuprofen and 532 received either placebo or comparator medication. The incidence of adverse events (AEs, serious AEs, and changes in vital signs and clinically significant laboratory parameters have been summarized and compared to patients receiving placebo or active comparator drug. Overall, IV ibuprofen has been well tolerated by hospitalized and outpatient patients when administered both prior to surgery and postoperatively as well as for nonsurgical pain or fever. The overall incidence of AEs is lower in patients receiving IV ibuprofen as compared to those receiving placebo in this integrated analysis. Specific analysis of hematological and renal effects showed no increased risk for patients receiving IV ibuprofen. A subset analysis of elderly patients suggests that no dose adjustment is needed in this higher risk population. This integrated safety analysis demonstrates that IV ibuprofen can be safely administered prior to surgery and continued in the postoperative period as a component of multimodal pain management.Keywords: NSAID, surgical pain, fever, perioperative analgesia, critical care, multimodal pain management

  16. Difraction analysis of iron materials after surface machining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čerňanský, Marian; Ganev, N.; Barcal, J.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kolařík, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, suppl. 23 (2006), s. 369-374 ISSN 0044-2968 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : iron materials * surface treatment * size-strain * residual stress * phase analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  17. Analysis of related factors of orolingual angioedema after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-X; Li, Y-Q; Chen, Y; Zhang, C-H; Dong, Z; Wang, Z; Zhao, S-N; Li, C-H; Zhang, P-L

    2018-03-01

    Orolingual angioedema (OA) is a rare clinical complication with a potentially fatal risk that occurs after the intravenous application of alteplase (rt-PA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this work is to investigate the related factors of OA in patients with acute ischemic stroke after the administration of intravenous thrombolytic therapy, to improve the predictive ability of OA during intravenous thrombolytic therapy, and to reduce the prevalence of complications. We recruited 1223 cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke that were treated in the Department of Neurology No. 4 of the Tianjin Huanhu Hospital from June 2014 to April 2015. The clinical manifestations of rt-PA related OA were recorded, the clinical prevalence was counted, related factors of OA after intravenous thrombolytic therapy were analyzed, and the risk assessment of rt-PA related OA was conducted. 14 cases of patients developed OA, with a prevalence rate of 1.14%. Among them, 5 had a history of urticaria, 4 of drug allergy, and 3 of food allergy. Among the 14 cases of patients, 10 developed OA in the process of intravenous thrombolysis and 4 after intravenous thrombolysis, 12 showed lip edema, 9 showed extensive swelling of tongue, 3 showed swelling of lateral tongue, 3 were complicated by respiratory distress, 10 showed infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 6 had previously been given oral ACEI drugs. Orolingual angioedema is a rare complication that occurs after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy; when serious, it may endanger a patient's life. If patients take an oral hypotension such as ACEI drugs before the onset of OA, they have a history of allergies, or the lesion is an infraction in the dominated area of the middle cerebral artery, the risk of OA after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy will be increased. The prevalence of OA should be monitored during the rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy process; timely detection and early

  18. Improving efficiency and value in health care. Intravenous iron management for anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease: linking treatment to an outpatient clinic, optimizing service provision and patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sunil; Naudeer, Sarah

    2008-12-01

    The National Service Framework advocates correction of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral iron is insufficient, while intravenous (IV) supplementation replenishes and maintains iron stores. In Yorkshire numerous peripheral clinics exist to reduce travel for patients, but patients must travel to the main unit for IV iron therapy. Therefore an outpatient service in tandem with a routine clinic for administration of IV CosmoFer was created. To evaluate the feasibility and benefits of IV iron therapy in the outpatient clinic during active patient review for CKD patients. A cross-sectional study of patients attending for total dose IV iron (n = 57) at a peripheral clinic. Iron was administered and monitored according to protocol by one of the clinic nurses with medical staff available in the adjoining room. Haemoglobin, ferritin and renal function were recorded pre-infusion and after 4-6 months. Results are given as medians/means +/- standard error. A total of 76 IV infusions were carried out with no reported side effects or haemodynamic instability. Haemoglobin (median 10.9 vs. 11.3 g dL(-1), P = NS), creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over the 6-month period remained stable. Serum ferritin rose significantly [80.9 +/- 6.2 vs. 186.4 +/- 18.2 g L(-1) (P < 0.001)]. Hospital time saved 380 day case bed hours, doctor hours saved 76 hours, and patient hours saved 3 hours/patient. Cost savings for TDI CosmoFer in peripheral clinic versus in centre therapy and versus sucrose, respectively, for 76 treatments was pound 5749.40 and pound 46,320.80 respectively. We have demonstrated, in a resource-limited service, the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a management care pathway for patients with CKD, in a peripheral clinic, to receive total dose IV CosmoFer without disruption of a functioning renal clinic.

  19. Effects of iron supplementation versus dietary iron on the nutritional iron status: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga Ribeiro Silva; Neto, João Eudes Dos Santos; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; Ataide, Terezinha da Rocha

    2018-04-03

    This meta-analysis compared the effects of dietary intervention versus iron supplementation on biochemical parameters related to the iron nutritional status in humans. The PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, SCIELO, OPENGREY.EU and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for randomized clinical trials that assigned individuals to a dietary intervention or to an iron supplementation regimen, for 12 weeks or more. The primary outcome was the hemoglobin concentration, and secondary outcomes were ferritin, RDW, mean corpuscular volume, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, serum iron, and transferrin saturation. From the 6095 records identified, twelve studies were included, six with children, five with adolescents/adults, and one with pregnant women. In the subgroup of studies that included anemic/iron deficient children, supplementation significantly increased the hemoglobin concentration (weighted mean difference (WMD): 3.19 g/L [95% CI: 1.31, 5.07]) and induced a significantly greater reduction of the soluble transferrin receptor (WMD: -0.46 mg/L [95% CI: -0.70, -0, 21]), when compared to dietary intervention. It also induced a greater reduction of the total binding capacity of iron in adolescents/adults (WMD: -6.96 μmol/L [95% CI: -12.70, -1.21]). Supplementation showed a better effect on hemoglobin recovery in anemic/iron deficient children, while no differences were observed between supplementation and dietary intervention in treating adolescents/adults.

  20. Neural Network Analysis of Tensile Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The neural technique was applied to the analysis of the ultimate tensile strength and additionally the yield strength of austempered ductile iron (ADI. Austempered ductile iron is an excellent material and it possesses attractive properties as high strength, ductility and toughness. This paper begins with an introduction to neural networks and demonstrates the ability of the method to investigate new phenomena in cases where the information cannot be accessed experimentally. The model allows the strength properties to be estimated as a function of heat treatment parameters and the chemical composition. A ‘committee’ model was used to increase the accuracy of the predictions. The model was validated by comparison its predictions with data of tensile tests experiments on austempered samples of ductile cast iron. The model successfully reproduces experimentally determined ultimate tensile strength and it can be exploited in the predictions of both ultimate and yield strength and in the design of chemical composition of cast irons and their heat treatments.

  1. Transparent polyurethane film as an intravenous catheter dressing. A meta-analysis of the infection risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K K; Weber, D J; Samsa, G P; Rutala, W A

    1992-04-15

    To obtain a quantitative estimate of the impact on infectious complications of using transparent dressings with intravenous catheters. Meta-analysis of all studies published in the English literature, including abstracts, letters, and reports that examined the primary research question of infection risks associated with transparent compared with gauze dressings for use on central and peripheral venous catheters. Studies were identified by use of the MEDLINE database using the indexing terms occlusive dressings, transparent dressings, and infection and by review of referenced bibliographies. Seven of the 15 studies (47%) of central venous catheters and seven of 12 studies (58%) of peripheral catheters met our inclusion criteria for analysis. All studies used a prospective cohort design, utilized hospitalized patients, and reported at least one of our defined outcomes. Data for each study were abstracted independently by three investigators. At least three studies were used in the analysis of each outcome. Applying a Mantel-Haenszel chi 2 analysis, use of transparent dressings on central venous catheters was significantly associated with an elevated relative risk (RR) of catheter tip infection (RR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.30). Catheter-related sepsis (RR = 1.69; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.95) and bacteremia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI, 0.76 to 3.47) were both associated with an elevated RR. Use of transparent dressings on peripheral catheters was associated with an elevated RR of catheter-tip infection (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.99) but not phlebitis (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.20), infiltration (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.37), or skin colonization (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.09). The results demonstrated a significantly increased risk of catheter-tip infection with the use of transparent compared with gauze dressings when used with either central or peripheral catheters. An increased risk of bacteremia and catheter sepsis associated with the use of

  2. Oral versus intravenous methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapses: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Shuying; Xiao, Yingxiu; Zhuang, Weiduan

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous glucocorticoids are recommended for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, they can be inconvenient and expensive. Due to their convenience and low cost, oral glucocorticoids may be an alternative treatment. Recently, several studies have shown that there is no difference in efficacy and safety between oral methylprednisolone (oMP) and intravenous methylprednisolone (ivMP). We sought to assess the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral methylprednisolone versus intravenous methylprednisolone for MS relapses in this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral methylprednisolone versus intravenous methylprednisolone for MS relapses were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE and China Biology Medicine until October 25, 2016, without language restrictions. The proportion of patients who had improved by day 28 was chosen as the efficacy outcome. We chose the risk ratio (RR) to analyze each trial with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We also used the fixed-effects model (Mantel-Haenszel approach) to calculate the pooled relative effect estimates. A total of 5 trials were identified, which included 369 patients. The results of our meta-analysis revealed that no significant difference existed in relapse improvement at day 28 between oMP and ivMP (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.10). No evidence of heterogeneity existed among the trials (P = 0.45, I2 = 0%). Both treatments were equally safe and well tolerated except that insomnia was more likely to occur in the oMP group compared to the ivMP group. Our meta-analysis reveals strong evidence that oMP is not inferior to ivMP in increasing the proportion of patients experiencing clinical improvement at day 28. In addition, both routes of administration are equally well tolerated and safe. These findings suggest that we may be able to replace ivMP with oMP to treat MS relapses.

  3. Low incidence of nephropathy in surgical ICU patients receiving intravenous contrast : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Jan Willem; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bongaerts, Alfons H. H.; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objective: Various studies have documented a markedly high incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Most of these studies were conducted in patients not in the ICU. In ICU patients intravenous contrast may be withheld for fear of CIN. We investigated the incidence of CIN in ICU patients.

  4. Intravenous fluid rate for reduction of cesarean delivery rate in nulliparous women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipoor, Robert M; Saccone, Gabriele; Seligman, Neil S; Pierce-Williams, Rebecca A M; Ciardulli, Andrea; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine have emphasized the need to promote vaginal delivery and have offered recommendations to safely prevent primary cesarean delivery. However, there has been limited discussion regarding management of intravenous fluids and other aspects of labor management that may influence mode of delivery. Therefore the aim of our study was to determine whether an intravenous fluid rate of 250 vs. 125 mL/h is associated with a difference in cesarean delivery rate. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, OVID, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials. We included all randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous fluid rates of 250 vs. 125 mL/h in nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at term with singleton pregnancies at ≥36 weeks. Studies were included regardless of the type of intravenous fluids used and regardless of whether oral intake was restricted during labor. Studies including multiparous women or women whose labor was induced were excluded. The primary outcome was the incidence of cesarean delivery. We planned to assess a subgroup analysis according to type of fluids used and according to restriction of oral fluid intake. Seven trials including 1215 nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at term were analyzed; 593 (48.8%) in the 250 mL/h group, and 622 (51.2%) in the 125 mL/h group. Five studies used lactated Ringer's solution, one used normal saline in dextrose water, and in one study it was unclear which intravenous fluid was used. Women who received intravenous fluids at 250 mL/h had a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery for any indication (12.5 vs. 18.1%; RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92; seven studies, 1215 participants; I 2 = 0%) and for dystocia (4.9 vs. 7.7%; RR

  5. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemostasis was well achieved. The tumor weighed 6.7 kg. The postoperative course. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis. Narayanaswamy Mariyappa, Uday Kumar Manikyam1, Dinesh Krishnamurthy2, Preeti K,. Yamini Agarwal, Prakar U. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1Pathology and 2Anaesthesia, Sri Devaraj ...

  6. Comment on Neiser et al. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes C. Strom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All IV iron complexes carry a risk of potentially fatal allergic type hypersensitivity reactions. The mechanism(s behind these reactions is unknown but the limited data available suggests that classic IgE mediated allergy is exceedingly rare, if ever occurring. Iron–carbohydrate molecules are complex nano-particles and trying to reduce the risk of serious hypersensitivity to antibody binding of an artificial antibody seems meaningless. A recently published analysis of safety data from randomized clinical trials confirms the method reported by Neiser to be useless to predict reaction risk. In conclusion, the study by Neiser et al. is biased, contains no new information, and has no clinical relevance. We are concerned that the association of the authors with a commercial entity has caused a conflict of interest that biases not only the results, but the entire experimental setup against competitors. (Comment on Neiser et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185, doi:10.3390/ijms17071185.

  7. Combined application versus topical and intravenous application of tranexamic acid following primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2017-02-21

    The use of intravenous (IV) or topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty has been proven to be effective and safe in total hip arthroplasty. However, which of these two administration routes is better has not been determined. The combined administration of TXA has been used in total knee arthroplasty with satisfactory results. We hypothesized that combined application of TXA may be the most effective way without increased rate of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE) in patients subjected to primary total hip replacement (THA). A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of the combined use of tranexamic acid (TXA) relative to topical or intravenous (IV) use alone for treatment of primary THA. The outcomes included total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, and the incidence rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE). We searched electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wanfang Data until September 2016. The references of the included articles were also checked for additional potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions for the search. The data of the included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, encompassing a total of 1762 patients. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients that received the combined treatment compared to patients that received either topical or intravenous administration of TXA. No statistical differences were found in the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The group that received the combined treatment had lower total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates without an

  8. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, Kennedy R; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to treatment with i...... with intravenous rt-PA (alteplase) on therapeutic benefit and clinical risk by adding recent trial data to the analysis....

  9. Periorbital cellulitis in children: Analysis of outcome of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Menezes, Carlos; Machado, Rute; Ribeiro, Isabel; Lemos, José A

    2016-08-01

    Periorbital cellulitis is a relatively common ocular disease in the pediatric population. Early diagnosis of this disease with a prompt intervention is critical to avoid vision and life-threatening complications. In the last years, medical therapy has been expanding for the treatment of orbital cellulitis, instead of the standard surgical approach. The purpose of this study was to describe the outcome of treatment with intravenous antibiotic of periorbital cellulitis in children. A retrospective review of all children admitted with periorbital cellulitis in our hospital between January 2002 and July 2013 was conducted. Cases were divided in two subgroups, pre-septal and post-septal infection. The demographics, clinical findings, treatment and outcomes were analyzed. In total 110 children were included, 93 with pre-septal and 17 with post-septal cellulitis. The mean age was 3.5 years in children with pre-septal cellulitis and 5.5 years in those with post-septal cellulitis (p = 0.149). For both subgroups the most common predisposing factor was sinusitis. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was successful in all except one patient with an orbital abscess who required surgical intervention. In our study complete recovery was achieve in all (except for one) children with periorbital cellulitis treated with intravenous antibiotics only.

  10. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  11. 8-year retrospective analysis of intravenous arginine therapy for acute metabolic strokes in pediatric mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganetzky, Rebecca D; Falk, Marni J

    2018-03-01

    Intravenous (IV) arginine has been reported to ameliorate acute metabolic stroke symptoms in adult patients with Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) syndrome, where its therapeutic benefit is postulated to result from arginine acting as a nitric oxide donor to reverse vasospasm. Further, reduced plasma arginine may occur in mitochondrial disease since the biosynthesis of arginine's precursor, citrulline, requires ATP. Metabolic strokes occur across a wide array of primary mitochondrial diseases having diverse molecular etiologies that are likely to share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. Therefore, IV arginine has been increasingly used for the acute clinical treatment of metabolic stroke across a broad mitochondrial disease population. We performed retrospective analysis of a large cohort of subjects who were under 18 years of age at IRB #08-6177 study enrollment and had molecularly-confirmed primary mitochondrial disease (n = 71, excluding the common MELAS m.3243A>G mutation). 9 unrelated subjects in this cohort received acute arginine IV treatment for one or more stroke-like episodes (n = 17 total episodes) between 2009 and 2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Retrospectively reviewed data included subject genotype, clinical symptoms, age, arginine dosing, neuroimaging (if performed), prophylactic therapies, and adverse events. Genetic etiologies of subjects who presented with acute metabolic strokes included 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pathogenic point mutations, 1 mtDNA deletion, and 4 nuclear gene disorders. Subject age ranged from 19 months to 23 years at the time of any metabolic stroke episode (median, 8 years). 3 subjects had recurrent stroke episodes. 70% of subjects were on prophylactic arginine or citrulline therapy at the time of a stroke-like episode. IV arginine was initiated on initial presentation in 65% of cases. IV arginine was given for 1-7 days (median, 1 day). A

  12. Determinants of quality of life of patients with heart failure and iron deficiency treated with ferric carboxymaltose: FAIR-HF sub-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Florian S; Pfeil, Alena M; Comin-Colet, Josep; Ponikowski, Piotr; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Mori, Claudio; Braunhofer, Peter G; Szucs, Thomas D; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-10-09

    Heart failure (HF) is a burden to patients and health care systems. The objectives of HF treatment are to improve health related quality of life (HRQoL) and reduce mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with iron deficiency and HF treated with intravenous (i.v.) iron substitution or placebo. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (n = 459) in iron-deficient chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with or without anaemia studied clinical and HRQoL benefits of i.v. iron substitution using ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) over a 24-week trial period. Multivariate analysis was carried out with various clinical variables as independent variables and HRQoL measures as dependent variables. Mean change from baseline of European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) (value set-based) utilities (on a 0 to 100 scale) at week 24 was 8.91 (i.v. iron) and 0.68 (placebo; p < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis excluding baseline HRQoL, a higher exercise tolerance and i.v. iron substitution positively influenced HRQoL, whereas impaired renal function and a history of stroke had a negative effect. The level of HRQoL was also influenced by country of residence. When baseline HRQoL was factored in, the multivariate model remained stable. In this study, i.v. iron substitution, exercise tolerance, stroke, country of residence and renal function influenced measures of HRQoL in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency. © 2013.

  13. Oral versus intravenous methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis relapses: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    Full Text Available Intravenous glucocorticoids are recommended for multiple sclerosis (MS. However, they can be inconvenient and expensive. Due to their convenience and low cost, oral glucocorticoids may be an alternative treatment. Recently, several studies have shown that there is no difference in efficacy and safety between oral methylprednisolone (oMP and intravenous methylprednisolone (ivMP.We sought to assess the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral methylprednisolone versus intravenous methylprednisolone for MS relapses in this meta-analysis.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral methylprednisolone versus intravenous methylprednisolone for MS relapses were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE and China Biology Medicine until October 25, 2016, without language restrictions. The proportion of patients who had improved by day 28 was chosen as the efficacy outcome. We chose the risk ratio (RR to analyze each trial with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI. We also used the fixed-effects model (Mantel-Haenszel approach to calculate the pooled relative effect estimates.A total of 5 trials were identified, which included 369 patients. The results of our meta-analysis revealed that no significant difference existed in relapse improvement at day 28 between oMP and ivMP (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.10. No evidence of heterogeneity existed among the trials (P = 0.45, I2 = 0%. Both treatments were equally safe and well tolerated except that insomnia was more likely to occur in the oMP group compared to the ivMP group.Our meta-analysis reveals strong evidence that oMP is not inferior to ivMP in increasing the proportion of patients experiencing clinical improvement at day 28. In addition, both routes of administration are equally well tolerated and safe. These findings suggest that we may be able to replace ivMP with oMP to treat MS relapses.

  14. Treatment for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Norgaard, Astrid; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum iron deficiency anaemia is caused by bleeding or inadequate dietary iron intake/uptake. This condition is defined by iron deficiency accompanied by a lower than normal blood haemoglobin concentration, although this can be affected by factors other than anaemia and must...... sample sizes. No analysis of our primary outcomes contained more than two studies.Intravenous iron was compared to oral iron in 10 studies (1553 women). Fatigue was reported in two studies and improved significantly favouring the intravenously treated group in one of the studies. Other anaemia symptoms....... The quality of evidence was low.Clinical outcomes were rarely reported. Laboratory values may not be reliable indicators for efficacy, as they do not always correlate with clinical treatment effects. It remains unclear which treatment modality is most effective in alleviating symptoms of postpartum anaemia...

  15. Computational modeling and analysis of iron release from macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major process of iron homeostasis in whole-body iron metabolism is the release of iron from the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Macrophages recognize and phagocytose senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Then, they process the heme iron, which is returned to the circulation for reutilization by red blood cell precursors during erythropoiesis. The amount of iron released, compared to the amount shunted for storage as ferritin, is greater during iron deficiency. A currently accepted model of iron release assumes a passive-gradient with free diffusion of intracellular labile iron (Fe2+ through ferroportin (FPN, the transporter on the plasma membrane. Outside the cell, a multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (Cp, oxidizes ferrous to ferric ion. Apo-transferrin (Tf, the primary carrier of soluble iron in the plasma, binds ferric ion to form mono-ferric and di-ferric transferrin. According to the passive-gradient model, the removal of ferrous ion from the site of release sustains the gradient that maintains the iron release. Subcellular localization of FPN, however, indicates that the role of FPN may be more complex. By experiments and mathematical modeling, we have investigated the detailed mechanism of iron release from macrophages focusing on the roles of the Cp, FPN and apo-Tf. The passive-gradient model is quantitatively analyzed using a mathematical model for the first time. A comparison of experimental data with model simulations shows that the passive-gradient model cannot explain macrophage iron release. However, a facilitated-transport model associated with FPN can explain the iron release mechanism. According to the facilitated-transport model, intracellular FPN carries labile iron to the macrophage membrane. Extracellular Cp accelerates the oxidation of ferrous ion bound to FPN. Apo-Tf in the extracellular environment binds to the oxidized ferrous ion, completing the release process. Facilitated-transport model can

  16. Iron Sucrose Versus Oral Iron Therapy in Pregnancy Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syal Neeru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is the most common medical problem in pregnancy. Parenteral iron is a useful treatment, although iron dextran use decreased due to anaphylaxis. Iron sucrose is a newer agent that has overcome the shortcomings of iron dextran. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of intravenous iron sucrose (IVIS therapy with oral iron (OI therapy in pregnant women with IDA and to study the factors influencing treatment. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included pregnant women between 14 and 36 weeks with established IDA who were treated with IVIS or OI (ferrous fumarate. All patients were monitored for laboratory response and adverse effects. Independent sample-t test, Chi square test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Although hemoglobin increased in both the groups, increase in the reticulocyte count and percentage increase in hemoglobin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (23.62% vs. 14.11%. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (P = 0.000. The IVIS group had no major side-effects. Compliance was good with OI, although 23% had gastrointestinal side-effects. Patient weight, gestation at diagnosis, initial hemoglobin and ferritin levels did not influence the response to treatment. Conclusion: IVIS is safe and effective in the treatment of IDA during pregnancy. Iron stores increased better with IVIS compared with OI.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ferric carboxymaltose in iron-deficient patients with chronic heart failure in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Thomas; Borg, Sixten

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a common but treatable comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF) that is associated with impaired health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the intravenous iron preparation ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) for the treatment of iron deficiency in CHF from a Swedish healthcare perspective. A cost-effectiveness analysis with a time horizon of 24 weeks was performed to compare FCM treatment with placebo. Data on health outcomes and medical resource use were mainly taken from the FAIR-HF trial and combined with Swedish cost data. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as well as the change in per-patient costs for primary care and hospital care. In the FCM group compared with placebo, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are higher (difference = 0.037 QALYs), but so are per-patient costs [(difference = SEK 2789 (€303)]. Primary care and hospital care equally share the additional costs, but within hospitals there is a major shift of costs from inpatient care to outpatient care. The ICER is SEK 75,389 (€8194) per QALY. The robustness of the result is supported by sensitivity analyses. Treatment of iron deficiency in CHF with FCM compared with placebo is estimated to be cost-effective. The ICER in the base case scenario is twice as high as previously thought, but noticeably below SEK 500,000 (€54,300) per QALY, an informal average reference value used by the Swedish Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency. Increased HRQoL and fewer hospitalizations are the key drivers of this result.

  18. Avaliação da eficácia do uso intravenoso de sacarato de hidróxido de ferro III no tratamento de pacientes adultos com anemia ferropriva Evaluation of the efficacy of intravenous iron III-hydroxide saccharate for treating adult patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do uso intravenoso de sacarato de hidróxido de ferro III no tratamento de pacientes adultos com anemia ferropriva. No período de janeiro de 2003 a dezembro de 2005, estudamos cinqüenta pacientes com anemia ferropriva que apresentaram intolerância e/ou resposta inadequada ao tratamento com ferro por via oral e/ou valor de hemoglobina inferior a 7,0 g/dL. Os principais exames laboratoriais realizados foram: hemograma completo, contagem de reticulócitos, ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação de ferro e ferritina sérica. Os pacientes receberam uma dose semanal de 200 mg de sacarato de hidróxido de ferro III diluído em 250 mL de soro fisiológico a 0,9%, administrado por via intravenosa em trinta minutos. O tratamento foi realizado até a obtenção do valor de hemoglobina igual ou maior que 12,0 g/dL para mulheres e 13,0 g/dL para homens, ou até a administração da dose total de ferro parenteral recomendada para cada paciente. A idade mediana dos cinqüenta pacientes estudados foi de 45 anos, variando entre 28 e 76 anos; quarenta (80,0% eram do sexo feminino. A causa mais comum de anemia ferropriva no sexo feminino foi sangramento uterino anormal observado em 25/40 pacientes (62,5% e, no sexo masculino, gastrectomia parcial em 7/10 (70,0%. Vinte e quatro (48,0% pacientes foram incluídos nesse estudo por falta de resposta à terapia com ferro oral, 22 (44,0% por intolerância ao ferro oral e quatro (8,0% por hemoglobina The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron III-hydroxide saccharate to treat adult patients with iron deficiency anemia. Between January 2003 and December 2005 we studied 50 patients with iron deficiency anemia who presented intolerance or inadequate response to oral iron therapy, or hemoglobin level < 7 g/dL. The main laboratory tests performed were: complete blood cell count, reticulocyte count, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity

  19. Perioperative intravenous glucocorticoids can decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting and pain in total joint arthroplasty: A meta-analysis and trial sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Li, Xiwen; Sang, Lili; Huang, Jiangfa

    2017-03-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of intravenous glucocorticoids for reducing pain intensity and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, and Google databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous glucocorticoids versus no intravenous glucocorticoids or sham for patients undergoing TJA. Outcomes included visual analogue scale (VAS) pain at 12, 24, and 48 hours; the occurrence of PONV; length of hospital stay; the occurrence of infection; and blood glucose levels after surgery. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and the weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Trial sequential analysis was also used to verify the pooled results. Thirteen clinical trials involving 821 patients were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that intravenous steroids can decrease VAS at 12 hours (WMD = -8.54, 95% CI -11.55 to -5.53, P = 0.000; I = 35.1%), 24 hours (WMD = -7.48, 95% CI -13.38 to -1.59, P = 0.013; I = 91.8%), and 48 hours (WMD = -1.90, 95% CI -3.75 to -0.05, P = 0.044; I = 84.5%). Intravenous steroids can decrease the occurrence of PONV (RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.44-0.73, P = 0.000; I = 33.1%). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay, occurrence of infection, and blood glucose levels after surgery. Intravenous glucocorticoids not only alleviate early pain intensity but also decrease PONV after TJA. More high-quality RCTs are required to determine the safety of glucocorticoids before making final recommendations.

  20. A baboon syndrome induced by intravenous human immunoglobulins: report of a case and immunological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, A; Tréchot, P; Granel, F; Lonchamp, P; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L; Béné, M C

    1999-01-01

    Following the second series of intravenous human immunoglobulins (IVIg; 0.4 g/kg) prescribed to treat a sensorimotor polyneuritis, a 28-year-old woman developed pompholyx that recurred after each of the following monthly treatments with IVIg. During the administration of the 10th series, the patient developed a typical baboon syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies of a skin biopsy revealed an unexpected epidermal expression of P-selectin, usually expressed by endothelial cells. Patch, prick and intradermal tests performed with IVIg on the back, arms and buttocks gave negative results on immediate and delayed readings. IVIg were re-administered, with the informed consent of the patient, and induced a generalized maculopapular rash. This is the first reported case of baboon syndrome induced by IVIg. Although extensive skin testing was performed, all test sites remained negative. We wonder whether IVIg could reproduce immunological mechanisms involved in the 3 types of systemic contact dermatitis (pompholyx, baboon syndrome and maculopapular rash), including the epidermal expression of P-selectin.

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Novel Alzheimer’s Disease Proteomic Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers During Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Gilda; Adamiak, Basia; Relkin, Norman R.; Lee, Kelvin H.

    2018-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has shown promising results in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, a Random Forest classification model was used to identify possible effects of IVIg on a group of eight subjects who underwent immunotherapy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from eight AD subjects who underwent IVIg therapy were collected before the therapy, after six months of therapy, and after a three-month drug washout period. Samples were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and further studied using a Random Forest classification model to identify effects of IVIg on a panel of 23 putative diagnostic AD biomarkers previously identified. Six of the eight subjects showed improvements with respect to the 23 AD diagnostic biomarkers after six months of therapy compared to the samples taken at the outset of the trial. All subjects reverted back to baseline during drug washout. These results are also consistent with clinical observations. The observed improvements in subjects during six months of IVIg therapy and the reversion back to baseline during drug washout provides preliminary evidence regarding the potential use of IVIg as an AD immunotherapy. PMID:22806462

  2. Is the era of intravenous proton pump inhibitors coming to an end in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers? Meta-analysis of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhixiang; Li, Hui; Race, Nicholas S; Ma, Tingting; Jin, Haosheng; Yin, Zi

    2016-09-01

    Oral and intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are equipotent in raising gastric pH. However, it is not known whether oral PPIs can replace intravenous PPIs in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare oral and intravenous PPIs among patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. A search of all major databases and relevant journals from inception to April 2015, without a restriction on languages, was performed. A total of 859 patients from seven randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Similar pooled outcome measures were demonstrated between the two groups in terms of oral PPIs vs. intravenous PPIs in the rate of recurrent bleeding within the 30-day follow-up period [risk ratio = 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 1.39; P = 0.62; I(2)  = 0%). In terms of the rate of mortality, both oral and intravenous PPIs showed similar outcomes, and the pooled risk ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.29, 2.71; P = 0.82; I(2)  = 0%). Likewise, no significant difference was detected in the need for blood transfusion and length of hospital stay; the pooled mean differences were -0.14 (95% CI: -0.39, 0.12; P = 0.29; I(2)  = 32%) and -0.60 (95% CI: -1.42, 0.23; P = 0.16; I(2)  = 79%), respectively. Our results suggest that oral PPIs are a feasible, safe alternative to intravenous PPIs in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, and may be able to replace intravenous PPIs as the treatment of choice in these patients. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Analysis of molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron by polarographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zand, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of direct current Tast polarograph, differential pulse polarography and phase-selective alternative current Tast polarography to the problem of determining molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron in various supporting electrolytes is reported. The effect of the supporting electrolyte on the wave/peak potential and sensitivity of the metal ion have been examined. The polarographic methods were applied for simultaneous determination of chromium (3)/chromium (6), vanadium (4), vanadium (5) and iron (2)/iron (3) in different supporting electrolytes

  4. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  5. Product Development and Cost Analysis of Fabricating the Prototype of Roller Clamp in Intravenous (I.V) Tubing Medical Devices using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Yusoff

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a new prototype and to conduct cost analysis of the existing roller clamp which is one of parts attached to Intravenous (I.V) Tubing used in Intravenous therapy medical device. Before proceed with the process to manufacture the final product using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Technology, the data collected from survey were analyzed using Product Design Specifications approach. Selected concept has been proven to have better quality, functions and criteria compared to the existing roller clamp and the cost analysis of fabricating the roller clamp prototype was calculated.

  6. A retrospective analysis of nebulized versus intravenous fentanyl for renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Melih; Aygun, Ali; Bekar, Omer; Erdem, Erkan; Cicek, Mustafa; Tatli, Ozgur; Karaca, Yunus; Sahin, Aynur; Turkmen, Suha; Turedi, Suleyman

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of nebulized fentanyl used for analgesia in renal colic. This research was planned as a randomized, blinded study in which prospectively collected data were analyzed retrospectively to compare nebulized and intravenous (iv) fentanyl therapies. Patients with renal colic with 'moderate' or worse pain on a four-point verbal pain score (VPS) or with pain of 20mm or above on a 100-mm visual analogue score (VAS) at time of presentation were randomized into iv fentanyl (n=62) or nebulized fentanyl (n=53) study groups. Decreases in VAS and VPS scores at 15 and 30min compared to baseline, rescue analgesia requirements and side-effects between the groups were compared. Both iv fentanyl and nebulized fentanyl provided effective analgesia in renal colic patients at the end of 30min. However, iv fentanyl provided more rapid and more effective analgesia than nebulized fentanyl. Patients receiving iv fentanyl had lower rescue analgesia requirements than those receiving nebulized fentanyl (37.1% vs 54.7%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.058). In addition, side-effects were more common in the iv fentanyl group compared to the nebulized fentanyl group (22.1% vs 9.4%), although the difference was also not significant (p=0.058). Nebulized fentanyl provides effective analgesia in patients with renal colic. However, iv fentanyl exhibits more rapid and more powerful analgesic effects than nebulized fentanyl. Nonetheless, due to its ease of use and few potential risks and side-effects the nebulized form can be used as an alternative in renal colic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Analysis of Intravenous Esomeprazole in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Ji; Nagy, Péter; Shen, Kai; Qian, Jiaming; Hu, Pei

    2016-07-01

    Esomeprazole is one of the most commonly used drugs to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers, but the quantitative relationships among the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and pharmacogenomics (PG) of the drug are not fully understood in special patient populations. A clinical PK/PD/PG study of intravenous (IV) esomeprazole in 5 dosing regimens was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese volunteers, who were categorized into Helicobacter pylori (HP)-negative and HP-positive subgroups. Plasma esomeprazole concentration and intragastric H(+) concentration were monitored for 24 hours postdosing. Population PK (PopPK) models were tested based on elimination characteristics and other data. For a single-dose IV esomeprazole regimen, a 2-compartment model with nonlinear elimination characteristics fitted the PK data well. The elimination of esomeprazole was found to be significantly linked to CYP2C19 genotype by 11% to 29%. A mechanism-based PD model was first tested to mimic the irreversible inhibition of H(+) /K(+) -ATPase by esomeprazole using a cell-killing mechanism and models of gastric H(+) secretion that included the effects of an asymmetric circadian rhythm and food effects. Results from this PD model showed that the turnover rate of H(+) /K(+) -ATPase was significantly different between HP-negative and HP-positive subgroups. In conclusion, the PopPK model quantitatively identified the effects of the CYP2C19 genotype on esomeprazole elimination in healthy subjects for the first time. In addition, the effects of HP status on drug effect, H(+) /K(+) -ATPase turnover, and circadian rhythm amplitude were preliminarily explored using a mechanism-based PD model. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Analysis and functional consequences of increased Fab-sialylation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after lectin fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsermann, Fabian; Boerema, David J; Rüegsegger, Monika; Hofmann, Andreas; Wymann, Sandra; Zuercher, Adrian W; Miescher, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might be due to the small fraction of Fc-sialylated IgG. In this study we biochemically and functionally characterized sialic acid-enriched IgG obtained by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectin fractionation. Two main IgG fractions isolated by elution with lactose (E1) or acidified lactose (E2) were analyzed for total IgG, F(ab')(2) and Fc-specific sialic acid content, their pattern of specific antibodies and anti-inflammatory potential in a human in vitro inflammation system based on LPS- or PHA-stimulated whole blood. HPLC and LC-MS testing revealed an increase of sialylated IgG in E1 and more substantially in the E2 fraction. Significantly, the increased amount of sialic acid residues was primarily found in the Fab region whereas only a minor increase was observed in the Fc region. This indicates preferential binding of the Fab sialic acid to SNA. ELISA analyses of a representative range of pathogen and auto-antigens indicated a skewed antibody pattern of the sialylated IVIG fractions. Finally, the E2 fraction exerted a more profound anti-inflammatory effect compared to E1 or IVIG, evidenced by reduced CD54 expression on monocytes and reduced secretion of MCP-1 (CCL2); again these effects were Fab- but not Fc-dependent. Our results show that SNA fractionation of IVIG yields a minor fraction (approx. 10%) of highly sialylated IgG, wherein the sialic acid is mainly found in the Fab region. The tested anti-inflammatory activity was associated with Fab not Fc sialylation.

  9. Analysis and functional consequences of increased Fab-sialylation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG after lectin fractionation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Käsermann

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG might be due to the small fraction of Fc-sialylated IgG. In this study we biochemically and functionally characterized sialic acid-enriched IgG obtained by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA lectin fractionation. Two main IgG fractions isolated by elution with lactose (E1 or acidified lactose (E2 were analyzed for total IgG, F(ab'(2 and Fc-specific sialic acid content, their pattern of specific antibodies and anti-inflammatory potential in a human in vitro inflammation system based on LPS- or PHA-stimulated whole blood. HPLC and LC-MS testing revealed an increase of sialylated IgG in E1 and more substantially in the E2 fraction. Significantly, the increased amount of sialic acid residues was primarily found in the Fab region whereas only a minor increase was observed in the Fc region. This indicates preferential binding of the Fab sialic acid to SNA. ELISA analyses of a representative range of pathogen and auto-antigens indicated a skewed antibody pattern of the sialylated IVIG fractions. Finally, the E2 fraction exerted a more profound anti-inflammatory effect compared to E1 or IVIG, evidenced by reduced CD54 expression on monocytes and reduced secretion of MCP-1 (CCL2; again these effects were Fab- but not Fc-dependent. Our results show that SNA fractionation of IVIG yields a minor fraction (approx. 10% of highly sialylated IgG, wherein the sialic acid is mainly found in the Fab region. The tested anti-inflammatory activity was associated with Fab not Fc sialylation.

