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Sample records for intravenous glucose tolerance

  1. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  2. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

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    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the intravenous glucose tolerance test.

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    De Gaetano, A; Arino, O

    2000-02-01

    Several attempts at building a satisfactory model of the glucose-insulin system are recorded in the literature. The minimal model, which is the model currently mostly used in physiological research on the metabolism of glucose, was proposed in the early eighties for the interpretation of the glucose and insulin plasma concentrations following the intravenous glucose tolerance test. It is composed of two parts: the first consists of two differential equations and describes the glucose plasma concentration time-course treating insulin plasma concentration as a known forcing function; the second consists of a single equation and describes the time course of plasma insulin concentration treating glucose plasma concentration as a known forcing function. The two parts are to be separately estimated on the available data. In order to study glucose-insulin homeostasis as a single dynamical system, a unified model would be desirable. To this end, the simple coupling of the original two parts of the minimal model is not appropriate, since it can be shown that, for commonly observed combinations of parameter values, the coupled model would not admit an equilibrium and the concentration of active insulin in the "distant" compartment would be predicted to increase without bounds. For comparison, a simple delay-differential model is introduced, is demonstrated to be globally asymptotically stable around a unique equilibrium point corresponding to the pre-bolus conditions, and is shown to have positive and bounded solutions for all times. The results of fitting the delay-differential model to experimental data from ten healthy volunteers are also shown. It is concluded that a global unified model is both theoretically desirable and practically usable, and that any such model ought to undergo formal analysis to establish its appropriateness and to exclude conflicts with accepted physiological notions.

  4. Evaluation of glucose dose on intravenous glucose tolerance test traits in Holstein-Friesian heifers.

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    González-Grajales, L Antonio; Pieper, Laura; Mengel, Sebastian; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in dairy and beef cattle has received considerable attention because balanced blood glucose is essential for numerous processes, such as milk production and general health. The glucose tolerance test measures the ability of an organism to regulate blood glucose levels. Glucose half-life time (GHLT) has high heritability and could serve as a potential parameter to breed for metabolic resistance. However, studies focusing on identification of an adequate glucose dose have not yet been conducted in cattle. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of 5 different glucose doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 g/kg of body weight 0.75 ) on intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) traits and insulin responses in nongestating heifers. A total of 150 tests were performed in 30 Holstein-Friesian heifers aged 13 to 15 mo. Blood samples were obtained every 7 min after glucose injection until min 63. Glucose traits and insulin parameters included blood serum glucose and insulin concentration at min 0 (basal concentration), min 7 to 21 (peak glucose and insulin concentration), and min 63 (last sampling) relative to glucose administration, glucose and insulin area under the curve (GAUC and IAUC), and GHLT estimated between min 14 and 42. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured according to the hexokinase colorimetric method and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Generalized linear mixed model was used to test for significant differences in ivGTT traits, insulin responses, and glucose elimination rates (k) over time at different glucose doses. Maximum glucose and insulin concentrations at min 63 increased with higher glucose doses. Significantly lower GHLT were obtained at increasing glucose doses, whereas GAUC and IAUC were significantly higher at increasing doses. The k values were affected by glucose dose and by time interval. Glucose dose greatly affected most ivGTT traits, insulin responses, and glucose elimination rates. Therefore

  5. A study of the effect of aging on insulin and glucagon release during intravenous glucose tolerance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; El-Kirdassy, Z.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Megahed, G.; Ashmawy, K.R.; Ziada, A.; Sheba, E.

    1985-01-01

    Glucose intolerance in aged persons had been reported by many investigators. In this study intravenous glucose tolerance tests have been performed of 63 subjects classified into three groups (20 - 40 years, 40 - 60 years and above 60 years). With increasing age, significant increases of plasma glucose and insulin and decreases in glucose assimilation, insulin stimulating activity and insulin index were observed. No significant differences have been found in plasma glucagon levels of glucagon suppression areas so that it may be concluded that glucagon is of no importance to the reduction of glucose tolerance with aging. (author)

  6. Oscillatory dynamics of an intravenous glucose tolerance test model with delay interval

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    Shi, Xiangyun; Kuang, Yang; Makroglou, Athena; Mokshagundam, Sriprakash; Li, Jiaxu

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become prevalent pandemic disease in view of the modern life style. Both diabetic population and health expenses grow rapidly according to American Diabetes Association. Detecting the potential onset of T2DM is an essential focal point in the research of diabetes mellitus. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is an effective protocol to determine the insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and pancreatic β-cell functionality, through the analysis and parameter estimation of a proper differential equation model. Delay differential equations have been used to study the complex physiological phenomena including the glucose and insulin regulations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model the time delay in IVGTT modeling. This novel approach uses two parameters to simulate not only both discrete time delay and distributed time delay in the past interval, but also the time delay distributed in a past sub-interval. Normally, larger time delay, either a discrete or a distributed delay, will destabilize the system. However, we find that time delay over a sub-interval might not. We present analytically some basic model properties, which are desirable biologically and mathematically. We show that this relatively simple model provides good fit to fluctuating patient data sets and reveals some intriguing dynamics. Moreover, our numerical simulation results indicate that our model may remove the defect in well known Minimal Model, which often overestimates the glucose effectiveness index.

  7. A discrete Single Delay Model for the Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Test

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    Panunzi Simona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing importance of identifying insulin resistance, a need exists to have a reliable mathematical model representing the glucose/insulin control system. Such a model should be simple enough to allow precise estimation of insulin sensitivity on a single patient, yet exhibit stable dynamics and reproduce accepted physiological behavior. Results A new, discrete Single Delay Model (SDM of the glucose/insulin system is proposed, applicable to Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Tests (IVGTTs as well as to multiple injection and infusion schemes, which is fitted to both glucose and insulin observations simultaneously. The SDM is stable around baseline equilibrium values and has positive bounded solutions at all times. Applying a similar definition as for the Minimal Model (MM SI index, insulin sensitivity is directly represented by the free parameter KxgI of the SDM. In order to assess the reliability of Insulin Sensitivity determinations, both SDM and MM have been fitted to 40 IVGTTs from healthy volunteers. Precision of all parameter estimates is better with the SDM: 40 out of 40 subjects showed identifiable (CV xgI from the SDM, 20 out of 40 having identifiable SI from the MM. KxgI correlates well with the inverse of the HOMA-IR index, while SI correlates only when excluding five subjects with extreme SI values. With the exception of these five subjects, the SDM and MM derived indices correlate very well (r = 0.93. Conclusion The SDM is theoretically sound and practically robust, and can routinely be considered for the determination of insulin sensitivity from the IVGTT. Free software for estimating the SDM parameters is available.