  10. Iron deficiency anemia in Helicobacter pylori infection: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Li Yumin; Yang Kehu; Ma Bin; Guan Quanlin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Lijuan

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent in disadvantaged populations worldwide. The benefit of H. pylori eradiation for iron deficiency anemia has been extensively studied, but data are still equivocal. A search in The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, Science Citation Index Expanded, and CMB (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database) was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-H. pylori plus oral iron to oral iron alone for the iron deficiency patients in whom H. pylori was positive were selected for meta-analysis. Reviev Manager 5.0 software was used for the performance of meta-analysis. Sixteen randomized controlled trials totaling 956 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that the difference from baseline to endpoint of hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (SI), and serum ferritin (SF) was statistically significantly different between anti-H. pylori treatment plus oral iron and oral iron alone (SMD, Hb 1.48; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.00; p infection could be effective in improving anemia and iron statue in IDA patients infected by H. pylori, particularly in patients with moderate or severe anemia.

  11. Preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids can decrease acute pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting after total hip arthroplasty: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi; Xin, Wenqi; Li, Aixiang

    2017-11-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to assess the efficacy and safety of preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids versus controls for the prevention of postoperative acute pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A computer literature search of electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and China Wanfang database, was conducted to identify the relevant RCTs comparing preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids versus placebos for reducing acute pain and PONV in THA patients. The primary outcomes included the use of the visual analog scale (VAS) with rest or mobilization at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours and the occurrence of PONV. The secondary outcome was total morphine consumption. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and the weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Pooled data from 7 RCTs (411 THAs) favored preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids against acute pain intensity at 4, 24, and 48 hours (P  .05). Subsequently, preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids provided a total morphine-sparing effect of 9.36 mg (WMD = -9.36, 95% CI = -12.33 to -6.38, P = .000). In addition, preoperative intravenous glucocorticoids were associated with a significant reduction of the occurrence of PONV (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.30-0.57, P = .000). Intravenous glucocorticoids can decrease early pain intensity and PONV after THA. However, the low number of studies and variation in dosing regimens limits the evidence for its use. Thus, more high-quality RCTs are still needed to identify the optimal drug and the safety of intravenous glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the -ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the β-ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(t-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen.

  14. Kinetic analysis of the reduction of zinc and iron oxides from dust and slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Melamud, S. G.; Mal'tsev, V. A.; Yur'ev, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of zinc and iron oxides from blast-furnace slurry and gas-purification dust at steel furnaces by heating with carbon is studied in physicochemical terms. Kinetic analysis reveals the optimal parameters of furnace reduction. Initial data are obtained for the development of a reduction technology for zinc and iron oxides. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.

  15. Iron deficiency in children with HIV-associated anaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esan, Michael O.; Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Hensbroek, Michael Boele van; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency in HIV-infected children from high- and low-income settings and compared it with that of HIV-uninfected controls. We searched five major databases for primary studies reporting on anaemia and iron

  16. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  17. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M. [Ospedale S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica; Pistillucci, G.; D' Aprile, M. [Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica

    2005-06-15

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy.

  18. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M.; Pistillucci, G.; D'Aprile, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy

  19. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Kennedy R.; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Brott, Thomas G.; Toni, Danilo; Grotta, James C.; Albers, Gregory W.; Kaste, Markku; Marler, John R.; Hamilton, Scott A.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Davis, Stephen M.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Hacke, Werner; Allen, Kathryn; Mau, Jochen; Meier, Dieter; del Zoppo, Gregory; de Silva, D. A.; Butcher, K. S.; Parsons, M. W.; Barber, P. A.; Levi, C.; Bladin, C.; Byrnes, G.; Klingelhöfer, J.; Krauseneck, P.; Schneider, D.; Hielscher, A.N.; Büttner, Th; Hennen, G.; Marx, P.; Lücking, C. H.; Felgenhaner, K.; Hacke, W.; Müllges, W.; Krieter, G.; Schwartz, A.; Krämer, G.; Diener, H. C.; Busse, O.; Wiersbitzky, M.; Ferbert, A.; Druschky, K.-F.; Lechner, H.; Ladurner, G.; Schmutzhard, W.; Rogousslavsky, J.; Vignolo, A.; Regesta, G.; Re, G.; Pecorari, L.; Lagi, A.; Argentino, C.; Ferrari, G.; Mamoli, A.; Mironi, F.; Erilä, T.; Sivenius, I.; Murros, K.; Liukkonen, H.; Hedman, Ch; Muuronen, A.; Sotaniemi, K.; Thomassen, L.; Rosjo, O.; Brautaset, N.; Indredavik, B.; Sandset, P. M.; Petersson, J.; Radberg, H.; Térent, A.; Carlström, Ch; Kjällman, Lena; Overgaard, K.; Boysen, G.; Enevoldsen, E.; Munck, O.; St Jensen, T.; Campbell, M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Franke, C. L.; Vos, J.; Frenken, W. G. M.; Op de Coul, A. A. W.; Verslegers, W.; Cras, P.; Laloux, P.; Blecic, A.N.; Marchau, M.; Féve, J. -R.; Rancurel, G.; Weber, M.; Mahagne, M.-H.; Larrue, A.N.; Trouillas, A.N.; Blard, J. M.; Caussanel, A.N.; Chollet, A.N.; Orgogozo, J. M.; Arnoud, A.N.; Cunha, L.; Castillo, J.; Tejedor, D.; Chomorro, A.; Sancho, H.; Davalos, A.; Fieschi, Cesare; Verstraete, Marc; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Feuerer, Werner; Sanset, P. M.; Wahlgren, N. G.; Boysen, Gudrun; Hijdra, Albert H. J.; Bes, André; Hennerici, Michael; Bozzao, Luigi; Manelfe, Calude; Peock, Klaus; Zeumer, Hermann; Lenzi, Gian-Luigi; Crimmins, D.; Donnan, G.; Davis, S.; Gerraty, R.; Hankey, G.; Niederkorn, K.; Brainin, M.; Deisenhammer, E.; Baumhackl, U.; Grisold, W.; Podreka, I.; Alf, C.; Sluga, E.; Brücke, B.; Kristoferitsch, W.; Magnussen, I.; Vorstrup, S.; Olesen, J.; Kaste, M.; Rissanen, A.; Sivenius, J.; Hedman, C.; Numminen, H.; Liukkonen, J.; Kolvisto, K.; Erila, T.; Caussanel, J. P.; Dumas, R.; Trouillas, P.; Feve, J.-R.; Amarenco, P.; Zuber, M.; Chollet, F.; Larrue, V.; Saudeau, D.; Villringer, A.; Buttner, T.; Heiss, W. D.; Gond, M.; Reichmann, H.; Klotz, J.; Prange, H.; Steiner, T.; Kaps, M.; Lowitzsch, K.; Tettenborn, B.; Hamann, G.; Klingelhofer, J.; Bogdahn, U.; Mullgers, W.; Bottacchi, E.; Cappelletti, C.; Solime, F.; Toso, V.; Ricevuti, G.; Stam, J.; de Keijzer, J. H. A.; Koudstaal, P.; de Kort, P. L. M.; Hammond-Tooke, G. D.; Timmings, P.; Thomassen, I.; Rygh, J.; Cunha, I.; Correia, C.; Rubio, F.; Chamorro, A.; Sabin, J. Alvarez; Vilata, J. L. Marti; Zarranz, J. J.; Diez-Tejedor, E.; Egido, A.; Mora, J. Vivancos; Delgado, G.; Gil-Peralta, A.; Lainez, J. M.; Mostacero, E.; Radberg, J.; Prantare, H.; Carlstrom, C.; Costulas, V.; Wahlgren, N.-G.; Malm, J.; Terent, A.; Lyrer, P.; Bogousslavsky, J.; Hawkins, S.; Campbell, M. J.; Ford, G. A.; Mendelow, A. D.; Davalos, Antoni; Donnan, Geoffrey; Larrue, Vincent; Poeck, Klaus; Asplund, Kjell; Lenzi, Gian Luigi; Marler, John; Martinez-Vila, Eduardo; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Dávalos, A.; von Kummer, R.; Toni, D.; Wahlgren, N.; Lees, K. R.; Lesaffre, E.; Bastianello, S.; Wardlaw, J. M.; Peyrieux, J.-C.; Sauce, C.; Medeghri, Z.; Mazenc, R.; Machnig, T.; Bluhmki, E.; Aichner, F.; Eggers, C.; Gruber, F.; Noistering, G.; Willeit, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Blecic, S.; Bruneel, B.; Caekebeke, J.; Simons, P. J.; Thijs, V.; Bar, M.; Dvorakova, H.; Vaclavik, D.; Andersen, G.; Iversen, H. K.; Traberg-Kristensen, B.; Marttila, R.; Bouillat, J.; Ducrocq, X.; Giroud, M.; Jaillard, A.; Larrieu, J.-M.; Leys, D.; Magne, C.; Milhaud, D.; Sablot, D.; Berrouschot, J.; Faiss, J. H.; Glahn, J.; Görtler, M.; Grau, A.; Grond, M.; Haberl, R.; Hennerici, M.; Koch, H.; Marx, J.; Meves, S.; Meyding-Lamadé, U.; Ringleb, P.; Schwarz, A.; Sobesky, J.; Urban, P.; Karageorgiou, K.; Komnos, A.; Csányi, A.; Csiba, L.; Valikovics, A.; Agnelli, G.; Billo, G.; Bovi, P.; Comi, G.; Gigli, G.; Guidetti, D.; Inzitari, D.; Marcello, N.; Marini, C.; Orlandi, G.; Pratesi, M.; Rasura, M.; Semplicini, A.; Serrati, C.; Tassinari, T.; Brouwers, P. J. A. M.; Naess, H.; Kloster, R.; Czlonkowska, A.; Kuczyńska-Zardzewialy, A.; Nyka, W.; Opala, G.; Romanowicz, S.; Cruz, V.; Pinho e Melo, T.; Brozman, M.; Dvorak, M.; Garay, R.; Krastev, G.; Kurca, E.; Alvarez-Sabin, J.; Guerrero, M. del Mar Freijo; Herrero, J. A. E.; Leira, R.; Martí-Vilalta, J. L.; Vallejo, J. Masjuan; Millán, M.; Molina, C.; Segura, T.; Serena, J.; Danielsson, E.; Cederin, B.; von Zweigberg, E.; Welin, L.; Hungerbühler, H.-J.; Weder, B.; Jenkinson, D.; MacLeod, M. J.; MacWalter, R. S.; Markus, H. S.; Muir, K. W.; Sharma, A. K.; Walters, M. R.; Warburton, E. A.; Albakri, Erfan; Albers, Gregory; Alberts, Mark; Atkinson, Richard; Bell, Rodney; Jefferson, Thomas; Black, Sandra; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Brooks, William; Brott, Thomas; Bruno, Askiel; Buchan, Alastair; Bumgartner, James; Carpenter, David; Castellani, Daniel; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Clark, Wayne; Coccia, Craig; Cohen, Stanley; Comber, John; Coull, Bruce; Culebras, Antonio; Curfman, T.; Curtin, Jeffrey; Dayno, Jeffrey; DeMatteis, James; Desai, Hiren; Dietrich, Dennis; Dissin, Jonathan; Driscoll, Paul; Duke, Robert; Edelsohn, Lanny; Feinberg, William; Ford, Stephen; Gasecki, Andrew; Gilbert, Gordon; Gray, Lenora; Grayum, Brad; Grindal, Alan; Grotta, James; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hakim, Antoine; Hassan, Rizwan; Hess, David; Hidalgo, Andrea; Homer, Daniel; Horowitz, Deborah; Horowitz, Steven; Hsu, Chung; Hughes, Richard; Hurtig, Howard; Huang, Te-Long; Jacoby, Michael; Jhamandas, Jack; Karlsberg, Ronald; Kelley, Roger; Koller, Richard; Kirshner, Howard; Krieger, Derk; LaFranchise, Francis; LaMonte, Marian; Lebrun, Louise-Helene; Levine, Steven; Lyden, Partick; Madden, Kenneth; Mallenbaum, Sidney; Mandelbaum, Mark; Mattio, Thomas; Mirsen, Thomas; Morris, Dexter; Munschauer, Frederick; Murthy, Kolar; Newman, George; Pelligrino, Richard; Pettigrew, Creed; Raps, Eric; Rosa, Louis; Rowe, Vernon; Sauter, Michael; Scott, Phillip; Sergay, Steven; Sheppard, George; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Silliman, Scott; Simard, Denis; Simon, Roger; Sloan, Michael; Smith, Wade; Smith, Richard; Steel, J. Griffith; Stobbe, Gary; Strunk, Brian; Tabbaa, Mutaz; Tarrel, Ronald; Taylor, Lynne; Tolge, Celina; Turel, Anthony; Verro, Piero; Wilterdink, Janet; Wissman, Stanley; Wohlberg, Christopher; Brott, T.; Broderick, J.; Kothari, R.; O'Donoghue, M.; Barsan, W.; Tomsick, T.; Spilker, J.; Miller, R.; Sauerbeck, L.; Farrell, J.; Kelly, J.; Perkins, T.; McDonald, T.; Rorick, M.; Hickey, C.; Armitage, J.; Perry, C.; Thalinger, K.; Rhude, R.; Schill, J.; Becker, P. S.; Heath, R. S.; Adams, D.; Reed, R.; Klei, M.; Hughes, A.; Anthony, J.; Baudendistel, D.; Zadicoff, C.; Rymer, M.; Bettinger, I.; Laubinger, P.; Schmerler, M.; Meirose, G.; Lyden, P.; Rapp, K.; Babcock, T.; Daum, P.; Persona, D.; Brody, M.; Jackson, C.; Lewis, S.; Liss, J.; Mahdavi, Z.; Rothrock, J.; Tom, T.; Zweifler, R.; Dunford, J.; Zivin, J.; Kobayashi, R.; Kunin, J.; Licht, J.; Rowen, R.; Stein, D.; Grisolia, J.; Martin, F.; Chaplin, E.; Kaplitz, N.; Nelson, J.; Neuren, A.; Silver, D.; Chippendale, T.; Diamond, E.; Lobatz, M.; Murphy, D.; Rosenberg, D.; Ruel, T.; Sadoff, M.; Schim, J.; Schleimer, J.; Atkinson, R.; Wentworth, D.; Cummings, R.; Frink, R.; Heublein, P.; Grotta, J. C.; DeGraba, T.; Fisher, M.; Ramirez, A.; Hanson, S.; Morgenstern, L.; Sills, C.; Pasteur, W.; Yatsu, F.; Andrews, K.; Villar-Cordova, C.; Pepe, P.; Bratina, P.; Greenberg, L.; Rozek, S.; Simmons, K.; Kwiatkowski, T. G.; Horowitz, S. H.; Libman, R.; Kanner, R.; Silverman, R.; LaMantia, J.; Mealie, C.; Duarte, R.; Donnarumma, R.; Okola, M.; Cullin, V.; Mitchell, E.; Levine, S. R.; Lewandowski, C. A.; Tokarski, G.; Ramadan, N. M.; Mitsias, P.; Gorman, M.; Zarowitz, B.; Kokkinos, J.; Dayno, J.; Verro, P.; Gymnopoulos, C.; Dafer, R.; D'Olhaberriague, L.; Sawaya, K.; Daley, S.; Mitchell, M.; Frankel, M.; Mackay, B.; Barch, C.; Braimah, J.; Faherty, B.; MacDonald, J.; Sailor, S.; Cook, A.; Karp, H.; Nguyen, B.; Washington, J.; Weissman, J.; Williams, M.; Williamson, T.; Kozinn, M.; Hellwick, L.; Haley, E. C.; Bleck, T. P.; Cail, W. S.; Lindbeck, G. H.; Granner, M. A.; Wolf, S. S.; Gwynn, M. W.; Mettetal, R. W.; Chang, C. W. J.; Solenski, N. J.; Brock, D. G.; Ford, G. F.; Kongable, G. L.; Parks, K. N.; Wilkinson, S. S.; Davis, M. K.; Sheppard, G. L.; Zontine, D. W.; Gustin, K. H.; Crowe, N. M.; Massey, S. L.; Meyer, M.; Gaines, K.; Payne, A.; Bales, C.; Malcolm, J.; Barlow, R.; Wilson, M.; Cape, C.; Bertorini, T.; Misulis, K.; Paulsen, W.; Shepard, D.; Tilley, B. C.; Welch, K. M. A.; Fagan, S. C.; Lu, M.; Patel, S.; Masha, E.; Verter, J.; Boura, J.; Main, J.; Gordon, L.; Maddy, N.; Chociemski, T.; Windham, J.; Zadeh, H. Soltanian; Alves, W.; Keller, M. F.; Wenzel, J. R.; Raman, N.; Cantwell, L.; Warren, A.; Smith, K.; Bailey, E.; Welch, C.; Marler, J. R.; Froehlich, J.; Breed, J.; Easton, J. D.; Hallenbeck, J. F.; Lan, G.; Marsh, J. D.; Walker, M. D.; Davis, S. M.; Donnan, G. A.; Butcher, K.; Peeters, A.; Chalk, J. B.; Fink, J. N.; Kimber, T. E.; Schultz, D.; Hand, P. J.; Frayne, J.; Muir, K.; Tress, B. M.; Attia, J.; D'Este, C.; McNeil, J.; Burns, R.; Johnston, C.; Stark, R.; Desmond, P. M.; Christensen, S.; Ebinger, M.; Jackson, D.; Kimber, T.; Peeteis, A.; Fink, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to

  20. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, Kennedy R; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to treatment with i...

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of the Interaction Between Obesity and Pregnancy on Iron Homeostasis: Role of Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia; Montalvo-Velarde, Irene; Vital-Reyes, Victor Saul; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; López-Alarcón, Mardia

    2016-10-01

    When pregnancy occurs in obese women, two opposite mechanisms for iron homeostasis concur: increased need for available iron to support erythropoiesis and decreased iron mobilization from diets and stores due to obesity-related inflammation linked to overexpressed hepcidin. Few studies have examined the role of hepcidin on maternal iron homeostasis in the context of obese pregnancy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of maternal obesity and pregnancy on hepcidin and maternal iron status while accounting for inflammation and iron supplementation. We conducted a secondary analysis of a cohort of pregnant women recruited from a referral obstetric hospital in Mexico City. Circulating biomarkers of iron status (hepcidin, ferritin [SF], transferrin receptor [sTfR], erythropoietin [EPO]), and inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-[TNF]α, and interleukin-[IL]6) were determined monthly throughout pregnancy. Repeated measures ANOVA and logistic regression models were used for statistics. Twenty-three obese (Ob) and 25 lean (Lc) women were studied. SF and hepcidin declined, and EPO and sTfR increased throughout pregnancy in both groups. sTfR increased more in Ob than in Lc (p = 0.024). The smallest hepcidin decline occurred in iron-supplemented Ob women compared to non-supplemented Lc women (p = 0.022). The risk for iron deficiency at the end of pregnancy was higher for Ob than for Lc (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.07-9.58) after adjusting for iron supplementation and hepcidin concentration. Pre-gestational obesity increases the risk of maternal iron deficiency despite iron supplementation. Overexpressed hepcidin appears to be a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary analysis of iron (Fe) acquisition system in Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jing-Chi; Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Lo, Ying-Chu; Yang, Shun-Chung; Hu, Jer-Ming; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lee, Der-Chuen; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2016-07-01

    To acquire appropriate iron (Fe), vascular plants have developed two unique strategies, the reduction-based strategy I of nongraminaceous plants for Fe(2+) and the chelation-based strategy II of graminaceous plants for Fe(3+) . However, the mechanism of Fe uptake in bryophytes, the earliest diverging branch of land plants and dominant in gametophyte generation is less clear. Fe isotope fractionation analysis demonstrated that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha uses reduction-based Fe acquisition. Enhanced activities of ferric chelate reductase and proton ATPase were detected under Fe-deficient conditions. However, M. polymorpha did not show mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, the key components of strategy II, or the precursor nicotianamine. Five ZIP (ZRT/IRT-like protein) homologs were identified and speculated to be involved in Fe uptake in M. polymorpha. MpZIP3 knockdown conferred reduced growth under Fe-deficient conditions, and MpZIP3 overexpression increased Fe content under excess Fe. Thus, a nonvascular liverwort, M. polymorpha, uses strategy I for Fe acquisition. This system may have been acquired in the common ancestor of land plants and coopted from the gametophyte to sporophyte generation in the evolution of land plants. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose accelerates erythropoietic recovery from experimental malarial anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Sharp, Rebecca Emilie; Andersson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Iron restriction has been proposed as a cause of erythropoietic suppression in malarial anemia; however, the role of iron in malaria remains controversial, because it may increase parasitemia. To investigate the role of iron-restricted erythropoiesis, A/J mice were infected with Plasmodium chabaudi...... use of iron therapy in malaria and show the need for trials of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose as an adjunctive treatment for severe malarial anemia....

  4. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAST IRON AND STEEL MODIFYING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of modification of cast iron and steel\\^ were analyzed and thermodinamic performance criterion of modifiers was defined. It is shown that in cast irons, Mg, Ca and P3M mostly act like refining modifiers. In steel they act as refining and surfactant species. Effectiveness of modifiers for steel is determined by their high degassing and surface activity, low distribution coefficient, weak interaction with Ъ-Ре, low activity in liquid metal.

  5. Novel insights into iron metabolism by integrating deletome and transcriptome analysis in an iron deficiency model of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkin Adam P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-deficiency anemia is the most prevalent form of anemia world-wide. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model of cellular iron deficiency, in part because many of its cellular pathways are conserved. To better understand how cells respond to changes in iron availability, we profiled the yeast genome with a parallel analysis of homozygous deletion mutants to identify essential components and cellular processes required for optimal growth under iron-limited conditions. To complement this analysis, we compared those genes identified as important for fitness to those that were differentially-expressed in the same conditions. The resulting analysis provides a global perspective on the cellular processes involved in iron metabolism. Results Using functional profiling, we identified several genes known to be involved in high affinity iron uptake, in addition to novel genes that may play a role in iron metabolism. Our results provide support for the primary involvement in iron homeostasis of vacuolar and endosomal compartments, as well as vesicular transport to and from these compartments. We also observed an unexpected importance of the peroxisome for growth in iron-limited media. Although these components were essential for growth in low-iron conditions, most of them were not differentially-expressed. Genes with altered expression in iron deficiency were mainly associated with iron uptake and transport mechanisms, with little overlap with those that were functionally required. To better understand this relationship, we used expression-profiling of selected mutants that exhibited slow growth in iron-deficient conditions, and as a result, obtained additional insight into the roles of CTI6, DAP1, MRS4 and YHR045W in iron metabolism. Conclusion Comparison between functional and gene expression data in iron deficiency highlighted the complementary utility of these two approaches to identify important functional

  6. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  7. On-line and bulk analysis of iron ore and bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.; Roczniok, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A number of analysis techniques based on neutron and gamma radiation have been developed for the mining industry. Current projects include the measurement of annihilation radiation arising from pair production for the on-line determination of the iron content of iron ores, and the construction of a demonstration bauxite analyser based on fast-neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and silicon content

  8. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  9. Efficacy of intravenous iron in treating iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Are there predictors of response? Eficacia del hierro intravenoso en el tratamiento de la anemia ferropénica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: ¿Existen factores predictivos de respuesta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ferreiro Iglesias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a very common disorder. Until recently, oral iron has been the mainstay therapy, nevertheless it has been associated with intolerance and noncompliance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron in IDA in IBD patients and the secondary aim was to investigate whether other potential factors could influence in the response to the treatment. Design: an open-label, prospective, consecutive, single centre study. Material and methods: we performed our study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD with severe anaemia or intolerance with oral iron. All of them received intravenous sacarose iron and did biochemistry profile with haemoglobin (Hb. Moreover, the correlation with other variables was studied: age, sex, smoking habit, IBD type, previous surgery and type of surgery and other treatments. Response was defined as Hb increase of ≥ 2 g/dL or normalization of the levels. Results: fifty-four patients were included into the study, 34 (63% with UC y 20 (37% with CD, 18 (33.3% men and 36 women (66.6% and the average was 48 ± 14 years. The total proportion of responders was 52% (SD ± 05; 43% of the patients reached Hb ≥ 2 g/dl and y 9% of them normalized Hb. Only the utilization of 5-ASA was associated with low response to iron treatment (p Introducción: la anemia por déficit de hierro es un problema frecuente en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII. Un número no despreciable de pacientes no responde o presenta intolerancia al hierro oral. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es evaluar la eficacia del hierro sacarosa intravenoso (Venofer® en los pacientes con EII así como los potenciales factores que pueden influir en la respuesta al mismo. Diseño: estudio abierto, unicéntrico y con una inclusión consecutiva de casos. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con colitis ulcerosa (CU y enfermedad

  10. Noninvasive analysis of skin iron and zinc levels in beta-thalassemia major and intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Dagan, I.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence analysis, was used for noninvasive determination of iron and zinc in two distinct skin areas, representing predominantly dermal and epidermal tissues, in 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. The mean iron levels in the skin of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia were elevated by greater than 200% and greater than 50%, respectively, compared with control values. The zinc levels of both skin areas examined were within the normal range. The data indicate that the rate and number of blood transfusions, which correlated well with serum ferritin levels (r . 0.8), are not the only factors that determine the amount of iron deposition in the skin (r less than 0.6). Other sources of iron intake contribute to the total iron load in the tissues, particularly in patients who are not given multiple transfusions. The noninvasive quantitation of skin levels may reflect the extent of iron deposition in major parenchymal organs. Repeated DXS examinations of the skin could monitor the clearance of iron from the tissues of patients with iron overload in the course of therapy with chelating agents

  11. Cost of opioid intravenous patient-controlled analgesia: results from a hospital database analysis and literature assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pamela Palmer,1 Xiang Ji,2 Jennifer Stephens21AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 2Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA equipment and opioid cost analyses on specific procedures are lacking. This study estimates the intravenous PCA hospital cost for the first 48 postoperative hours for three inpatient surgeries.Methods: Descriptive analyses using the Premier database (2010–2012 of more than 500 US hospitals were conducted on cost (direct acquisition and indirect cost for the hospital, such as overhead, labor, pharmacy services of intravenous PCA after total knee/hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA or open abdominal surgery. Weighted average cost of equipment and opioid drug and the literature-based cost of adverse events and complications were aggregated for total costs.Results: Of 11,805,513 patients, 272,443 (2.3%, 139,275 (1.2%, and 195,062 (1.7% had TKA, THA, and abdominal surgery, respectively, with approximately 20% of orthopedic and 29% of abdominal patients having specific intravenous PCA database cost entries. Morphine (57% and hydromorphone (44% were the most frequently used PCA drugs, with a mean cost per 30 cc syringe of $16 (30 mg and $21 (6 mg, respectively. The mean number of syringes used for morphine and hydromorphone in the first 48 hours were 1.9 and 3.2 (TKA, 2.0 and 4.2 (THA, and 2.5 and 3.9 (abdominal surgery, respectively. Average costs of PCA pump, intravenous tubing set, and drug ranged from $46 to $48, from $20 to $22, and from $33 to $46, respectively. Pump, tubing, and saline required to maintain patency of the intravenous PCA catheter over 48 hours ranged from $9 to $13, from $8 to $9, and from $20 to $22, respectively. Supplemental non-PCA opioid use ranged from $56 for THA to $87 for abdominal surgery. Aggregated mean intravenous PCA equipment and opioid cost per patient were $196 (THA, $204 (TKA, and $243 (abdominal surgery. Total costs, including

  12. Evaluation of iron status in lemurs by analysis of serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cathy V; Junge, Randall E; Stalis, Ilse H

    2008-02-15

    To assess serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation as indicators of iron metabolic status in 3 genera of lemurs and determine whether these variables are useful for screening for iron overload. Cross-sectional study. 11 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 11 black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco), and 11 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Blood samples were collected weekly for 3 weeks and assayed for serum iron and ferritin concentrations and total iron-binding capacity. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically and assayed for total iron, nonheme iron, and trace mineral concentrations. Deposition of iron was scored on Prussian blue-stained slides. Hepatic iron content ranged from 497 to 12,800 Pg/g dry weight (median, 2,165 Pg/g). Differences were seen in mean hepatic iron content across genera, with ruffed lemurs having the highest concentrations and ring-tailed lemurs having the lowest. Iron accumulation in the liver was mild, and cellular pathologic changes associated with iron storage disease were not detected in any lemur. Ferritin concentration was the only variable that correlated significantly with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera of lemurs; however, both transferrin saturation and serum iron concentration were correlated with hepatic iron concentration in ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs. Serum ferritin concentration was the only variable that was consistently correlated with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera. Mean hepatic iron content varied across genera, suggesting that the propensity for lemurs to develop iron overload in captivity may vary across taxa.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of sponge iron rotary kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Kumar Gaurav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 2D CFD model of rotary kiln of sponge iron process is developed to study the effects of angle of inclination, number of rotation and mass flow rate of iron ore on output parameters. Based on grid independent test for temperature profile optimum mesh size is selected. The result shows that optimum angle of inclination, number of rotation and flow rate of iron ore are found as 2.7 degree, 4.8 rpm and 10 kg/s, respectively. At these optimum conditions the % metallization is predicted as 89.5%, which is 3.24% less in comparison to the existing system. The temperature profiles of gas and bed are also found within acceptable temperature limits. The results are compared well with the published work as well as industrial data.

  14. Redox-complexometric determination of iron and cobalt and its application to the analysis of multi-component alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horácek, J; Pribil, R

    1969-01-01

    A redox-complexometric determination of iron and cobalt is based on potentiometric titration of iron with EDTA, followed by that of cobalt with iron(III) chloride after addition of 1,10-phenanthroline. This method simplifies the complexometric analysis of more complicated materials.

  15. Analysis of magnetic ground state in thulium iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, A.; Lehmann-Szweykowska, A.; Wigen, P.E.; Bornfreund, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic phase diagrams of thulium iron garnets at T = 0 K are obtained by means of the so-called Monte Carlo relaxation method. The diagrams are given in terms of respective strength of the superexchange couplings. There are five different phases and one spin-flop line on the diagram obtained. Two of these phases are of semi-spin glass type. (author)

  16. Analysis of cracking in glass molds made of cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushin, I. O.; Chistyakov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    The cracking in the parts of cast iron molds intended for glass is considered, and this cracking substantially affects the operation of glass-blowing equipment, maintainability, and the replacement of mold sets. The processes that cause cracking in the parts of glass molds and initiate crack growth are studied.

  17. Comparative analysis of the neutron cross-sections of iron from various evaluated data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Vozyakov, V.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Smoll, F.; Resner, P.; Seeliger, D.; Hermsdorf, D.

    1983-09-01

    The comparative analysis of neutron cross-sections of iron from evaluated nuclear data libraries SOKRATOR, KEDAK, ENDL is done in energy interval from 0.025 eV to 20 MeV. Some of iron cross-sections from SOKRATOR library are revised and new data, which are obtained by using new experimental data and more comprehensive theoretical methods, are recommended. As a result the new version of the iron neutron cross-section file (BNF-2012) is produced for SOKRATOR library. (author)

  18. Integrating microarray analysis and the soybean genome to understand the soybeans iron deficiency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Soybeans grown in the upper Midwestern United States often suffer from iron deficiency chlorosis, which results in yield loss at the end of the season. To better understand the effect of iron availability on soybean yield, we identified genes in two near isogenic lines with changes in expression patterns when plants were grown in iron sufficient and iron deficient conditions. Results Transcriptional profiles of soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr) near isogenic lines Clark (PI548553, iron efficient) and IsoClark (PI547430, iron inefficient) grown under Fe-sufficient and Fe-limited conditions were analyzed and compared using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array. There were 835 candidate genes in the Clark (PI548553) genotype and 200 candidate genes in the IsoClark (PI547430) genotype putatively involved in soybean's iron stress response. Of these candidate genes, fifty-eight genes in the Clark genotype were identified with a genetic location within known iron efficiency QTL and 21 in the IsoClark genotype. The arrays also identified 170 single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) specific to either Clark or IsoClark. A sliding window analysis of the microarray data and the 7X genome assembly coupled with an iterative model of the data showed the candidate genes are clustered in the genome. An analysis of 5' untranslated regions in the promoter of candidate genes identified 11 conserved motifs in 248 differentially expressed genes, all from the Clark genotype, representing 129 clusters identified earlier, confirming the cluster analysis results. Conclusion These analyses have identified the first genes with expression patterns that are affected by iron stress and are located within QTL specific to iron deficiency stress. The genetic location and promoter motif analysis results support the hypothesis that the differentially expressed genes are co-regulated. The combined results of all analyses lead us to postulate iron inefficiency in soybean is a result of a

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of iron and zinc in compact eye shadow, compact face powder and compact rouge make-up cosmetic products. The steps of the procedure are: Irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons, counting of gamma-radioactivity of the radioisotopes of iron and zinc produced by this irradiation and calculation of the concentration of these elements from the gamma-ray spectra of samples and standards. Analysis of the I.A.E.A. standard reference material by this procedure give results in close agreement with certified values. The limit of quantitation is 45 μg for iron and 0.35 μg for zinc. The developed procedure could possibly be established as an official method for the simultaneous determination of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products. (orig.) [de

  20. Comparing intravenous and oral proton pump inhibitor therapy for bleeding peptic ulcers following endoscopic management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Alberto; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marmo, Riccardo; Mutignani, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been demonstrated for bleeding peptic ulcers but the route of administration remains controversial. Several studies have demonstrated that high-dose oral PPIs are as effective as intravenous PPIs in reducing recurrent bleeding. However, current guidelines recommend intravenous PPIs after endoscopic treatment. Previous data based on numbers that were too small to enable a firm conclusion to be reached suggested that oral and intravenous PPIs had equivalent efficacy. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare oral and intravenous PPIs in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers after endoscopic management. A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, between 1990 and February 2016, to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of PPIs administered by different routes. Nine RCTs, involving 1036 patients, were analysed. Outcomes were: recurrent bleeding, blood transfusion requirement, duration of hospital stay, a need for repeat endoscopy, surgery and 30-day mortality. There were no differences in the rebleeding rates [odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60, 1.46; P = 0.77], need for surgery (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.25, 2.40; P = 0.65), need for repeat endoscopy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39, 1.21; P = 0.19), need for blood transfusion [(MD) -0.03, 95% CI -0.26, 0.19; P = 0.76], duration of hospital stay (MD -0.61, 95% CI -1.45, 0.23; P = 0.16) or 30-day mortality (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.27, 2.43; P = 0.84) according to the route of administration. Oral PPIs represent better value for money, with clinical efficacy equivalent to intravenous PPIs. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke,

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment. It was important for us to determine which trace metals from the smelted ore were incorporated into the cast iron in order to provide a complete picture of the fate of those metals. It was the only missing piece of information after all other media were sampled. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. Standard techniques require collecting samples in the field, shipping them to a laboratory, and performing a destructive analysis. We needed a nonstandard approach for analysis of the cast iron artifacts.

  2. The investigation of calcium and iron participation in wound healing using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, F.; Bozanic, D.

    1979-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ag, Sb and Hg. Blood and tissue samples of 70 mg each were analysed to establish changes in the concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc in affected tissue. In this paper the results of the behaviour of calcium and iron are reported. The calcium concentration of fracture haematoma blood (FHB) is about 20 times as high as that of arterial or venous blood (rabbits). The level and the change with time of the calcium concentration in FHB-deposits (rabbits) can be explained by the participation of calcium in the haemolysis of the erythrocytes of the FHB which has been injected to form the deposits. The behaviour of the iron in the FHB-deposits is in agreement with this explanation. The change in calcium concentration in the crust of punch-hole wounds in the skin (rats) can be attributed to the mobilization of calcium for fibrin formation. As a likely reason for the level and change with time of the iron concentration in the tissue in the area of fascia and muscle incision wounds (rabbits), the participation of iron in the formation of collagen is discussed. From a comparison of the behaviour of the iron in the FHB-deposits with that in the area of incision wounds it follows that iron enrichments in the area of a complication-free wound are not predominantly caused by a wound haematoma. (author)

  3. Urinary Metabolomic Analysis to Detect Changes After Intravenous, Non-ionic, Low Osmolar Iodinated Radiocontrast for Computerized Tomographic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B Diercks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a result of injury to the proximal tubules caused by oxidative stress and ischemia. Metabolomics is a novel technique that has been used to identify renal damage from drug toxicities. The objective of this study is to analyze the metabolic changes in the urine after dosing with intravenous (IV contrast for computed tomograph (CT of the chest Methods: A convenience sample of patients undergoing a chest CT with IV contrast who had at least one of the following: age ≥50 years, diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, or diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg -- were eligible for enrollment. Urine samples were collected prior to imaging and 4-6 hours post imaging. Samples underwent gas chromography/mass spectrometry profiling. We measured peak metabolite values and log transformed data. Paired T tests were calculated. We used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM to determine the most significant metabolites. Results: The cohort comprised 14 patients with matched samples; 9 /14 (64.3 were males, and the median age was 61 years (IQR 50-68. A total of 158 metabolites were identified. Using SAM we identified 9 metabolites that were identified as significant using a delta of 1.6. Conclusion: Changes in urinary metabolites are present soon after contrast administration. This change in urinary metabolites may be potential early identifiers of contrast-induced nephropathy and could identify patients at high-risk for developing this condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:152–157.

  4. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Nasehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common convulsive disorder in children and different studies reported controversial results about the association between this disorder and iron deficiency. In some studies, iron level in children with febrile seizure is higher than control and in some reports it is less than the control group. So, we systematically reviewed all the studies in this field and analyzed their findings using meta-analysis methods. This review and meta-analysis was conducted by iron and fever keywords on articles published in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Federated search of medical digital library that includes a variety of international databases. All articles dated at the end of March 2012 were studied. Case-control studies were selected and quality assessment of studies were surveyed by STROB criteria and information requirements, including the status of iron deficiency anemia, iron levels and ferritin level of eligible studies were extracted and analyzed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0 software and the Forest and Funnel chart was drawn. Finally 11 studies included 1357 children with febrile seizure and 1347 children in the control group were evaluated. The odds ratio of iron deficiency anemia in children with febrile seizure in comparison to the control group was 1.27 (OR = 1.27, CI95%: 1.03 -1.56. Ferritin level was not significant between the two groups (p=0.08, but the iron level in the two groups was significant (p=0.000. Iron deficiency is considered as a risk factor in the incidence of febrile seizure and interventional studies can be helpful to confirm this hypothesis.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Microbial Populations Associated with Iron Cycling in the Piquette Mine in Tennyson, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. S.; Skatvold, A. M.; Labrenz, M.; Welch, S. A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms have attracted attention recently due to the geological significance of biological iron cycling and the potential for formation of iron oxide biosignatures. We have been studying an iron oxide-rich biofilm and associated groundwater located in a Mississippi Valley Type lead-zinc mine that was closed and allowed to flood about 30 years ago. The local environment appears to be at a boundary between oxic and anoxic waters. SEM and TEM analysis reveals that the bulk of the biofilm is composed of iron oxide-coated stalks and sheaths characteristic of Leptothrix and Gallionella. In addition, novel iron oxide filaments, some of which are associated with microorganisms, are found in parts of the biofilm and throughout the cloudy layer of water above. The volume of the biofilm ( ~20 cm thick over sections of the tunnel floor) suggests that microorganisms are able to form large deposits of iron oxides, such as those in the geologic record, over short time scales. The conditions at this site also suggest that iron oxidation is an important biological metabolism in the subsurface. In order to understand the diversity of iron oxidizers and their role in the microbial community, we performed a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of DNA extracted from the iron oxide-rich biofilm and the surrounding water. Analysis shows that the diversity in the biofilm is high. 186 clones were screened: 90 from DNA amplified using universal primers and 96 using bacterial primers. In both cases, ~40% of the clones possessed distinct sequences (<98% similarity). These sequences are affiliated with a variety of taxonomic groups, notably Nitrospira and β -Proteobacteria (including close relatives of Gallionella ferruginea), but also Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Planctomyces, and α -, δ - and γ -Proteobacteria. The dominant physiologies apparent in this clone library are iron oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. In addition

  6. Safety and effectiveness assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Rahmani, Mahbobeh; Goudarzi, Reza; Rahimdel, Abulghasem

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established treatment of immune mediated demyelinating neuropathy including Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Recent trials suggest its efficacy in treating relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis. IVIG exerts a number of effects, which may be beneficial in treating multiple sclerosis (MS): Reduction of inflammation, inhibition of macrophages, and promotion of remyelination. The aim of this study was to provide an overall assessment of the existing trials of safety and effectiveness of IVIG in relapsing- remitting MS compared to other drugs currently available for the treatment of disease activity in MS. A systematic search strategy was applied to MEDLINE (PubMed and Ovid Medline (1990- Nov 2014)), Cochrane Library 2014, and Trip Database 2014, CRD. The reference lists from the identified trials, MS clinical handbooks and guidelines for the use of IVIG were studied. This article was conducted without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials of IVIG in MS were selected. Sixteen double-blinded trails were randomly selected. Ten trials were excluded and we performed a meta-analysis on the six trials (537 participants) of IVIG in comparison to placebo. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using Jadad checklist. The meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect on proportion of relapse-free patients (OR: 1.693; 95% CI-1.205-2.380), on the proportion of patients who improved (OR:2.977; 95% CI 1.769-5.010; p=0.0001) and deteriorated (OR:0.522; 95% CI0.330-0.827; p=0.006) between placebo and IVIG-treated patients. In addition, there was a reduction in the annual relapse rate in the IVIG group compared to placebo, which was statistically significant (SMD=-0.218; 95% CI-0.412 to -0.024; p=0.028). The results of the meta-analysis did not show significant differences between Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) changes from baseline (SMD,-0.025; 95% CI,-0

  7. Subcutaneous heparin compared with continuous intravenous heparin administration in the initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis. A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, D. W.; Bura, A.; Mazzolai, L.; Büller, H. R.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the efficacy and safety of published randomized trials comparing subcutaneous heparin with continuous intravenous heparin for the initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Studies published between January 1986 and April 1991 were identified through computer searches of the

  8. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianghua; Liu Huili; Zhang Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu Lehui

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  9. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  10. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu, Lehui

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary alpha-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  11. Kidney lower pole pelvicaliceal anatomy: comparative analysis between intravenous urogram and three-dimensional helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid Filho, Daibes; Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT) over intravenous urogram (IVU) in the morphometric and morphological analysis of lower pole spatial anatomy of the kidney. We analyzed 52 renal collecting systems in 30 patients, ranging in age from 23 to 80 years. The study compared the following features: (1) the angle formed between the lower infundibulum and the renal pelvis (i.e., lower infundibulum-pelvic angle [IPA]), (2) the lower infundibulum diameter (ID), and (3) the spatial distribution and number of lower pole calices (i.e., caliceal distribution [CD]). The study started with the 3D-HCT images obtained for posterior reconstruction and analysis. Afterward, we obtained anteroposterior and oblique IVU images. For IPA (in degrees) we found a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) value of 75.79 +/- 15.3 with 3D-HCT and 77.4 +/- 17.17 with IVU, which were not statistically significant. For ID (in mm) we found a mean +/- SD value of 7.5 +/- 2.92 with 3D-HCT and 8.15 +/- 3.27 with IVU. For CD we found a mean +/- SD value of 2.37 +/- 0.75 calices with 3D-HCT and 2.43 +/- 0.67 calices with IVU. On analyzing the difference between 3D-HCT and IVU, we found a mean +/- SD value of 0.06 +/- 0.51, and we verified that 74.5% of the examinations compared did not present statistically significant difference, with a Wilcoxon p-value of 0.405. Although 3D-HCT is more precise to study calculus location, tumors, and vessels, IVU was also demonstrated to be as precise as 3D-HCT for studying the lower pole spatial anatomy. We did not observe any statistically significant difference in the measurements of IPA, ID, and CD obtained using 3D-HCT when compared with those obtained using IVU. Therefore, 3D-HCT does not present any advantage over IVU in the evaluation of lower pole caliceal anatomy.

  12. Preventive Ceftriaxone in Patients with Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Post Hoc Analysis of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Roos, Yvo B; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients who received intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), patients who received ceftriaxone had a significantly better outcome as compared with the control group. This study aimed to gain more insight into the characteristics of these patients. In PASS, 2,550 patients were randomly assigned to preventive antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone or standard care. In current post-hoc analysis, 836 patients who received IVT were included. Primary outcome included functional status on the modified Rankin Scale, analyzed with adjusted ordinal regression. Secondary outcomes included infection rate and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) rate. For all patients in PASS, the p value for the interaction between IVT and preventive ceftriaxone regarding functional outcome was 0.03. Of the 836 IVT-treated patients, 437 were administered ceftriaxone and 399 were allocated to the control group. Baseline characteristics were similar. In the IVT subgroup, preventive ceftriaxone was associated with a significant reduction in unfavorable outcome (adjusted common OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.99; p = 0.04). Mortality at 3 months was similar (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.48-1.18). Preventive ceftriaxone was associated with a reduction in infections (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.28-0.66), and a trend towards an increased risk for sICH (OR 3.09; 95% CI 0.85-11.31). Timing of ceftriaxone administration did not influence the outcome (aOR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.03; p = 0.85). According to the post-hoc analysis of PASS, preventive ceftriaxone may improve the functional outcome in IVT-treated patients with acute stroke, despite a trend towards an increased rate of post-IVT-sICH. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Early and late Iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Xing; Wang, Rong-Shan; Chen, Shu-Jun; Wang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Xi-Yong

    2015-03-14

    Iron deficiency in infancy is associated with a range of clinical and developmentally important issues. Currently, it is unclear what is the optimal timing to administer prophylactic enteral iron supplementation in preterm and very low birth weight infants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate early compared with late iron supplementation in low birth weight infants. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to May 10, 2014 for studies that compared the benefit of early and late iron supplementation in infants of low birth weight. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the leave one-out approach and the quality of the included data was assessed. The data base search and detailed review identified four studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The number of included patients was 246 (n=121 for early supplementation and n=125 for late supplementation) and the majority were premature infants. Across studies, early supplementation ranged from as early as enteral feeding was tolerated to 3 weeks, and late supplementation ranged from 4 weeks to about 60 days. Early treatment was associated with significantly smaller decreases in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels (Psupplementation (P=0.022). There was no difference between early and late supplementation in the number of patients with nectorizing enteroclitis (>bell stage 2) (P=0.646). Sensitivity analysis indicated no one study overly influenced the findings and that the data was reliable. In conclusion, early iron supplementation resulted in less a decrease in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in infants with low birth rate. However, caution should be used when treating infants with iron so as not to result in iron overload and possibly negative long-term effects on neurodevelopment.

  14. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  15. A hospital-based cost minimization study of the potential financial impact on the UK health care system of introduction of iron isomaltoside 1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Bhandari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunil BhandariDepartment of Renal Medicine, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust and Hull York Medical School, Kingston upon Hull, UKBackground: The clinical need to be able to administer high doses of intravenous iron conveniently in a single rapid infusion has been addressed by the recent introduction of ferric carboxymaltose and subsequently iron isomaltoside 1000. Neither requires a test dose. Ferric carboxymaltose can be administered at 15 mg/kg body weight to a maximum dose of 1000 mg, whereas iron isomaltoside 1000 can be administered at 20 mg/kg body weight. The ability to give high doses of iron is important in the context of managing iron deficiency anemia in a number of clinical conditions where demands for iron are high (including chronic blood loss associated with inflammatory bowel disease, menorrhagia, and chronic kidney disease. It is also an important component in the strategy as an alternative to a blood transfusion. Affordability is a key issue for health services.Methods: This study was a comparative analysis of the costs of administering the newly available intravenous iron formulations against standard practice (blood transfusion, intravenous iron sucrose by considering the cost of this treatment option plus nursing costs associated with administration, equipment for administration, and patient transportation in the secondary care (hospital setting across three dosage levels (600 mg, 1000 mg, and 1600 mg.Results and conclusion: The analysis indicates that the use of iron isomaltoside 1000 results in a net saving when compared with iron sucrose, blood, and ferric carboxymaltose. At 600 mg and 1000 mg doses, it is cheaper than low-molecular-weight iron dextran but more expensive at a dose of 1600 mg. However, it takes six hours to administer low-molecular-weight iron dextran at this dose level, which is inconvenient and reduces patient throughput (productivity.Keywords: iron isomaltoside 1000, iron

  16. Analysis and design of short, iron-free dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Iron-free, dipole magnets are used extensively as steering magnets to correct for the bending, induced by extraneous magnetic fields, of particle beams that are being transported in vacuum. Generally, the dipoles are long enough that the space occupied by the end conductors is small compared to the overall magnet length. In a recent application, however, this criteria did not apply. This has motivated a reanalysis of the characteristics of a system of small aspect ratio (length/diameter) dipoles that are spaced at relatively large axial distances

  17. Determination of total iron in iron ore by x-ray fluorescence analysis using the Compton effect: comparison with others analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, M.V. de; Oliveira, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Total iron in iron ores is determines by X-ray fluorescence analysis method using the compton effect. The Bragg angle is determined for compton no-coherent scattering related to K alpha of Rhodium. This measurement procedure can be used for best fitting of analytical results in X-ray fluorescence, when compared with others methods used for results corrections. (M.V.M.)

  18. Risk factors for complications in peripheral intravenous catheters in adults: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Derdried Athanasio; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Lind, Jolline

    2016-11-28

    analyze the risk factors linked to complications in peripheral intravenous catheters. secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial with 169 medical and surgical patients placed in two groups, one with integrated safety catheter (n=90) and other using simple needle catheter (n=79), with three months follow-up time. the risk factors that raised the odds of developing complications were: hospitalization between 10-19 days (p=0.0483) and 20-29 days (p=0,0098), antimicrobial use (p=0.0288) and use of fluid solutions (p=0.0362). The 20 Gauge lowered the risks of complications (p=0.0153). Multiple analysis showed reduction of risk for the 20 Gauge (p=0.0350); heightened risk for solutions and fluids (p=0.0351) and use of corticosteroids (p=0.0214). risk factors linked to complications in peripheral intravenous catheters were: hospitalization periods between 10-29 days, antimicrobial infusion, solutions and fluids and corticosteroids. Regarding complications, 20 Gauge is a protecting factor compared with 22. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry: RBR-46ZQR8. analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à ocorrência de complicações no cateterismo venoso periférico. análise secundária de dados de um ensaio clínico randomizado, no qual 169 pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos foram alocados no grupo em uso de cateter de segurança completo (n = 90) e no grupo que utilizou cateter sobre agulha simples (n = 79), tempo de seguimento de três meses. os fatores de risco que aumentaram as chances de desenvolvimento de complicações foram: períodos de internação compreendidos entre 10 a 19 dias (p = 0,0483) e 20 a 29 dias (p = 0,0098), uso de antimicrobianos (p = 0,0288) e soluções e planos de soro (p = 0,0362). O calibre 20 Gauge diminuiu os riscos de ocorrência de complicações (p=0,0153). A análise múltipla apontou redução do risco para o calibre 20 (p = 0,0350); aumento do risco para a infusão de soluções e planos de soro (p = 0,0351) e administra

  19. Dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongyao; Li, Bingrong; Song, Xingxing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-05-01

    The associations between dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression remain controversial. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate these associations. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases for relevant studies up to January 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 9 studies for dietary zinc intake and 3 studies for dietary iron intake were finally included in present meta-analysis. The pooled RRs with 95% CIs of depression for the highest versus lowest dietary zinc and iron intake were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58-0.76) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.95), respectively. In subgroup analysis by study design, the inverse association between dietary zinc intake and risk of depression remained significant in the cohort studies and cross-sectional studies. The pooled RRs (95% CIs) for depression did not substantially change in the influence analysis and subgroup analysis by adjustment for body mass index (BMI). The present meta-analysis indicates inverse associations between dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual iron concentration imaging based on dual-energy CT for noninvasive quantification and grading of liver iron content: An iron overload rabbit model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian Fu; Yang, Yi; Xie, Xue Qian; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Yan, Fu Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yan, Jing [Siemens Shanghai Medical Equipment Ltd., Shanghai (China); Wang, Li [Fudan University, Center of Analysis and Measurement, Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To assess the accuracy of liver iron content (LIC) quantification and grading ability associated with clinical LIC stratification using virtual iron concentration (VIC) imaging on dual-energy CT (DECT) in an iron overload rabbit model. Fifty-one rabbits were prepared as iron-loaded models by intravenous injection of iron dextran. DECT was performed at 80 and 140 kVp. VIC images were derived from an iron-specific algorithm. Postmortem LIC assessments were conducted on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Correlation between VIC and LIC was analyzed. VIC were stratified according to the corresponding clinical LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg Fe/g. Diagnostic performance of stratification was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. VIC linearly correlated with LIC (r = 0.977, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between VIC-derived LICs and ICP (P > 0.05). For the four clinical LIC thresholds, the corresponding cutoff values of VIC were 19.6, 25.3, 36.9, and 61.5 HU, respectively. The highest sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (100 %) were achieved at the threshold of 15.0 mg Fe/g. Virtual iron concentration imaging on DECT showed potential ability to accurately quantify and stratify hepatic iron accumulation in the iron overload rabbit model. (orig.)

  1. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Dong, Qiang; Zhang, Yin-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) could reduce perioperative blood loss. The optimal administration routine of TXA remains controversial. The objective of the present systemic review and meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of various application methods of tranexamic acid in primary THA. Potential relevant literature was identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Grey academic studies were also identified from the references of the included literature. There was no language restriction. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two non-RCTs involving 1614 patients met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -30.04, 95% CI: -114.67 to 54.59, P = 0.49), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0.10, P = 0.14), transfusion rate (RD = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.5 to -0.00, P = 0.09), length of stay ((MD = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.30 to 0.01, P = 0.07) or operation time ((MD = 1.00, 95% CI: -0.31 to 2.31, P = 0.14) between treatment groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as wound infection (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.04, P = 0.66), myocardial infarction (MI) (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.02, P = 0.61), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01, P = 0.51) or pulmonary embolism (PE) (RD = RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01, P = 0.63) between groups. The topical administration of TXA in THA carried similar hemostasis effects compared with intravenous use without an increased risk of thrombotic complications. No other adverse effect was identified. Topical TXA application was a simple, safe, effective and cost-effective adjunct for

  2. Repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol does not lead to increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images - a voxel-based whole brain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Soenke; Kromrey, Marie-Luise [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); University Hospital, Carl Gustav Carus University Dresden, Institute for Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Matthias [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Neurology, Greifswald (Germany); Domin, Martin [University Medicine Greifswald, Functional Imaging Unit, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol. Using the ''Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra'' (DARTEL) normalisation process, tissue templates for grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated, as were GM-CSF and WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis was used to calculate the signal intensity for each voxel in each data set. Paired t-test was applied to test differences to baseline MRI for significance. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis demonstrated no significant changes in signal intensity of grey and white matter after up to five gadobutrol administrations. There was no significant change in GM-CSF and grey WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis did not demonstrate increased signal intensity of GM and WM on unenhanced T1-weighted images after repeated gadobutrol administration. The molecular structure of gadolinium-based contrast agent preparations may be an essential factor causing SI increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  3. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including three liquid-based supplements. Iron bioavailability was measured using Caco-2 cells with ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by either Dunnett's or Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. Spatone Apple(®) (a naturally iron-rich mineral water with added ascorbate) and Iron Vital F(®) (a synthetic liquid iron supplement) had the highest iron bioavailability. There was no statistical difference between iron uptake from ferrous sulphate tablets, Spatone(®) (naturally iron-rich mineral water alone) and Pregnacare Original(®) (a multimineral/multivitamin tablet). In our in vitro model, naturally iron-rich mineral waters and synthetic liquid iron formulations have equivalent or better bioavailability compared with ferrous iron sulphate tablets. If these results are confirmed in vivo, this would mean that at-risk groups of IDA could be offered a greater choice of more bioavailable and potentially better tolerated iron preparations.

  4. Index in Alexandre Dumas' Novel the Man in the Iron Mask: A Semiotic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifuddin, Salmia; Yahya, Andi Rukayah Alim; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Makhsud, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Novel as a literary work can be analyzed by using semiotic analysis. This article aims to analyze the meaning of index found in characterizations in the novel "The Man in the Iron Mask" by Alexandre Dumas. This article involved the descriptive qualitative method. The results revealed that there are many causal relations between the index…

  5. Structure analysis of thin iron-silicide film from θ-scan RHEED Patterson function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Kataoka, K.; Matsui, F.; Hatori, K.; Hiroshi, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2006), s. 267-276 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Patterson function * RHEED * iron silicide * structure analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  6. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  7. Maximal standard dose of parenteral iron for hemodialysis patients: an MRI-based decision tree learning analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Rostoker

    Full Text Available Iron overload used to be considered rare among hemodialysis patients after the advent of erythropoesis-stimulating agents, but recent MRI studies have challenged this view. The aim of this study, based on decision-tree learning and on MRI determination of hepatic iron content, was to identify a noxious pattern of parenteral iron administration in hemodialysis patients.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study from 31 January 2005 to 31 August 2013 in the dialysis centre of a French community-based private hospital. A cohort of 199 fit hemodialysis patients free of overt inflammation and malnutrition were treated for anemia with parenteral iron-sucrose and an erythropoesis-stimulating agent (darbepoetin, in keeping with current clinical guidelines. Patients had blinded measurements of hepatic iron stores by means of T1 and T2* contrast MRI, without gadolinium, together with CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID analysis.The CHAID algorithm first split the patients according to their monthly infused iron dose, with a single cutoff of 250 mg/month. In the node comprising the 88 hemodialysis patients who received more than 250 mg/month of IV iron, 78 patients had iron overload on MRI (88.6%, 95% CI: 80% to 93%. The odds ratio for hepatic iron overload on MRI was 3.9 (95% CI: 1.81 to 8.4 with >250 mg/month of IV iron as compared to <250 mg/month. Age, gender (female sex and the hepcidin level also influenced liver iron content on MRI.The standard maximal amount of iron infused per month should be lowered to 250 mg in order to lessen the risk of dialysis iron overload and to allow safer use of parenteral iron products.

  8. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  9. Theoretical analysis of an iron mineral-based magnetoreceptor model in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2007-01-01

    involves two types of iron minerals (magnetite and maghemite) that were found in subcellular compartments within sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. But so far a quantitative evaluation of the proposed receptor is missing. In this article, we develop a theoretical model...... to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the magnetic field effects among particles containing iron minerals. The analysis of forces acting between these subcellular compartments shows a particular dependence on the orientation of the external magnetic field. The iron minerals in the beak are found in the form...... of crystalline maghemite platelets and assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the pull or push to the magnetite assemblies, which are connected to the cell membrane, may reach a value of 0.2 pN-sufficient to excite specific mechanoreceptive membrane channels in the nerve cell. The theoretical...

  10. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  11. Efficacy and safety assessment of isolated ultrafiltration compared to intravenous diuretics for acutely decompensated heart failure: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchis, R; Esposito, C; Ariano, C

    2014-04-01

    Intravenous diuretics at relatively high doses are currently used for treating acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, the existence of harmful side effects diuretic-related, such as electrolyte abnormalities, symptomatic hypotension and marked neuro-hormonal activation have led researchers to implement alternative therapeutic tools such as isolated ultrafiltration (IUF). Our study aimed to compare intravenous diuretics vs. IUF as regards their respective efficacy and safety in ADHF patients through systematic review and meta-analysis of data derived from relevant randomized controlled trials. 6 studies grouping a total of 477 patients were included in the systematic review. By contrast, data from only three studies were pooled for the meta-analysis, because of different adopted outcomes or marked dissimilarities in the data presentation . Weight loss at 48 h was greater in IUF group compared to the diuretics group [weighted mean difference (WMD)=1.77 kg; 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 kg; Pdiuretics group (WMD=1.2 liters; 95%CI: 0.73-1.67 liters; P 0.3 mg/dl at 48 hours, was similar to the one found in the diuretics group (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 0.81-2.16 P=0.26). On the basis of this meta-analysis, IUF induced greater weight loss and larger fluid removal compared to iv diuretics in ADHF patients, whereas the probability of developing WRF was not significantly different in the comparison between iv diuretics and IUF.

  12. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  13. Effect of Daily Iron Supplementation in Healthy Exclusively Breastfed Infants: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxi; Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter; Friel, James

    2017-12-01

    The literature on the iron requirements of exclusively breastfed infants contains conflicting data and contrary views. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence for both benefits and risks of daily oral iron supplementation with regard to hematologic, growth, cognitive parameters, and adverse effects in exclusively breastfed infants. Structured electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library databases, and Google Scholar for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving daily iron supplementation in full-term healthy exclusively breastfed infants. Random- and fixed-effects models were used for calculating the pooled estimates. Four RCTs with 511 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Iron interventions had no significant effect on iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin level, or hemoglobin level. Iron interventions did result in a significant increase in Bayley psychomotor developmental indices in later life (mean difference [MD] = 7.00, confidence interval [95% CI] 0.99-13.01) and mean corpuscular volume (MD = 2.17 fL; 95% CI 0.99-3.35 fL). Iron supplementation was associated with slower growth during the exclusive breastfeeding period, but the long-term effect is unclear. Limited available evidence suggests that daily iron supplementation has beneficial effects on hematologic parameters and cognitive development, but may delay physical growth in healthy exclusively breastfed infants. There was no evidence to suggest that iron supplementation could cause other adverse effects.

  14. Is intravenous lorazepam really more effective and safe than intravenous diazepam as first-line treatment for convulsive status epilepticus? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-11-01

    Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal). Inverse variance, Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis to obtain risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of following outcomes: seizure cessation after drug administration; continuation of SE requiring a different drug; seizure cessation after a single dose of medication; need for ventilator support; clinically relevant hypotension. Five RCTs were included, with a total of 656 patients, 320 randomly allocated to IV LZP and 336 to IV DZP. No statistically significant differences were found between IV LZP and IV DZP for clinical seizure cessation (RR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), continuation of SE requiring a different drug (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.02), seizure cessation after a single dose of medication (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.08), need for ventilator support RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.43, and clinically relevant hypotension. Despite its favorable pharmacokinetic profile, a systematic appraisal of the literature does not provide evidence to strongly support the preferential use of IV LZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE over IV DZP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra-arterial thrombolysis vs. standard treatment or intravenous thrombolysis in adults with acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Julian; Jing, He; O'Reilly, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that intra-arterial thrombolysis may provide benefit beyond intravenous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients. Previous meta-analyses have only compared intra-arterial thrombolysis with standard treatment without thrombolysis. The objective was to review the benefits and harms of intra-arterial thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis with either standard treatment or intravenous thrombolysis following acute ischemic stroke. Primary outcomes included poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 3-6), mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Study quality was assessed, and outcomes were stratified by comparison treatment received. Four trials (n = 351) comparing intra-arterial thrombolysis with standard treatment were identified. Intra-arterial thrombolysis reduced the risk of poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 3-6) [relative risk (RR) = 0·80; 95% confidence interval = 0·67-0·95; P = 0·01]. Mortality was not increased (RR = 0·82; 95% confidence interval = 0·56-1·21; P = 0·32); however, risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was nearly four times more likely (RR = 3·90; 95% confidence interval = 1·41-10·76; P = 0·006). Two trials (n = 81) comparing intra-arterial thrombolysis with intravenous thrombolysis were identified. Intra-arterial thrombolysis was not found to reduce poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 3-6) (RR = 0·68; 95% confidence interval = 0·46-1·00; P = 0·05). Mortality was not increased (RR = 1·12; 95% confidence interval = 0·47-2·68; P = 0·79); neither was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 1·13; 95% confidence interval = 0·32-3·99; P = 0·85). Differences in time from symptom onset-to-treatment and type of thrombolytic administered were found

  16. Investigating the provenance of iron artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema by hierarchical cluster analysis of EDS microanalyses of slag inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani-Calcina, Elmer Antonio; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Azevedo, Cesar Roberto de Farias, E-mail: c.azevedo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departmento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    Microstructural characterization techniques, including EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis) microanalyses, were used to investigate the slag inclusions in the microstructure of ferrous artifacts of the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema (first steel plant of Brazil, XIX century), the D. Pedro II Bridge (located in Bahia, assembled in XIX century and produced in Scotland) and the archaeological sites of Sao Miguel de Missoes (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, production site of iron artifacts, the XVIII century) and Afonso Sardinha (Sao Paulo, Brazil production site of iron artifacts, XVI century). The microanalyses results of the main micro constituents of the microstructure of the slag inclusions were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis and the dendrogram with the microanalyses results of the wüstite phase (using as critical variables the contents of MnO, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}) allowed the identification of four clusters, which successfully represented the samples of the four investigated sites (Ipanema, Sardinha, Missoes and Bahia). Finally, the comparatively low volumetric fraction of slag inclusions in the samples of Ipanema (∼1%) suggested the existence of technological expertise at the iron making processing in the Royal Iron Factory of Sao Joao de Ipanema. (author)

  17. Technique Incorporating Cooling & Contraction / Expansion Analysis to Illustrate Shrinkage Tendency in Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, S.; Chisamera, M.; Riposan, I.; Neacsu, L.; Cojocaru, A. M.; Stan, I.

    2017-06-01

    With the more widespread adoption of thermal analysis testing, thermal analysis data have become an indicator of cast iron quality. The cooling curve and its first derivative display patterns that can be used to predict the characteristics of a cast iron. An experimental device was developed with a technique to simultaneously evaluate cooling curves and expansion or contraction of cast metals during solidification. Its application is illustrated with results on shrinkage tendency of ductile iron treated with FeSiMgRECa master alloy and inoculated with FeSi based alloys, as affected by mould rigidity (green sand and resin sand moulds). Undercooling at the end of solidification relative to the metastable (carbidic) equilibrium temperature and the expansion within the solidification sequence appear to have a strong influence on the susceptibility to macro - and micro - shrinkage in ductile iron castings. Green sand moulds, as less rigid moulds, encourage the formation of contraction defects, not only because of high initial expansion values, but also because of a higher cooling rate during solidification, and consequently, increased undercooling below the metastable equilibrium temperature up to the end of solidification.

  18. Iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barragán-Ibañez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency anaemia, its metabolism, epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis, and explore different therapeutic approaches.

  19. Comparative analysis of zinc, copper, chromium, iron and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gangster

    were transferred into marked Teflon bottles. Finally, samples were run through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for determination of Fe, Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn. Statistical analysis. SPSS and XLSTAT programs were used to compute out analysis of variance and graphical presentation. Correlation studies were carried out by ...

  20. Study on effect of supplementing iron-fortified food to children athletes by nuclear analysis and blood analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qinfang; Sun Jianguo; Feng Weiyue

    1996-01-01

    The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate

  1. Iron Studies in Man using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Enriched Stable Activable Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagob Mohamed, T.I.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace element involved in many processes in the human body. Some disorders like iron deficiency anaemia and haemochromatosis directly result from changes in iron status, while on the other hand iron metabolism changes during illness. Since these adjustments in the iron handling

  2. Implementation Analysis of Cutting Tool Carbide with Cast Iron Material S45 C on Universal Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi; hestukoro, Soni; yanie, Ahmad; Jumadi; Eddy

    2017-12-01

    Cutting tool is the tools lathe. Cutting process tool CARBIDE with Cast Iron Material Universal Lathe which is commonly found at Analysiscutting Process by some aspects numely Cutting force, Cutting Speed, Cutting Power, Cutting Indication Power, Temperature Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2. Purpose of this Study was to determine how big the cutting Speed, Cutting Power, electromotor Power,Temperatur Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2 that drives the chisel cutting CARBIDE in the Process of tur ning Cast Iron Material. Cutting force obtained from image analysis relationship between the recommended Component Cuting Force with plane of the cut and Cutting Speed obtained from image analysis of relationships between the recommended Cutting Speed Feed rate.

  3. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  4. Iron isotope analysis of red and black pigments on pottery in Nasca, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Eerkens, JW; Barfod, GH; Vaughn, KJ; Williams, PR; Lesher, CE

    2014-01-01

    The Nasca culture of the south coast of Peru developed during the first millennium ad and is known internationally for its elaborately decorated polychrome pots. Despite decades of iconographic analysis, little is known about the more technological aspects of Nasca pigment production and application. We present results from a pilot study on iron isotopes as a potential line of inquiry into the differences between red and black pigments in Nasca pigments. As well, we conduct a small firing exp...

  5. Comparative analysis and interobserver variation of unenhanced computed tomography and intravenous urography in the diagnosis of acute flank pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nakhi, Abdelmohsen; Gupta, Renu; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Muttikkal, Thomas; Chavan, Venu; Mohammed, Ahmed; Ali, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare unenhanced computed tomography (UECT) to intravenous urography (IVU) for detecting urinary tract calculi, signs of obstruction and non-renal causes in the assessment of acute flank pain, and in their interobserver agreement. In this prospective study, carried out at a university hospital over a period of 1 year, 36 patients (27 males and 9 females) participated. Mean age was 44 +/- 15 years (range: 14-73 years). The patients presented with acute flank pain and underwent UECT and IVU. The images were blindly evaluated by 2 experienced radiologists and the two techniques compared using the two-tailed McNemar's test for matched pairs; p values IVU found them in only 8 (22.2%). The increased detection by UECT was due to its ability to detect smaller stones (IVU in determining calculus position, in detecting primary or secondary signs of obstruction and in identifying non-urinary causes of flank pain. The overall average of agreement, as indicated by kappa values, was 0.88 for UECT and 0.61 for IVU. UECT showed better detectability and interobserver agreement tan IVU, suggesting that UECT could replace IVU as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of acute renal colic. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Auto-analysis system for graphite morphology of grey cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Tan, Yiyong; Lei, Junfeng; Zeng, Libo; Zhang, Zelan; Hu, Jiming

    2003-01-01

    The current method to classify graphite morphology types of grey cast iron is based on traditional subjective observation, and it cannot be used for quantitative analysis. Since microstructures have a great effect on the mechanical properties of grey cast iron and different types have totally different characters, six types of grey cast iron are discussed and an image-processing software subsystem that performs the classification and quantitative analysis automatically based on a kind of composed feature vector and artificial neural network (ANN) is described. There are three kinds of texture features: fractal dimension, roughness and two-dimension autoregression, which are used as an extracted feature input vector of ANN classifier. Compared with using only one, the checkout correct precision increased greatly. On the other hand, to achieve the quantitative analysis and show the different types clearly, the region segmentation idea was applied to the system. The percentages of the regions with different type are reported correctly. Furthermore, this paper tentatively introduces a new empirical method to decide the number of ANN hidden nodes, which are usually considered as a difficulty in ANN structure decision. It was found that the optimum hidden node number of the experimental data was the same as that obtained using the new method.

  7. Fast analysis of transferrin-iron complexes using isoelectric focusing and in situ radioactive densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, J.M.; Moineau, M.P.; Turzo, A.; Menez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular forms of transferrin-iron complexes with 59 Fe, was carried out using an isoelectric focusing method on commercially available polyacrylamide plates (PAG plates pH=4-6,5, LKB). Depending upon the saturation degree of proteins with iron, apotransferrin (pI=6,1), transferrin-Fe 3+ (pI=5,8), transferrin-2 Fe 3+ (a) (pI=5,5) and transferrin-2 Fe 3+ (b) (pI=5,3) were put forward. When the protein was saturated with iron, a double band was observed which was assigned to the microheterogeneity of the protein and depends upon the sialic content. The quantitative analysis was carried out by studying 59 Fe radioactivity distribution directly on the plate. As a control, a specific staining of proteins was achieved. The interpretation of the results is difficult if such a method is used, as some bands are not attributed. Through an unspecific staining, the UV-visible densitometry is not satisfactory enough. The proposed method allows a fast analysis of transferring-metal complexes labeled with radioactive metals. Such a method would be adaptable to the study of other complexes as transferrin- 67 Ga, transferrin 111 In in order to determine the binding site of metal on the protein and its metal content [fr

  8. Magnetic iron oxide for contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlvik, A.K.

    1991-05-01

    The main objective of this experimental work has been to study the biological fate and the contrast enhancing potential of a model preparation of magnetic iron oxide (MSM) after intravenous injection to rodents. This was achieved by: Studying in vitro contrast efficacy of various magnetic iron oxide preparations by relaxation analysis. Studying in vivo contrast efficacy of MSM by relaxation analysis and NMR imaging. Studying the biodistribution and bioelimination of MSM in independent experiments using relaxation analysis, radioactivity studies and histological techniques. Studying interactions of MSM with target cells and target organelles using ex vivo techniques. Based on the presented experimental study, the MSM model preparation of magnetic iron oxide seems to fulfill basic requirements of NMR contrast agents: efficient proton relaxation, specific in vivo distribution, and biological tolerance. 177 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Direct analysis of plutonium metal for gallium, iron, and nickel by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlet, H.L.; Doyle, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray secondary target method for routine determination of gallium, iron, and nickel in plutonium metal is described that has significant advantages over wet chemical analysis. Coupons requiring minimal preparation for analysis are produced as a breakaway tab on the plutonium ingot. All three elements are determined on the same coupon. Gallium is determined using an arsenic secondary target followed by iron and nickel using a zinc target. The analysis times are 5 minutes for gallium and 15 minutes for the combined iron and nickel. The method of analysis was evaluated in the range of from 0.5 to 1.5% gallium. Iron was investigated over the range of 67 to 3000 ppM and nickel from 64 to 110 ppM

  10. Iron-regulatory proteins secure iron availability in cardiomyocytes to prevent heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Saba; Wang, Yong; Galy, Bruno; Korf-Klingebiel, Mortimer; Hirsch, Valentin; Baru, Abdul M; Rostami, Fatemeh; Reboll, Marc R; Heineke, Jörg; Flögel, Ulrich; Groos, Stephanie; Renner, André; Toischer, Karl; Zimmermann, Fabian; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens; Bauersachs, Johann; Hentze, Matthias W; Wollert, Kai C; Kempf, Tibor

    2017-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure (HF) but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Intracellular iron availability is secured by two mRNA-binding iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs), IRP1 and IRP2. We generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-targeted deletion of Irp1 and Irp2 to explore the functional implications of ID in the heart independent of systemic ID and anaemia. Iron content in cardiomyocytes was reduced in Irp-targeted mice. The animals were not anaemic and did not show a phenotype under baseline conditions. Irp-targeted mice, however, were unable to increase left ventricular (LV) systolic function in response to an acute dobutamine challenge. After myocardial infarction, Irp-targeted mice developed more severe LV dysfunction with increased HF mortality. Mechanistically, the activity of the iron-sulphur cluster-containing complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was reduced in left ventricles from Irp-targeted mice. As demonstrated by extracellular flux analysis in vitro, mitochondrial respiration was preserved at baseline but failed to increase in response to dobutamine in Irp-targeted cardiomyocytes. As shown by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo, LV phosphocreatine/ATP ratio declined during dobutamine stress in Irp-targeted mice but remained stable in control mice. Intravenous injection of ferric carboxymaltose replenished cardiac iron stores, restored mitochondrial respiratory capacity and inotropic reserve, and attenuated adverse remodelling after myocardial infarction in Irp-targeted mice but not in control mice. As shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, IRP activity was significantly reduced in LV tissue samples from patients with advanced HF and reduced LV tissue iron content. ID in cardiomyocytes impairs mitochondrial respiration and adaptation to acute and chronic increases in workload. Iron supplementation restores cardiac energy reserve and function in iron

  11. Thermal analysis control of in-mould and ladle inoculated grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chisamera

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of 0.05wt.% to 0.25 wt.% Ca, Zr, Al-FeSi alloy on in-ladle and in-mould inoculation of grey cast irons was investigated. In the present paper, the conclusions drawn are based on thermal analysis. For the solidification pattern, some specific cooling curves characteristics, such as the degree of undercooling at the beginning of eutectic solidifi cation and at the end of solidifi cation, as well as the recalescence level, are identifi ed to be more infl uenced by the inoculation technique. The degree of eutectic undercooling of the electrically melted base iron having 0.025% S, 0.003% Al and 3.5% Ce is excessively high (39–40℃, generating a relatively high need for inoculation. Under these conditions, the in-mould inoculation has a more signifi cant effect compared to ladle inoculation, especially at lower inoculant usage (less than 0.20 wt.%. Generally, the efficiency of 0.05wt.%–0.15wt.% of alloy for in-mould inoculation is comparable to, or better than, that of 0.15wt.%–0.25wt.% addition in ladle inoculation procedures. In order to secure stable and controlled processes, representative thermal analysis parameters could be used, especially in thin wall grey iron castings production.