  8. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

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    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  9. Effect of adrenal medullectomy on metabolic responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

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    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Joo, Hoon; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Shiota, Masakazu; Stefanovski, Darko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 wk followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals. IH was administered during the 12-h light phase (9 AM to 9 PM) by decreasing inspired oxygen from 21 to 6.5% 60 cycles/h. Insulin sensitivity (S I ), insulin independent glucose disposal [glucose effectiveness (S G )], and the insulin response to glucose (AIR G ) were determined using the minimal model method. In contrast to our previous data obtained in restrained mice, IH did not affect fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in sham-operated mice. IH significantly decreased S G but did not affect S I and AIR G Adrenal medullectomy decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and increased glycogen synthesis in the liver in hypoxic mice but did not have a significant effect on the FSIVGTT metrics. We conclude that, in the absence of restraints, IH has no effect on glucose metabolism in lean mice with exception of decreased S G , whereas adrenal medullectomy decreases fasting glucose and insulin levels in the IH environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the role of adrenal catecholamines in glucose metabolism during intermittent hypoxia (IH) in unanesthetized unrestrained C57BL/6J mice. We report that IH did not affect fasting glucose and insulin levels nor insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during, whereas glucose

  10. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

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    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  12. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

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    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  13. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin...... sensitivity and -cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWith validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT......), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs...

  14. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

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    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  15. Reference values for glucose tolerance and glucose tolerance status in cats.

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    Link, K R; Rand, J S

    1998-08-15

    To determine the reference range for glucose tolerance, using a simplified glucose tolerance test (GTT), and to evaluate glucose tolerance status in cats. Prospective study. 57 clinically normal cats. 2 catheters were placed in the cephalic veins of nonsedated cats at least 3 hours before the test. Blood samples were obtained before (0 minutes) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after glucose (0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb] of body weight) was injected i.v. Blood glucose concentration was measured by a glucose meter. Glucose half-life (t1/2) and disappearance of glucose (Kglucose) were calculated. Glucose tolerance in cats was considered normal when upper limits for glucose concentration were glucose t1/2 was or = 0.41%/min. Impaired glucose tolerance in cats was defined as a glucose concentration > or = 160 mg/dl at 0 minutes, > or = 323 mg/dl at 60 minutes, > or = 239 mg/dl at 90 minutes, or > or = 172 mg/dl at 120 minutes. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance was 2%. Five cats had stress-affected GTT. Significant differences in glucose t1/2 or Kglucose between cats or = 7 years old were not found. The simplified GTT and measurement of glucose concentration by a glucose meter provides a simple and low-cost method of assessing glucose tolerance status in cats that are normoglycemic after food is withheld. Use of absolute glucose concentrations overcomes the need to calculate glucose t1/2 values. The high glucose concentration at 0 minutes found in this study may reflect a more realistic concentration to use in assessing client-owned cats in a hospital environment.

  16. Impact of renal transplantation on glucose tolerance in Japanese recipients with impaired glucose tolerance.

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    Nakamura, A; Iwami, D; Miyoshi, H; Morita, K; Taguri, M; Terauchi, Y; Shinohara, N; Atsumi, T

    2017-04-01

    To investigate changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Japanese recipients before and 1 year after renal transplantation. We conducted a study of Japanese recipients without diabetes who underwent renal transplantation at Hokkaido University Hospital. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and 1 year after renal transplantation in these recipients. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin secretion was evaluated based on the insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). Of the 62 renal transplant recipients, 31 were diagnosed as having impaired glucose tolerance before transplantation. Among these 31 recipients, after 1 year, four had developed new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and nine had impaired glucose tolerance. Unexpectedly, 18 changed from impaired to normal glucose tolerance. When these recipients with impaired glucose tolerance were classified into a non-amelioration group and an amelioration group, the ISSI-2 was significantly reduced, with no significant changes in the Matsuda index or HOMA-IR, in the non-amelioration group 1 year after renal transplantation. By contrast, ISSI-2 and Matsuda index values were significantly increased, with no significant changes in HOMA-IR values in the amelioration group. More than half of Japanese renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance had normal glucose tolerance 1 year after renal transplantation. These results suggest that an increase in insulin secretion and whole insulin sensitivity was associated with improvement in glucose tolerance in these recipients. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. [Evaluation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by intravenous L-alanine tolerance test after major hepatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, N

    1989-11-01

    The response of glucose, insulin and glucagon to L-alanine tolerance test (0.5 g/kg, intravenously, A.T.T.) was examined in dogs following hepatectomy. Before A.T.T., dogs were starved for 24 hours after antecedent carbohydrate-free diets. Under this condition, hepatic glycogen and blood glucose were 0.5 +/- 0.2 mg/g liver and 85 +/- 11.9 mg/dl, respectively. The marked response of blood glucose to alanine tolerance test was observed and the maximal increment above the basal level was 47 +/- 5.2 mg/dl at 30 minutes after A.T.T. One week after 44% and 70% hepatectomy, the increments of glucose at 30 minutes after A.T.T. were 58% and 24% respectively, as compared with those before hepatectomy. These results suggest that the glucose response to alanine tolerance is useful for an index of functional reserve of glucose production in the remnant liver after hepatectomy. The increments of blood glucose at 30 minutes after A.T.T. 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after 70% hepatectomy were 24.0, 21.8, 52.7 and 80% of that before hepatectomy respectively. The insulin response to alanine tolerance gave two peaks at 2.5 min and 30 min and the latter peak was dependent on the blood glucose response before and after hepatectomy. One or two weeks after 70% hepatectomy, the exaggerated glucagon response to alanine tolerance was observed. These results suggest that A.T.T. is not only an excellent index of functional reserve of hepatic gluconeogenesis, but also is an appropriate method for investigation of the relation between endogenous glucose production and endocrine pancreas.

  18. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    turnover markers in healthy males. METHODS: 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Subsequently, we carried out an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) that closely......-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Finally, eight of the twelve participants underwent a control experiment where they fasted for 3h (Control). RESULTS: While OGTT induced a 50% reduction in s-CTX, only a ~30% reduction was seen during the IIGI and the Control. Neither intervention...... that peak p-GIP significantly predicts nadir s-CTX (p=0.03), and that peak p-GIP could explain 34% of the variability in nadir s-CTX (adjusted R(2)=0.34). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that glucose per se does not acutely affect bone turnover markers. However, gastrointestinal hormones, especially GIP...