  12. Nuclear techniques for on-stream and rapid laboratory bulk analysis of iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.

    A neutron irradiation technique has been developed for determining the grade of iron ore fines 'in situ' on a moving conveyor belt without the need for sampling. The method entails measurement of the characteristic prompt gamma rays (7.64 MeV) due to thermal neutron capture in iron, and, with correction for moisture content and ore depth, yields the iron concentration to an accuracy of better than +- 2% Fe at the 95% confidence level. Moisture is monitored by measuring the thermal neutron flux near the surface of the ore. The possibility of simultaneous determination of aluminium with a second gamma ray detector located further 'downstream' to monitor the 1.78 MeV gamma ray (half-life 2.3 min) due to neutron activation of 27 Al is currently under investigation. With bulk density correction, the accuracy of a single determination of grade (dry basis) at the 63% Fe level is +-0.8% Fe at the 95% confidence level. Although the accuracy is independent of variations in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and LOI (loss on ignition), the technique is sensitive to the free moisture content of the ore as this is removed before chemical analysis. Thus for optimum accuracy (dry basis), the ore should be dried to < 1% free moisture before analysis. The method can be applied to material on moving conveyor belts provided the ore geometry is fixed and that the variations in free moisture are small. (author)

  13. Women with fibromyalgia have lower levels of calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese in hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Park, Sat-Byul; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Suh, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Park, Rae-Woong; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about hair mineral status in fibromyalgia patients. This study evaluated the characteristics of hair minerals in female patients with fibromyalgia compared with a healthy reference group. Forty-four female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were enrolled as the case group. Age and body mass index-matched data were obtained from 122 control subjects enrolled during visit for a regular health check-up. Hair minerals were analyzed and compared between the two groups. The mean age was 43.7 yr. General characteristics were not different between the two groups. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significantly lower level of calcium (775 µg/g vs 1,093 µg/g), magnesium (52 µg/g vs 72 µg/g), iron (5.9 µg/g vs 7.1 µg/g), copper (28.3 µg/g vs 40.2 µg/g) and manganese (140 ng/g vs 190 ng/g). Calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese were loaded in the same factor using factor analysis; the mean of this factor was significantly lower in fibromyalgia group in multivariate analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese in the hair of female patients with fibromyalgia are lower than of controls, even after adjustment of potential confounders.

  14. Experimental analysis of flow of ductile cast iron in stream lined gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, Søren; Green, Nick; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Streamlined gating systems have been developed for production of high integrity ductile cast iron parts. Flow of ductile cast iron in streamlined gating systems was studied in glass fronted sand moulds where flow in the gating system and casting was recorded by a digital video camera. These results...... are compared with real time x-ray recordings of melt flow. Results show that flow patterns are the same using both techniques. The glass fronted moulds give global information on flow in the whole gating system and casting while the x-ray analysis gives detailed information on specific areas. The experiments...... show how the quality of pouring, design of ingates, design of bends and flow over cores influence melt flow and act to determine the quality of the castings....

  15. Iron deficiency in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Naoum

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment, with a multifactorial etiology in most cases. Iron deficiency is among the most common causes of anemia in this setting and can develop in nearly half of patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Surprisingly, this fact is usually neglected by the attending physician in a way that proper and prompt investigation of the iron status is either not performed or postponed. In cancer patients, functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism, in which iron availability is reduced due to disease or the therapy-related inflammatory process. Hence, serum ferritin is not reliable in detecting iron deficiency in this setting, whereas transferrin saturation seems more appropriate for this purpose. Besides, lack of bioavailable iron can be further worsened by the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents that increase iron utilization in the bone marrow. Iron deficiency can cause anemia or worsen pre-existing anemia, leading to a decline in performance status and adherence to treatment, with possible implications in clinical outcome. Due to its frequency and importance, treatment of this condition is already recommended in many specialty guidelines and should be performed preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with response gain when combined with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant increments in hemoglobin as monotherapy. Among intravenous iron formulations, slow release preparations present more favorable pharmacological characteristics and efficacy in cancer patients.

  16. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  17. Pain management in emergency department: intravenous morphine vs. intravenous acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most common complaint in emergency department and there are several methods for its control. Among them, pharmaceutical methods are the most effective. Although intravenous morphine has been the most common choice for several years, it has some adverse effects. There are many researches about intravenous acetaminophen as an analgesic agent and it appears that it has good analgesic effects for various types of pain. We searched some electronic resources for clinical trials comparing analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen vs. intravenous morphine for acute pain treatment in emergency setting.In two clinical trials, the analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen has been compared with intravenous morphine for renal colic. The results revealed no significant difference between analgesic effects of two medications. Another clinical trial revealed that intravenous acetaminophen has acceptable analgesic effects on the post-cesarean section pain when combined with other analgesic medications. One study revealed that administration of intravenous acetaminophen compared to placebo before hysterectomy decreased consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia pump and decreased the side effects. Similarly, another study revealed that the infusion of intravenous acetaminophen vs. placebo after orthopedic surgery decreased the consumption of morphine after the surgery. A clinical trial revealed intravenous acetaminophen provided a level of analgesia comparable to intravenous morphine in isolated limb trauma, while causing less side effects than morphine.It appears that intravenous acetaminophen has good analgesic effects for visceral, traumatic and postoperative pains compare with intravenous morphine.

  18. Effect of Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion on Acute and Chronic Pain after Breast Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Jen; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Intravenous lidocaine infusion has been shown to reduce postoperative pain among patients undergoing abdominal surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of perioperative lidocaine administration in breast surgery. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing lidocaine infusion vs. placebo/routine treatment was performed. Standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated from pooled data. Random-effects models were used, and heterogeneity was assessed. A total of 4 reports (3 primary studies and 1 extension) with 84 patients randomized to the lidocaine group and 83 patients randomized to the control group were included. There was no difference in pain scores at rest or during activity between the 2 groups from postoperative 2 hours to 3 days. At postoperative 72 hours, the lidocaine group had fewer analgesics consumed (SMD, -0.479; 95% CI, -0.914 to -0.043; P = 0.031). Chronic pain was assessed 3 to 6 months after breast surgery in 51 patients of the lidocaine group and 46 patients of the control group. Patients in the lidocaine group had significantly lower risk for the development of chronic pain (RR, 0.332; 95% CI, 0.141 to 0.781; P = 0.012). The results indicate no significant benefits of intravenous lidocaine infusion in terms of acute postoperative pain. Although lidocaine seems to attenuate the risk of chronic pain after breast surgery, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that lidocaine infusion is of proved benefit because the results were based on a limited number of small trials. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Yukako

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit. Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas. The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98 ; L: 98–100%. The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed.

  20. The iron bars from the ‘Gresham Ship’: employing multivariate statistics to further slag inclusion analysis of ferrous objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    An assemblage of post-medieval iron bars was found with the Princes Channel wreck, salvaged from the Thames Estuary in 2003. They were recorded and studied, with a focus on metallography and slag inclusion analysis. The investigation provided an opportunity to explore the use of multivariate stat...... that the bars were formed from raw blooms, and all were made with iron produced by the direct process. The outward uniformity of the bars is at odds with the variable quality of iron displayed within and between bars....

  1. Study on bioavailability of dietary iron of women by using activable isotopic tracer and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Cao Lei

    2002-01-01

    The bioavailability of diet iron of 10 healthy young women in Beijing area is studied by using two enriched isotopes 54 Fe and 58 Fe, and neutron activation analysis techniques. The abundance of 54 Fe and 58 Fe is 61.4% and 23.4%, respectively. In additional, the atomic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure total iron in fecal samples. Dysprosium, rarely absorbed by human body, is used to monitor the residence time of tracer isotopes in order to collect the fecal samples completely. The results show that the bioavailability of dietary iron in young women is (14.9 +- 3.9)%

  2. On-stream analysis of iron ore and its potential for improving export quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An on-stream iron ore analyser has been developed in collaboration with Hamersley Iron Pty. Limited for determining the iron content of both lump (-30+6 mm particle size) and fines (-6 mm particle size) on conveyor belts. The analyser, which is called IRONSCAN, is based on pair production, and is now commercially available from Mineral Control Instrumentation Limited (MCI) in Adelaide. It can be mounted under existing conveyor belts with minimal modifications to the conveyor structure, and the presence of steel cables in the belt does not interfere once the analyser has been correctly calibrated. The analyser has been extensively tested on both lump and fines on the shiploading conveyor at Dampier, and typically the root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation between single IRONSCAN measurements and conventional chemical analyses is better than 0.5% Fe. It is currently being evaluated on - 150 mm ore from the primary crusher at Mount Tom Price, and initial results are encouraging. The principal advantage of IRONSCAN is that it provides rapid information on ore grades. But perhaps its greatest potential is at the primary crusher where conventional sampling and analysis is very expensive to implement. 11 figs., 1 tab

  3. Study of microstructure and silicon segregation in cast iron using color etching and electron microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazehrad, S., E-mail: vazehrad@kth.se [Dep. Materials Science and Engineering/Casting of Metals, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Elfsberg, J., E-mail: jessica.elfsberg@scania.com [Scania CV AB, SE-151 87 Södertälje (Sweden); Diószegi, A., E-mail: attila.dioszegi@jth.hj.se [Dep. Materials Science and Engineering/Casting of Metals, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Dep. Mechanical Engineering/Materials and Manufacturing-Foundry Technology, Jönköping University, SE-551 11 Jönköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    An investigation on silicon segregation of lamellar, compacted and nodular graphite iron was carried out by applying a selective, immersion color etching and a modified electron microprobe to study the microstructure. The color etched micrographs of the investigated cast irons by revealing the austenite phase have provided data about the chronology and mechanism of microstructure formation. Moreover, electron microprobe has provided two dimensional segregation maps of silicon. A good agreement was found between the segregation profile of silicon in the color etched microstructure and the silicon maps achieved by electron microprobe analysis. However, quantitative silicon investigation was found to be more accurate than color etching results to study the size of the eutectic colonies. - Highlights: • Sensitivity of a color etchant to silicon segregation is quantitatively demonstrated. • Si segregation measurement by EMPA approved the results achieved by color etching. • Color etched micrographs provided data about solidification mechanism in cast irons. • Austenite grain boundaries were identified by measuring the local Si concentration.

  4. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of NEAr-iron Transporter (NEAT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S; Maresso, Anthony W; Highlander, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for bacterial survival, being required for numerous biological processes. NEAr-iron Transporter (NEAT) domains have been studied in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria to understand how their proteins obtain heme as an iron source during infection. While a 2002 study initially discovered and annotated the NEAT domain encoded by the genomes of several Gram-positive bacteria, there remains a scarcity of information regarding the conservation and distribution of NEAT domains throughout the bacterial kingdom, and whether these domains are restricted to pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to expand upon initial bioinformatics analysis of predicted NEAT domains, by exploring their evolution and conserved function. This information was used to identify new candidate domains in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. We also searched metagenomic datasets, specifically sequence from the Human Microbiome Project. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 343 NEAT domains, encoded by Gram-positive bacteria, mostly within the phylum Firmicutes, with the exception of Eggerthella sp. (Actinobacteria) and an unclassified Mollicutes bacterium (Tenericutes). No new NEAT sequences were identified in the HMP dataset. We detected specific groups of NEAT domains based on phylogeny of protein sequences, including a cluster of novel clostridial NEAT domains. We also identified environmental and soil organisms that encode putative NEAT proteins. Biochemical analysis of heme binding by a NEAT domain from a protein encoded by the soil-dwelling organism Paenibacillus polymyxa demonstrated that the domain is homologous in function to NEAT domains encoded by pathogenic bacteria. Together, this study provides the first global bioinformatics analysis and phylogenetic evidence that NEAT domains have a strong conservation of function, despite group-specific differences at the amino acid level. These findings will provide information useful for future projects

  5. The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Lisa M; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2016-11-23

    Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane CentralRegister of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups. A qualitative review was conducted as well as an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis to pool available data. In addition the effect of vegetarian diets according to gender was investigated with a subgroup analysis. The results were validated using a sensitivity analysis. A total of 27 cross-sectional studies and three interventional studies were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis which combined data of 24 cross-sectional studies showed that adult vegetarians have significantly lower serum ferritin levels than their non-vegetarian controls (-29.71 µg/L, 95% CI [-39.69, -19.73], p vegetarian diets did not change the results considerably (-23.27 µg/L, 95% CI [-29.77, -16.76], p vegetarians are more likely to have lower iron stores compared with non-vegetarians. However, since high iron stores are also a risk factor for certain non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that not only vegetarians but also non-vegetarians should regularly control their iron status and improve their diet regarding the content and bioavailability of iron by consuming more plants and less meat.

  6. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Kennedy R; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Brott, Thomas G; Toni, Danilo; Grotta, James C; Albers, Gregory W; Kaste, Markku; Marler, John R; Hamilton, Scott A; Tilley, Barbara C; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Hacke, Werner; Allen, Kathryn; Mau, Jochen; Meier, Dieter; del Zoppo, Gregory; De Silva, D A; Butcher, K S; Parsons, M W; Barber, P A; Levi, C; Bladin, C; Byrnes, G

    2010-05-15

    Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to treatment with intravenous rt-PA (alteplase) on therapeutic benefit and clinical risk by adding recent trial data to the analysis. We added data from ECASS III (821 patients) and EPITHET (100 patients) to a pool of common data elements from six other trials of alteplase for acute stroke (2775 patients). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relation of stroke onset to start of treatment (OTT) with treatment on favourable 3-month outcome (defined as modified Rankin score 0-1), mortality, and occurrence and outcome of clinically relevant parenchymal haemorrhage. The presence of an arterial occlusion was inferred from the patient's symptoms and absence of haemorrhage or other causes of ischaemic stroke. Vascular imaging was not a requirement in the trials. All patients with confirmed OTT within 360 min were included in the analysis. Treatment was started within 360 min of stroke onset in 3670 patients randomly allocated to alteplase (n=1850) or to placebo (n=1820). Odds of a favourable 3-month outcome increased as OTT decreased (p=0.0269) and no benefit of alteplase treatment was seen after around 270 min. Adjusted odds of a favourable 3-month outcome were 2.55 (95% CI 1.44-4.52) for 0-90 min, 1.64 (1.12-2.40) for 91-180 min, 1.34 (1.06-1.68) for 181-270 min, and 1.22 (0.92-1.61) for 271-360 min in favour of the alteplase group. Large parenchymal haemorrhage was seen in 96 (5.2%) of 1850 patients assigned to alteplase and 18 (1.0%) of 1820 controls, with no clear relation to OTT (p=0.4140). Adjusted odds of mortality increased with OTT (p=0.0444) and were 0.78 (0.41-1.48) for 0-90 min, 1.13 (0.70-1.82) for 91-180 min, 1.22 (0.87-1.71) for 181-270 min, and 1.49 (1.00-2.21) for

  7. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Lauren; Jaraisy, Ameen; Haj, Saeda; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of depleted iron stores among persons infected with Helicobacter pylori compared to uninfected ones. We also assessed the impact of anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy on ferritin and hemoglobin levels compared to iron therapy alone. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. Observational studies with methodological quality score of 13 (median score) and above, on a scale of 0-16, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for the meta-analyses. Pooled point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the random effects model. Compared to uninfected persons, H. pylori-infected individuals showed increased likelihood of iron deficiency anemia (14 observational studies); pooled OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42); iron deficiency (pooled OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.54; 30 studies); and anemia (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.00-1.32; 23 studies). Meta-analyses of seven RCTs showed increased ferritin, standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.53 (95% 0.21-0.85), but not hemoglobin, SMD 0.36 (95% -0.07 to 0.78), Pv=.1, following anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy as compared with iron therapy alone. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies, as well as evidence of publication bias. Current evidence indicates increased likelihood of depleted iron stores in relation to H. pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy, added to iron therapy, might be beneficial in increasing ferritin and hemoglobin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing intravenous (IV) contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and the relationship with risk factors: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, Shira I., E-mail: s.i.moos@amc.uva.nl; Vemde, David N.H. van; Stoker, Jaap; Bipat, Shandra

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To summarize the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and associations between CIN incidence and risk factors in patients undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) with low- or iso-osmolar iodinated contrast medium. Methods: This review is performed in accordance with the preferred reporting items in systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from 2002 till November 2012. Two reviewers included papers and extracted data. The pooled data were analysed by either fixed or random-effects approach depending on heterogeneity defined as the I{sup 2} index. Results: 42 articles with 18,790 patients (mean age 61.5 years (range: 38–83 years)) were included. The mean baseline eGFR was 59.8 mL/min and ranged from 4 to 256 mL/min. Of all patients 45.0% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min, 55.2% had hypertension; 20.2% had diabetes mellitus (DM) and 6.5% had congestive heart failure (CHF). The overall pooled CIN incidence, defined as a SCr increase of ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dL, was 4.96% (95%CI: 3.79–6.47). Data analysis showed associations between CIN and the presence of renal insufficiency, DM, malignancy, age > 65 years and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) with odds ratios of 1.73 (95%CI: 1.06–2.82), 1.87 (95%CI: 1.55–2.26), 1.79 (95%CI: 1.03–3.11), 1.95 (95%CI: 1.02–3.70) and 2.32 (95%CI: 1.04–5.19), respectively while hypertension, anaemia and CFH were not associated (p = 0.13, p = 0.38, p = 0.40). Conclusion: The mean incidence of CIN after intravenous iodinated CECT was low and associated with renal insufficiency, diabetes, presence of malignancy, old age and NSAID's use.

  9. Renal function in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease receiving intravenous ferric carboxymaltose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD), anemia and iron deficiency without erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy received intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting either higher (400-600 μg/L) or lower (100-200 μg/L) ferritin values, or oral iron. RESULTS: Mean (SD) e...

  10. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  11. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P. [Pittwater Radiology, Dee Why, NSW, (Australia)

    1997-08-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors). 11 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Idro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area.We recruited 133 children, aged 3-156 months, who presented to a district hospital on the Kenyan coast with acute seizures and frequency-matched these to children of similar ages but without seizures. We defined iron deficiency according to the presence of malarial infection and evidence of inflammation. In patients with malaria, we defined iron deficiency as plasma ferritin<30 µg/ml if plasma C-reactive protein (CRP was<50 mg/ml or ferritin<273 µg/ml if CRP≥50 mg/ml, and in those without malaria, as ferritin<12 µg/ml if CRP<10 mg/ml or ferritin<30 µg/ml if CRP≥10 mg/ml. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies published in English between January 1966 and December 2009 and available through PUBMED that have examined the relationship between iron deficiency and febrile seizures in children.In our Kenyan case control study, cases and controls were similar, except more cases reported past seizures. Malaria was associated with two-thirds of all seizures. Eighty one (30.5% children had iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was neither associated with an increased risk of acute seizures (45/133[33.8%] cases were iron deficient compared to 36/133[27.1%] controls, p = 0.230 nor status epilepticus and it did not affect seizure semiology. Similar results were obtained when children with malaria, known to cause acute symptomatic seizures in addition to febrile seizures were excluded. However, in a meta-analysis that combined all eight case-control studies that have examined the association between iron deficiency and acute/febrile seizures to-date, iron deficiency, described in 310/1,018(30.5% cases and in 230/1,049(21.9% controls, was associated with a significantly increased risk of seizures

  13. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  14. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Applications to Identify Iron Sand Reject and Losses in Cement Industry : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helia, V. N.; Wijaya, W. N.

    2017-06-01

    One of the main raw materials required in the manufacture of cement is iron sand. Data from the Procurement Department on XYZ Company shows that the number of defective iron sand (reject) fluctuates every month. Iron sand is an important raw material in the cement production process, so that the amount of iron sand reject and losses got financial and non-financial impact. This study aims to determine the most dominant activity as the cause of rejection and losses of iron sands and suggest improvements that can be made by using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). Data collection techniques in this study was using the method of observation, interviews, and focus group discussion (FGD) as well as the assessment of the experts to identify it. Results from this study is there are four points of the most dominant cause of the defect of iron sand (mining activities, acceptance, examination and delivery). Recommendation for overcoming these problem is presented (vendor improvement).

  15. Structural analysis of iron based intermetallic phases in secondary AlSi6Cu4 cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Švecová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of secondary aluminum alloys is increasing because it contributes to the decrease of production costs. However, these alloys contain bigger amount of iron. Iron has a negative effect and therefore its elimination is necessary in order to add some elements, which are also called correctors of iron. The most frequently used corrector is manganese. Another quite often used correctors are chromium, potassium, magnesium, vanadium. In the following work, vanadium is used as a corrector of iron phases. The application of vanadium in aluminum alloys has a positive impact on their mechanical properties, increases the tensile strength, ductility and hardness. As experimental material AlSi6Cu4 alloy was used. It was alloyed by master alloy AlFe10. After adding to the master alloy the iron content, the critical value in the alloy exceeded. Vanadium was added to AlSi6Cu4 alloy in different quantities. The image analysis (software NIS-Elements was used for quantifying the amount of iron based intermetallic phases and determination of average values.

  16. Low fresh gas flow balanced anesthesia versus target controlled intravenous infusion anesthesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Predrag D; Petrova, Guenka; Miljkovic, Branislava; Scepanovic, Radisav; Perunovic, Radoslav; Stojanovic, Dragos; Dobrasinovic, Janja

    2008-09-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is widely recognized as a well-tolerated and effective method for cholecystectomy. It is also considered cost saving because it has been associated with a decreased hospital length of stay. Variables that might lead to increased costs in laparoscopic surgery are the technique and drugs used in anesthesia. The goal of this study was to compare the costs of 2 anesthetic techniques used in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)--balanced versus IV anesthesia--from the standpoint of an outpatient surgical department, with a time horizon of 1 year. Patients scheduled to undergo elective LC were enrolled in this prospective case study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive balanced anesthesia, administered as low fresh gas flow (LFGF) with inhalational sevoflurane and IV sufentanil in a target controlled infusion (LFGF SS group), or IV anesthesia, administered as IV propofol/sufentanil in a target controlled infusion (TCI group). We used a microcosting procedure to measure health care resource utilization in individual patients to detect treatment differences. The costs of medications used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgery were considered for LFGF SS and TCI. Other end points included duration of anesthesia; mean times to early emergence, tracheal extubation, orientation, and postanesthesia discharge (PAD); pain intensity before first analgesia; number of analgesics required in the first 24 hours after surgery; and prevalences of nausea, vomiting, and agitation. A total of 60 patients were included in this analysis (male/female ratios in the LFGF SS and TCI groups: 11/19 and 12/18, respectively; mean [SD] ages, 48 [7.9] and 47 [8.6] years; and mean [SD] body mass indexes, 26 [2.0] and 26 [3.0] kg/m2). The costs of anesthetics were significantly lower with LFGF SS compared with TCI (euro17.40 [euro2.66] vs euro22.01 [euro2.50] [2006 euros]). Times to early emergence and tracheal extubation were significantly shorter with

  17. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis ......Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta...

  18. The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falkingham, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In observational studies anaemia and iron deficiency are associated with cognitive deficits, suggesting that iron supplementation may improve cognitive function. However, due to the potential for confounding by socio-economic status in observational studies, this needs to be verified in data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). AIM: To assess whether iron supplementation improved cognitive domains: concentration, intelligence, memory, psychomotor skills and scholastic achievement. METHODOLOGY: Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL and bibliographies (to November 2008). Inclusion, data extraction and validity assessment were duplicated, and the meta-analysis used the standardised mean difference (SMD). Subgrouping, sensitivity analysis, assessment of publication bias and heterogeneity were employed. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs of children aged 6+, adolescents and women were included; no RCTs in men or older people were found. Iron supplementation improved attention and concentration irrespective of baseline iron status (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90) without heterogeneity. In anaemic groups supplementation improved intelligence quotient (IQ) by 2.5 points (95% CI 1.24 to 3.76), but had no effect on non-anaemic participants, or on memory, psychomotor skills or scholastic achievement. However, the funnel plot suggested modest publication bias. The limited number of included studies were generally small, short and methodologically weak. CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence that iron supplementation improved attention, concentration and IQ, but this requires confirmation with well-powered, blinded, independently funded RCTs of at least one year\\'s duration in different age groups including children, adolescents, adults and older people, and across all levels of baseline iron status.

  19. The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairweather-Tait Susan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In observational studies anaemia and iron deficiency are associated with cognitive deficits, suggesting that iron supplementation may improve cognitive function. However, due to the potential for confounding by socio-economic status in observational studies, this needs to be verified in data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Aim To assess whether iron supplementation improved cognitive domains: concentration, intelligence, memory, psychomotor skills and scholastic achievement. Methodology Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL and bibliographies (to November 2008. Inclusion, data extraction and validity assessment were duplicated, and the meta-analysis used the standardised mean difference (SMD. Subgrouping, sensitivity analysis, assessment of publication bias and heterogeneity were employed. Results Fourteen RCTs of children aged 6+, adolescents and women were included; no RCTs in men or older people were found. Iron supplementation improved attention and concentration irrespective of baseline iron status (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90 without heterogeneity. In anaemic groups supplementation improved intelligence quotient (IQ by 2.5 points (95% CI 1.24 to 3.76, but had no effect on non-anaemic participants, or on memory, psychomotor skills or scholastic achievement. However, the funnel plot suggested modest publication bias. The limited number of included studies were generally small, short and methodologically weak. Conclusions There was some evidence that iron supplementation improved attention, concentration and IQ, but this requires confirmation with well-powered, blinded, independently funded RCTs of at least one year's duration in different age groups including children, adolescents, adults and older people, and across all levels of baseline iron status.

  20. The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In observational studies anaemia and iron deficiency are associated with cognitive deficits, suggesting that iron supplementation may improve cognitive function. However, due to the potential for confounding by socio-economic status in observational studies, this needs to be verified in data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Aim To assess whether iron supplementation improved cognitive domains: concentration, intelligence, memory, psychomotor skills and scholastic achievement. Methodology Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL and bibliographies (to November 2008). Inclusion, data extraction and validity assessment were duplicated, and the meta-analysis used the standardised mean difference (SMD). Subgrouping, sensitivity analysis, assessment of publication bias and heterogeneity were employed. Results Fourteen RCTs of children aged 6+, adolescents and women were included; no RCTs in men or older people were found. Iron supplementation improved attention and concentration irrespective of baseline iron status (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90) without heterogeneity. In anaemic groups supplementation improved intelligence quotient (IQ) by 2.5 points (95% CI 1.24 to 3.76), but had no effect on non-anaemic participants, or on memory, psychomotor skills or scholastic achievement. However, the funnel plot suggested modest publication bias. The limited number of included studies were generally small, short and methodologically weak. Conclusions There was some evidence that iron supplementation improved attention, concentration and IQ, but this requires confirmation with well-powered, blinded, independently funded RCTs of at least one year's duration in different age groups including children, adolescents, adults and older people, and across all levels of baseline iron status. PMID:20100340

  1. The Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Combined with Corticosteroid on the Progression of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liang-ping; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2016-01-01

    Background Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment is commonly used to treat Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with controversial therapeutic effect. Methods We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis through combining the published eligible studies to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIG on SJS and TEN treatment. Results A total of 26 studies were selected from public available databases. The combination of IVIG and corticosteroid markedly reduced the recovery time (by 1.63 days, 95% CI: 0.83–2.43, P < 0.001), compared with solo corticosteroid group. The favorable effects were greater in Asian (2.19, 95% CI: 1.41–2.97, P < 0.001), TEN (2.56, 95% CI: 0.35–4.77, P = 0.023) and high-dose IVIG treated individuals (1.78, 95% CI: 0.42–3.14, P = 0.010). The hospitalization length reduced by 3.19 days (95% CI: 0.08–6.30, P = 0.045), though the outcome was proven to be unstable. We found heterogeneities, which sources were probably regional factors. Besides, IVIG was inclined to decrease SJS/TEN mortality (SMR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.08, P = 0.178). This impact was possibly more profound when patients were treated with high dose IVIG (SMR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50–1.08, P = 0.116), or when patients were diagnosed as TEN (SMR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.45–1.01, P = 0.058). Conclusions Our current meta-analysis suggests that IVIG combined with corticosteroid could reduce recovery time for SJS and TEN. This effect is greater among Asian patients. Whereas, its impact on reducing mortality is not significant. PMID:27902746

  2. The Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Combined with Corticosteroid on the Progression of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ping Ye

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment is commonly used to treat Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN with controversial therapeutic effect.We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis through combining the published eligible studies to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIG on SJS and TEN treatment.A total of 26 studies were selected from public available databases. The combination of IVIG and corticosteroid markedly reduced the recovery time (by 1.63 days, 95% CI: 0.83-2.43, P < 0.001, compared with solo corticosteroid group. The favorable effects were greater in Asian (2.19, 95% CI: 1.41-2.97, P < 0.001, TEN (2.56, 95% CI: 0.35-4.77, P = 0.023 and high-dose IVIG treated individuals (1.78, 95% CI: 0.42-3.14, P = 0.010. The hospitalization length reduced by 3.19 days (95% CI: 0.08-6.30, P = 0.045, though the outcome was proven to be unstable. We found heterogeneities, which sources were probably regional factors. Besides, IVIG was inclined to decrease SJS/TEN mortality (SMR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66-1.08, P = 0.178. This impact was possibly more profound when patients were treated with high dose IVIG (SMR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50-1.08, P = 0.116, or when patients were diagnosed as TEN (SMR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.45-1.01, P = 0.058.Our current meta-analysis suggests that IVIG combined with corticosteroid could reduce recovery time for SJS and TEN. This effect is greater among Asian patients. Whereas, its impact on reducing mortality is not significant.

  3. Efficacy and side effects of intravenous theophylline in acute asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahemuti G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulixian Mahemuti, Hui Zhang, Jing Li, Nueramina Tieliwaerdi, Lili Ren Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background and objective: Theophylline has been used for decades to treat both acute and chronic asthma. Despite its longevity in the practitioner’s formulary, no detailed meta-analysis has been performed to determine the conditions, including concomitant medications, under which theophylline should be used for acute exacerbations of asthma. We aimed to quantify the usefulness and side effects of theophylline with or without ethylene diamine (aminophylline in acute asthma, with particular emphasis on patient subgroups, such as children, adults, and concomitant medications.Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry for randomized, controlled clinical trials. We planned a priori subgroup analyses by time post-medication, concomitant medication, control type, and age.Results: We included 52 study arms from 42 individual trials. Of these, 29 study arms included an active control, such as adrenaline, beta-2 agonists, or leukotriene receptor antagonists, and 23 study arms compared theophylline (with or without ethylene diamine with placebo or no drug. Theophylline significantly reduced heart rate when compared with active control (p=0.01 and overall duration of stay (p=0.002, but beta-2 agonists were superior to theophylline at improving forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (p=0.002. Theophylline was not significantly different from other drugs in its effects on respiratory rate, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow rate, admission rate, use of rescue medication, oxygen saturation, or symptom score. Closer examination of the data revealed that the medications given in addition to theophylline or control significantly changed the effectiveness of

  4. Clinical efficacy of oral linezolid compared with intravenous vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-complicated skin and soft tissue infections: a retrospective, propensity score-matched, case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F; Biswas, Pinaki; Reisman, Arlene; Bhattacharyya, Helen; Baruch, Alice M

    2012-08-01

    Linezolid is 100% bioavailable in oral and intravenous formulations. In a recent prospective, randomized, open-label, comparator-controlled, multicenter, phase 4 clinical trial in adults with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), linezolid achieved clinical and microbiologic success comparable to appropriately dosed intravenous vancomycin. Although patients were randomly assigned to receive linezolid or vancomycin, the protocol allowed patients to start therapy using oral or intravenous linezolid on the basis of investigator discretion and patient ability to tolerate oral medication. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of linezolid when administered orally in adults with cSSTI caused by MRSA. In this retrospective analysis, we examined data collected from the aforementioned trial to compare outcomes in patients who received either oral linezolid or intravenous vancomycin therapy. This study analyzed outcomes in patients who received treatment for 7 to 14 days with either oral linezolid (600 mg q12h; n = 95) or intravenous vancomycin (15 mg/kg q12h, adjusted for creatinine clearance and trough concentration; n = 210). By design, these groups were not randomized. Propensity score matching on baseline variables was used to balance these groups by identifying a comparable group of patients who received vancomycin therapy and comparing them with patients who received oral linezolid therapy. Clinical and microbiologic success rates at the end of treatment and the end of the study (EOS) were then directly compared between the groups using matched-pair logistic regression. The tolerability of the 2 treatments (within this matched group) was also described. Ninety-two patients with well-matched baseline characteristics were included in each treatment group. At EOS, the odds ratio for clinical success of oral linezolid therapy vs intravenous vancomycin therapy was

  5. Intravenous lidocaine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, G; Naranjo González, M; Calero, F

    2018-02-26

    Systemic lidocaine used in continuous infusion during the peri-operative period has analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it capable of reducing the use of opioids and inhalational anaesthetics, and the early return of bowel function, and patient hospital stay. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the pharmacology and indications for clinical application, along with new and interesting research areas. The clinical applications of peri-operative lidocaine infusion have been reviewed in several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures, ambulatory procedures, and other types of surgery. Peri-operative lidocaine infusion may be a useful analgesic adjunct in enhanced recovery protocols. Potential benefits of intravenous lidocaine in chronic post-surgical pain, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and cancer recurrence are under investigation. Due to its immunomodulation properties over surgical stress, current evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine could be used in the context of multimodal analgesia. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    Deficiency of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and other mineral micronutrients is a worldwide problem affecting more than 50% of the world’s population, especially in human populations depending on a cereal diet. Mineral micronutrients are not distributed evenly in the cereal grain and a large fraction...... developed based on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). A multi-elemental method including Zn, Fe, S and P was developed in which oxygen was used as a reaction gas in the ICP-MS system to enhance the sensitivity of S. This enabled simultaneous detection of Fe, Zn, S, P and some other......, a novel high-throughput micro digestion method was developed, enabling the analysis of total element concentrations in small tissue fractions, such as the embryo of cereal grains. The method is based on small closed bombs that are microwaved and was validated for sample amounts between 1-20 mg using...

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Cast Irons Solidification With Various Types of Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution summarises the results of oxygen activity determinations, which were measured and registered continuously in castings from cast irons with various types of graphite. The results were used to find the relationship between two variables: natural logarithm of oxygen activities and reverse value of thermodynamic temperature 1 /T. Obtained regression lines were used to calculate oxygen activity at different temperatures, to calculate Gibbs free energy ΔG at the different temperatures and to calculate the single ΔG value for significant temperature of the graphite solidification. The results were processed by a statistical analysis of data files for the different types of graphite with flake, vermicular and spheroidal graphite. Each material has its proper typical oxygen activities range and individual temperature function of Gibbs free energy for analysing and governing casting quality.

  8. Moessbauer analysis of Nd-Co M-type strontium hexaferrite powders with different iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herme, Carlos; Jacobo, Silvia E., E-mail: sjacobo@fi.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ingenieria and INTECIN-Conicet (Argentina); Bercoff, Paula G. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and IFFAMAF, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (Argentina); Arcondo, Bibiana [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ingenieria and INTECIN-Conicet (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The structural analysis of strontium hexaferrites SrFe{sub x}O{sub 19} (for x 12, 11 and 10) and substituted samples Sr{sub 0.7}Nd{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 12-y}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19} (for y = 0.3,1.3 and 2.3) prepared through the citrate precursor method is shown. Nd and Co substitution modifies saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and increases coercivity (H{sub c}) in samples heat-treated at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Moessbauer analyses show different iron occupancy and the influence of the Fe{sup 3+} content is particularly emphasized. Hematite segregation is observed for some compositions. Samples with low Fe{sup 3+} content show the best magnetic properties with no secondary phase segregation.