  19. Higher Endogenous Glucose Production during OGTT vs Isoglycemic Intravenous Glucose Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Oral glucose ingestion elicits a larger insulin response and delayed suppression of glucagon compared to isoglycemic intravenous (iv) glucose infusion (IIGI). OBJECTIVE: We studied whether these differences translate into effects on endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose disposal...... with a concomitant iv glucagon infusion (0.8 ng/kg/min from 0 to 25 min) designed to mimic portal glucagon concentrations during OGTT in the type 2 diabetic group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glucose kinetics assessed by the double-tracer technique. RESULTS: Glucose rate of disappearance was higher during the OGTT vs...... IIGIs in the control group, but similar on all days in the diabetic group. Surprisingly, in both groups, EGP was more suppressed during IIGI than during OGTT and exogenous glucagon infusion during IIGI did not restore EGP to the levels observed during OGTT. CONCLUSION: EGP was less suppressed during...

  20. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

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    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  1. Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.

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    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Vankan, D; Anderson, S T; Marshall, R; Morton, J M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18-24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125 I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125 I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

  3. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  4. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eAceves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intractable epilepsy in children poses a serious medical challenge. Acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus leads to frequent emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Permanent neurological damage can occur if there is delay in treatment. It has been shown that these children continue to remain intractable even after acute seizure management with approved FDA agents. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second-generation anticonvulsant was approved by the FDA in 2006 in patients 16 years and older as an alternative when oral treatment is not an option. It has been shown that oral levetiracetam can be used in the treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures. Data have been published showing that intravenous levetiracetam is safe and efficacious, and can be used in an acute inpatient setting. This current review will discuss the recent data about the safety and tolerability of intravenous levetiracetam in children and neonates, and emphasize the need for a larger prospective multicenter trial to prove the efficacy of this agent in acute seizure management.

  5. Depressive symptoms and the glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heninger, G R; Mueller, P S; Davis, L S

    1975-12-01

    Patients with severe depression have been observed previously to have a reduced rate of glucose utilization accompanied by elevated serum insulin levels during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and a reduced metabolic responsiveness to exogenous insulin during the insulin tolerance test (ITT). These abnormalities were less obvious in patients with neurotic depression as compared to patients with severe endogenous or "psychotic" depression. To evaluate more fully the relationships of depressive symptomatology to these metabolic abnormalities, patients were rated by nursing staff on a short clinical rating scale (SCRS) and by a psychiatrist on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at the time the metabolic measurements were made. Patients were given the GTT and the ITT once when they were off medication and symptomatic and then again 3 to 8 weeks later when symptoms had decreased following amitriptyline treatment. Fasting serum-free fatty acid levels (FFA) had a significant positive correlation to rating of anxiety. Fasting levels of glucose, insulin, and human growth hormone (HGH) did not significantly correlate to any of the ratings. A decreased rate of glucose utilization (k) correlated significantly with increased ratings of motor retardation, emotional withdrawal, and blunt affects, but not to other depressive symptoms. The responsiveness of FFA and HGH during the ITT was significantly less in patients with more severe symptomatology; responsiveness improved when those patients improved. Neither incorrelated to the ratings. These data suggest that within the sydrome of depression, increased FFA is realated to anxiety, decreased glucose utilization is related to motor retardation, emotional withdrawal, and blunt affect, and that decreased FFA and HGH responsiveness to insulin is a nonspecific correlate of the general depressive syndrome.

  6. Elevated 1 Hour Glucose During Oral Glucose Tolerance Test- A New Parameter of Impaired Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diugan Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently, large scale studies emphasized the idea of an excess of metabolic and cardiovascular risk in patients currently considered to have normal glucose tolerance but showing an elevated 1 hour glucose (≥155mg/dl during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT.

  7. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  8. Improvement of glucose tolerance in rats fed with diets containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of 5% and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on oral glucose tolerance was studied in normoglycemic male albino rats. The feeding of the vegetable incorporated diets (5% VA and 10%VA) resulted in marked improvement in oral glucose tolerance in rats. After one week of diet ...

  9. The prevalence ofdiabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adjusted body mass indices (BMIs) of diabetic (31,3 ± 1,9) and. IGT (29,7 ± 1,9) subjects were significantly higher than those ofthe group with normal glucose toler- ance (28 ± 0,5). Female subjects with all types of glucose tolerance had significantly ...

  10. The prevalence and risk factors of abnormal glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy amongst women in the reproductive age worldwide. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) is common amongst women with PCOS. The prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance amongst Nigerian women with PCOS has not been investigated.

  11. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was determined in 479 urbanised South African blacks (141 men and 338 women) of Zulu descent selected by cluster sampling in a suburb of Durban. All subjects underwent a modified glucose tolerance test whereby fasting and 2-hour postglucose ...

  12. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  13. Sluggish glucose tolerance in tuberculosis patients | Bell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in both groups in the morning after an overnight fast. Anticoagulant-treated blood was analysed for glucose and insulin using Peridochrome Glucose (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Diagnostic Products Corporation, ...

  14. Tolerance of intravenous methylprednisolone for relapse treatment in demyelinating CNS disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Carmen; Schawalder, Gabriela; Findling, Oliver; Kamm, Christian P; Humpert, Sebastian; Mugglin, Anne; Mathis, Johannes; Sturzenegger, Mathias; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2013-05-28

    In Switzerland, the first course of intravenous steroids for treatment of episodes of demyelinating CNS disease is usually administered in an inpatient setting. We prospectively evaluated short term tolerance of treatment with special emphasis on sleep quality. Patients with a first event of presumed demyelinating disease (CIS), multiple sclerosis relapses (MS) or sub-acute disease progression were treated with a 5-day regimen of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) in our inpatient clinic. Patients' experience was documented by self-report questionnaires including a standardised depression scale (ADSL). Laboratory tests were performed on a routine basis. Fasting glucose, blood pressure and pulse were measured before every infusion. Activity and sleep patterns were analysed by wrist actigraphs during the 5 day infusion period and at follow-up after 1-2 months. A total of 66 patients participated in the study. Of these, 55 were steroid treatment naïve, and 11 patients, who had received intravenous steroid relapse treatment before, were admitted because of disabling symptoms. Mood disturbances were reported before steroid treatment, however significantly less often at the end of the steroid pulse and during follow-up. Sleep efficiency as measured by wrist actimetry was high before, during and after steroid treatment. Therapy was well tolerated without severe side effects in CIS and MS patients. Sleep efficiency was not disturbed. In conclusion there are no obstacles to change from an inpatient to an outpatient setting for the steroid treatment of relapses in MS and CIS, but rare psychotic reactions to steroid treatment are not predictable.

  15. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  16. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  17. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, A.; Challet, Etienne

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h

  18. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  19. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  20. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Tonoike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications. We used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM in pregnant women with glucose intolerance to achieve better glycemic control and to evaluate the maternal glucose fluctuations. We also used CGM in women without glucose intolerance (the control cases. Furthermore, the standard deviation (SD and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE were calculated for each case. For the control cases, the glucose levels were tightly controlled within a very narrow range; however, the SD and MAGE values in pregnant women with glucose intolerance were relativity high, suggesting postprandial hyperglycemia. Our results demonstrate that pregnant women with glucose intolerance exhibited greater glucose fluctuations compared with the control cases. The use of CGM may help to improve our understanding of glycemic patterns and may have beneficial effects on perinatal glycemic control, such as the detection of postprandial hyperglycemia in pregnant women.