  9. Structural analysis of cellular blocks for a prestressed cast iron reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Head, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The cast segments from which the prestressed cast iron nuclear reactor pressure vessel may be constructed are not readily amenable to detailed three-dimensional finite element analysis because their complex internal web structure requires a very large number of elements if reasonable aspect ratios are to be retained. A technique has been developed of modelling these blocks using plate bending elements from the ASKA code. By this means it has been possible to study in detail several designs of casting and to identify favourable features. The results of these studies, and others in which assessments are made of the sensitivity of the structure to prestressing load changes and machining errors, are reported. (orig.)

  10. Myocardial iron content and mitochondrial function in human heart failure: a direct tissue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Petrak, Jiri; Mracek, Tomas; Benes, Jan; Borlaug, Barry A; Nuskova, Hana; Pluhacek, Tomas; Spatenka, Jaroslav; Kovalcikova, Jana; Drahota, Zdenek; Kautzner, Josef; Pirk, Jan; Houstek, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Iron replacement improves clinical status in iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF), but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Iron is essential not only for erythropoiesis, but also for cellular bioenergetics. The impact of myocardial iron deficiency (MID) on mitochondrial function, measured directly in the failing human heart, is unknown. Left ventricular samples were obtained from 91 consecutive HF patients undergoing transplantation and 38 HF-free organ donors (controls). Total myocardial iron content, mitochondrial respiration, citric acid cycle and respiratory chain enzyme activities, respiratory chain components (complex I-V), and protein content of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-protective enzymes were measured in tissue homogenates to quantify mitochondrial function. Myocardial iron content was lower in HF compared with controls (156 ± 41 vs. 200 ± 38 µg·g -1 dry weight, P Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Salicylate Detection by Complexation with Iron(III) and Optical Absorbance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Koch, Jeremy T.; Reid, Kendra R.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratory involving applications of visible spectrophotometry is described. Salicylate, a component found in several medications, as well as the active by-product of aspirin decomposition, is quantified. The addition of excess iron(III) to a solution of salicylate generates a deeply…

  12. AFM stochastic analysis of surface twisted nanograin chains of iron oxide: a kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, O; Azimirad, R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the stochastic parameters of surface iron oxide nanograin chains, 97 nm in diameter and 2.4 μm in length, prepared at different annealing temperatures, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) spectral analysis. In this regard, the roughness of the thin films including self-assembled twisted nanograin chains has been analysed and characterized using the height-height correlation function, the roughness exponent as well as the power spectrum density of the AFM profiles and their gradient, for the different annealing temperatures. The tip convolution effect on the stochastic parameters under study has also been investigated. The kinetics of the formation of nanograins on the film surface has been obtained using the AFM spectral analysis of the profiles and their gradient. The activation energy needed for the formation of surface nanograin chains was found to be 0.55 eV. It has been shown that the tip-surface interaction affects mainly the diffusion parameters obtained by using the surface roughness analysis of the profiles, while use of the surface roughness analysis of the gradient of the profiles results in a nearly independent tip convolution effect on the diffusion parameters. Hence, this work also provides a method for calculating the required activation energy for the formation of self-assembled nanostructures affecting the roughness of a surface.

  13. Analysis of Crystal Structure of Fe3O4 Thin Films Based on Iron Sand Growth by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianto, D.; Yulfriska, N.; Murti, F.; Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, iron sand used as one of base materials in the steel industry. However, the content of iron sand can be used as starting materials in sensor technology in the form of thin films. In this paper, we report the analysis of crystal structure of magnetite thin film based on iron sand from Tiram’s Beach. The magnetic content of sand separated by a permanent magnet, then it was milled at 30 hours milling time. In order to increase the purity of magnetite, it washed after milling using aquades under magnetic separation by a magnet permanent. The thin film has been prepared using iron (III) nitrate by sol–gel technique. The precursor is resulted by dissolving magnetite in oxalic acid and nitric acid. Then, solution of iron (III) nitrate dissolved in ethylene glycol was applied on glass substrates by spin coating. The X-Ray Diffraction is operated thin film characterization. The structure of magnetite has been studied based on X-Ray Peaks that correspond to magnetite content of thin films.

  14. Effect of method of analysis on iron content of beef from advanced meat recovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, W R; Field, R A

    2000-12-01

    A field survey was conducted by the USDA, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to provide analytical data on meat obtained from beef cervical vertebrae processed by advanced meat recovery (AMR) systems. As a result, an added iron performance standard was proposed to limit the amount of marrow in AMR products. The performance standard was based on iron content of hand boned lean compared to AMR lean. Iron content was determined by a hydrochloric wet ash digestion method. The same samples were then analyzed using dry ash digestion. The objectives of the study were to determine differences in iron content of the survey samples due to the digestion method and the impact of this difference on the added iron performance standard. Iron values by the dry ash method were approximately double those of the wet ash method. The difference was a result of incomplete volatilization of the organic matrix by hydrochloric acid in the wet ash procedure. The performance standards developed from the wet and dry ash methods were 1.8 and 3.2 mg added iron 100(-1) g, respectively. Added iron levels from the dry ash method greater than 3.2 mg 100(-1) g were present in 60% of the AMR lean indicating that some marrow was present or that factors other than amount of iron in hand boned lean should be considered before a performance standard is established.

  15. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  16. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  17. Randomized controlled trial of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol versus inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide: postoperative nausea with vomiting and economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K.; Hassink, E. A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Moen, J.; Kalkman, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol versus inhalational anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide, the authors performed a randomized trial in 2,010 unselected surgical patients in a Dutch academic institution. An

  18. An Assessment of the Derivative Thermal Analysis of Grey Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a method used for assessment of the consistency of results obtained by measurements and calculated by computer from a graph of Derivative Thermal Analysis (DTA to determine the chemical composition and selected mechanical properties. For an assessment of the degree of consistency obtained between the examined parameters, the analysis of regression and Pearson’s correlation based on a linear model were used. The subject of assessment were 72 melts made in a period from October till December 2006. The best consistency was achieved for carbon and silicon content and for the carbon equivalent liquidus CEL - over 50% consistency of the obtained results. In the case of hardness HB and tensile strength Rm only 6 and 13,8 % of the results obtained by measurement and DTA rendered the same values. Therefore, it has been claimed that in such cases the data obtained from DTA curve analysis cannot serve as a tool valid in forecasting of the above mentioned properties. Since the analysed parameters have been reported to lack the required consistency, some doubts may raise also the evaluation of recalescence, the value of which is used as a starting point in determination of the inoculant level. Consequently, some changes were proposed in the method used so far to evaluate the effectiveness of the cast iron inoculation process.

  19. Relapses Requiring Intravenous Steroid Use and Multiple-Sclerosis-related Hospitalizations: Integrated Analysis of the Delayed-release Dimethyl Fumarate Phase III Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Gold, Ralf; Fox, Robert J; Kappos, Ludwig; Kita, Mariko; Yang, Minhua; Sarda, Sujata P; Zhang, Ray; Viglietta, Vissia; Havrdova, Eva

    2015-11-01

    The purpose was to report the effects of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) on the number of relapses requiring intravenous (IV) steroids and multiple sclerosis (MS)-related hospitalizations using integrated data from the Phase III DEFINE and CONFIRM studies. DEFINE and CONFIRM were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of DMF over a 2-year period in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to receive oral DMF 240 mg BID or TID, placebo, or glatiramer acetate (CONFIRM only). Eligible subjects (aged 18-55 years) had an EDSS score of 0-5.0 and experienced either ≥1 relapse in the 12 months or had ≥1 gadolinium-enhanced lesion on brain MRI in the 6 weeks, before randomization. Data DEFINE and CONFIRM were pooled and analyzed using a negative binomial regression model (adjusted for study and region). Data obtained after subjects switched to an alternative MS therapy were not included in the analysis. Only relapses confirmed by the Independent Neurology Evaluation Committee were included in the analysis of relapses requiring IV steroids. The study population (intention-to-treat) comprised 2301 patients who received either placebo (n = 771), DMF BID (n = 769), or DMF TID (n = 761). Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were generally well balanced among treatment groups. Throughout the 2-year studies, the total number of relapses treated with methylprednisolone was 402, 221, and 209 in the placebo, DMF BID, and DMF TID groups, respectively. A smaller proportion of patients in the DMF BID (168 of 769 [21.8%]) and DMF TID (151 of 761 [19.8%]) groups experienced ≥1 relapse requiring IV steroids compared with the placebo group (284 of 771 [36.8%]). The total number of MS-related hospitalizations over 2 years was 136, 94, and 74 in the placebo, DMF BID, and DMF TID groups. A smaller proportion of patients in the DMF

  20. Analysis of thermal expansivity of iron (Fe) metal at ultra high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to determine the volume coefficient of thermal expansion (α) for HCP iron over a wide range of temperature and pressure. During the past years various theoretical potential models [3–6] have been employed to study the thermal properties of iron at high temperatures and pressures. The band structure calculation shows a ...

  1. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  2. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    Deficiency of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and other mineral micronutrients is a worldwide problem affecting more than 50% of the world’s population, especially in human populations depending on a cereal diet. Mineral micronutrients are not distributed evenly in the cereal grain and a large fraction is l...... contributed to the growing understanding of how the nutritional value of cereals can be increased and provided researchers with analytical methods that will help to resolve the complexity associated with biofortified cereal products....... micronutrients in cereal grain primarily depends on two main components; phytic acid and proteins. Most of the phosphorus (P) found in the grain is bound in phytic acid and most sulphur (S) is incorporated into the amino acids cysteine and methionine that are part of different proteins. Co......-localization and identification of P and S with mineral micronutrients can therefore be a circumstantial evidence for their chemical speciation. The focus of this PhD has therefore been on the analysis of mineral micronutrients as well as S and P. In this PhD, four methods for elemental analysis of the cereal grain have been...

  3. A visual approach to efficient analysis and quantification of ductile iron and reinforced sprayed concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Laura; Hadwiger, Markus; Geier, Georg; Pittino, Gerhard; Gröller, M Eduard

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes advanced volume visualization and quantification for applications in non-destructive testing (NDT), which results in novel and highly effective interactive workflows for NDT practitioners. We employ a visual approach to explore and quantify the features of interest, based on transfer functions in the parameter spaces of specific application scenarios. Examples are the orientations of fibres or the roundness of particles. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach is illustrated using two specific scenarios of high practical relevance. First, we discuss the analysis of Steel Fibre Reinforced Sprayed Concrete (SFRSpC). We investigate the orientations of the enclosed steel fibres and their distribution, depending on the concrete's application direction. This is a crucial step in assessing the material's behavior under mechanical stress, which is still in its infancy and therefore a hot topic in the building industry. The second application scenario is the designation of the microstructure of ductile cast irons with respect to the contained graphite. This corresponds to the requirements of the ISO standard 945-1, which deals with 2D metallographic samples. We illustrate how the necessary analysis steps can be carried out much more efficiently using our system for 3D volumes. Overall, we show that a visual approach with custom transfer functions in specific application domains offers significant benefits and has the potential of greatly improving and optimizing the workflows of domain scientists and engineers.

  4. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  5. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  6. Ultrasonography versus intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present study was performed to compare the clinical value of urography and ultrasonography in a non-selected group of patients referred for urography to a university hospital. The conslusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Intravenous urography remains the cornerstone imaging examination in the evaluation of ureteral calculi. Ultrasonography is a valuable adjunct in cases of non- visualization of the kidneys, in distal obstruction and known contrast media allergy. When women with recurrent urinary tract infection are referred for imaging of the urinary tract, ultrasonography should be used. Ultrasonography should replace urography for screening of non-acute hydronephrosis like in female genital cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. There is good correlation between urography and ultrasonography in assessing the degree of hydronephrosis. However, more researh on the relationship between hydronephrosis and obstruction is necessary. Ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging method of the upper urinary tract in patients with microscopic hematuria. In patients less than 50 years with macroscopic hematuria, ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging of the upper urinary tract, and an examination of the urinary bladder should be included. In patients over 50 years, urography supplied with ultrasonography should be used, but more research is necessary on the subject of imaging method and age. 158 refs

  7. Severe iron intoxication treated with exchange transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Marcella; Cortes, Dina; Jepsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An 18-month-old previous healthy girl who had ingested 442 mg elemental iron/kg was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. The child was treated with gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation and intravenous deferoxamine. After 2 h of standard therapy serum iron had risen threefold to 1362 mi...... microg/dl (244 micromol/l). The child was treated with exchange transfusion (ET; 52 ml/kg) and serum iron fell to 134 microg/dl (24 micromol/l). The patient made an uncomplicated recovery. ET should be considered in severe iron poisoning when standard therapy is inadequate....

  8. Severe iron intoxication treated with exchange transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, M; Cortes, D; Jepsen, S

    2009-01-01

    An 18-month-old previous healthy girl who had ingested 442 mg elemental iron/kg was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. The child was treated with gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation and intravenous deferoxamine. After 2 h of standard therapy serum iron had risen threefold to 1362 µg....../dl (244 µmol/l). The child was treated with exchange transfusion (ET; 52 ml/kg) and serum iron fell to 134 µg/dl (24 µmol/l). The patient made an uncomplicated recovery. ET should be considered in severe iron poisoning when standard therapy is inadequate....

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of Mo(VI)-Fe(III)-S(VI)-H2O system for separation of molybdenum and iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chao; Zeng, Li; Xiao, Liansheng; Zhang, Guiqing

    2017-11-01

    The separation of molybdenum and iron is one of key issues of the hydrometallurgical preparation of pure molybdenum chemical products. The thermodynamic equilibrium diagrams for distribution of species at different pH values and different concentrations of molybdenum, iron and sulfur with the systems of Mo(VI)-H2O, Fe(III)-S(VI)-H2O and Mo(VI)-Fe(III)-S(VI)-H2O at 298 K were established, separately. Thermodynamic analysis results revealed that both molybdenum and iron were transformed from their anions to cations with the decrease in pH values. The pHMf0.5 for the conversion of molybdenum anions to cations decreased from 0.92 to 0.20 with the increase in the molybdenum concentration from 0.05 mol/L to 1 mol/L (pHMf50 is defined as the pH value when target metal anions occupy 50% mole fraction of total). The total sulfur concentration has significant effect on the conversion of iron (III) species with the pH change. The separation of molybdenum (VI) and iron (III) from acidic solutions using a tertiary amine extractant N235 could be achieved by decreasing the total sulfur concentration and controlling the equilibrium pH in an optimum range. The verification test results showed that the operating window for the separation of Mo(VI) and Fe(III) from a solution containing 0.01 mol/L [Mo]T, 0.05 mol/L [Fe]T and 1.15 mol/L [S]T was in the pH range of 0.5-1.0, which was consistent with the thermodynamic analysis.

  10. Association between full breastfeeding, timing of complementary food introduction, and iron status in infancy in Germany: results of a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Hilbig, Annett; Berber-Al-Tawil, Seda; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2018-03-01

    Considering the low content in breast milk breastfed infants might be at particular risk for depleted iron stores after the first months of life. This study evaluates the association of the mode of milk feeding and the timing of complementary food (CF) introduction with parameters of iron status in term healthy infants in Germany. In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, parents recorded all foods consumed by their infants from the age of 8 weeks onwards. Mothers were advised on the German food-based dietary guidelines for infants. Accordingly, CF was introduced between the fifth and seventh month of age. Blood samples were taken at 4 and at 10 months of age for analyses of iron status parameters. Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin intake was lower in breastfed infants (n = 50) than in formula fed (n = 23) with decreasing differences during the course of infancy. At 10 months of age, most iron parameters were not associated with the mode of milk feeding or the timing of CF introduction. At this age, the iron depletion prevalence was >34% without general differences according to the mode of milk feeding or the timing of CF introduction. The high prevalence of depleted iron stores observed in both breastfed and formula-fed infants illustrates the need for further studies to improve our understanding of the optimal iron intake and sensitive parameters of iron status in infancy.

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Three Forms of Parenteral Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron therapy is a useful treatment for the rapid correction of iron deficiency anaemia and can be used to avoid or reduce the requirement for allogeneic blood transfusion. Several intravenous iron preparations are available commercially which differ in cost, mode of administration and side effect profile. There are few data directly comparing the efficacy of these preparations. In this retrospective single-centre study, we present the results from two hundred and eight patients treated using three different iron preparations (iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose and compare the effect on haemoglobin levels and other measures of iron deficiency six weeks after treatment. Within the limitations of our study design, we show a statistically and clinically significant difference in efficacy between these preparations.

  12. Neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis of coal for sulfur, iron, silicon and moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, D.A.

    1979-05-01

    Samples of coal weighing approximately 200 grams placed in a collimated beam of neutrons from the thermal column of the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor produced capture gamma-rays which could be used for the simultaneous determination of sulfur and iron. Spectra from NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) detectors were used and interferences were located by examining spectra of the major elemental components of coal. In determining sulfur, iron is a potential source of interference when gamma-ray spectra are collected with a NaI(Tl) detector. Corrections for iron interference were made by use of a higher energy iron peak. The possibility of determining silicon in coal was investigated but this element determination was unsuccessful since capture gamma-ray spectrometry lacked the necessary sensitivity for silicon. A linear relation was found between the area of the hydrogen capture peak at 2.23 MeV and the amount of water added to coal

  13. Safety, therapeutic effectiveness, and cost of parenteral iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2009-07-01

    Patients have to discontinue the use of oral iron therapy due to the development of side effects and lack of long-term adherence to medication for iron deficiency anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy. The computerized database and medical records of 453 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who received intravenous iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The improvement of hematologic parameters and cost of therapy were evaluated 4 weeks after therapy. 453 patients (443 females, 10 males; age: 44.2 +/- 12.3 years) received iron sucrose therapy. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume values were 8.2 +/- 1.4 g/dL, 26.9 +/- 3.8%, and 66.1 +/- 7.8 fL, respectively, before therapy and 11.5 +/- 1.0 g/dL, 35.8 +/- 2.5%, 76.5 +/- 6.1 fL, respectively, after therapy (P 50%). The mean cost of therapy was 143.07 +/- 29.13 US dollars. The therapy was well tolerated. Although the cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy may seem high, a lack of adherence to therapy and side effects including gastrointestinal irritation during oral iron therapy were not experienced during intravenous therapy.

  14. Dietary intake of iron, zinc, copper, and risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Yu, Jia; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhigang; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the associations between specific metal element intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the associations between specific metal element intake such as iron intake and PD are still conflicted. We aimed to determine whether intake of iron, zinc, and copper increases/decreases the risk of PD. PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios using random effects. Study quality was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five studies including 126,507 individuals remained for inclusion, pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate dietary iron intake was 1.08 (95 % CI 0.61-1.93, P = 0.787), and for high dietary iron intake was (1.03, 95 % CI 0.83-1.30, P = 0.766), respectively. The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for the highest compared with the lowest dietary iron intake were 1.47 (95 % CI 1.17-1.85, P = 0.001) in western population and in males (RR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01, P = 0.041). The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate or high intake of zinc, and copper were not statistically different (P > 0.05). PD increased by 18 % (RR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02-1.37) for western population by every 10-mg/day increment in iron intake. Higher iron intake appears to be not associated with overall PD risk, but may be associated with risk of PD in western population. Sex may be a factor influencing PD risk for higher iron intake. However, further studies are still needed to confirm the sex-selective effects.

  15. Study of the ancient iron-smelting sites at Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipupo, M.D.; OIadipo, M.O.A.; Mallam, S.P.; Akpa, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to obtain concentrations of some elements in samples of potsherds and furnaces obtained from Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west ancient iron-smelting sites. Using WARD method, cluster analysis of the elements was carried out to establish the relationship between the archaeological samples in term of similarity in elemental concentrations. It was found that there is some level of similarity among the potsherd samples from the three sites. Also, most of furnace samples display some similarity. It was established that there was cultural linkage between the iron-smelters at the different sites. The similarity between the samples lead to a conclusion that pot makers and furnace makers could have existed, who obtained clays from common sources, made and sold the products to users in different communities.

  16. Neurobehavioural analysis of developmental iron deficiency in Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L-R; Wang, A-L; Zhao, Z-Y; Miao, Y-T

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between brain iron measurements of monoamine function and behavioural measurements of learning and memory. Male hybrid tilapias Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus were fed either an iron-deficient (ID) diet or an iron-adequate (IA) diet for 8 weeks. The ID fishes showed significantly lower iron content in brain and decreasing learning and memory capacity. The fishes that showed increased learning and memory capacity had higher levels of iron and monoamine oxidase activity in brain. In addition, the results showed that learning and memory behaviours were related to monoamine (dopamine and noradrenaline) concentration in the brain. This suggests that iron can enhance learning and memory capacity in fishes and that the effect may have monoaminergic mediation in discrimination learning and memory tasks. The experimental data suggest that the properties and neural basis of learning and memory of teleosts are notably similar to those of land vertebrates. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Estimation of iron requirements for women by numerical analysis of population-based data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of Japan 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Iron requirements were estimated from the results of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of Japan 2003-2007 using the numerical analysis of requirements based on an integral equation. The numerical analysis used population-based data on iron nutriture, the prevalence of inadequate iron status, and the distribution of iron intakes. The cutoff value for inadequate iron status was defined as a serum ferritin concentration women aged 18-29 years old, the median of the estimated median iron requirement (corresponding to the estimated average requirement by using the terminology of the dietary reference intakes) was 7.59mg (range, 6.86-8.11). The median of the estimated usual iron intake covering the needs of women with 80mL per cycle of menstrual blood loss was 11.27mg (range, 10.16-12.00), and the median of the usual iron intake covering the needs of 97.7% of women was 13.93mg (range, 12.55-14.81). For women aged 30-49 years old, the corresponding figures were 8.13mg (range, 7.96-8.69), 11.95mg (range, 11.72-12.77), and 14.71mg (range, 14.44-15.72). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustal, B; Schelnberger, B; Bührig-Polaczek, A

    2016-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content. (paper)

  19. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chan-Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The micronutrient iron (Fe is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III. The Fe(III-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron

  20. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

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    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  1. Retrospective satellite ocean color analysis of purposeful and natural ocean iron fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Toby K.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Milligan, Allen J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2013-03-01

    Significant effort has been invested in understanding the role of iron in marine ecosystems over the past few decades. What began as shipboard amendment experiments quickly grew into a succession of in situ, mesoscale ocean iron fertilization (OIF) experiments carried out in all three high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the world ocean. Dedicated process studies have also looked at regions of the ocean that are seasonally exposed to iron-replete conditions as natural OIF experiments. However, one problem common to many OIF experiments is determination of biological response beyond the duration of the experiment (typicallyfloristic shifts in the phytoplankton community. Further, a consistent pattern of decreased satellite fluorescence efficiency (FLH:Chl or ϕf) following OIF is observed that is in agreement with current understanding of phytoplankton physiological responses to relief from iron stress. The current study extends our ability to retrieve phytoplankton physiology from space-based sensors, strengthens the link between satellite fluorescence and iron availability, and shows that satellite ocean color analyses provide a unique tool for monitoring OIF experiments.

  2. Lactoferrin or ferrous salts for iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of daily oral bovine lactoferrin versus daily oral ferrous iron preparations for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy. Searches were conducted on PubMed, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov and CENTRAL databases from inception to February 2017 and the bibliographies of retrieved articles were screened. The PRISMA Statement was followed. Published English language randomized trials comparing lactoferrin with oral ferrous iron preparations in pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia were included. Quasi-randomized, non- randomized or studies including other known cause of anemia, gestational or pre-existent maternal diseases were excluded. Accordingly, 4 eligible trials (600 women) were analyzed. Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin level at 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were; change in serum ferritin and iron, rates of gastrointestinal side effects, preterm birth, low birthweight, neonatal death and mean birthweight. Quality assessment was performed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Odds ratio and mean difference were used to integrate dichotomous and continuous outcomes respectively. Pooled estimates for change in hemoglobin levels at four weeks favored daily oral lactoferrin over daily oral ferrous sulphate (mean difference 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-1.55; P=0.04, 4 trials, 600 women). However, after subgroup analysis (degree of anemia), no significant difference in hemoglobin levels were found between both groups in mild anemia (mean difference 0.80; 95% CI -0.21 to 1.82, 3 trials, 372 women), but a significant increase favoring lactoferrin was reported in moderate anemia (mean difference 0.68; 95% CI 0.53-0.83; P<0.00001, one trial, 228 women). Significantly less gastrointestinal side effects were reported with lactoferrin treatment. No significant differences existed with regard to other outcomes. In conclusion, for pregnant women with IDA

  3. Ferrous iron oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and analysis of the process at the levels of transcription and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jiri; Bouchal, Pavel; Lochman, Jan; Potesil, David; Janiczek, Oldrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Mandl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In contrast to iron-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A. ferrooxidans from a stationary phase elemental sulfur-oxidizing culture exhibited a lag phase in pyrite oxidation, which is similar to its behaviour during ferrous iron oxidation. The ability of elemental sulfur-oxidizing A. ferrooxidans to immediately oxidize ferrous iron or pyrite without a lag phase was only observed in bacteria obtained from growing cultures with elemental sulfur. However, these cultures that shifted to ferrous iron oxidation showed a low rate of ferrous iron oxidation while no growth was observed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for a quantitative proteomic analysis of the adaptation process when bacteria were switched from elemental sulfur to ferrous iron. A comparison of total cell lysates revealed 39 proteins whose increase or decrease in abundance was related to this phenotypic switching. However, only a few proteins were closely related to iron and sulfur metabolism. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was used to further characterize the bacterial adaptation process. The expression profiles of selected genes primarily involved in the ferrous iron oxidation indicated that phenotypic switching is a complex process that includes the activation of genes encoding a membrane protein, maturation proteins, electron transport proteins and their regulators.

  4. Analysis of the structure of castings made from chromium white cast iron resistant to abrasive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide and disintegrated steel scrap introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structure of castings. The said operation increases the number of crystallization nuclei for dendrites of the primary austenite. In this case, the iron particles act as substrates for the nucleation of primary austenite due to a similar crystallographic lattice. The more numerous are the dendrites of primary austenite and the structure more refined and the mechanical properties higher. Castings after B4C inoculation revealed a different structure of fine grained fracture. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  5. Behavioral, biochemical, and genetic analysis of iron metabolism in high-intensity blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Alan E; Foster, Tisha M; Pinder, Holly L; Beczkiewicz, Craig A; Bellissimo, Daniel B; Murphy, Anthony T; Kovacevic, Steve; Wroblewski, Victor J; Witcher, Derrick R

    2008-10-01

    Individuals donating whole blood 13 times in a 2-year period without development of iron deficiency anemia (superdonors) are a self-selected population that is deferred for low hematocrit (Hct) level less frequently than other donors. Iron metabolism was assessed in 138 superdonors through a questionnaire and measurement of Hct, serum ferritin, serum hepcidin, and serum growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). Genetic testing for HFE and JAK-2 mutations was also performed. Iron deficiency (ferritin level, <30 microg/L) is present in more than 60 percent of superdonors. Behaviors altering iron status included casual use of iron supplements in males, but not in females, and cigarette smoking that produced increased Hct associated with decreased ferritin. The striking biochemical characteristic of superdonors is greatly decreased serum hepcidin, consistent with their need to absorb maximal amounts of dietary iron to replace that lost from blood donation. GDF15 is normal in most superdonors, indicating that GDF15 overexpression arising from the expanded erythroid pool necessary to replace donated red cells is not the biochemical mechanism for the decreased serum hepcidin. Mutations in JAK-2 were not found, indicating that undiagnosed polycythemia vera is not a common cause for successful repeated blood donation by superdonors. Mutations in HFE associated with hemochromatosis were present in superdonors at the same frequency as the normal population. However, superdonors heterozygous for the H63D mutation in HFE had significantly decreased hepcidin : ferritin ratios demonstrating for the first time that the heterozygous state for HFE mutations is associated with alterations in hepcidin expression.

  6. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadj-Hassen, F.; Bienvenu, Y.; Noirel, J.F.; Metz, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  7. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma or intravenous lobular capillary hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Galant, Christine; Berg, Bruno Vande [Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm that commonly occurs as a cutaneous tumor. When it involves the skin and mucosal surfaces, ulceration and suppuration may occur, hence the classic term of pyogenic granuloma. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma is a rare solitary form of lobular capillary hemangioma that usually occurs in the veins of the neck and upper extremities. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a pyogenic intravenous granuloma localized in the right cephalic vein. The imaging and pathological findings and the differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  8. [Stump pain relieved by continuous intravenous ketamine infusion therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Sugimoto, S; Ohmori, T; Itadera, E; Ichikawa, N; Machida, K

    2001-07-01

    We experienced a case of stump pain relieved by continuous intravenous ketamine infusion therapy. A 59-year-old male had his left first through fourth toes amputated because a giant iron plate at work fell on his left foot fifteen years ago. Thereafter he had refractory spontaneous burning pain and night pain on his stump. On examination, we found his left foot skin hard, lustrous, and with sweating disturbance, allodynia and hyperpathia. As intravenous administrations of ketamine 10 mg and thiamylal 50 mg were positive as a drug challenge test, we performed intravenous ketamine infusion at 1 mg.kg-1.hr-1 for 1 hour and a half. After this treatment, his visual analogue scale (VAS) improved dramatically to 0 mm, and night pain, allodynia and hyperpathia disappeared for three days. Thereafter stump pain was relieved to the level of VAS 20 mm. Therefore we diagnosed his stump pain as central pain of neuropathic origin. We suspect that continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine, a noncompetitive blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, might be an effective and useful alternative treatment in a patient with refractory stump pain.

  9. Iron, lead, and cobalt absorption: similarities and dissimilarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.; Holland, R.

    1981-01-01

    Using isolated intestinal segments in rats, the absorption of iron, lead, and cobalt was increased in iron deficiency and decreased in iron loading. Similarly, the absorption of these metals was decreased in transfusional erythocytosis, after intravenous iron injection and after parenteral endotoxin injection. Acute bleeding or abbreviated intervals of dietary iron deprivation resulted in increased iron absorption from isolated intestinal segments and in intact animals, while the absorption of lead and cobalt was unaffected. These results suggest that the specificity of the mucosal metal absorptive mechanism is either selectively enhanced for iron absorption by phlebotomy or brief periods of dietary iron deprivation, or that two or more mucosal pathways for iron absorption may exist

  10. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  11. Orthostatic stability with intravenous levodopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H. Siddiqi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous levodopa has been used in a multitude of research studies due to its more predictable pharmacokinetics compared to the oral form, which is used frequently as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Levodopa is the precursor for dopamine, and intravenous dopamine would strongly affect vascular tone, but peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors are intended to block such effects. Pulse and blood pressure, with orthostatic changes, were recorded before and after intravenous levodopa or placebo—after oral carbidopa—in 13 adults with a chronic tic disorder and 16 tic-free adult control subjects. Levodopa caused no statistically or clinically significant changes in blood pressure or pulse. These data add to previous data that support the safety of i.v. levodopa when given with adequate peripheral inhibition of DOPA decarboxylase.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Ease of Care From the Nurses' Perspective Comparing Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System (ITS) Vs Morphine Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia (IV PCA) in Postoperative Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestano, Cecile R; Lindley, Pam; Ding, Li; Danesi, Hassan; Jones, James B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the ease of care (EOC) of fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) vs the morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) as assessed by the nurse. Meta-analysis of three phase 3B randomized active-comparator trials. This meta-analysis according to Cochrane's approach assessed EOC using a validated nurse questionnaire (22 items grouped into three subscales, which include time efficiency, convenience, and satisfaction) in adult patients treated with fentanyl ITS or morphine IV PCA for postoperative pain management. The weighted mean difference (WMD) between treatments was calculated. EOC analyses were based on responses to questionnaires from 848 (fentanyl ITS) and 761 (morphine IV PCA) nurses. Fentanyl ITS was reported to provide significant advantages compared with morphine IV PCA in terms of nurses' overall EOC (WMD = -0.57, P PCA. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Oxidation of Iron: Experiment, Simulation, and Analysis in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Frederic E.

    2015-01-01

    In this exercise, an actual chemical reaction, oxidation of iron in air, is studied along with a related analogue simulation of that reaction. The rusting of steel wool is carried out as a class effort. The parallel simulation is performed by students working in small groups. The analogue for the reacting gas is a countable set of discrete marble…

  14. Analysis of thermal expansivity of iron (Fe) metal at ultra high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present investigation we have explained the thermal and compression properties of HCP iron (Fe) at high pressure with variable temperature (isobars) and at high temperature with variable pressure (isotherm). The usual Tait equation of state is modified by incorporating the effect of thermal pressure. The calculated ...

  15. Analysis of thermal expansivity of iron (Fe) metal at ultra high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structure are unlikely to be successful for predicting the high temperature properties of transition metals due to the complicated many-body nature of the interactions. Wasserman et al [3] have recently studied the thermal properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures within the framework of shell model [7,8], which is ...

  16. Analysis of iron levels in the mucosal tissue and serum of oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, being a chronic insidious oral mucosal condition, affects most parts of the oral cavity and has a high malignant transformation rate, which is triggered by areca nut chewing, nutritional deficiencies, immunologic processes, and genetic predisposition. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of iron, as a trace element of patients with OSMF, and its association with areca nut and betel quid chewing. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 30 patients who were clinically diagnosed with OSMF and 10 healthy controls. OSMF patients were categorized by clinical staging. Tissue and serum estimation of iron levels was done using Vitros 250 photometry. Results: The levels of tissue and serum iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Most of the patients with OSMF chewed gutkha, as compared to the transitional form of pan masala. The betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are associated with the disease state, which may play a role in altering the tissue and serum iron levels.

  17. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.F.; Qian, Q.F.; Feng, X.Q.; Zhang, P.Q.; Liu, N.Q.; Feng, W.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  18. Iron therapy as treatment of anemia: A potentially detrimental and hazardous strategy in colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.J. (M. J.); J.J. Harlaar (Joris Jan); Jeekel, J. (J.); M.R. Schipperus (Martin); J.J. Zwaginga (Jaap)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn colorectal cancer patients, iron therapy, and especially intravenous iron therapy, is increasingly used to treat anemia and reduce the use of blood transfusions. However, iron has also been shown to be an essential nutrient for rapidly proliferating tissues and cells. In this respect,

  19. Fine-mapping and genetic analysis of the loci affecting hepatic iron overload in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    Full Text Available The liver, as the major organ for iron storage and production of hepcidin, plays pivotal roles in maintaining mammalian iron homeostasis. A previous study showed that Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs on chromosome 7 (Chr7 and 16 (Chr16 may control hepatic non-heme iron overload in an F2 intercross derived from C57BL/6J (B6 and SWR/J (SWR mice. In this study, we aimed to validate the existence of these loci and identify the genes responsible for the phenotypic variations by generating congenic mice carrying SWR chromosome segments expanding these QTLs (D7Mit68-D7Mit71 and D16Mit125-D16Mit185, respectively. We excluded involvement of Chr7 based on the lack of iron accumulation in congenic mice. In contrast, liver iron accumulation was observed in Chr16 congenic mice. Through use of a series of subcongenic murine lines the interval on Chr16 was further fine-mapped to a 0.8 Mb segment spanning 11 genes. We found that the mRNA expression pattern in the liver remained unchanged for all 11 genes tested. Most importantly, we detected 4 missense mutations in 3 candidate genes including Sidt1 (P172R, Spice1(R708S, Boc (Q1051R and Boc (S450-insertion in B6 allele in the liver of SWR homozygous congenic mice. To further delineate potential modifier gene(s, we reconstituted seven candidate genes, Sidt1, Boc, Zdhhc23, Gramd1c, Atp6v1a, Naa50 and Gtpbp8, in mouse liver through hydrodynamic transfection. However, we were unable to detect significant changes in liver iron levels upon reconstitution of these candidate genes. Taken together, our work provides strong genetic evidence of the existence of iron modifiers on Chr16. Moreover, we were able to delineate the phenotypically responsible region to a 0.8 Mb region containing 11 coding genes, 3 of which harbor missense mutations, using a series of congenic mice.

  20. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of the partial oxidation of coke oven gas for indirect reduction of iron oxides in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Chih-Liang; Du, Shan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The partial oxidation of a COG (coke oven gas) in a blast furnace is examined in this work using thermodynamic analysis. LTIR and HTIR (Low-temperature and high-temperature indirect reduction) of iron oxides in a blast furnace are also studied. The influences of the reaction temperature, M/H (methane-to-hematite) ratio, and O/F (oxygen-to-fuel) ratio on CH 4 conversion and iron oxide reduction are examined. Within the investigated ranges of the parameters, a higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH 4 conversion, while at least 97.64% of Fe 2 O 3 is reduced. In LTIR, Fe 3 O 4 is the prime product, with a high level of solid carbon formation. The entire LTIR reaction is characterized by exothermic behavior, so that no additional heat is required to trigger COG partial oxidation and IR. In HTIR, increasing the reaction temperature facilitates CO-based IR and suppresses H 2 -based IR. A higher temperature produces more Fe, so as to enhance the iron oxide reduction reactions; meanwhile, the FeO reduction is governed by H 2 and CH 4 . When the reaction temperature is higher than 800 °C and the M/H ratio is lower than unity, a heat supply is required to drive HTIR. The O/F ratio in LTIR and HTIR should be controlled below 2 to retard carbon formation and drive iron oxide reduction. - Highlights: • Direct partial oxidation of coke oven gas in blast furnace is analyzed thermodynamically. • A higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH 4 conversion and syngas production. • At least 97.64% of Fe 2 O 3 is converted. • The low-temperature indirect reduction is characterized by exothermic behavior. • The oxygen-to-fuel molar ratio in indirect reduction should be controlled below 2

  2. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tunable Size Synthesis and Analysis in Terms of the Core-Shell Structure and Mixed Coercive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Oanh, V. T. K.; Lam, T. D.; Phuc, N. X.; Tung, L. D.; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.; Manh, D. H.

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are currently a very active research field. To date, a comprehensive study of iron oxide NPs is still lacking not only on the size dependence of structural phases but also in the use of an appropriate model. Herein, we report on a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide NPs prepared by a co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NPs have an inverse spinel structure of iron oxide phase (Fe3O4) with average crystallite sizes ( D XRD) of 6-19 nm, while grain sizes ( D TEM) are of 7-23 nm. In addition, the larger the particle size, the closer the experimental lattice constant value is to that of the magnetite structure. Magnetic field-dependent magnetization data and analysis show that the effective anisotropy constants of the Fe3O4 NPs are about five times larger than that of their bulk counterpart. Particle size ( D) dependence of the magnetization and the non-saturating behavior observed in applied fields up to 50 kOe are discussed using the core-shell structure model. We find that with decreasing D, while the calculated thickness of the shell of disordered spins ( t ˜ 0.3 nm) remains almost unchanged, the specific surface areas S a increases significantly, thus reducing the magnetization of the NPs. We also probe the coercivity of the NPs by using the mixed coercive Kneller and Luborsky model. The calculated results indicate that the coercivity rises monotonously with the particle size, and are well matched with the experimental ones.

  3. Iron metabolism study in humans by means of stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.; Molho, N.; Pirola, L.; Gambarini, G.; Hansen, C.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of iron metabolism in a female patient volunteer by administration of stable iron isotopes as tracers was performed. The applied methodology had already been tested in rabbits in comparison with radioactive tracer technique. The subject under study was given 58 Fe solution intravenously and about 45 min later 57 Fe solution orally. Ten blood samples were drawn at different times within 522 min from injection. Single iron isotopes content in plasma samples was determined by proton nuclear activation. A Compton suppressor system was utilized to improve the detector limits. The characteristic parameters of iron plasma clearance and of iron intestinal absorption were determined

  4. The IronChip evaluation package: a package of perl modules for robust analysis of custom microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazma Alvis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies greatly contribute to our understanding of complex relationships in gene regulatory networks. However, the complexity of array design, production and manipulations are limiting factors, affecting data quality. The use of customized DNA microarrays improves overall data quality in many situations, however, only if for these specifically designed microarrays analysis tools are available. Results The IronChip Evaluation Package (ICEP is a collection of Perl utilities and an easy to use data evaluation pipeline for the analysis of microarray data with a focus on data quality of custom-designed microarrays. The package has been developed for the statistical and bioinformatical analysis of the custom cDNA microarray IronChip but can be easily adapted for other cDNA or oligonucleotide-based designed microarray platforms. ICEP uses decision tree-based algorithms to assign quality flags and performs robust analysis based on chip design properties regarding multiple repetitions, ratio cut-off, background and negative controls. Conclusions ICEP is a stand-alone Windows application to obtain optimal data quality from custom-designed microarrays and is freely available here (see "Additional Files" section and at: http://www.alice-dsl.net/evgeniy.vainshtein/ICEP/

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, C; Honegger, C; Hösli, I; Surbek, D

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency occurs frequently in pregnancy and can be diagnosed by serum ferritin-level measurement (threshold value iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in every pregnant women, and should be done by serum ferritin-level screening in the first trimester and regular hemoglobin checks at least once per trimester. In the case of iron deficiency with or without anaemia in pregnancy, oral iron therapy should be given as first-line treatment. In the case of severe iron-deficiency anemia, intolerance of oral iron, lack of response to oral iron, or in the case of a clinical need for rapid and efficient treatment of anaemia (e.g., advanced pregnancy), intravenous iron therapy should be administered. In the postpartum period, oral iron therapy should be administered for mild iron-deficiency anemia (haemorrhagic anemia), and intravenous iron therapy for moderately severe-to-severe anemia (Hb iron therapy in pregnancy or postpartum, iron-containing drugs which have been studied in well-controlled clinical trials in pregnancy and postpartum such as ferric carboxymaltose must be preferred for safety reasons. While anaphylactic reactions are extremely are with non-dextrane products, close surveillance during administration is recommended for all intravenous iron products.

  6. Intravenous urography and childhood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie, N. M.; MacKinnon, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Results of intravenous urography (IVU) in 33 patients suspected of suffering from renal trauma were reviewed. It was concluded that when haematuria is only detected microscopically and clears within 24 hr then an IVU is not necessary, in the absence of other evidence of significant urinary tract injury.

  7. Analysis of the behaviour of the CLIC_SiD iron return yoke during a seismic event

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.

    2012-01-01

    The iron return yoke of the CLIC SiD detector concept is composed of three barrel rings and two endcap discs which, during a seismic event, are subjected to horizontal and vertical accelerations that can result in both a mechanical failure of internal structural elements and high deformations which can lead to unwanted collisions with other internal or external detector elements, as well as the walls of the experimental cavern. This report presents the results from the analysis of the return yoke barrel rings and endcaps under a seismic event load case.

  8. Trace analysis of iron in environmental water and snow samples from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    A voltammetric method for the determination of iron at detection limit of 4 μg/l is described, using the catalytic current of the reduction of the Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) complex in the presence of bromate ions. The determination was performed at a mercury hanging drop electrode without preconcentration, using the TEA alkaline solution as a supporting electrolyte and the differential pulse technique. A peak current for the Fe-(III)-TEA catalytic reduction was observed at a potential of -1.0 V (Ag/AgCl saturated electrode). The influence of TEA, BrO 3 and NaOH concentrations on the peak height was studied. It was found that a 100-fold excess of Mn, a 50-fold excess of Cr(VI) and Zn did not interfere in the determination. This method was applied to the determination of iron in water, snow and waste water samples

  9. In Situ Spectroscopic Analysis of the Carbothermal Reduction Process of Iron Oxides during Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fukushima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microwave plasma induction and reduction on the promotion of the carbothermal reduction of iron oxides (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 are investigated using in situ emission spectroscopy measurements during 2.45 GHz microwave processing, and the plasma discharge (such as CN and N2 is measured during microwave E-field irradiation. It is shown that CN gas or excited CN molecules contribute to the iron oxide reduction reactions, as well as to the thermal reduction. On the other hand, no plasma is generated during microwave H-field irradiation, resulting in thermal reduction. Magnetite strongly interacts with the microwave H-field, and the reduction reaction is clearly promoted by microwave H-field irradiation, as well as thermal reduction reaction.

  10. Iron Oxide Nanoconstructs for the Ablation Therapy in Diseased Tissues: Systemic Analysis and Rational Design

    OpenAIRE

    Cervadoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of magnetic nanoparticles has been developed and investigated under different alternating magnetic fields (AMF) for the hyperthermic treatment of malignant tissues. Yet, clinical applications of magnetic hyperthermia are sporadic, mostly due to the low energy conversion efficiency of the metallic nanoparticles and the high tissue concentrations required. In this work the hyperthermic performance of commercially available formulations of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (S...

  11. Elemental analysis of Itakpe iron ore by energy dispersive x-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry was carried out. The iron ore contained the following: Fe (29.55%) Si (24.68%), Zr(0.33%), Ti (0.19%), Zn(0.02%), Ca(0.04%), Cr(0.05%), Mn(0.05%), Nb(0.05%) and V(0.003%) respectively. The study opines that the hazards to human health caused by exposure to ...

  12. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  13. Optical Analysis of Iron-Doped Lead Sulfide Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Kumar, K. N.; Khadeer Pasha, S. K.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Chidambaram, K.; Shakil Muhammad, G.

    Iron-doped lead sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film shows a well formed crystalline thin film with face-centered cubic structure along the preferential orientation (1 1 1). The lattice constant is determined using Nelson Riley plots. Using X-ray broadening, the crystallite size is determined by Scherrer formula. Morphology of the thin film was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The optical properties of the film were investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. We observed an increase in the optical band gap from 2.45 to 3.03eV after doping iron in the lead sulfide thin film. The cutoff wavelength lies in the visible region, and hence the grown thin films can be used for optoelectronic and sensor applications. The results from the photoluminescence study show the emission at 500-720nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurements confirmed that the lead sulfide thin film becomes weakly ferromagnetic material after doping with iron.

  14. Iron Uptake Analysis in a Set of Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas putida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Lázaro; Geoffroy, Valérie A.; Segura, Ana; Udaondo, Zulema; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains are frequent inhabitants of soil and aquatic niches and they are occasionally isolated from hospital environments. As the available iron sources in human tissues, edaphic, and aquatic niches are different, we have analyzed iron-uptake related genes in different P. putida strains that were isolated from all these environments. We found that these isolates can be grouped into different clades according to the genetics of siderophore biosynthesis and recycling. The pyoverdine locus of the six P. putida clinical isolates that have so far been completely sequenced, are not closely related; three strains (P. putida HB13667, HB3267, and NBRC14164T) are grouped in Clade I and the other three in Clade II, suggesting possible different origins and evolution. In one clinical strain, P. putida HB4184, the production of siderophores is induced under high osmolarity conditions. The pyoverdine locus in this strain is closely related to that of strain P. putida HB001 which was isolated from sandy shore soil of the Yellow Sea in Korean marine sand, suggesting their possible origin, and evolution. The acquisition of two unique TonB-dependent transporters for xenosiderophore acquisition, similar to those existing in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO, is an interesting adaptation trait of the clinical strain P. putida H8234 that may confer adaptive advantages under low iron availability conditions. PMID:28082966

  15. Central European triathletes dominate Double Iron ultratriathlon – analysis of participation and performance 1985–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigg K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Katrin Sigg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Romuald Lepers,3 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: A recent study showed that European triathletes performed faster in Double Iron ultratriathlons than North American athletes. The present study analyzed triathletes participating in Double Iron ultratriathlons to determine the origin of the fastest Double Iron ultratriathletes, focusing on European countries.Methods: Participation and performance trends of finishers in Double Iron ultratriathlons from 1985–2011 of the different countries were investigated. Additionally, the performance trends of the top three women and men overall from 2001–2011 were analyzed.Results: A total of 1490 finishers originated from 24 different European countries and the United States. The number of European triathletes increased for both women (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.01 and men (r2 = 0.63; P < 0.01. The number of the North American triathletes increased for women (r2 = 0.25; P < 0.01, but not for men (r2 = 0.02; P > 0.05. Hungarian triathletes showed a significant improvement in both overall race times and in cycling split times, Swiss triathletes improved both their swim and run times, and French triathletes improved their swim times.Conclusion: Men and women triathletes from Central European countries such as France, Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary improved Double Iron ultratriathlon overall race times and split times during the 26-year period. The reasons might be the social and economic factors required to be able to participate in such an expensive and lavish race. Also, a favorable climate may provide the ideal conditions for successful training. Future studies need to investigate the motivational aspects of European

  16. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with digital image colorimetric analysis for detection of total iron in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Guorong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Shengguo

    2017-09-01

    A simple and low cost assay for total iron in various samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with digital scanning image analysis was proposed. Orthogonal experiment design was utilized to optimize the amount of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, O-phenanthroline concentration and buffer pH. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.047-1.0μgmL -1 (R 2 >0.99) of iron. The limit of detection (LOD) for iron was 14.1μgL -1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 46.5μgL -1 . The relative standard deviations for seven replicate determinations of 0.5μgmL -1 of iron was 3.75%. The method was successfully applied for analysis of total iron in water and food samples without using any spectral instrument and it could have a potential industrial impact in developing fast and portable devices to analyze the iron content in water and certain foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans CCM 4253 cultures having lost the ability to couple anaerobic elemental sulfur oxidation with ferric iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jiri; Sedo, Ondrej; Potesil, David; Janiczek, Oldrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Mandl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In extremely acidic environments, ferric iron can be a thermodynamically favorable electron acceptor during elemental sulfur oxidation by some Acidithiobacillus spp. under anoxic conditions. Quantitative 2D-PAGE proteomic analysis of a resting cell suspension of a sulfur-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans CCM 4253 subculture that had lost its iron-reducing activity revealed 147 protein spots that were downregulated relative to an iron-reducing resting cell suspension of the antecedent sulfur-oxidizing culture and 111 that were upregulated. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of strongly downregulated spots identified several physiologically important proteins that apparently play roles in ferrous iron oxidation, including the outer membrane cytochrome Cyc2 and rusticyanin. Other strongly repressed proteins were associated with sulfur metabolism, including heterodisulfide reductase, thiosulfate:quinone oxidoreductase and sulfide:quinone reductase. Transcript-level analyses revealed additional downregulation of other respiratory genes. Components of the iron-oxidizing system thus apparently play central roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction in the studied microbial strain. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  19. Anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinin levels in intravenous immunoglobulins: are they on the rise? A comparison of four different analysis methods and six products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, C L; Polatti, D; Hottiger, T; Girard, P; Sänger, M; Gilgen, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports of severe haemolytic reactions upon high dose treatment with new generation intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) prompted us to examine the anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinin content of these therapeutics. We compared four different test methods, namely the indirect and direct haemagglutination test as described in the European Pharmacopoiea (Ph. Eur.) and two commercial gelcard systems with the aim to define the most reliable method for a large-scale comparison of different IVIG products. Absolute titres varied when the same samples were analyzed by the four methods, while the relative ranking of six different IVIG preparations representing different manufacturing classes was identical. New generation IVIGs showed 1-2 titre steps higher anti-A titres than the older products. Haemagglutinin titres of all 48 IVIG batches analyzed were within the current Ph. Eur. specification of ≤1:64 when tested by the official pharmacopoeial method. Based on efficiency, reliability and lower costs, the direct gelcard method could be a valid alternative to the official Ph. Eur. method to serve as a limit test. However, due to the highest intermediate precision, the official Ph. Eur. method seems to be most suitable to compare haemagglutinin titres of different IVIG products. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of intravenous urography (IVU) and unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for initial investigation of suspected acute ureterolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikefjord, E; Askildsen, J E; Rørvik, J

    2008-03-01

    It is important to compare the cost and effectiveness of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) to determine the most cost-effective alternative for the initial investigation of acute ureterolithiasis. To analyze the task-specific variable costs combined with the diagnostic effect of MDCT and IVU for patients with acute flank pain, and to determine which is most cost effective. 119 patients with acute flank pain suggestive of stone disease (ureterolithiasis) were examined by both MDCT and IVU. Variable costs related to medical equipment, consumption material, equipment control, and personnel were calculated. The diagnostic effect was assessed. The variable costs of MDCT versus IVU were EUR 32 and EUR 117, respectively. This significant difference was mainly due to savings in examination time, higher annual examination frequency, lower material costs, and no use of contrast media. As for diagnostic effect, MDCT proved considerably more accurate in the diagnosis of stone disease than IVU and markedly more accurate concerning differential diagnoses. MDCT had lower differential costs and a higher capacity to determine correctly stone disease and differential diagnoses, as compared to IVU, in patients with acute flank pain. Consequently, MDCT is a dominant alternative to IVU when evaluated exclusively from a cost-effective perspective.

  1. Effect of Admission Oral Diuretic Dose on Response to Continuous versus Bolus Intravenous Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure: An Analysis from DOSE-AHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi V.; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the Diuretic Optimization Strategies in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in AHF. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function, and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. Methods DOSE-AHF randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high vs. low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs. continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=177) versus low-dose (diuretics. Results Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P=.01), and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P=0.01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted HR=1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P=.03). Conclusions In acute HF, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity, and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. PMID:23194486

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) of Intravenous Urography (IVU) and Unenhanced Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) for Initial Investigation of Suspected Acute Ureterolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikefjord, E.; Askildsen, J.E.; Roervik, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is important to compare the cost and effectiveness of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) to determine the most cost-effective alternative for the initial investigation of acute ureterolithiasis. Purpose: To analyze the task-specific variable costs combined with the diagnostic effect of MDCT and IVU for patients with acute flank pain, and to determine which is most cost effective. Material and Methods: 119 patients with acute flank pain suggestive of stone disease (ureterolithiasis) were examined by both MDCT and IVU. Variable costs related to medical equipment, consumption material, equipment control, and personnel were calculated. The diagnostic effect was assessed. Results: The variable costs of MDCT versus IVU were EUR 32 and EUR 117, respectively. This significant difference was mainly due to savings in examination time, higher annual examination frequency, lower material costs, and no use of contrast media. As for diagnostic effect, MDCT proved considerably more accurate in the diagnosis of stone disease than IVU and markedly more accurate concerning differential diagnoses. Conclusion: MDCT had lower differential costs and a higher capacity to determine correctly stone disease and differential diagnoses, as compared to IVU, in patients with acute flank pain. Consequently, MDCT is a dominant alternative to IVU when evaluated exclusively from a cost-effective perspective

  3. Analysis of the global ocean sampling (GOS project for trends in iron uptake by surface ocean microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Toulza

    Full Text Available Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe(2+ versus Fe(3+ uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations.

  4. Modern iron replacement therapy: clinical and pathophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Domenico; Ugolini, Sara; Busti, Fabiana; Marchi, Giacomo; Castagna, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is extremely frequent worldwide, representing a major public health problem. Iron replacement therapy dates back to the seventeenth century, and has progressed relatively slowly until recently. Both oral and intravenous traditional iron formulations are known to be far from ideal, mainly because of tolerability and safety issues, respectively. At the beginning of this century, the discovery of hepcidin/ferroportin axis has represented a turning point in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iron metabolism disorders, ushering a new era. In the meantime, advances in the pharmaceutical technologies are producing newer iron formulations aimed at minimizing the problems inherent with traditional approaches. The pharmacokinetic of oral and parenteral iron is substantially different, and diversities have become even clearer in light of the hepcidin master role in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Here we review how iron therapy is changing because of such important advances in both pathophysiology and pharmacology.

  5. Myocardial iron content and mitochondrial function in human heart failure: a direct tissue analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melenovský, V.; Petrák, J.; Mráček, Tomáš; Beneš, J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Nůsková, Hana; Pluháček, T.; Špatenka, J.; Kovalčíková, Jana; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kautzner, J.; Pirk, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), s. 522-530 ISSN 1388-9842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MZd(CZ) NT14050; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MZd NT14250; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27496A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart failure * mitochondria * iron deficiency * bioenergetics * metabolism * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.968, year: 2016

  6. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... nodules is described and ef-fects of preparation methods discussed. It was found that nodules contain different types of inclusions. These were analysed for chemical composition and crystallography using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and electron back-scatter patterns (EBSP). Location of inclusions...

  7. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients With Iron Deficiency and Chronic Heart Failure in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comín-Colet, Josep; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos; Enjuanes-Grau, Cristina; Gutzwiller, Florian S; Anker, Stefan D; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Treatment with ferric carboxymaltose improves symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ferric carboxymaltose treatment vs no treatment in these patients. We used an economic model based on the Spanish National Health System, with a time horizon of 24 weeks. Patient characteristics and ferric carboxymaltose effectiveness (quality-adjusted life years) were taken from the Ferinject® Assessment in patients with IRon deficiency and chronic Heart Failure trial. Health care resource use and unit costs were taken either from Spanish sources, or from the above mentioned trial. In the base case analysis, patients treated with and without ferric carboxymaltose treatment acquired 0.335 and 0.298 quality-adjusted life years, respectively, representing a gain of 0.037 quality-adjusted life years for each treated patient. The cost per patient was €824.17 and €597.59, respectively, resulting in an additional cost of €226.58 for each treated patient. The cost of gaining 1 quality adjusted life year with ferric carboxymaltose was €6123.78. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. The probability of ferric carboxymaltose being cost-effective (< €30 000 per quality-adjusted life year) and dominant (more effective and lower cost than no treatment) was 93.0% and 6.6%, respectively. Treatment with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is cost-effective in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravenous Bevacizumab Therapy in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, ENG E137K, Alcoholic Cirrhosis, and Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Bertoli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous bevacizumab decreased mucosal bleeding in some patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT. We treated a 47-year-old male who had HHT, severe epistaxis, and gastrointestinal bleeding, alcoholic cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with intravenous bevacizumab 2.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks. We tabulated these measures weekly during weeks 1–33 (no bevacizumab; 34–57 (bevacizumab; and 58–97 (no bevacizumab: hemoglobin (Hb levels; platelet counts; units of transfused packed erythrocytes (PRBC units; and quantities of iron infused as iron dextran to support erythropoiesis. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses. We sequenced his ENG and ACVRL1 genes. Epistaxis and melena decreased markedly during bevacizumab treatment. He reported no adverse effects due to bevacizumab. Mean weekly Hb levels were significantly higher and mean weekly PRBC units and quantities of intravenous iron were significantly lower during bevacizumab treatment. We performed a multiple regression on weekly Hb levels using these independent variables: bevacizumab treatment (dichotomous; weekly platelet counts; weekly PRBC units; and weekly quantities of intravenous iron. There was 1 positive association: (bevacizumab treatment; p = 0.0046 and 1 negative association (PRBC units; p = 0.0004. This patient had the novel ENG mutation E137K (exon 4; c.409G→A. Intravenous bevacizumab treatment 2.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 24 weeks was well-tolerated by a patient with HHT due to ENG E137K and was associated with higher weekly Hb levels and fewer weekly PRBC units.

  9. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  10. Remote-sensing data processing with the multivariate regression analysis method for iron mineral resource potential mapping: a case study in the Sarvian area, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak; Jafari Rad, Alireza; Arian, Mehran

    2018-03-01

    This paper uses multivariate regression to create a mathematical model for iron skarn exploration in the Sarvian area, central Iran, using multivariate regression for mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM). The main target of this paper is to apply multivariate regression analysis (as an MPM method) to map iron outcrops in the northeastern part of the study area in order to discover new iron deposits in other parts of the study area. Two types of multivariate regression models using two linear equations were employed to discover new mineral deposits. This method is one of the reliable methods for processing satellite images. ASTER satellite images (14 bands) were used as unique independent variables (UIVs), and iron outcrops were mapped as dependent variables for MPM. According to the results of the probability value (p value), coefficient of determination value (R2) and adjusted determination coefficient (Radj2), the second regression model (which consistent of multiple UIVs) fitted better than other models. The accuracy of the model was confirmed by iron outcrops map and geological observation. Based on field observation, iron mineralization occurs at the contact of limestone and intrusive rocks (skarn type).

  11. Muscle power during intravenous sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsuura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous sedation is effective to reduce fear and anxiety in dental treatment. It also has been used for behavior modification technique in dental patients with special needs. Midazolam and propofol are commonly used for intravenous sedation. Although there have been many researches on the effects of midazolam and propofol on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power. This review discusses the effects of intravenous sedation using midazolam and propofol on both grip strength and bite force. During light propofol sedation, grip strength increases slightly and bite force increases in a dose-dependent manner. Grip strength decreases while bite force increases during light midazolam sedation, and also during light sedation using a combination of midazolam and propofol. Flumazenil did not antagonise the increase in bite force by midazolam. These results may suggest following possibilities; (1 Activation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors located within the temporomandibular joint region and masticatory muscles may be the cause of increasing bite force. (2 Propofol limited the long-latency exteroceptive suppression (ES2 period during jaw-opening reflex. Thus, control of masticatory muscle contraction, which is thought to have a negative feedback effect on excessive bite force, may be depressed by propofol.

  12. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis ......Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta......-analysis of the four trials has shown that IVIG reduces the relapse rate and, possibly, disease progression. In patients with a first episode of demyelinating disease, IVIG delays the time to the second relapse and thereby to the diagnosis of definite MS. In patients with an acute MS relapse, IVIG as add-on therapy...... to methylprednisolone does not make remission of symptoms faster or more complete. IVIG does not seem to be of any benefit to chronic visual or motor symptoms in MS. In secondary progressive MS, IVIG has not shown any effect on disease progression, relapses or new magnetic resonance imaging lesions. Experimental...

  13. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0 and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0, respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age, and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  14. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F.; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia. PMID:27827838

  15. Electrochemical treatment and operating cost analysis of textile wastewater using sacrificial iron electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Akyol, A

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) method with iron electrode was used to treat the textile wastewater in a batch reactor. Iron electrode material was used as a sacrificial electrode in monopolar parallel mode in this study. The removal efficiencies of the wastewater by EC were affected by initial pH of the solution, current density, conductivity and time of electrolysis. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 6.9, current density of 10 mA/cm(2), conductivity of 3,990 microS/cm, and electrolysis time of 10 min), the treatment of textile wastewater by the EC process led to a removal capacity of 78% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 92% of turbidity. The energy and electrode consumptions at the optimum conditions were calculated to be 0.7 kWh/kg COD (1.7 kWh/m(3)) and 0.2 kgFe/kg COD (0.5 kgFe/m(3)), respectively. Moreover, the operating cost was calculated as 0.2 euro/kg removed COD or 0.5 euro/m(3) treated wastewater. Zeta potential measurement was used to determine the charge of particle formed during the EC which revealed that Fe(OH)(3) might be responsible for the EC process.

  16. 3D Quantitative Analysis of Graphite Morphology in Ductile Cast Iron by X-ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yajun; Tu, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhang, Dongqiao; Wang, Min; Guo, Zhao; Liu, Changchang; Chen, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    In this article, X-ray microtomography and color metallographic techniques have been used to perform three-dimensional quantitative characterization of graphite nodule morphology in a step-shaped ductile cast iron casting. Statistical analyses of the graphite nodule count, diameter, sphericity, and spatial distribution have been processed for three samples in detail. The results reveal that graphite nodules in ductile cast iron can be categorized into two categories. The first types are nodules located in eutectic cells (NIECs), and the other one refers to nodules located between the eutectic cells (NBECs). The NIECs possess a larger average diameter but smaller sphericity compared with the NBECs, and the sphericity decreases along with the increasing of diameter. The increasing casting thickness results in an increasing count and percentage of NBECs. In addition, most nodules are NIECs in thin walls instead of NBECs in thick walls. Nonuniform spatial distributions of graphite nodules caused by the existence of NBECs have been found to become more obvious along with the increase of cast thickness.

  17. Iron Supplements for Infants at Risk for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna C. MacQueen MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Professional societies have published recommendations for iron dosing of preterm neonates, but differences exist between guidelines. To help develop standardized guidelines, we performed a 10-year analysis of iron dosing in groups at risk for iron deficiency: IDM (infants of diabetic mothers, SGA (small for gestational age, and VLBW premature neonates (very low birth weight, <1500 g. We analyzed iron dosing after red cell transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA. Of IDM, 11.8% received iron in the hospital; 9.8% of SGA and 27.1% of VLBW neonates received iron. Twenty percent of those who received iron had it started by day 14; 63% by 1 month. Supplemental iron was stopped after red cell transfusions in 73% of neonates receiving iron. An ESA was administered to 1677, of which 33% received iron within 3 days. This marked variation indicates that a consistent approach is needed, and using this report and a literature review, we standardized our iron-dosing guidelines.

  18. Managing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. The results of the "Gestiona hierro-EII" survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas Jordá, Francesc; Vera Mendoza, Isabel; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Vázquez Morón, Juan María; López Román, Javier; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier

    2018-03-01

    iron deficiency anemia is a common and very relevant manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although clinical practice guidelines have been published and updated on this subject, the management in the daily practice of this complication is far from optimal. to determine the actual management, needs and limitations of anemia in IBD by means of a survey of gastroenterology specialists. a self-administered telematic survey was carried out between April and May 2017 and was sent to SEPD members. The survey included four sections: participant demographics, monitoring, treatment and limitations/needs. a total of 122 evaluable surveys were received from all Spanish autonomous communities. Iron deficiency anemia is considered as a frequent manifestation of IBD and is monitored in all patients via the measurement of hemoglobin and ferritin. In the case of anemia, the survey respondents found it necessary to rule out the presence of IBD activity. However, only 14.8% prescribed intravenous iron when IBD was active. The required dose of intravenous iron is mainly calculated according to patient needs but only 33.1% of clinicians infused doses of 1 g or more. the "Gestiona Hierro EII" survey on the management of anemia in IBD demonstrated a high quality of care, even though some aspects need to be improved. These included the prescription of intravenous iron for patients with disease activity, the use of high-dose intravenous iron and the implementation of algorithms into clinical practice.

  19. In-situ study of ferric iron distribution in synthetic spinels by electron microprobe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey; Olga, Sinelshikova; Rustam, Lukmanov

    2017-04-01

    The iron oxidation state in mantle minerals is a key value in oxygen fugacity calculation and the most widely used analytical approach for Fe3+/ΣFe determination is Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is a bulk method and there is a lack of information on Fe3+/ΣFe zonation in individual mineral grains and Fe3+/ΣFe in inclusions. Here we present application of the flank method using the electron microprobe by analysing the FeLα and FeLβ X-ray emission spectra to a suite of 20 synthetic MgAl2O2-Cr2O3-Fe2O3(FeO) spinels. Materials were done with 5 - 25 FeO wt.%, and 2-70 Cr2O3 wt.% and Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.10 to 0.80, where Fe3+/ΣFe was determined independently using Mössbauer spectroscopy on the same grains used for the flank method measurements. Synthesis of the samples produced using a pyrolysis method of organic salt compositions in MgAl2O2-Cr2O3-Fe2O3(FeO) system with following heating in corundum crucibles at 1300 ° C for 5 -10 hours under controlled oxygen fugacity. All synthetic materials were investigated by X-ray and Mössbauer spectroscopy to examine a phase and iron oxidation state features. In terms of chemical composition and Fe3+/ΣFe resulting synthetic material covers a whole range of spinels derived in mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. These synthetic products were used as a standard sample to investigate co-variations of ratios of intensities measured on the flanks of FeLα and Lβ peaks and Fe3+/ΣFe, FeO content and Cr#. The obtained correlations can be used to perform in-situ studies of ferric iron distribution in natural mantle spinels. The presented approach will allow investigating the difference in mantle spinel Fe3+/ΣFe at a microscale from core to rim in individual grain, inclusion, melting pocket and in intergrows with other mantle mineral assemblage. The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 16-35-60076 mol_a_dk.

  20. Maternal iron status influences iron transfer to the fetus during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zavaleta, Nelly; Abrams, Steven A; Caulfield, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    The effect of maternal iron status on fetal iron deposition is uncertain. We used a unique stable-isotope technique to assess iron transfer to the fetus in relation to maternal iron status. The study group comprised 41 Peruvian women. Of these women, 26 received daily prenatal supplements containing iron and folate (n = 11; Fe group) or iron, folate, and zinc (n = 15; Fe+Zn group) from week 10-24 of pregnancy to 1 mo postpartum. The remaining 15 women (control group) received iron supplementation only during the final month of pregnancy. During the third trimester of pregnancy (+/- SD: 32.9 +/- 1.4 wk gestation) oral 57Fe (10 mg) and intravenous 58Fe (0.6 mg) stable iron isotopes were administered to the women, and isotope enrichment and iron-status indicators were measured in cord blood at delivery. The net amount of 57Fe in the neonates' circulation (from maternal oral dosing) was significantly related to maternal iron absorption (P < 0.005) and inversely related to maternal iron status during the third trimester of pregnancy: serum ferritin (P < 0.0001), serum folate (P < 0.005), and serum transferrin receptors (P < 0.02). Significantly more 57Fe was transferred to the neonates in non-iron-supplemented women: 0.112 +/- 0.031 compared with 0.078 +/- 0.042 mg in the control group (n = 15) and the Fe and Fe+Zn groups (n = 24), respectively (P < 0.01). In contrast, 58Fe tracer in the neonates' circulation was not significantly related to maternal iron status. The transfer of dietary iron to the fetus is regulated in response to maternal iron status at the level of the gut.

  1. Parenteral Iron Therapy in the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia During Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, N.; Ayub, R.; Khan, W. U.; Ijaz, S.; Alam, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety profile of total dose infusion of low molecular weight iron dextran with divided doses of intravenous iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Pregnant women at gestational age more than 12 weeks with the confirmed diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) were divided into two groups. In the group-A, intravenous iron sucrose was given in divided doses while in the group-B, total daily intake of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) of iron dextran was given. Post-infusion Hemoglobin (Hb) was checked at 4 weeks and at the time of delivery for both groups. Paired sample t-test is applied and comparison (in terms of rise in hemoglobin from pre to post) of both groups was not found to be significant. Results: In the group-A (iron sucrose group), mean pre-infusion Hb levels was 9.09 ± 0.83 gm/dl. Mean increase in Hemoglobin (Hb) was 10.75 ± 1.097 gm/dl after 4 weeks of infusion and 11.06 ± 0.866 gm/dl at delivery (p < 0.001). In group-B (iron dextran group) pre-infusion haemoglobin was 8.735 ± 0.956 gm/dl and the mean increase in hemoglobin was 10.613 ± 1.22 gm/dl at 4-week while mean increase of 10.859 ± 1.11 gm/dl at the time of delivery (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both LMW iron dextran, as well as iron sucrose are equally effective in treatment of IDA during pregnancy, however, LMW iron dextran has the advantage of single visit treatment. (author)

  2. Fluorophore-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticle labeling and analysis of engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Dustin J; Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanometer-sized iron oxide particles combined with molecular imaging techniques enables dynamic studies of homing and trafficking of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Identifying clinically applicable strategies for loading nanoparticles into primitive HSC requires strictly defined...... to the dextran coat for fluorescence-activated cell sorting purification eliminated spurious signals from nonsequestered nanoparticle contaminants. A short-term defined incubation strategy was developed that allowed efficient labeling of both quiescent and cycling HSC, with no discernable toxicity in vitro...... or in vivo. Transplantation of purified primary human cord blood lineage-depleted and CD34(+) cells into immunodeficient mice allowed detection of labeled human HSC in the recipient bones. Flow cytometry was used to precisely quantitate the cell populations that had sequestered the nanoparticles...

  3. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  4. Influencing factors and kinetics analysis on the leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap with ultrasound-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xing, Pengfei; Du, Xinghong; Gao, Shuaibo; Chen, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap was investigated and the optimization of different influencing factors had also been performed. The factors investigated were acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency. The leaching of iron with conventional method at various temperatures was also performed. The results show the maximum iron leaching ratios are 87.4%, 94.5% for 80min-leaching with conventional method and 50min-leaching with ultrasound assistance, respectively. The leaching of waste-scrap with conventional method fits the chemical reaction-controlled model. The leaching with ultrasound assistance fits chemical reaction-controlled model, diffusion-controlled model for the first stage and second stage, respectively. The assistance of ultrasound can greatly improve the iron leaching ratio, accelerate the leaching rate, shorten leaching time and lower the residual iron, comparing with conventional method. The advantages of ultrasound-assisted leaching were also confirmed by the SEM-EDS analysis and elemental analysis of the raw material and leached solid samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flank pain: is Intravenous Urogram necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, H S; Lin, M B; Khoo, T K

    2001-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of Intravenous Urogram (IVU) and the values of plain radiograph of kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) and urinalysis as screening tests, with the objective to improve the cost effectiveness, in the management of patients presenting with flank pain due to urinary lithiasis. All Intravenous Urogram (IVU) request forms and reports for the month of February 1998 were audited. The case notes, urinalysis, KUB and IVU films were traced and reviewed. There were 110 patients investigated, 61.8% (68) had normal IVU, 38.2% (42) had abnormal IVU. The sensitivity and specificity of KUB alone was 79.4% and 90%. The sensitivity using urinalysis alone was 90.9% and its specificity 33.8%. The sensitivity of combined KUB and urinalysis was 100% and its specificity 26%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. All the patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis in our study were found to have negative IVU. Our study shows that in patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis, the yield of IVU is very low and may not be necessary. This is important, as an IVU examination is not without risk. A combination of KUB with urinary analysis and careful evaluation of clinical symptoms will improve the cost-effectiveness of patient management.

  6. Retrospective analysis of non-laboratory-based adverse drug reactions induced by intravenous radiocontrast agents in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Qin-lan Chen,1 Xiao-ying Zhao,2 Xiao-mi Wang,1 Na Lv,2 Ling-ling Zhu,3 Hui-min Xu,4 Quan Zhou4 1Radiology Nursing Unit, Division of Nursing, 2Department of Quality Management, 3Geriatric VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 4Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The authors retrospectively analyzed the pattern and characteristics of non-laboratory-based adverse drug reactions (ADRs induced by intravenous radiocontrast agents in a large-scale hospital in China during 2014–2015. There were 314 ADR cases among 118,208 patients receiving enhanced CT or MRI examinations. The frequency of moderate/severe ADRs defined by Chinese Society of Radiology (ie, severe vomiting, systematic urticaria, facial swelling, dyspnea, vasovagal reaction, laryngeal edema, seizure, trembling, convulsions, unconsciousness, shock, death, and other unexpected adverse reactions was rare (0.0431%, whereas the mild ADRs were uncommon (0.2225% and accounted for 83.76% of ADRs. Frequency of ADRs induced by iodinated contrast agents was related with examination site, sex, and type of patient settings (P<0.01 and was higher compared with gadolinium contrast agents (0.3676% vs 0.0504%, P<0.01. From 2014 to 2015, frequencies of total and moderate/severe ADRs induced by iodinated contrast agents decreased significantly (0.4410% vs 0.2947%, P<0.01; 0.0960% vs 0.0282%, P<0.01, respectively. Frequency of ADRs differed among different iodinated contrast and gadolinium contrast (P<0.05 agents. Iopromide’s ADR frequency in 2014 was significantly higher compared with iopamidol, ioversol, or iohexol (P<0.01. Frequency of moderate/severe ADRs induced by iodixanol was 4.1–5.4 times that of iohexol, iopromide, or iopamidol. Rash was the predominant ADR subtype (84.39% and occurred more frequently with iodixanol compared with iohexol, iopamidol, or ioversol (P<0

  7. Hydrogen production from natural gas using an iron-based chemical looping technology: Thermodynamic simulations and process system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathe, Mandar V.; Empfield, Abbey; Na, Jing; Blair, Elena; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of iron-based chemical looping process using moving bed for H 2 from CH 4 . • Auto-thermal operation design using thermodynamic rationale for 90% carbon capture. • Cold gas efficiency: 5% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Net thermal efficiency: 6% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Sensitivity analysis: Energy recovery scheme, operating pressure, no carbon capture. - Abstract: Hydrogen (H 2 ) is a secondary fuel derived from natural gas. Currently, H 2 serves as an important component in refining operations, fertilizer production, and is experiencing increased utilization in the transportation industry as a clean combustion fuel. In recent years, industry and academia have focused on developing technology that reduces carbon emissions. As a result, there has been an increase in the technological developments for producing H 2 from natural gas. These technologies aim to minimize the cost increment associated with clean energy production. The natural gas processing chemical looping technology, developed at The Ohio State University (OSU), employs an iron-based oxygen carrier and a novel gas–solid counter-current moving bed reactor for H 2 production. Specifically, this study examines the theoretical thermodynamic limits for full conversion of natural gas through iron-based oxygen carrier reactions with methane (CH 4 ), by utilizing simulations generated with ASPEN modeling software. This study initially investigates the reducer and the oxidizer thermodynamic phase diagrams then derives an optimal auto-thermal operating condition for the complete loop simulation. This complete loop simulation is initially normalized for analysis on the basis of one mole of carbon input from natural gas. The H 2 production rate is then scaled to match that of the baseline study, using a full-scale ASPEN simulation for computing cooling loads, water requirements and net parasitic energy consumption. The

  8. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, Kennedy R; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to trea...