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadah Khriesat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

  2. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C......-peptide deconvolution to calculate insulin secretion rates and mathematical modeling to quantitate beta-cell function. The incretin effect was taken to be the ratio of oral to IV responses. In NGT, incretin-mediated insulin release [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)/IV ratio = 1.59 +/- 0.18, P = 0.004] amounted to 18......, with a predominance of glucose-induced vs. incretin-mediated stimulation. We conclude that, under physiological circumstances, incretin-mediated stimulation of insulin secretion results from an enhancement of all dynamic aspects of beta-cell function, particularly beta-cell glucose sensitivity. In IGT, beta...

  3. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  4. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  5. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with [1- 14 C]glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused [3- 3 H]glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation. That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery

  6. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Taro Wakabayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of neural, physiological and behavioral effects induced by cocaine is consistent with metabolic neural activation, yet direct attempts to evaluate central metabolic effects of this drug have produced controversial results. Here, we used enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats to examine how intravenous cocaine at a behaviorally active dose affects extracellular glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a critical structure within the motivation-reinforcement circuit. In drug-naive rats, cocaine induced a bimodal increase in glucose, with the first, ultra-fast phasic rise appearing during the injection (latency 6-8 s; ~50 µM or ~5% of baseline followed by a larger, more prolonged tonic elevation (~100 µM or 10% of baseline, peak ~15 min. While the rapid, phasic component of the glucose response remained stable following subsequent cocaine injections, the tonic component progressively decreased. Cocaine-methiodide, cocaine’s peripherally acting analog, induced an equally rapid and strong initial glucose rise, indicating cocaine’s action on peripheral neural substrates as its cause. However, this analog did not induce increases in either locomotion or tonic glucose, suggesting direct central mediation of these cocaine effects. Under systemic pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission, both phasic and tonic components of the cocaine-induced glucose response were only slightly reduced, suggesting a significant role of non-dopamine mechanisms in cocaine-induced accumbal glucose influx. Hence, intravenous cocaine induces rapid, strong inflow of glucose into NAc extracellular space by involving both peripheral and central, non-dopamine drug actions, thus preventing a possible deficit resulting from enhanced glucose use by brain cells.

  8. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose tolerance and lipid levels in a random sample of 103 Indian patients (96 males and 7 females) with coronary artery disease (CAD) aged between 20 and 55 years were compared with those in a healthy Indian control group matched as regards age and sex. Previous episodes of myocardial infarction were taken as ...

  10. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  11. Effect Of Delonix Regia Leaf Extract On Glucose Tolerance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delonix regia (Fabaceae) leaf is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for the treatment of diabetes, but so far no scientific study has been done which may support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extract of Delonix regia leaf ...

  12. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included.

  13. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  14. Tolerization of an established αb-crystallin-reactive T-cell response by intravenous antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.; Mark, K. van der; Wawrousek, E.F.; Plomp, A.C.; Noort, J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance induction to prevent activation of a naïve T-cell repertoire has been well documented in rodents and can be readily achieved by intravenous, oral or intranasal administration of antigen in the absence of adjuvants. In autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) the presence of an

  15. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  16. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, C

    1996-01-01

    euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. All women were lean and had normal oral glucose tolerance test results. Activities of glycogen synthase, phosphofructokinase, and hexokinase were measured in vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens obtained in the basal state and after insulin stimulation....... RESULTS: Women with previous gestational diabetes had a decreased glucose disposal rate (pmetabolism (6.63 +/- 0.47 vs 9.04 +/- 0.57 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, p

  17. Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Walberg, Jörg; Vethacke, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition.......It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition....

  18. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  20. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Emma M; Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbet; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Hitz, Mette F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Cortes, Dina; Pryds, Ole

    2016-04-01

    Offspring of obese women have both short-term and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by an oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free masses in the offspring of obese mothers. Obese mother-newborn dyads were recruited and 2-h plasma glucose levels were assessed during gestational weeks 27-30; neonatal body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 h of birth. Among 264 term, healthy, and singleton infants eligible for inclusion, 248 were included. Of these, 205 (83%) obese mother-newborn dyads had a DXA scan and 2-h plasma glucose measurements. Linear regression analysis showed that birthweight z-scores correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels (p = 0.002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, prepregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, prepregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birthweight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Acute Metabolic Effects of Exenatide in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes With and Without Residual Insulin to Oral and Intravenous Glucose Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Tara; Rink, Linda; Sherr, Jennifer L.; Herold, Kevan C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that is released from the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with GLP-1 analogs has proven to be of clinical use for patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly those with residual β-cell function, may also respond to treatment, but the acute metabolic effects of GLP-1 analogs on these patients in reaction to both oral and intravenous glucose challenges are not well understood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventeen patients with type 1 diabetes, half of whom had residual insulin production, underwent two mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) and two intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs), with and without pretreatment with exenatide. No exogenous bolus insulin was administered for the studies. Glucose excursions, insulin secretion rates (ISRs), and levels of glucagon, endogenous GLP-1, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were measured after the meal or glucose loads. RESULTS During the MMTT, glucose levels were suppressed with exenatide in patients with or without residual insulin production (P = 0.0003). Exenatide treatment did not change the absolute ISR, but the ISR to glucose levels were increased (P = 0.0078). Gastric emptying was delayed (P = 0.0017), and glucagon was suppressed (P = 0.0015). None of these hormonal or glucose changes were detected during the IVGTT with exenatide administration. CONCLUSIONS Exenatide showed a significant antidiabetogenic effect prior to an oral meal in patients with type 1 diabetes involving glucagon suppression and gastric emptying, while preserving increased insulin secretion. GLP-1 analogs may be useful as an adjunctive treatment in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23939544

  2. Glucagon suppression during OGTT worsens while suppression during IVGTT sustains alongside development of glucose intolerance in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T; Larsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To examine plasma glucagon responses to oral and intravenous (iv) glucose in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), secondary impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or secondary diabetes mellitus (DM)....