  9. Early identification of aortic valve sclerosis using iron oxide enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Amanda M; Rogers, Kem A; Belisle, Andre J L; Ronald, John A; Rutt, Brian K; Weissleder, Ralph; Boughner, Derek R

    2010-01-01

    To test the ability of MION-47 enhanced MRI to identify tissue macrophage infiltration in a rabbit model of aortic valve sclerosis (AVS). The aortic valves of control and cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbits were imaged in vivo pre- and 48 h post-intravenous administration of MION-47 using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MR clinical scanner and a CINE fSPGR sequence. MION-47 aortic valve cusps were imaged ex vivo on a 3.0T whole-body MR system with a custom gradient insert coil and a three-dimensional (3D) FIESTA sequence and compared with aortic valve cusps from control and cholesterol-fed contrast-free rabbits. Histopathological analysis was performed to determine the site of iron oxide uptake. MION-47 enhanced the visibility of both control and cholesterol-fed rabbit valves in in vivo images. Ex vivo image analysis confirmed the presence of significant signal voids in contrast-administered aortic valves. Signal voids were not observed in contrast-free valve cusps. In MION-47 administered rabbits, histopathological analysis revealed iron staining not only in fibrosal macrophages of cholesterol-fed valves but also in myofibroblasts from control and cholesterol-fed valves. Although iron oxide labeling of macrophage infiltration in AVS has the potential to detect the disease process early, a macrophage-specific iron compound rather than passive targeting may be required. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A micro-mechanical analysis of thermo-elastic properties and local residual stresses in ductile iron based on a new anisotropic model for the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    analysis to verify its consistency with the room-temperature elastic properties of ductile iron measured at the macro scale. Subsequently, it is used to investigate the formation of local residual stresses around the graphite particles by simulating the manufacturing process of a typical ferritic ductile......In this paper, the thermo-elastic behavior of the graphite nodules contained in ductile iron is derived on the basis of recent transmission electron microscopy investigations of their real internal structure. The proposed model is initially validated by performing a finite element homogenization...

  11. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles as potential dual-modal contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinquan; Zhou, Zijian; Feng, Jianghua; Cai, Shuhui; Gao, Jinhao; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles (MnIO-NPs) can be treated as potential dual-modal contrast agents. However, their overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain unknown. In this study, the metabolic effects of MnIO-NPs (dosed at 1 and 5 mg Fe/kg) on Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated using metabonomic analysis, histopathological examination, and conventional biochemical analysis. The histological changes included a focal inflammation in the liver at high-dose and a slightly enlarged area of splenic white pulp after 48 h post-dose. Blood biochemical analysis showed that albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose changed distinctly compared to the control. The metabonomic analysis of body fluids (serum and urine) and tissues (liver, kidney, and spleen) indicated that MnIO-NPs induced metabolic perturbation in rats including energy, nucleotides, amino acids and phospholipid metabolisms. Besides, the variations of supportive nutrients: valine, leucine, isoleucine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and nicotinamide, and the conjugation substrates: glycine, taurine, glutamine, glutathione, and methyl donors (formate, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine) were involved in detoxification reaction of MnIO-NPs. The obtained information would provide identifiable ground for the candidate selection and optimization.

  12. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  13. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRENE eMURGIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of Somatic Homologous Recombination (SHR events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

  14. A Next-to-Leading Order QCD Analysis of Neutrino - Iron Structure Functions at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, William Glenn [Nevis Labs, Columbia U.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleon structure functions measured in neutrino-iron and antineutrinoiron charged-current interactions are presented. The data were taken in two high-energy high-statistics runs by the LAB-E detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Structure functions are extracted from a sample of 950,000 neutrino and 170,000 antineutrino events with neutrino energies from 30 to 360 Ge V. The structure functions $F_2$ and $xF_3$ are compared with the the predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD). The combined non-singlet and singlet evolution in the context of PQCD gives NL0(4) . 2 value of $\\Lambda^{NLO,(4)}_{\\overline MS}$ = 337 ± 28 (exp.) MeV, which corresponds to $\\alpha_s$ ($M^2_z$) = 0.119 ± 0.002 (exp.) ± 0.004 (theory), and with a gluon distribution given by $xG(x,Q^2_0 = 5 GeV^2$ ) = (2.22±0.34) x ($1-x)^{4.65 \\pm 0.68}$

  15. Iron Fortified Complementary Foods Containing a Mixture of Sodium Iron EDTA with Either Ferrous Fumarate or Ferric Pyrophosphate Reduce Iron Deficiency Anemia in 12- to 36-Month-Old Children in a Malaria Endemic Setting: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinz, Dominik; Wegmüller, Rita; Ouattara, Mamadou; Diakité, Victorine G; Aaron, Grant J; Hofer, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Michael B; Adiossan, Lukas G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Hurrell, Richard F

    2017-07-14

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of iron fortification against IDA is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a complementary food (CF) fortified with sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) plus either ferrous fumarate (FeFum) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) to combat IDA in preschool-age children in a highly malaria endemic region. This is a secondary analysis of a nine-month cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. 378 children aged 12-36 months were randomly assigned to no food intervention ( n = 125; control group), CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA plus 3.8 mg FeFum for six days/week ( n = 126; FeFum group), and CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg FePP for six days/week ( n = 127; FePP group). The outcome measures were hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), iron deficiency (PF anemia (Hb iron deficiency with or without anemia ( p = 0.068). IDA prevalence sharply decreased in the FeFum (32.8% to 1.2%, p anemia. These data indicate that, despite the high endemicity of malaria and elevated inflammation biomarkers (C-reactive protein or α-1-acid-glycoprotein), IDA was markedly reduced by provision of iron fortified CF to preschool-age children for 9 months, with no significant differences between a combination of NaFeEDTA with FeFum or NaFeEDTA with FePP. However, there was no overall effect on anemia, suggesting most of the anemia in this setting is not due to ID. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01634945).

  16. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  17. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  18. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Mei, Zuguo; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  19. Miniaturization of spectrophotometry based on micro flow analysis using norfloxacin as less-toxic reagent for iron determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertboonyai, Kanyarak; Arqueropanyo, Orn-Anong; Liawraungrath, Boonsom; Liawraungrath, Saisunee; Pojanakaroon, Teraboon

    2015-01-01

    A micro flow analysis (μFA) system has been designed and fabricated for determination of total iron. The system consists of a microchannels fabricated by etching the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by using laser ablation techniques and a sealed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as top plate. The PMMA micro-flow was topped with a home-made polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-flow through cell, which was integrated with light emitting diode (LED) as light source and a USB 2000 spectrometer as detector. The proposed μFA system was applied to determination of Fe(III) using norfloxacin as a less-toxic complexing agent in an acetate buffer solution pH 4.0, resulting in a yellow colored complex which gave the maximum absorption at 430nm. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range of 0.20-5.00mgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3σ) and limit of quantification (LOQ, defined as 10σ) were 0.12 and 0.45mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for repeatability and reproducibility were less than 1.50% and 1.24% (n=11) for 0.2mgL(-1) and 1.0mgL(-1) Fe(III), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of total iron in water samples, validated by the FAAS standard method after digestion by HNO3 and H2O2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal trauma and the intravenous urogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, C D; Britton, J M; Charlton, C A

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma associated with haematuria admitted to one hospital (Royal United, Bath) in a 10-year period was conducted to establish the contribution of the intravenous urogram (IVU) in their management. Eighty-one case records were analysed. Of 35 IVUs performed in patients with microscopic (reagentstrip positive) haematuria, only one was abnormal. In contrast, 27 IVUs performed in patients with macroscopic (naked eye) haematuria revealed 17 major injuries and 5 previously unrecognized congenital abnormalities. It is concluded that an IVU is an unnecessary and non-contributory investigation in patients with microscopic haematuria and guidelines are suggested for the role of IVU in patients with blunt abdominal trauma associated with haematuria. PMID:3560121

  1. Iron concentration in breast milk normalised within one week of a single high-dose infusion of iron isomaltoside in randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Nørgaard, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    at a mean daily dose of 70.5mg. We included 65 women with sufficient breast milk three days after inclusion - 30 from the intravenous iron group and 35 from the oral iron group - and collected breast milk and maternal blood samples three days and one week after allocation. RESULTS: The mean (± standard...... deviation) iron concentration in breast milk in the intravenous and oral groups were 0.72 ± 0.27 mg/L and 0.40 ± 0.18 mg/L at three days (p

  2. Analysis of low-carbon industrial symbiosis technology for carbon mitigation in a Chinese iron/steel industrial park: A case study with carbon flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Liang; Li, Huiquan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Tang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 mitigation strategies in industrial parks are a significant component of the Chinese climate change mitigation policy, and industrial symbiosis can provide specific CO 2 mitigation opportunity. Technology is important to support symbiosis, but few studies in China have focused on this topic at the industrial park level. This research presented a case study in a national iron and steel industrial park in China. Focus was given onto carbon mitigation through industrial symbiosis technology using substance flow analysis (SFA). Three typical iron and steel industry technologies, including coke dry quenching (CDQ), combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and CO 2 capture by slag carbonization (CCSC) were evaluated with SFA. Technology assessment was further conducted in terms of carbon mitigation potential and unit reduction cost. Compared with the Business as usual (BAU) scenario, application with CDQ, CCPP, and CCSC reduced the net carbon emissions by 56.18, 134.43, and 222.89 kg CO 2 per ton crude steel inside the industrial parks, respectively, including both direct and indirect emissions. Economic assessment revealed that the unit costs for the three technologies were also high, thereby necessitating national financial support. Finally, relevant policy suggestions and future concerns were proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • A typical carbon mitigation case study on China iron/steel industrial park. • Using carbon SFA to investigate mitigation effects of industrial symbiosis technology. • CCPP greatly reduced the indirect carbon emission embodied in power purchase. • CCSC reduced the carbon emission by distributing fixed carbon into by-product. • Specific low carbon-tech promotion policies fit to China was discussed and proposed

  3. A system dynamics analysis of energy consumption and corrective policies in Iranian iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Nastaran; Seifi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Iron and steel industry is the most energy intensive industrial sector in Iran. Long time subsidized energy has led to low energy efficiency in this industry. The sudden subsidy reform of energy prices in Iran is expected to have a great impact on steel production and energy consumption. A system dynamics model is presented in this paper to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in an integrated framework. A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform affects energy consumption in the long run. The main focus of this paper is on direct and indirect natural gas consumption in the steel industry. Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient way for steel making. The energy consumption in steel industry is estimated under various steel production and export scenarios while taking into account new energy prices to see the outlook of possible energy demand in steel industry over next 20 years. For example it is shown that under reference production scenario, potential reduction in gas consumption forced by complete removal of energy subsidy and utilizing scrap could lead to 85 billion cubic meters of gas saving over the next 20 years. -- Highlights: ► We develop a system dynamics model to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in Iran. ► Various scenarios have been simulated to see the energy demand of Iranian steel industry over the next 20 years. ► A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform would affect energy consumption in the long run. ► A co-flow structure has been built into the SD model to formulate consumers' behavior in response to energy prices. ► Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient alternative for steel making.

  4. Body mass does not impact the clinical response to intravenous abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Analysis from the "pan-European registry collaboration for abatacept (PANABA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannone, Florenzo; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric

    2017-01-01

    Some evidences suggest that obesity impairs the effectiveness of TNF inhibitors. We examined the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the clinical effectiveness of abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This is a pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohorts of RA patients. All patients with ...

  5. Iron Deficiency and Acute Seizures: Results from Children Living in Rural Kenya and a Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idro, R.; Gwer, S.; Williams, T.N.; Otieno, T.; Uyoga, S.; Fegan, G.; Kager, P.A.; Maitland, K.; Kirkham, F.; Neville, B.G.R.; Newton, C.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area. Methods: We recruited 133 children, aged 3-156

  6. Use of iron sucrose in dialysis patients sensitive to iron dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Ayham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of iron sucrose in hemodialysis (HD patients with documented hypersensitivity reactions to iron dextran. Of 205 HD patients who received low molecular weight iron dextran, 15 (7.3% patients developed documented hypersensitivity reactions. The patients were treated with iron sucrose (100 mg administered as an intravenous push over 5-10 minutes once a week for 8 weeks. Complete blood count, serum iron, serum ferritin, and parathyroid hormone were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study (except parathyroid hormone. All patients received subcutaneous erythropoietin at a constant dose of 5000 IU twice weekly unless a change was required. All the patients completed the study period and none of them developed hypersensitivity reactions to iron sucrose. The mean hematocrit increased from 23.8% to 32.27% (p < 0.0001, the mean serum ferritin from 185 ng/mL to 599 ng/mL (p < 0.0001, and the mean serum iron from 29.3 ng/dL to 76.8 ng/dL (p = 0.01. We conclude that iron sucrose is safe and effective in HD patients with documented hypersensitivity reactions to low molecular weight iron dextran.

  7. Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver of Intravenous Heroin Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Ilić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural research has a decisive role in gathering the knowledge on the liver’s response to the influence of some drugs. The aim of the study was to perform an ultrastructurai analysis of the liver in chronic intravenous heroin addicts.The study involved the autopsy conducted on 40 bodies of intravenous heroin addicts and 10 control autopsies. The liver tissue was fixed in glutaraldehyde and moulded with epon for investigation purposes of ultrastructural changes. The analysis was performed using the method of transmission electron microscopy.In the group of intravenous heroin addicts, the liver autopsy samples showed degenerative vesicular and fat changes, chronic active and persistent hepatitis, cirrhosis, reduction in the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes, as well as the Kupffer cell’s dominant hypertrophy. Various changes occur in organelles, plasma membrane of hepatocytes and biliary channels as well as in the nucleus.The most important ultrastructural findings include: hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is histologically proven vesicular degeneration of hepatocyte occurring as a result of the increased synthesis of enzymes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum due to chronic intravenous heroin intake, and the presence of continuous basal membrane followed by transformation of the sinusoids into capillaries (in the cases of chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis which leads to a disorder of microcirculation and further progress of cirrhosis.

  8. Multivariate research in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing using the statistical analysis and the multiple regression equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    The braking system is one of the most important and complex subsystems of railway vehicles, especially when it comes for safety. Therefore, installing efficient safe brakes on the modern railway vehicles is essential. Nowadays is devoted attention to solving problems connected with using high performance brake materials and its impact on thermal and mechanical loading of railway wheels. The main factor that influences the selection of a friction material for railway applications is the performance criterion, due to the interaction between the brake block and the wheel produce complex thermos-mechanical phenomena. In this work, the investigated subjects are the cast-iron brake shoes, which are still widely used on freight wagons. Therefore, the cast-iron brake shoes - with lamellar graphite and with a high content of phosphorus (0.8-1.1%) - need a special investigation. In order to establish the optimal condition for the cast-iron brake shoes we proposed a mathematical modelling study by using the statistical analysis and multiple regression equations. Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. Multivariate visualization comes to the fore when researchers have difficulties in comprehending many dimensions at one time. Technological data (hardness and chemical composition) obtained from cast-iron brake shoes were used for this purpose. In order to settle the multiple correlation between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and the chemical compositions elements several model of regression equation types has been proposed. Because a three-dimensional surface with variables on three axes is a common way to illustrate multivariate data, in which the maximum and minimum values are easily highlighted, we plotted graphical representation of the regression equations in order to explain interaction of the variables and locate the optimal level of each variable for

  9. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  10. The Effect of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Bloch, Michael H; Mathew, Sanjay J; Murrough, James W; Feder, Adriana; Sos, Peter; Wang, Gang; Zarate, Carlos A; Sanacora, Gerard

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a public health crisis with limited treatment options. The authors conducted a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis examining the effects of a single dose of ketamine on suicidal ideation. Individual participant data were obtained from 10 of 11 identified comparison intervention studies that used either saline or midazolam as a control treatment. The analysis included only participants who had suicidal ideation at baseline (N=167). A one-stage, individual participant data, meta-analytic procedure was employed using a mixed-effects, multilevel, general linear model. The primary outcome measures were the suicide items from clinician-administered (the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] or the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D]) and self-report scales (the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report [QIDS-SR] or the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), obtained for up to 1 week after ketamine administration. Ketamine rapidly (within 1 day) reduced suicidal ideation significantly on both the clinician-administered and self-report outcome measures. Effect sizes were moderate to large (Cohen's d=0.48-0.85) at all time points after dosing. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that compared with control treatments, ketamine had significant benefits on the individual suicide items of the MADRS, the HAM-D, and the QIDS-SR but not the BDI. Ketamine's effect on suicidal ideation remained significant after adjusting for concurrent changes in severity of depressive symptoms. Ketamine rapidly reduced suicidal thoughts, within 1 day and for up to 1 week in depressed patients with suicidal ideation. Ketamine's effects on suicidal ideation were partially independent of its effects on mood, although subsequent trials in transdiagnostic samples are required to confirm that ketamine exerts a specific effect on suicidal ideation. Additional research on ketamine's long-term safety and its efficacy in reducing suicide

  11. Intravenous Therapy: Hazards, Complications and Their Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review article, the local and systemic complications of intravenous therapy are highlighted and their preventive measures are discussed. Intravenous therapy exposes the patient to numerous hazards and many of them are avoidable, if the health care provider understands the risks involved and acts appropriately and ...

  12. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis in neonates on artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of the prophylactic use of intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 21 pairs of ventilated neonates weighing more than 1 500 g, Each infant received 0.4 g/kglday of intravenous Ig or a similar volume of placebo daily for 5 days. Criteria used to assess the ...

  14. HPLC inorganic arsenic speciation analysis of samples containing high sulfuric acid and iron levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Gerrits, I.P.A.M.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in oxidizing and bioleaching reactors, speciation analysis of the inorganic arsenic compounds is required. Existing arsenic speciation analysis techniques are based on the use of liquid chromatography columns coupled to detector equipment such as

  15. Efficacy and safety of iron isomaltoside (Monofer® in the management of patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra PA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Philip A Kalra,1 Sunil Bhandari2,31Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 2Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK; 3Hull York Medical School, Hull, UKAbstract: New intravenous (IV iron preparations should ideally be capable of delivering a wide dosing range to allow iron correction in a single or low number of visits, a rapid infusion (doses up to 1,000 mg must be administered over more than 15 minutes and doses exceeding 1,000 mg must be administered over 30 minutes or more, and minimal potential side effects including low catalytic/labile iron release with minimal risk of anaphylaxis. Furthermore, they should be convenient for the patient and health-care professional, and cost effective for the health-care system. The intention behind the development of iron isomaltoside (Monofer® was to fulfill these requirements. Iron isomaltoside has been shown to be effective in treating iron deficiency anemia across multiple therapeutic patient groups and compared to placebo, IV iron sucrose, and oral iron. Iron isomaltoside consists of iron and a carbohydrate moiety where the iron is tightly bound in a matrix structure. It has a low immunogenic potential, a low potential to release labile iron, and does not appear to be associated with clinically significant hypophosphatemia. Due to the structure of iron isomaltoside, it can be administered in high doses with a maximum single dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight. Clinical trials and observational studies of iron isomaltoside show that it is an effective and well-tolerated treatment of anemia across different therapeutic areas with a favorable safety profile.Keywords: iron deficiency anemia, iron isomaltoside, high dose, iron treatment, hypophosphatemia, intact fibroblast growth factor 23

  16. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical ...

  17. Comparative analysis of iron homeostasis in sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease and their unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma eGomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element subject to tight regulation to ensure adequate running of biological processes. In sub-Saharan Africa where hemoglobinopathies are common, iron homeostasis is likely to be impaired by these conditions. Here we assessed and compared key serum proteins associated with iron metabolism between sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease (SCD and their unaffected siblings. Complete blood counts and serum concentrations of four key proteins involved in iron regulation (ferritin, transferrin, sTfR and hepcidin were measured for 73 children with SCD and 68 healthy siblings in Benin, West Africa. We found significant differences in concentration of transferrin, sTfR and ferritin between the two groups. Hepcidin concentrations were found at unusually high concentrations but did not differ among the two groups. We found a significant negative correlation between hepcidin levels and both MCH and MCV in the SCD group and report that sTfR concentrations show a correlation with MCV and MHC in opposite directions in the two groups. These results highlight the unusually high levels of hepcidin in the Beninese population and the patterns of differential iron homeostasis taking place under sickle cell disease status. These results lay the foundation for a systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms deregulating iron homeostasis in populations with SCD or high prevalence of iron deficiency.

  18. Successful treatment of idiopathic pulmonary capillaritis with intravenous cyclophosphamide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flanagan, Frances

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), a subtype of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare condition, first described by Virchow in 1864. Historically, it manifests in children in the first decade of life with the combination of hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia, and alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph. More recently, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has been classified by the absence or presence of pulmonary capillaritis (PC), the latter carrying a potential for a poorer outcome. While systemic corticosteroids remain the first line treatment option, other immune modulators have been trailed including hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and cyclophosphamide with varying results. Our case demonstrates for the first time, the successful use of intravenous cyclophosphamide in the management of chronic idiopathic PC.

  19. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Muller, Lisette; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-05-04

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS) as a surface as compared to polystyrene (PS). For a selection of strains, the total CFU and spore counts in biofilms were determined and showed a good correlation between CFU counts and total biomass of these biofilms. Sporulation was favoured in the biofilm over the planktonic state. To substantiate whether iron availability could affect B. cereus biofilm formation, the free iron availability was varied in BHI by either the addition of FeCl3 or by depletion of iron with the scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Addition of iron resulted in increased air-liquid interface biofilm on polystyrene but not on SS for strain ATCC 10987, while the presence of Bipyridine reduced biofilm formation for both materials. Biofilm formation was restored when excess FeCl3 was added in combination with the scavenger. Further validation of the iron effect for all 23 strains in microtiter plate showed that fourteen strains (including ATCC10987) formed a biofilm on PS. For eight of these strains biofilm formation was enhanced in the presence of added iron and for eleven strains it was reduced when free iron was scavenged. Our results show that stainless steel as a contact material provides more favourable conditions for B. cereus biofilm formation and maturation compared to polystyrene. This effect could possibly be linked to iron availability as we show that free iron availability affects B. cereus biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient multiscale magnetic-domain analysis of iron-core material under mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikubo, Atsushi; Ito, Shumpei; Mifune, Takeshi; Matsuo, Tetsuji; Kaido, Chikara; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Fujiwara, Koji

    2018-05-01

    For an efficient analysis of magnetization, a partial-implicit solution method is improved using an assembled domain structure model with six-domain mesoscopic particles exhibiting pinning-type hysteresis. The quantitative analysis of non-oriented silicon steel succeeds in predicting the stress dependence of hysteresis loss with computation times greatly reduced by using the improved partial-implicit method. The effect of cell division along the thickness direction is also evaluated.

  1. Cardiovascular, liver, and renal toxicity associated with an intravenous ferric carboxymaltose similar versus the originator compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Luis Rico, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM is a stable, non-dextran-based intravenous iron complex used to treat iron deficiency of various etiologies. As FCM is a nonbiological complex drug and cannot be fully characterized by physicochemical analyses, it is important to demonstrate in nonclinical models that FCM similars (FCMS have similar biodistribution. Materials and methods: A total of 30 nonanemic rats were treated weekly with 40 mg iron/kg body weight intravenous FCM, FCMS, or isotonic saline (controls for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, liver enzymes, and renal function were evaluated. In liver, heart, and kidney tissue, markers for oxidative stress (malondialdehyde to assess lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes and inflammation (TNFα and IL6 were measured. Iron deposits were localized. Results: The FCMS-treated group had significantly lower blood pressure, higher liver enzymes, increased proteinuria, and reduced creatinine clearance versus the FCM and control groups by day 29. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were significantly higher with FCMS versus FCM or controls. Iron deposition was altered in FCMS-treated animals, with decreased ferritin deposits and iron deposition outside the physiological storage compartments. Markers for lipid peroxidation and antioxidant-enzyme activity were significantly increased after FCMS administration versus FCM and controls, as were inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Results from this blinded nonclinical study demonstrated significant differences between the originator FCM and this FCMS. Keywords: ferric carboxymaltose, Ferinject, Orofer, follow-ons, nonbiological complex drugs, oxidative stress

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat sources ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  2. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  3. Iron deficiency in sports - definition, influence on performance and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German; Cordes, Mareike; Huber, Andreas; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Noack, Patrick; Scales, John; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are increased iron demand, elevated iron loss and blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels help monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values sports, a ferritin value of 50 mcg/l should be attained in athletes prior to altitude training, as iron demands in these situations are increased. Treatment of iron deficiency consists of nutritional counselling, oral iron supplementation or, in specific cases, by intravenous injection. Athletes with repeatedly low ferritin values benefit from intermittent oral substitution. It is important to follow up the athletes on an individual basis, repeating the baseline blood tests listed above twice a year. A long-term daily oral iron intake or i.v. supplementation in the presence of normal or even high ferritin values does not make sense and may be harmful.

  4. On-stream analysis of iron ore slurry using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Xinyan; Zhu, Zhihao; Guo, Lianbo; Li, Xiangyou; Lu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-11-20

    On-stream analysis of the element content in ore slurry has important significance in the control of the flotation process and full use of raw materials. Therefore, techniques that can monitor the chemistry in slurries online are required. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the potential approaches to online measurements due to its capability of in situ and real-time analysis. However, using LIBS for on-stream analysis of slurries is challenging due to the issues such as surface ripples, sample splashing, sedimentation, etc. To address these problems, we developed a slurry circulation system. The effects of slurry flow rate on LIBS spectra were investigated to achieve the optimal detecting surface for better repeatability of LIBS. The coefficient of determination R 2 of the calibration curve for Fe element is 0.982, and the limit of detection of Fe element was estimated to be 0.075 wt. % under the optimized experimental parameters. The results show that this slurry circulation system is applicable to the on-stream slurry analysis.

  5. Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany : evidence from multiple isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelze, Viktoria Martha

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric human diet can be reconstructed by the analysis of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) stable isotopes in bone, whereas ancient mobility and provenance can be studied using the isotopes of strontium (Sr) and oxygen (O) in tooth enamel, and of sulphur in bone. Although thirty years

  6. Quantitative image analysis:a focus on automated characterization of structures in optical microscopy of iron ore pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Nellros, Frida

    2013-01-01

    Sintering occurs in many types of material such as iron, ceramics and snow, typically during thermal treatment, and aects the material properties, particularly the strength, by the bonding of particles into a coherent structure. In order to improve the mechanical strength in magnetite iron ore pellets it is important to be able to characterize and quantitatively measure the degree of sintering and features that impact the process of sintering.The aim for this licentiate thesis has been to cre...

  7. Intravenous adenosine SPECT thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.M.; Grossman, S.J.; Garrett, J.S.; Sharma, B.; Geller, M.; Sweeney, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) adenosine in females for the evaluation of coronary artery disease, since only limited data are available. Eighty consecutive studies of 78 female subjects (aged 43-83 years) using IV adenosine (0.14 mg/kg per minute) with T1-201 SPECT imaging were reviewed. Fifty-eight (73%) had mild symptoms; mild dyspnea (24%), flushing (23%), chest pain (23%), headache (11%), dizziness (11%), weakness (9%), nausea (8%), abdominal pain (8%), arm pain (6%), chest tightness (4%), neck tightness (4%), dry mouth (4%), and dropped P waves (4%). Four had moderate symptoms: dyspnea requiring Proventil or aminophylline (2%), significant hypotension (1%), and third-degree atrioventicular heart block (1%). Two had severe symptoms (ventricular tachycardia requiring cardioversion (1%) and severe dyspnea requiring epinephrine (1%). Twenty-two (28%) underwent cardiac catheterization that demonstrated coronary artery disease or postangioplasty results. The thallium SPECT images were 94% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting significant disease. The one false-negative result was in a subject who experienced no symptoms for ECG changes during adenosine infusion. Ischemic ECG changes were 35% sensitive and 100% specific. Chest pain was 53% sensitive and 60% specific

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  9. Iron therapy in heart failure patients without anaemia: possible implications for chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a global health problem that manifests as fatigue and poor physical endurance. Anaemia can be caused by dietary iron deficiency, blood loss or a combination of poor iron absorption and ineffective iron mobilization in patients with chronic disease. Nephrologists caring for patients with impaired renal function understand that iron treatment is necessary to provide adequate iron for erythropoiesis during the treatment of overt anaemia. However, a less well-understood health problem is iron deficiency, which creates symptoms that overlap with those of anaemia and often occurs in concert with chronic disease. Recently, several randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of treatment with intravenous iron in heart failure patients with iron deficiency who may or may not also have anaemia. Given that heart and kidney disease are often comorbid, these clinical trials may have implications for the way nephrologists view their patients with iron deficiency. In this article, we review several clinical studies of intravenous iron therapy for patients with iron deficiency and heart failure and discuss possible implications for the treatment of patients with kidney disease.

  10. [ICP-MS with octopole reaction system applied to isotopic analysis of iron in human fecal samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Chen, Deng-Yun; Jing, Miao; Liu, Xiao-Li

    2005-09-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the application of the quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with collision/reaction cell octopole reaction system (ORS) to determine the iron stable isotope ratio in human fecal samples. In a field trial on human metabolism, 3.0 mg per subject of iron with 57Fe enriched was orally administrated, and feces were collected by fecal monitoring. The isotope ratio of 57Fe to 56Fe in the prepared fecal sample was detected with the ORS-ICP-MS. With the application of ORS-ICP-MS, interferences from the Ar plasma and the calcium-contained polyatomic ions could be eliminated. When the sample solution properly diluted, interferences from the matrix were too little to be noted. The relative stand deviation (RSD) of the long-term and short-term precision was samples, a regularity of fecal iron outputs was presented, and the fractional iron absorption could be evaluated. The ratio of 57 Fe to 56 Fe in the fecal sample could be accurately determined by the quadrupole ICP-MS with ORS, based on which the dietary iron absorption could be evaluated and the metabolism of iron in the human body could also be traced.

  11. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome. Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent.

  12. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Towards a zero-blank, preconcentration-free voltammetric method for iron analysis at picomolar concentrations in unbuffered seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglera, Luis M; Caprara, Salvatore; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-04-01

    A method with negligible blank values for the determination of total iron at the ultratrace level in seawater has been optimized and validated exploring for the first time the performance and limitations of Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV) in non-buffered solutions. The method is based on the CSV determination of the Fe-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) complex using atmospheric oxygen to catalytically enhance the signal via hydrogen peroxide formation at the electrode/solution interface. The accumulation of hydroxyl ions, the by-product of the hydrogen peroxide formation, increased the pH in the diffusion layer in the absence of buffer bringing it to 9, the optimum for the analytical performance of the method. Voltammograms in UV digested seawater showed no stability or reproducibility drawbacks. The negligible, lower than 5pM, blank level, is due to the simplicity of the procedure requiring no sample manipulation and a maximum of three reagents only, necessarily the ligand DHN and a base only for those samples previously acidified to raise the pH to circumneutral values (here HCl and NH3 according to common trace metals protocols). These reagents do not require cleaning before use, further simplifying the overall procedure. Analysis of seawater previously acidified at pH ~1.5 with HCl and neutralized with ammonia showed interferences due to the buffering properties of the NH3/NH4Cl couple and the transient formation of a volatile electroactive interference that can be easily removed by simply allowing a set time before analysis. In general, the proposed method features several advantages, including high sample throughput, an excellent limit of detection at 12pM, minimum sample handling (no preconcentration or change of matrix is required), cost effectiveness and mainly a negligible blank. The method was successfully validated using open ocean consensus samples (SAFe D2 and S). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging patients with renal colic: a comparative analysis of the impact of non-contrast helical computed tomography versus intravenous pyelography on the speed of patient processing in the Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, M

    2011-03-01

    Introduction Non-contrast helical CT (NHCT) became the procedure of choice for investigating Emergency Department (ED) patients presenting with suspected renal colic at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, in 2008. The impact of NHCT on waiting times and patient management was compared with intravenous pyelography (IVP). Methods A retrospective, comparative cohort analysis of 95 patients who had IVP and 109 patients who had NHCT was performed. Length of ED stay from time of scan ordering to referral or discharge was analysed relative to time of day and scan result. Results Patients having NHCT who attended between 00:00-08:00 h, had a twofold longer length of stay than those who had IVP between the same hours (median 7.07 h vs 3.03 h, p=0.0294). The length of ED stay for patients attending between 08:00 and 24:00 h was similar in both groups. The presence of urolithiasis did not impact on length of stay. A significant alternate\\/incidental diagnosis was reported in 28 patients having NHCT, of which 12 were cancerous growths. Conclusion NHCT allows for the detection of incidental\\/alternate diagnoses that may not be otherwise detected in patients with renal colic. Compared to IVP, NHCT has not impacted positively on the speed of patient processing in the ED under study. For patients presenting after midnight, it is associated with over a twofold longer length of stay from the time of scan ordering to referral or discharge. This leads to prolonged patient stays in the ED, and as such contributes to overcrowding.

  15. Imaging patients with renal colic: a comparative analysis of the impact of non-contrast helical computed tomography versus intravenous pyelography on the speed of patient processing in the Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-contrast helical CT (NHCT) became the procedure of choice for investigating Emergency Department (ED) patients presenting with suspected renal colic at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, in 2008. The impact of NHCT on waiting times and patient management was compared with intravenous pyelography (IVP). METHODS: A retrospective, comparative cohort analysis of 95 patients who had IVP and 109 patients who had NHCT was performed. Length of ED stay from time of scan ordering to referral or discharge was analysed relative to time of day and scan result. RESULTS: Patients having NHCT who attended between 00:00-08:00 h, had a twofold longer length of stay than those who had IVP between the same hours (median 7.07 h vs 3.03 h, p=0.0294). The length of ED stay for patients attending between 08:00 and 24:00 h was similar in both groups. The presence of urolithiasis did not impact on length of stay. A significant alternate\\/incidental diagnosis was reported in 28 patients having NHCT, of which 12 were cancerous growths. CONCLUSION: NHCT allows for the detection of incidental\\/alternate diagnoses that may not be otherwise detected in patients with renal colic. Compared to IVP, NHCT has not impacted positively on the speed of patient processing in the ED under study. For patients presenting after midnight, it is associated with over a twofold longer length of stay from the time of scan ordering to referral or discharge. This leads to prolonged patient stays in the ED, and as such contributes to overcrowding.

  16. Modeling and analysis of variable speed single phase induction motors with iron loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Zahedi, B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their usual low power ratings of single phase induction motors, they consume a considerable part of total motors energy consumption due to their large and ever-increasing quantity. The recent rising of oil prices and environmental crises has fortified the idea of energy saving practices in all applications; particularly in single phase induction motors due to their typical low efficiency. An essential requirement for this practice is the modeling and analysis of machine electrical losses under variable frequency operation. In this paper an improved steady state model of single phase induction motors is derived to investigate major motor characteristics like torque-speed, input power, output power, etc. A special emphasis is placed on accurately representing core losses at variable frequency. The winding currents phase difference is reintroduced as a fundamental motor variable to determine motor performances including losses and efficiency. An advanced computerized motor test setup is designed and built for on-line measurement of motor characteristics at different supply and operating conditions. The extensive experimental results, in good agreement with the simulation results based on the mentioned analysis, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  17. Determination of iron, cobalt and zinc in caries teeth by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Kazunari; Shimpuku, Yasuhiro; Furuyama, Shunsuke

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of Fe, Zn and Co in caries teeth was determined by neutron activation analysis to compare with those of complete impacted wisdom teeth. In order to investigate the distribution of three elements, molar teeth were separated not by conventional method like precipitation or UV absorption method but by ashing method. Furthermore, the same elements for dental pulp and softened dentin were determined. The following results were obtained: The concentration of three elements (Fe, Zn and Co) in enamel, dentin and cementum of caries teeth was higher than that in control teeth. Enamel contained more Fe and Co than those in dentin or cementum, whereas Zn was found to be evenly distributed in three parts of the teeth. The concentration of the elements was Zn>Fe>Co in softened dentin, Fe>Zn>Co in dental pulp. (author)

  18. Determination of iron, cobalt and zinc in caries teeth by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, Kazunari [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Shimpuku, Yasuhiro; Furuyama, Shunsuke

    1999-03-01

    The concentration of Fe, Zn and Co in caries teeth was determined by neutron activation analysis to compare with those of complete impacted wisdom teeth. In order to investigate the distribution of three elements, molar teeth were separated not by conventional method like precipitation or UV absorption method but by ashing method. Furthermore, the same elements for dental pulp and softened dentin were determined. The following results were obtained: The concentration of three elements (Fe, Zn and Co) in enamel, dentin and cementum of caries teeth was higher than that in control teeth. Enamel contained more Fe and Co than those in dentin or cementum, whereas Zn was found to be evenly distributed in three parts of the teeth. The concentration of the elements was Zn>Fe>Co in softened dentin, Fe>Zn>Co in dental pulp. (author)

  19. Failure analysis of Mark 1A lithium/iron sulfide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, V. M.; Battles, J. E.; Geller, J. D.; Gentry, K.