  3. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    , either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  4. Mild hypothyroidism improves glucose tolerance in experimental type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, S; Bobby, Zachariah; Joseph, Manoj

    2015-06-25

    Co-existence of type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism is an emerging trend observed in clinical practice. Although the effects of isolated type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism are well known, there are limited studies addressing the metabolic complications when these two conditions co-exist. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism with respect to glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and redox balance in a state were these two diseases coexist. Sixty male Wistar Albino rats were randomised into six groups. Group 1: control, Group 2: overt hypothyroidism, Group 3: mild hypothyroidism, Group 4: type 2 diabetes, Group 5: mild hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes, Group 6: overt hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes. Experimental hypothyroidism was created by the administration of propyl-2-thiouracil and type 2 diabetes by feeding rats with 60% fructose (w/w). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. All the parameters were estimated at the start (basal) and the end of the study. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was carried out and area under curve (AUC) calculated to assess the glucose tolerance. Thyroid profile, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were also measured. Plasma TSH level was elevated 3-fold in the mild hypothyroid group and 15.2-fold in the overt hypothyroid group in comparison to the control group. Thyroid profile was found to be normal in type 2 diabetic group. There was no significant difference between hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism+diabetes groups with respect to thyroid profile. Among the six groups the degree of glucose intolerance was found to be maximum for overt hypothyroidism+diabetes group, followed by diabetes group and overt hypothyroidism group. An interesting finding was that glucose intolerance was significantly reduced in mild hypothyroidism+diabetes group (increase in AUC: 48.04%) in comparison with isolated diabetes group (increase in AUC: 71.63%). Similar results were

  5. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  6. Effects of intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion on glucose and insulin dynamics in horses with equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Elizabeth M; Frank, Nicholas; De Witte, Fiamma Gomez; Boston, Raymond C

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that glucose and insulin dynamics during endotoxemia differ between healthy horses and horses with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). 6 healthy adult mares and 6 horses with EMS. Each horse randomly received an IV infusion of lipopolysaccharide (20 ng/kg [in 60 mL of sterile saline {0.9% NaCl} solution]) or saline solution, followed by the other treatment after a 7-day washout period. Baseline insulin-modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed 27 hours before and then repeated at 0.5 and 21 hours after infusion. Results were assessed via minimal model analysis and area under the curve values for plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations. Lipopolysaccharide infusion decreased insulin sensitivity and increased area under the serum insulin concentration curve (treatment × time) in both healthy and EMS-affected horses, compared with findings following saline solution administration. The magnitude of increase in area under the plasma glucose curve following LPS administration was greater for the EMS-affected horses than it was for the healthy horses. Horses with EMS that received LPS or saline solution infusions had decreased insulin sensitivity over time. Glucose and insulin responses to endotoxemia differed between healthy horses and horses with EMS, with greater loss of glycemic control in EMS-affected horses. Horses with EMS also had greater derangements in glucose and insulin homeostasis that were potentially stress induced. It may therefore be helpful to avoid exposure of these horses to stressful situations.

  7. Rapid Inpatient Titration of Intravenous Treprostinil for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Safe and Tolerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kersh, Karim; Ruf, Kathryn M; Smith, J Shaun

    There is no standard protocol for intravenous treprostinil dose escalation. In most cases, slow up-titration is performed in the outpatient setting. However, rapid up-titration in an inpatient setting is an alternative that provides opportunity for aggressive treatment of common side effects experienced during dose escalation. In this study, we describe our experience with inpatient rapid up-titration of intravenous treprostinil. This was a single-center, retrospective study in which we reviewed the data of subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension treated at our center who underwent inpatient rapid up-titration of intravenous treprostinil. Our treprostinil dose escalation protocol included initiation at 2 ng·kg·min with subsequent up-titration by 1 ng·kg·min every 6 to 8 hours as tolerated by side effects. A total of 16 subjects were identified. Thirteen subjects were treprostinil naive (naive group), and 3 subjects were receiving subcutaneous treprostinil but were hospitalized for further intravenous up-titration of treprostinil dose (nonnaive group). In the naive group, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min with an interquartile range (IQR) of 20-23 ng·kg·min. The median up-titration interval was 6 days (IQR: 4-9). In the nonnaive group, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min (range: 17-30). The median up-titration interval was 8.5 days (range: 1.5-11). Overall, the median maximum dose achieved was 20 ng·kg·min (IQR: 20-23.5), and the median up-titration interval was 6 days (IQR: 4.6-9.25), with no reported significant adverse hemodynamic events. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, rapid inpatient titration of intravenous treprostinil is safe and tolerable.

  8. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs H. Goossens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acids (FFA, whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG, FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018 and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064 in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043, higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025, higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004, lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017 and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073 and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059 versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.

  9. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils B; Clausen, Trine R; Wulff, Birgitte S; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Worm, Dorte; Hansen, Dorte L; Holst, Jens J; van Hall, Gerrit; Madsbad, Sten

    2013-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also changes the glucose profile in response to a meal in glucose-tolerant individuals. We hypothesised that the driving force for the changed postprandial glucose profiles after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These changes were brought about by changes in glucose kinetics: (1) a more rapid appearance of ingested glucose in the systemic circulation, and a concomitant increase in insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion; (2) postprandial glucose disappearance was maintained at a high rate for a longer time after RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation, followed by increased insulin secretion and glucose disappearance appears to drive the changes in the glucose profile observed after RYGB, while endogenous glucose production remains unchanged. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559792. The study was part of the UNIK program: Food, Fitness & Pharma for Health and Disease (see www.foodfitnesspharma.ku.dk ). Funding was received from the Novo Nordisk foundation and the Strategic Research Counsel for the Capital Area and Danish Research Agency. The primary investigator received a

  10. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  11. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... with IGT and we also examined this interrelation in relation to the 2 main incretins, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). To that end, 13 women with IGT and 17 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements...... of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean...

  12. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Hull, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  13. Structural basis for glucose tolerance in GH1 β-glucosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira; Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil; Souza, Flavio Henrique Moreira; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Machado, Carla Botelho; Ward, Richard John; Jorge, Joao Atilio; Furriel, Rosa dos Prazeres Melo; Murakami, Mario Tyago

    2014-06-01

    Product inhibition of β-glucosidases (BGs) by glucose is considered to be a limiting step in enzymatic technologies for plant-biomass saccharification. Remarkably, some β-glucosidases belonging to the GH1 family exhibit unusual properties, being tolerant to, or even stimulated by, high glucose concentrations. However, the structural basis for the glucose tolerance and stimulation of BGs is still elusive. To address this issue, the first crystal structure of a fungal β-glucosidase stimulated by glucose was solved in native and glucose-complexed forms, revealing that the shape and electrostatic properties of the entrance to the active site, including the +2 subsite, determine glucose tolerance. The aromatic Trp168 and the aliphatic Leu173 are conserved in glucose-tolerant GH1 enzymes and contribute to relieving enzyme inhibition by imposing constraints at the +2 subsite that limit the access of glucose to the -1 subsite. The GH1 family β-glucosidases are tenfold to 1000-fold more glucose tolerant than GH3 BGs, and comparative structural analysis shows a clear correlation between active-site accessibility and glucose tolerance. The active site of GH1 BGs is located in a deep and narrow cavity, which is in contrast to the shallow pocket in the GH3 family BGs. These findings shed light on the molecular basis for glucose tolerance and indicate that GH1 BGs are more suitable than GH3 BGs for biotechnological applications involving plant cell-wall saccharification.

  14. Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy. Part II. Relation between maternal glucose tolerance and glucose metabolism in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-16

    The objective of clinical management of the pregnant diabetic woman is to prevent the serious adverse effects of an abnormal glucose environment on the fetus. Neonatal glucose assimilation and insulin release over the first two hours of life were correlated with various indices of maternal carbohydrate metabolism in the third trimester. Of the 31 mothers studied 21 were defined as normal and 10 as having chemical diabetes. Neontal glucose assimilation during the first two hours of life correlated strongly with functions of both maternal glucose tolerance and mean diurnal glucose level, the strongest correlation being with the area under the three-hour oral glucose tolerance curve (P less than 0.001), Two-hour neonatal plasma glucose values of under 1.7 mmol/1 (30 mg/100 ml) were found only in the newborn of women whose glucose tolerance area measured over 41.6 area units (750 traditional units); thus, even in the borderline diabetic range glucose tolerance testing during the last trimester of pregnancy may be valuable in predicting likelihood of neonatal hypoglycaemia. The findings also shed light on the possible sensitizing role of mild maternal hyperglycaemia on fetal insulin production and secretion.

  15. Effect of weight gain and subsequent weight loss on glucose tolerance and insulin response in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Willits, N H; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1997-01-01

    The effects of weight gain and subsequent weight loss on glucose tolerance and insulin response were evaluated in 12 healthy cats. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) were performed at entry into the study, after a significant gain of body weight induced by feeding palatable commercial cat food ad libitum, after a significant loss of body weight induced by feeding a poorly palatable purified diet to discourage eating and promote fasting, and after recovery from fasting when body weight had returned to pre-study values and cats were eating commercial foods. A complete physical examination with measurement of body weight was performed weekly, a CBC and serum biochemistry panel were evaluated at the time of each IVGTT, and a liver biopsy specimen obtained 2 to 4 days after each IVGTT was evaluated histologically for each cat. Mean serum glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose infusion and total amount of insulin secreted during the second 60 minutes and entire 120 minutes after glucose infusion were significantly (P cats had hepatic lipidosis and serum biochemical abnormalities consistent with feline hepatic lipidosis. There was a significant (P glucose concentration and t1/2, and a significant (P glucose disappearance coefficient (K) after glucose infusion for measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain and at baseline. Insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and total amount of insulin secreted during the initial 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 60 minutes after glucose infusion were decreased markedly (P measurements obtained after weight gain and at baseline. In addition, the total amount of insulin secreted for 120 minutes after glucose infusion was decreased markedly (P measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain. At the end of recovery, all cats were voluntarily consuming food, serum biochemical abnormalities identified after weight loss had resolved, the

  16. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Infants and Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaling; Norris, Andrew W; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xingshen; Uc, Aliye; Moran, Antoinette; Engelhardt, John F; Ode, Katie Larson

    2016-10-15

    In cystic fibrosis, abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with decreased lung function and worsened outcomes. Translational evidence indicates that abnormal glucose tolerance may begin in early life. To determine whether very young children with cystic fibrosis have increased abnormal glucose tolerance prevalence compared with control subjects. The secondary objective was to compare area under the curve for glucose and insulin in children with cystic fibrosis with control subjects. This is a prospective multicenter study in children ages 3 months to 5 years with and without cystic fibrosis. Oral glucose tolerance testing with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide was sampled at 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Twenty-three children with cystic fibrosis and nine control subjects had complete data. All control subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Nine of 23 subjects with cystic fibrosis had abnormal glucose tolerance (39%; P = 0.03). Of those, two met criteria for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, two indeterminate glycemia, and six impaired glucose tolerance. Children with cystic fibrosis failed to exhibit the normal increase in area under the curve insulin with age observed in control subjects (P children with cystic fibrosis. Children with cystic fibrosis lack the normal increase in insulin secretion that occurs in early childhood despite increased glucose. These findings demonstrate that glycemic abnormalities begin very early in cystic fibrosis, possibly because of insufficient insulin secretion.

  17. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  18. Role of cortisol in the deterioration of glucose tolerance in Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Thirty pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) and thirty pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance(1GT) were compared with thirty control pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Results: The GDM and the IGT groups were found to have significantly higher levels of serum cortisol ...

  19. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test.......This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test....

  20. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  1. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  2. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  3. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  4. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this controlled study was to investigate the effect of high-load strength training on glucose tolerance in patients undergoing dialysis. Methods: 23 patients treated by dialysis underwent a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of strength training three times....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...... glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...

  5. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  6. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  7. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dairy fat intake is associated with glucose tolerance, hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity, and liver fat but not β-cell function in humans123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovina, Santica; Nelson, James E; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; Callahan, Holly S; Song, Xiaoling; Di, Chongzhi; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma phospholipid concentrations of trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-16:1n−7), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2 US cohorts. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the intake of trans-16:1n−7 in particular, or dairy fat in general, is associated with glucose tolerance and key factors determining glucose tolerance. Design: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken in 17 men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and 15 body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched controls. The concentrations of trans-16:1n−7 and 2 other biomarkers of dairy fat intake, 15:0 and 17:0, were measured in plasma phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs). Liver fat was estimated by computed tomography–derived liver-spleen ratio. Intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests and oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed to assess β-cell function and hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. Results: In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, phospholipid 17:0, phospholipid trans-16:1n−7, FFA 15:0, and FFA 17:0 were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, the area under the curve for glucose during an OGTT, and liver fat. Phospholipid trans-16:1n−7 was also positively associated with hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. None of the biomarkers were associated with β-cell function. The associations between dairy fat intake and glucose tolerance were attenuated by adjusting for insulin sensitivity or liver fat, but strengthened by adjusting for β-cell function. Conclusion: Although we cannot rule out reverse causation, these data support the hypothesis that dairy fat improves glucose tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving improved hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and reduced liver fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01289639. PMID:24740208

  9. Dairy fat intake is associated with glucose tolerance, hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity, and liver fat but not β-cell function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario; Marcovina, Santica; Nelson, James E; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; Callahan, Holly S; Song, Xiaoling; Di, Chongzhi; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-06-01