    1980-10-01

    During startup heating prior to electrical testing, a short circuit developed in one of the modules, which resulted in a progressive failure of the cells. The other module, which was alongside and connected in series, was unaffected by the failure. The initial indication of difficulty was a small drop in the voltage of several cells, followed by short circuits in the balance of the cells and localized temperatures above 1000 C. A team consisting of ANL and Eagle-Picher personnel conducted a detailed failure analysis as the failed module was disassembled. The other module was also examined for purposes of comparison. The general conclusion was that the short circuit was initiated by electrolyte leakage and resulting corrosion in the nearby region which formed metallic bridges between cells and the cell ray, or arcing between cells and the cell tray through the butt joints in the electrical insulation. The above two mechanisms were also believed to be responsible for the failure propagation.

  20. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  1. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. This review was first published in 2002 and has since

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. Objectives To review systematically the

  4. Detecting Organic Compounds Released from Iron Oxidizing Bacteria using Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Like Instrument Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Popa, R.; Martin, M. G.; Freissinet, C.; Fisk, M. R.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Mars is a planet of great interest for Astrobiology since its past environmental conditions are thought to have been favourable for the emergence life. At present, the Red Planet is extremely cold and dry and the surface is exposed to intense UV and ionizing radiation, conditions generally considered to be incompatible with life as we know it on Earth. It was proposed that the shallow subsurface of Mars, where temperatures can be above freezing and liquid water can exist on rock surfaces, could harbor chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as the iron oxidizing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. HerB. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will provide the next opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds of possible biological origin on Mars. One instrument onboard MSL, called the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, will carry out a broad and sensitive search for organic compounds in surface samples using either high temperature pyrolysis or chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We present gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) data on crushed olivine rock powders that have been inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. HerB at different concentrations ranging from approx 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 7) cells per gram. The inoculated olivine samples were heated under helium carrier gas flow at 500 C and the pyrolysis products concentrated using a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap set at -20 C followed by trap heating and analysis by GC/Ms. In addition, the samples were also extracted using a low temperature "one-pot" chemical extraction technique using N-methyl, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC/MS analysis. We identified several aldehydes, thiols, and alkene nitriles after pyrolysis GC/MS analysis of the bacteria that were not found in the olivine control samples that had not been inoculated with bacteria. The distribution of pyrolysis products extracted from the

  5. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus standard care in the management of postoperative anaemia: a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafallah, Alhossain A; Yan, Carl; Al-Badri, Raghad; Robinson, Ella; Kirkby, Brooke E; Ingram, Emily; Gray, Zara; Khelgi, Vinod; Robertson, Iain K; Kirkby, Brian P

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts in perioperative management, postoperative iron deficiency anaemia persists, and few data are available about the management of this condition. In this study, we aimed to determine whether giving postoperative intravenous iron (in the form of ferric carboxymaltose) improved iron stores, haemoglobin concentrations, and outcomes following surgery. We did a prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled study of patients at two centres (a general hospital and a private health-care centre) in Tasmania, Australia, undergoing elective surgery with functional iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin 70-120 g/L and ferritin ≤100 μg/L or iron saturation ≤20%), measured at day 1 postoperatively. Consecutive routine elective surgical patients who were having major orthopaedic surgery, abdominal, and genitourinary surgery, and other surgeries were recruited. Via computer-generated randomisation, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a single dose of intravenous 1000 mg ferric carboxymaltose (intervention group) or standard care, consisting of observation (control group). The primary endpoints were changes in haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores at 4 weeks postoperatively, and the number of transfused units of blood required postoperatively until discharge. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry platform (number ACTRN12614001261606). Between Dec 17, 2014, and May 7, 2015, we recruited 201 eligible patients, assigning 103 to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and 98 to standard care only. Baseline mean haemoglobin was 105·5 g/L (SD 13·8) in the standard care group versus 106·2 g/L (11·9) in the ferric carboxymaltose group, improving at 4 weeks to 121·5 g/L (SD 14·5) in the standard group and 130·1 g/L (11·3) in the ferric carboxymaltose group (mean difference of 7·84 g/L, 95% CI 3·79

  6. Essentials of iron, chromium, and calcium isotope analysis of natural materials by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantle, M.S.; Bullen, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of isotopes to understand the behavior of metals in geological, hydrological, and biological systems has rapidly expanded in recent years. One of the mass spectrometric techniques used to analyze metal isotopes is thermal ionization mass spectrometry, or TIMS. While TIMS has been a useful analytical technique for the measurement of isotopic composition for decades and TIMS instruments are widely distributed, there are significant difficulties associated with using TIMS to analyze isotopes of the lighter alkaline earth elements and transition metals. Overcoming these difficulties to produce relatively long-lived and stable ion beams from microgram-sized samples is a non-trivial task. We focus here on TIMS analysis of three geologically and environmentally important elements (Fe, Cr, and Ca) and present an in-depth look at several key aspects that we feel have the greatest potential to trouble new users. Our discussion includes accessible descriptions of different analytical approaches and issues, including filament loading procedures, collector cup configurations, peak shapes and interferences, and the use of isotopic double spikes and related error estimation. Building on previous work, we present quantitative simulations, applied specifically in this study to Fe and Ca, that explore the effects of (1) time-variable evaporation of isotopically homogeneous spots from a filament and (2) interferences on the isotope ratios derived from a double spike subtraction routine. We discuss how and to what extent interferences at spike masses, as well as at other measured masses, affect the double spike-subtracted isotope ratio of interest (44Ca/40Ca in the case presented, though a similar analysis can be used to evaluate 56Fe/54Fe and 53Cr/52Cr). The conclusions of these simulations are neither intuitive nor immediately obvious, making this examination useful for those who are developing new methodologies. While all simulations are carried out in the context of a

  7. Contrast medium extravasation in intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Hahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Aetiology and diagnostic procedure of calyceal fornix rupture during intravenous urography are discussed. In the literature the fornix rupture is discribed as a spontaneous event - not so in the four cases presented. In two cases a sudden increase in intrapelvic pressure was due to an ureteric calculus, in the other cases an obstruction of the ureter was secondary to neoplasm. It is recommended to perform a CT as soon as a contrastmedium extravasation in intravenous urography is diagnosed. (orig.) [de

  8. Contrast medium extravasation in intravenous urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Hahn, D.

    1984-09-01

    Aetiology and diagnostic procedure of calyceal fornix rupture during intravenous urography are discussed. In the literature the fornix rupture is discribed as a spontaneous event - not so in the four cases presented. In two cases a sudden increase in intrapelvic pressure was due to an ureteric calculus, in the other cases an obstruction of the ureter was secondary to neoplasm. It is recommended to perform a CT as soon as a contrast medium extravasation in intravenous urography is diagnosed.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Microstructural Features of 28 wt.% Cr Cast Iron Fabricated by Pulsed Plasma Deposition and Conventional Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabak, Yu. G.; Efremenko, V. G.; Shimizu, K.; Lekatou, A.; Pastukhova, T. V.; Azarkhov, A. Yu.; Zurnadzhy, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of pulsed plasma deposition (by an electrothermal axial plasma accelerator) followed by post-heat treatment on the structure and microhardness of a 28 wt.% Cr white cast iron is analyzed and discussed with respect to the microstructure of the conventionally cast monolithic counterpart. The cast iron (as deposited on a 14 wt.% Cr cast iron substrate) had a microhardness of 630-750 HV0.05; it had layered light contrast/dark contrast structure where dark contrast layers contain fine carbide network. Pulsed plasma deposition followed by heat treatment resulted in a substantial refinement of the microstructure: eutectic M7C3 coarse acicular plates in the conventional cast iron were replaced by fine M7C3, M3C2, M3C particles (Cr depleted in favor of Fe), while the initial carbide particle of 2-3 μm was reduced to 0.6 μm. Secondary dendrite arm spacing decreased from 15 to 1.3 μm, accordingly. The carbide volume fraction in the post-heat-treated coating remarkably increased with respect to the conventional counterpart resulting in a substantial increase in the coating hardness (1300-1750 HV0.05). The heat-treated coating displayed higher resistance to three-body abrasion than the as-deposited coating and similar resistance with that of the conventionally cast iron.

  10. Comparative electrochemical analysis of crystalline and amorphous anodized iron oxide nanotube layers as negative electrode for LIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Syed Atif; Kim, Doohun; Farooq, Umer; Yaqub, Adnan; Choi, Jung-Hee; Lee, You-Jin; Doh, Chil-Hoon

    2014-07-23

    This work is a comparative study of the electrochemical performance of crystalline and amorphous anodic iron oxide nanotube layers. These nanotube layers were grown directly on top of an iron current collector with a vertical orientation via a simple one-step synthesis. The crystalline structures were obtained by heat treating the as-prepared (amorphous) iron oxide nanotube layers in ambient air environment. A detailed morphological and compositional characterization of the resultant materials was performed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD patterns were further analyzed using Rietveld refinements to gain in-depth information on their quantitative phase and crystal structures after heat treatment. The results demonstrated that the crystalline iron oxide nanotube layers exhibit better electrochemical properties than the amorphous iron oxide nanotube layers when evaluated in terms of the areal capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance. Such an improved electrochemical response was attributed to the morphology and three-dimensional framework of the crystalline nanotube layers offering short, multidirectional transport lengths, which favor rapid Li(+) ions diffusivity and electron transport.

  11. Radiological and genetic analysis of a Late Iron Age mummy from the Tuli Block, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Rühli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mummified human remains are valuable sources of information on past populations. Here we report on the radiological and molecular findings of a partially mummified individual found in northern Botswana. This desiccated mummy from the Tuli region is the first to have been reported from this region. The remains were those of an older male adult of African origin. He was interred in a tightly flexed position and wrapped in an animal skin. Computerised tomography (CT scanning revealed that none of the internal organs was preserved. Multiple post-mortem alterations are seen, but apart from some degenerative changes of the lower vertebral column, the axial skeleton has remained intact. The advanced osteophytosis suggests an older age than what was previously estimated. The aDNA analysis confirms Sotho-Tswana and possibly Khoesan genetic relatedness, as could be expected from individuals from that region. These results represent one of the first CT scans of a mummified individual from southern Africa, and also the first successful aDNA extraction from such remains.

  12. Metabolome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots identifies a key metabolic pathway for iron acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schmidt

    Full Text Available Fe deficiency compromises both human health and plant productivity. Thus, it is important to understand plant Fe acquisition strategies for the development of crop plants which are more Fe-efficient under Fe-limited conditions, such as alkaline soils, and have higher Fe density in their edible tissues. Root secretion of phenolic compounds has long been hypothesized to be a component of the reduction strategy of Fe acquisition in non-graminaceous plants. We therefore subjected roots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under Fe-replete and Fe-deplete conditions to comprehensive metabolome analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scopoletin and other coumarins were found among the metabolites showing the strongest response to two different Fe-limited conditions, the cultivation in Fe-free medium and in medium with an alkaline pH. A coumarin biosynthesis mutant defective in ortho-hydroxylation of cinnamic acids was unable to grow on alkaline soil in the absence of Fe fertilization. Co-cultivation with wild-type plants partially rescued the Fe deficiency phenotype indicating a contribution of extracellular coumarins to Fe solubilization. Indeed, coumarins were detected in root exudates of wild-type plants. Direct infusion mass spectrometry as well as UV/vis spectroscopy indicated that coumarins are acting both as reductants of Fe(III and as ligands of Fe(II.

  13. Particokinetics: computational analysis of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Walter HZ; Mamani, Javier B; Sibov, Tatiana T; Caous, Cristofer A; Amaro, Edson; Gamarra, Lionel F

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanoparticles in suspension are often utilized for intracellular labeling and evaluation of toxicity in experiments conducted in vitro. The purpose of this study was to undertake a computational modeling analysis of the deposition kinetics of a magnetite nanoparticle agglomerate in cell culture medium. Methods Finite difference methods and the Crank–Nicolson algorithm were used to solve the equation of mass transport in order to analyze concentration profiles and dose deposition. Theoretical data were confirmed by experimental magnetic resonance imaging. Results Different behavior in the dose fraction deposited was found for magnetic nanoparticles up to 50 nm in diameter when compared with magnetic nanoparticles of a larger diameter. Small changes in the dispersion factor cause variations of up to 22% in the dose deposited. The experimental data confirmed the theoretical results. Conclusion These findings are important in planning for nanomaterial absorption, because they provide valuable information for efficient intracellular labeling and control toxicity. This model enables determination of the in vitro transport behavior of specific magnetic nanoparticles, which is also relevant to other models that use cellular components and particle absorption processes. PMID:22745539

  14. Particokinetics: computational analysis of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles deposition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas WH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Walter HZ Cárdenas, Javier B Mamani, Tatiana T Sibov, Cristofer A Caous, Edson Amaro Jr, Lionel F GamarraInstituto do Cérebro, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Nanoparticles in suspension are often utilized for intracellular labeling and evaluation of toxicity in experiments conducted in vitro. The purpose of this study was to undertake a computational modeling analysis of the deposition kinetics of a magnetite nanoparticle agglomerate in cell culture medium.Methods: Finite difference methods and the Crank-Nicolson algorithm were used to solve the equation of mass transport in order to analyze concentration profiles and dose deposition. Theoretical data were confirmed by experimental magnetic resonance imaging.Results: Different behavior in the dose fraction deposited was found for magnetic nanoparticles up to 50 nm in diameter when compared with magnetic nanoparticles of a larger diameter. Small changes in the dispersion factor cause variations of up to 22% in the dose deposited. The experimental data confirmed the theoretical results.Conclusion: These findings are important in planning for nanomaterial absorption, because they provide valuable information for efficient intracellular labeling and control toxicity. This model enables determination of the in vitro transport behavior of specific magnetic nanoparticles, which is also relevant to other models that use cellular components and particle absorption processes.Keywords: magnetite, nanoparticles, diffusion, sedimentation, agglomerates, computational modeling, cellular labeling, magnetic resonance imaging

  15. Preparation of a Co-57 Moessbauer source for applications in analysis of iron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez, R.

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented on the preparation of a 57-Co low activity mossbauer source in a stainless steel matrix, which may be used for both demonstration experiments and some simple analysis work. This kind of sources are available in the market and there is not a general agreement on the particular conditions of preparations. Three series of experiments were performed to find out the best conditions to electro deposit 59, 60, 57-Co respectively on a stainless steel foil 25 μM thick and 1 Cm 2 area. The electrolyte contained Co(NO 3 ) 2 in a buffer solution to control the ph in the range 8.5 2 . Once the best conditions to electrodeposit 57-Co were found, it was diffused into the stainless steel matrix by annealing at 1100 o C for three hours and then gradually cooled down to room temperature in two hours; all this was done in the presence of an argon flow. Lastly, a 15 μCi 57-Co Mossbauer source in stainless steel matrix was obtained and used to record a series of Mossbauer parameters of this spectra were in close agreement with those given in the literature. (Author)

  16. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  17. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    facilitate iron transport, store iron, regulate iron homeostasis , and enable acclimation to low iron availability (Andrews et al, 2003). In...Bacterial iron homeostasis . FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 215-237. Barbeau K (2006) Photochemistry of Organic Iron(III) Complexing Ligands in Oceanic...Microbiology 145: 1473-1484. Moore JK, Doney SC, Lindsay K (2004) Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional

  18. Analysis of the binary mixtures using the reaction between iron(II) and cerium(IV) sulphate in phosphoric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Murty, N.; Satyanarayana, V.; Rukmini, N.

    1978-01-01

    The reaction between iron(II) and cerium(IV) sulphate in phosphoric acid medium (6-12M) is studied potentiometrically and visually using methylene blue, thionine, azure A, azure B, azure C, toluidine blue, new methylene blue, variamine blue, ferroin, p-ethoxychrysoidine, N-phenylanthranilic acid and barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicators. This reaction is made use for the analysis of binary mixtures of Fe(II)-Sn(II), Fe(II)-Ti(III), Fe(II)-U(IV), Fe(II)-Mo(V), Fe(II)-Fe(III) with Ce(IV) sulphate and Ce(IV)-U(VI), Ce(IV)-Mo(VI), Ce(IV)-V(V) and Ce(IV)-Cu(II) with iron (II). (author)

  19. Risk of atrial fibrillation with use of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Einstein, Andrew J; Vallakati, Ajay; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Walker, Marcella Donovan; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Homel, Peter; Borer, Jeffrey S; Lichstein, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Clinical studies suggest an association between bisphosphonate use and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Intravenous bisphosphonates more potently increase the release of inflammatory cytokines than do oral bisphosphonates; thus, the risk of developing AF may be greater with intravenous preparations. We have evaluated incidence of new-onset AF with use of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and EMBASE databases for observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 1966 to April 2013 that reported the number of patients developing AF with use of oral or intravenous bisphosphonates. The random-effects Mantel-Haenszel test was used to evaluate the relative risk of AF with use of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates. Nine studies (5 RCTs and 4 observational studies) were included in the final analysis. Pooled data from RCTs and observational studies (n = 135,347) showed a statistically significantly increased risk of new-onset AF with both intravenous (relative risk 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.49) and oral (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.31) bisphosphonates. The z statistic, which assesses the difference between the 2 risk ratios, indicated higher risk of AF with intravenous bisphosphonates versus oral bisphosphonates (p = 0.03). In conclusion, pooled data from RCTs and observational studies suggest that risk of AF is increased by use of oral or intravenous bisphosphonates but further suggest that risk is relatively greater with intravenous preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including thre...

  1. Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with aplastic anemia: a subgroup analysis of 116 patients from the EPIC trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jong Wook; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Shen, Zhi Xiang

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study enrolled a large cohort of 116 patients with aplastic anemia; the present analyses evaluated the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in this patient population. After 1 year, median serum ferritin decreased...... adjustments and ongoing iron intake. Baseline labile plasma iron levels were within normal range despite high serum ferritin levels. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (22%) and diarrhea (16%). Serum creatinine increases more than 33% above baseline and the upper limit of normal occurred...... neutrophil and platelet counts remained stable during treatment, and there were no drug-related cytopenias. This prospective dataset confirms the efficacy and well characterizes the tolerability profile of deferasirox in a large population of patients with aplastic anemia. This study was registered at www...

  2. Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with aplastic anemia: a subgroup analysis of 116 patients from the EPIC trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jong Wook; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Shen, Zhi Xiang

    2010-01-01

    adjustments and ongoing iron intake. Baseline labile plasma iron levels were within normal range despite high serum ferritin levels. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (22%) and diarrhea (16%). Serum creatinine increases more than 33% above baseline and the upper limit of normal occurred...... in 29 patients (25%), but there were no progressive increases; concomitant use of cyclosporine had a significant impact on serum creatinine levels. The decrease in mean alanine aminotransferase levels at 1 year correlated significantly with reduction in serum ferritin (r = 0.40, P ...The prospective 1-year Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study enrolled a large cohort of 116 patients with aplastic anemia; the present analyses evaluated the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in this patient population. After 1 year, median serum ferritin decreased...

  3. Physico-chemical quality and homogeneity of folic acid and iron in enriched flour using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Bruno T; Boen, Thaís R; Wagner, Roger; Lima-Pallone, Juliana A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine parameters of the corn and wheat flour matrix, such as protein, lipid, moisture, ash and carbohydrates, folic acid and iron contents. Three principal components explained 91% of the total variance. Wheat flours were characterized by high protein and moisture content. On the other hand, the corn flours had the greater carbohydrates, lipids and folic acid levels. The concentrations of folic acid were lower than the issued value for wheat flours. Nevertheless, corn flours presented extremely high values. The iron concentration was higher than that recommended in Brazilian legislation. Poor homogenization of folic acid and iron was observed in enriched flours. This study could be useful to help the governmental authorities in the enriched food programs evaluation.

  4. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression.

  5. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  6. Potential intravenous drug interactions in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Benevides Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. METHOD Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. RESULTS The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole, increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. CONCLUSION A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences.

  7. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement...... available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library......, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous melatonin in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Werner, Mads Utke; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of oral and iv melatonin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was performed as a cohort crossover study. The volunteers received either 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous melatonin on two separate study days. Blood samples were...... collected at different time points following oral administration and short iv infusion, respectively. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by RIA technique. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed by "the method of residuals" and compartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic variables: k a, t 1....../2 absorption, t max, C max, t 1/2 elimination, AUC 0-∞, and bioavailability were determined for oral melatonin. C max, t 1/2 elimination, V d, CL and AUC 0-∞ were determined for intravenous melatonin. RESULTS: Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Baseline melatonin plasma levels did not differ...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous melatonin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    This crossover study investigated the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of high-dose intravenous melatonin. Volunteers participated in 3 identical study sessions, receiving an intravenous bolus of 10 mg melatonin, 100 mg melatonin, and placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 60......, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Quantitative determination of plasma melatonin concentrations was performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Adverse effects included assessments...... of sedation and registration of other symptoms. Sedation, evaluated as simple reaction times, was measured at baseline and 120, 180, 300, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Median (IQR) Cmax after the bolus injections of 10 mg and 100 mg of melatonin were 221...

  10. Safety of Intravenous Methamphetamine Administration During Ibudilast Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Dustin Z; Heinzerling, Keith G; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Tsuang, John; Furst, Benjamin A; Yi, Yi; Wu, Ying Nian; Moody, David E; Andrenyak, David M; Shoptaw, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is a significant public health concern without any approved medications for treatment. We evaluated ibudilast, a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, to assess the safety and tolerability during intravenous methamphetamine administration. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects crossover clinical trial. Participants received ibudilast (20 mg twice daily followed by 50 mg twice daily) and placebo, with order determined by randomization, and then underwent intravenous methamphetamine challenges (15 and 30 mg). We monitored cardiovascular effects, methamphetamine pharmacokinetics, and reported adverse events. Ibudilast treatment had similar rates of adverse events compared with placebo, and there was no significant augmentation of cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed no clinically significant change in maximum concentration or half-life of methamphetamine with ibudilast. Methamphetamine administration during ibudilast treatment was well tolerated without additive cardiovascular effects or serious adverse events, providing initial safety data to pursue ibudilast's effectiveness for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  11. Magnetic study of iron sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S

    2002-09-01

    A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.

  12. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  13. Increased Plasmodium chabaudi malaria mortality in mice with nutritional iron deficiency can be reduced by short-term adjunctive iron supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is the most widespread nutrient deficiency and an important cause of developmental impairment in children. However, some studies have indicated that iron deficiency can also protect against malaria, which is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in large...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... carboxymaltose were studied before and after parasite infection. Plasma levels of the iron status markers hepcidin and fibroblast growth factor 23 were measured in animals surviving and succumbing to malaria, and accompanying tissue pathology in the liver and the spleen was assessed. RESULTS: Nutritional iron...

  14. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Efficacy, safety and anticancer activity of protein nanoparticle-based delivery of doxorubicin through intravenous administration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Golla

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity.Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers.In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g. Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g, suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation.Drug delivery through nanoformulations not only minimizes the cardiotoxicity of

  16. Autoimmune gastritis presenting as iron deficiency anemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2014-11-14

    To characterize clinical, laboratorial, and histological profile of pediatric autoimmune gastritis in the setting of unexplained iron deficiency anemia investigation. A descriptive, observational study including pediatric patients with a diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (positive parietal cell antibody and gastric corpus atrophy) established in a 6 year period (2006-2011) in the setting of refractory iron deficiency anemia (refractoriness to oral iron therapy for at least 6 mo and requirement for intravenous iron therapy) investigation, after exclusion of other potentially contributing causes of anemia. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and anti-secretory therapy were also excluded. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical files, including: demographic data (age, gender, and ethnic background), past medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms, familial history, laboratorial evaluation (Hb, serum ferritin, serum gastrin, pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II, B12 vitamin, intrinsic factor autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies), and endoscopic and histological findings (HE, Periodic Acid-Schiff/Alcian blue, gastrin, chromogranin A and immunochemistry analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD68). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, median, and standard deviation). We report a case-series concerning 3 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 13.6 ± 2.8 years (3 Caucasian and 2 African). One girl had type I diabetes. Familial history was positive in 4/5 cases, respectively for autoimmune thyroiditis (2/5), sarcoidosis (1/5) and multiple myeloma (1/5). Laboratorial evaluation on admission included: Hb: 9.5 ± 0.7 g/dL; serum ferritin: 4.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL; serum gastrin: 393 ± 286 pg/mL; low pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II ratio in 1/5 patients; normal vitamin B12 levels (analyzed in 3 patients). Endoscopy findings included: duodenal nodularity (2/5) and gastric fold softening (2/5), and histological evaluation showed

  17. Autoimmune gastritis presenting as iron deficiency anemia in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize clinical, laboratorial, and histological profile of pediatric autoimmune gastritis in the setting of unexplained iron deficiency anemia investigation. METHODS: A descriptive, observational study including pediatric patients with a diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (positive parietal cell antibody and gastric corpus atrophy) established in a 6 year period (2006-2011) in the setting of refractory iron deficiency anemia (refractoriness to oral iron therapy for at least 6 mo and requirement for intravenous iron therapy) investigation, after exclusion of other potentially contributing causes of anemia. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and anti-secretory therapy were also excluded. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical files, including: demographic data (age, gender, and ethnic background), past medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms, familial history, laboratorial evaluation (Hb, serum ferritin, serum gastrin, pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II, B12 vitamin, intrinsic factor autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies), and endoscopic and histological findings (HE, Periodic Acid-Schiff/Alcian blue, gastrin, chromogranin A and immunochemistry analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD68). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, median, and standard deviation). RESULTS: We report a case-series concerning 3 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 13.6 ± 2.8 years (3 Caucasian and 2 African). One girl had type I diabetes. Familial history was positive in 4/5 cases, respectively for autoimmune thyroiditis (2/5), sarcoidosis (1/5) and multiple myeloma (1/5). Laboratorial evaluation on admission included: Hb: 9.5 ± 0.7 g/dL; serum ferritin: 4.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL; serum gastrin: 393 ± 286 pg/mL; low pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II ratio in 1/5 patients; normal vitamin B12 levels (analyzed in 3 patients). Endoscopy findings included: duodenal nodularity (2/5) and gastric fold softening (2/5), and histological

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Intravenous fluids in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Strait, Kelly M; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Li, Shu-Xia; Mody, Purav; Partovian, Chohreh; Coca, Steven G; Kim, Nancy; Horwitz, Leora I; Testani, Jeffrey M; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to determine the use of intravenous fluids in the early care of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) who are treated with loop diuretics. Intravenous fluids are routinely provided to many hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with HF to 346 hospitals from 2009 to 2010. We assessed the use of intravenous fluids during the first 2 days of hospitalization. We determined the frequency of adverse in-hospital outcomes. We assessed variation in the use of intravenous fluids across hospitals and patient groups. Among 131,430 hospitalizations for HF, 13,806 (11%) were in patients treated with intravenous fluids during the first 2 days. The median volume of administered fluid was 1,000 ml (interquartile range: 1,000 to 2,000 ml), and the most commonly used fluids were normal saline (80%) and half-normal saline (12%). Demographic characteristics and comorbidities were similar in hospitalizations in which patients did and did not receive fluids. Patients who were treated with intravenous fluids had higher rates of subsequent critical care admission (5.7% vs. 3.8%; p fluid treatment varied widely across hospitals (range: 0% to 71%; median: 12.5%). Many patients who are hospitalized with HF and receive diuretics also receive intravenous fluids during their early inpatient care, and the proportion varies among hospitals. Such practice is associated with worse outcomes and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Jun; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Tian, Lian-tian; Gao, Feng; Guan, Xin; Gu, Jing-Kai

    2014-10-28

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins, is commonly utilized for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, inflammation and edema. Escin Ia is the chief active ingredient in escin and plays key role in mediating its pharmacological effects. Adequate pharmacokinetic data are essential for proper application of escin agent in clinical practice. However, pharmacokinetic properties of escin Ia are still poorly understood and this conflicts with the growing use of escin agent over the years. The goal of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of escin Ia in rats after low, medium and high-dose intravenous administration. Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and escin Ia was administered via the caudal vein at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, the concentrations of escin Ia and its metabolite isoescin Ia, a positional isomer of escin Ia, in rats׳ plasma were measured by an established liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method at various time points following the administration of the drug. Main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis using the TopFit 2.0 software package (Thomae GmbH, Germany). After intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC of escin Ia increased in a dose-proportional manner at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, while increased in a more than dose-proportional manner at the doses of 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg. The t₁/₂ was significantly longer with increased intravenous doses, while other parameters such as CL and Vd also exhibit disagreement among three doses. Taken together, our data showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profile of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg/kg. After intravenous administration, escin Ia was rapidly and extensively converted to isoescin Ia. The results suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of escin Ia at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg

  2. Determination of iron sucrose (Venofer or iron dextran (DexFerrum removal by hemodialysis: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabe Darren W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous iron is typically administered during the hemodialysis (HD procedure. HD patients may be prescribed high-flux (HF or high-efficiency (HE dialysis membranes. The extent of iron sucrose and iron dextran removal by HD using HF or HE membranes and by ultrafiltration rate (UFR is unknown. Methods Two in vitro HD systems were designed and constructed to determine the dialyzabiltiy of iron from a simulated blood system (SBS containing 100 mg iron sucrose or iron dextran (system A or 1000 mg iron sucrose (system B. Both in vitro systems utilized a 6-L closed-loop SBS system that was subject to 4 different HD conditions conducted over 4 hours: HE membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HE membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR. Blood flow and dialysate flow rates were 500 ml/min and 800 ml/min, respectively. The dialysate compartment was a 192-L open system for system A and a 6-L closed-loop system for system B. Samples from the SBS and dialysate compartments were taken at various time points and iron elimination rate and HD clearance was determined. Iron removal from the SBS > 15% was considered clinically significant. Results The greatest percentage removal from the SBS was 13.5% and -0.03% utilizing system A and B, respectively. Iron sucrose and iron dextran dialysate concentration was below the lower limits of assay ( Conclusion HF or HE dialysis membranes do not remove clinically significant amounts of iron sucrose or dextran formulations over a 4-hour HD session. This effect remained constant even controlling for UFR up to 500 ml/hour. Therefore, iron sucrose and iron dextran are not dialyzed by HE or HF dialysis membranes irrespective of UFR.

  3. High temperature oxidation of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires composed of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, M; Brzozka, K; Lin, W S; Lin, H M; Tokarczyk, M; Borysiuk, J; Kowalski, G; Wasik, D

    2016-02-07

    This work describes an oxidation process of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires at temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C. The studied nanomaterial was synthesized through a simple chemical reduction of iron trichloride in an external magnetic field under a constant flow of argon. The electron microscopy investigations allowed determining that the as-prepared nanowires were composed of self-assembled iron nanoparticles which were covered by a 3 nm thick oxide shell and separated from each other by a thin interface layer. Both these layers exhibited an amorphous or highly-disordered character which was traced by means of transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal oxidation was carried out under a constant flow of argon which contained the traces of oxygen. The first stage of process was related to slow transformations of amorphous Fe and amorphous iron oxides into crystalline phases and disappearance of interfaces between iron nanoparticles forming the studied nanomaterial (range: 25-300 °C). After that, the crystalline iron core and iron oxide shell became oxidized and signals for different compositions of iron oxide sheath were observed (range: 300-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. According to the thermal gravimetric analysis, the nanowires heated up to 800 °C under argon atmosphere gained 37% of mass with respect to their initial weight. The structure of the studied nanomaterial oxidized at 800 °C was mainly composed of α-Fe2O3 (∼ 93%). Moreover, iron nanowires treated above 600 °C lost their wire-like shape due to their shrinkage and collapse caused by the void coalescence.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  5. Thick Co-based coating on cast iron by side laser cladding : Analysis of processing conditions and coating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; de Boer, M.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create Co-based coatings (compositionally close to Stellite 6) on compacted graphite and gray cast iron,substrates with a high power laser (2 kW continuous Nd:YAG) cladding process. The relationships between the relevant laser cladding parameters (i.e. laser beam

  6. Study of granitic biotites by X-ray fluorescence analysis: determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubes, R. O.; Bermudez Polonio, J.

    1968-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium potassium, silicon, and aluminium, is reported, Sample preparation is carried out by the miniature flux technique, and rubidium is used as internal standard for silicon and aluminium. (Author) 5 refs

  7. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0–30.0 μg/L for women and 15.0–50.0 for men), and normal (≥30.0 μg/L for women and ≥50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  8. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Jonathan; Lees, Kennedy R; Lyden, Patrick; Blackwell, Lisa; Albers, Gregory; Bluhmki, Erich; Brott, Thomas; Cohen, Geoff; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey; Grotta, James; Howard, George; Kaste, Markku; Koga, Masatoshi; von Kummer, Ruediger; Lansberg, Maarten; Lindley, Richard I; Murray, Gordon; Olivot, Jean Marc; Parsons, Mark; Tilley, Barbara; Toni, Danilo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Wahlgren, Nils; Wardlaw, Joanna; Whiteley, William; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Baigent, Colin; Sandercock, Peter; Hacke, Werner

    2014-11-29

    Alteplase is effective for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke but debate continues about its use after longer times since stroke onset, in older patients, and among patients who have had the least or most severe strokes. We assessed the role of these factors in affecting good stroke outcome in patients given alteplase. We did a pre-specified meta-analysis of individual patient data from 6756 patients in nine randomised trials comparing alteplase with placebo or open control. We included all completed randomised phase 3 trials of intravenous alteplase for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke for which data were available. Retrospective checks confirmed that no eligible trials had been omitted. We defined a good stroke outcome as no significant disability at 3-6 months, defined by a modified Rankin Score of 0 or 1. Additional outcomes included symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (defined by type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage within 7 days and, separately, by the SITS-MOST definition of parenchymal type 2 haemorrhage within 36 h), fatal intracranial haemorrhage within 7 days, and 90-day mortality. Alteplase increased the odds of a good stroke outcome, with earlier treatment associated with bigger proportional benefit. Treatment within 3·0 h resulted in a good outcome for 259 (32·9%) of 787 patients who received alteplase versus 176 (23·1%) of 762 who received control (OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·35-2·27); delay of greater than 3·0 h, up to 4·5 h, resulted in good outcome for 485 (35·3%) of 1375 versus 432 (30·1%) of 1437 (OR 1·26, 95% CI 1·05-1·51); and delay of more than 4·5 h resulted in good outcome for 401 (32·6%) of 1229 versus 357 (30·6%) of 1166 (OR 1·15, 95% CI 0·95-1·40). Proportional treatment benefits were similar irrespective of age or stroke severity. Alteplase significantly increased the odds of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (type 2 parenchymal haemorrhage definition 231 [6·8%] of 3391 vs 44 [1·3%] of 3365, OR 5·55, 95% CI 4·01-7·70

  9. Purification, characterization, cloning and structural analysis of Crocodylus siamensis ovotransferrin for insight into functions of iron binding and autocleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipayang, Sukanya; Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Chen, Chun-Jung; Palacios, Philip M; Pierce, Brad S; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-10-01

    Ovotransferrin (OTf), the major protein constituent of egg white, is of great interest due to its pivotal role in biological iron transport and storage processes and its spontaneous autocleavage into peptidic fragments with alternative biological properties, such as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. However, despite being well-investigated in avian, a detailed elucidation of the structure-function relationship of ovotransferrins in the closely related order of Crocodilia has not been reported to date. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed the presence of two spectroscopically distinct ferric iron binding sites in Crocodylus siamensis OTf (cOTf), but implied a five-fold lower quantity of bound iron than in hen OTf (hOTf). In addition, quantitative estimation of free sulfhydryl groups revealed slight differences to hOTf. To gain a better structural understanding of cOTf, we found a cOTf gene consisting of an open reading frame of 2040bp and encoding a protein of 679 amino acids. In silico prediction of the three-dimensional structure of cOTf and comparison with hOTf revealed four evolutionarily conserved iron-binding sites in both N- and C-lobes, as well as the presence of only 13 of the 15 disulfide bonds in hOTf. This evolutionary loss of disulfide linkages in conjunction with the lack of hydrogen bonding from a dilysine trigger in the C-lobe are presumed to affect the iron binding and autocleavage character of cOTf. As a result, cOTf may be capable of exerting a more diverse array of functions compared to its avian counterparts; for instance, ion buffering, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  11. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, ...

  13. Iron metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2013-09-01

    Iron metabolism in man is a highly regulated process designed to provide iron for erythropoiesis, mitochondrial energy production, electron transport, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms of iron handling also protect cells from the deleterious effects of free iron, which can produce oxidative damage of membranes, proteins, and lipids. Over the past decade, several important molecules involved in iron homeostasis have been discovered, and their function has expanded our understanding of iron trafficking under normal and pathological conditions. Physiologic iron metabolism is strongly influenced by inflammation, which clinically leads to anemia. Although hepcidin, a small circulating peptide produced by the liver, has been found to be the key regulator of iron trafficking, molecular pathways of iron sensing that control iron metabolism and hepcidin production are still incompletely understood. With this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism, the recently discovered regulators of iron trafficking, and a focus on the effects of inflammation on the process.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disor