    Plasma phospholipid concentrations of trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-16:1n-7), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2 US cohorts. The objective was to investigate whether the intake of trans-16:1n-7 in particular, or dairy fat in general, is associated with glucose tolerance and key factors determining glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken in 17 men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and 15 body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched controls. The concentrations of trans-16:1n-7 and 2 other biomarkers of dairy fat intake, 15:0 and 17:0, were measured in plasma phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs). Liver fat was estimated by computed tomography-derived liver-spleen ratio. Intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests and oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed to assess β-cell function and hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, phospholipid 17:0, phospholipid trans-16:1n-7, FFA 15:0, and FFA 17:0 were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, the area under the curve for glucose during an OGTT, and liver fat. Phospholipid trans-16:1n-7 was also positively associated with hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. None of the biomarkers were associated with β-cell function. The associations between dairy fat intake and glucose tolerance were attenuated by adjusting for insulin sensitivity or liver fat, but strengthened by adjusting for β-cell function. Although we cannot rule out reverse causation, these data support the hypothesis that dairy fat improves glucose tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving improved hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and reduced liver fat. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  12. Assessment of circulating betatrophin concentrations in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Onur; Özel, Mustafa Kemal; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Toptaş, Tayfun; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Yılmaz, Necat

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] production and improved glucose tolerance. Few studies have investigated the association between PCOS and betatrophin. However, in contrast to our study, the authors included overweight/obese patients and glucose tolerance was not evaluated before recruitment. What the results of this study add: Our results showed that serum betatrophin levels were significantly higher in lean glucose-tolerant PCOS women than in age- and BMI-matched healthy controls. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Elevated betatrophin levels in PCOS women, in the absence of obesity and glucose intolerance, may reflect a compensatory mechanism in order to counteract metabolic syndrome-related risk factors.

  13. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...... mins, but they remained elevated during placebo infusion (p infusion led to a significant increase of insulin secretion (p

  14. Effect of intravenous glucose infusion on renal function in normal man and in insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, M; Parving, H H; Christiansen, JS

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intravenous glucose infusion on glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) and on urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin were studied in ten normal subjects and seven metabolically well......-controlled insulin-dependent diabetics. Following glucose infusion in normal subjects (n = 10) blood glucose increased from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 10.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l (SEM) (p less than or equal to 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate increased from 116 +/- 2 to 123 +/- 3 ml/mi x 1.73 m2 (p less than or equal to 0.01), while...... no change in renal plasma flow was seen - 552 +/- 11 versus 553 +/- 18 ml/min x 1.73 m2. Volume expansion with intravenous saline infusion in six of the normal subjects induced no changes in blood glucose or kidney function. In seven strictly controlled insulin-dependent diabetics, blood glucose values were...

  15. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Korean red ginseng improves glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. After the intervention, the test group showed a significant decrease in serum levels of glucose at 30 min (-22.24±10.77 mg/dL) and whole blood levels of glucose at 30 min (-17.52±5.22 mg/dL). In addition, the test group tended to have lower whole blood levels of glucose at 0 min and glucose area under curve (AUC). However, the placebo group did not show any changes in blood glucose-related indices. The changes (difference from baseline) in serum glucose levels at 30 min, whole blood glucose levels at 60 min, and glucose AUC during OGTTs in the test group exhibited a tendency toward a decrease from those in the placebo group. There were significant decreases or trends toward a decrease in both serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations at most time intervals in the test group. In conclusion, KRG supplementation (5 g/day) may be beneficial for controlling serum and whole blood glucose levels compared with placebo among patients with IFG, IGT, or T2DM.

  17. Endogenous circadian system and circadian misalignment impact glucose tolerance via separate mechanisms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Yang, Jessica N; Garcia, Joanna I; Myers, Samantha; Bozzi, Isadora; Wang, Wei; Buxton, Orfeu M; Shea, Steven A; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2015-04-28

    Glucose tolerance is lower in the evening and at night than in the morning. However, the relative contribution of the circadian system vs. the behavioral cycle (including the sleep/wake and fasting/feeding cycles) is unclear. Furthermore, although shift work is a diabetes risk factor, the separate impact on glucose tolerance of the behavioral cycle, circadian phase, and circadian disruption (i.e., misalignment between the central circadian pacemaker and the behavioral cycle) has not been systematically studied. Here we show--by using two 8-d laboratory protocols--in healthy adults that the circadian system and circadian misalignment have distinct influences on glucose tolerance, both separate from the behavioral cycle. First, postprandial glucose was 17% higher (i.e., lower glucose tolerance) in the biological evening (8:00 PM) than morning (8:00 AM; i.e., a circadian phase effect), independent of the behavioral cycle effect. Second, circadian misalignment itself (12-h behavioral cycle inversion) increased postprandial glucose by 6%. Third, these variations in glucose tolerance appeared to be explained, at least in part, by different mechanisms: during the biological evening by decreased pancreatic β-cell function (27% lower early-phase insulin) and during circadian misalignment presumably by decreased insulin sensitivity (elevated postprandial glucose despite 14% higher late-phase insulin) without change in early-phase insulin. We explored possible contributing factors, including changes in polysomnographic sleep and 24-h hormonal profiles. We demonstrate that the circadian system importantly contributes to the reduced glucose tolerance observed in the evening compared with the morning. Separately, circadian misalignment reduces glucose tolerance, providing a mechanism to help explain the increased diabetes risk in shift workers.

  18. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONKALA, SANNA M.; MOTIANI, KUMAIL K.; ESKELINEN, JARI-JOONAS; SAVOLAINEN, ANNA; SAUNAVAARA, VIRVA; VIRTANEN, KIRSI A.; LÖYTTYNIEMI, ELIISA; KAPANEN, JUKKA; KNUUTI, JUHANI; KALLIOKOSKI, KARI K.; HANNUKAINEN, JARNA C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). Methods A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7–30.0 kg·m−2, age = 40–55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8–33.5 kg·m−2, age = 43–53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by 1H-MRS. Results At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = −42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (−5%) and PAT (−6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Conclusion Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC. PMID:28628064

  19. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  20. The impact of low and no-caloric sweeteners on glucose absorption, incretin secretion, and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine B; Hashemi, Zohre; Subhan, Fatheema B

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of non-nutritive, low, or no-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is increasing globally. Previously thought to be physiologically inert, there is a growing body of evidence that LCS not only provide a sweet taste but may also elicit metabolic effects in the gastrointestinal tract. This review provides a brief overview of the chemical and receptor-binding properties and effects on chemosensation of different LCS but focuses on the extent to which LCS stimulates glucose transport, incretin and insulin secretion, and effects on glucose tolerance. Aspartame and sucralose both bind to a similar region of the sweet receptor. For sucralose, the data are contradictory regarding effects on glucose tolerance in humans and may depend on the food or beverage matrix and the duration of administration, as suggested by longer term rodent studies. For aspartame, there are fewer data. On the other hand, acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K) and saccharin have similar binding characteristics to each other but, while Ace-K may increase incretin secretion and glucose responses in humans, there are no data on saccharin except in rats, which show impaired glucose tolerance after chronic administration. Additional research, particularly of the effects of chronic consumption, is needed to provide concrete evidence for beneficial or detrimental effects of LCS on blood glucose regulation in humans.

  1. Ambient but not local lactate underlies neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Shu, Hong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Neurons require a nearly constant supply of ATP. Glucose is the predominant source of brain ATP, but the direct effects of prolonged glucose deprivation on neuronal viability and function remain unclear. In sparse rat hippocampal microcultures, neurons were surprisingly resilient to 16 h glucose removal in the absence of secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal survival and synaptic transmission were unaffected by prolonged removal of exogenous glucose. Inhibition of lactate transport decreased microculture neuronal survival during concurrent glucose deprivation, suggesting that endogenously released lactate is important for tolerance to glucose deprivation. Tandem depolarization and glucose deprivation also reduced neuronal survival, and trace glucose concentrations afforded neuroprotection. Mass cultures, in contrast to microcultures, were insensitive to depolarizing glucose deprivation, a difference attributable to increased extracellular lactate levels. Removal of local astrocyte support did not reduce survival in response to glucose deprivation or alter evoked excitatory transmission, suggesting that on-demand, local lactate shuttling is not necessary for neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose removal. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenously produced lactate available globally in the extracellular milieu sustains neurons in the absence of glucose. A better understanding of resilience mechanisms in reduced preparations could lead to therapeutic strategies aimed to bolster these mechanisms in vulnerable neuronal populations. PMID:29617444

  2. [Effect of different doses of Plantago psyllium mucilage on the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Flores-Garduño, M A; Ariza-Andraca, R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effect of different doses of Plantago psyllium mucilage on glucose tolerance test, four oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to eight healthy volunteers. Glucose load (75 g) was mixed with 0 (control test), 10.20 and 30 g of mucilage. Serum glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximum peak of glucose at 30 minutes, and the area under the curve of glucose were significantly lower in the test with 20 and 30 g of mucilage than the tests with 0 and 10g. There was a significant relationship (r = 0.44 p less than 0.025) between the dose of P. psyllium mucilage and its attenuating effect of hyperglycemia.

  3. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wara, Allison; Hunsucker, Sara; Bove, Krystal; Backus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6) were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg) or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg) in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03) food intake (- 22%) but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03) by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  4. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wara, Allison; Hunsucker, Sara; Bove, Krystal; Backus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6) were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg) or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0μL/kg) in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03) food intake (- 22%) but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03) by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect. PMID:26086714

  5. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wara

    Full Text Available Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6 were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03 food intake (- 22% but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03 by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  6. Separate impact of obesity and glucose tolerance on the incretin effect in normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Casolaro, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    /glucose concentration dose-response curve) was determined by mathematical modeling. The incretin effect was defined as the oral-to-intravenous ratio of responses. In 8 subjects with NGT and 10 with diabetes, oral glucose appearance was measured by the double-tracer technique. RESULTS: The incretin effect on total...... insulin secretion and beta-cell glucose sensitivity and the GLP-1 response to oral glucose were significantly reduced in diabetes compared with NGT or IGT (P subjects were stratified by BMI tertile (P ...OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the separate impact of obesity and hyperglycemia on the incretin effect (i.e., the gain in beta-cell function after oral glucose versus intravenous glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Isoglycemic oral (75 g) and intravenous glucose administration was performed in 51...

  7. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  8. Glucose tolerance in the toad Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human Physiology and Physiological Chemistry. University of Durban-Westville. Durban. "To whom correspondence should be addressed. Received 17 November 1980; accepted 30 March 1981. Reports on normal blood glucose levels in amphibians are varied. For example, the normal blood glucose level ...

  9. Quality of roentgenological visualization and tolerance of various intravenous cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischendorf, P.

    1980-01-01

    The recently introduced intravenous cholegraphic contrast media produce a greater diagnostic yield in radiological routine thanks to improved roentgenological contrasting. Whereas the percentage share of roentgenologically clearly assessable cases is about 75% when using Biligrafin, this percentage is much higher with the more recent contrast media, especially Biliscopin, namely, up to 88%. These new contrast media are also superior in respect of tolerance, since they produce fewer side effects. While side effects must be expected in about 28% of the cases when injecting Biligrafin, the side effect quota is about 10% only with Biliscopin or Endomirabil. If the contrast medium is infused instead of injected, the quota of side effect drops to 2.3% with Biliscopin or 3.9% with Endomirabil. Slight and medium side effects have definitely decreased with the more recent contrast media. The slower and more continually the contrast medium is administered, the fewer are the side effects observed; this becomes particularly noticeable in the case of long-term infusions. However, the likelihood of severe incidents caused by the contrast medium remains unchanged at about 1% of the examined patients, even with the more recently introduced contrast media. (orig.) [de

  10. [Variation in serum nonesterified fatty acids during glucose tolerance test in undernourished patients with anorexia nervosa and in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, F; Ghandour, M; Réville, P; de Laharpe, F; Thierry, R

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (0,33 g glucose per kg body weight) are performed in 11 self starved women suffering from anorexia nervosa, 10 obese and 8 normal women. They have no genetic or chemical diabetes and belong to the same age group. Plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive insuline (IRI) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are determined during these tests. The basal concentrations of NEFA are very high in the obese patients. In the starved women the elevation of the basal plasma NEFA concentration is less striking and statistically not significant. The plasma level of NEFA is reduced in all subjects by hyperinsulinism secondary to hyperglycemia. This drop in NEFA concentration is significantly reduced in the obese patients and markedly inhibited in the starved women. This observation points toward an increased resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin in anorexia nervosa because, in these patients, the glucose load determines a normal increase in plasma IRI but the fall in plasma NEFA concentration is severely impaired.

  11. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  12. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satin, Leslie S; Butler, Peter C; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern, has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulsatile insulin secretion, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satin, Leslie S.; Butler, Peter C.; Ha, Joon; Sherman, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results when increases in beta cell function and/or mass cannot compensate for rising insulin resistance. Numerous studies have documented the longitudinal changes in metabolism that occur during the development of glucose intolerance and lead to T2DM. However, the role of changes in insulin secretion, both amount and temporal pattern has been understudied. Most of the insulin secreted from pancreatic beta cells of the pancreas is released in a pulsatile pattern, which is disrupted in T2DM. Here we review the evidence that changes in beta cell pulsatility occur during the progression from glucose intolerance to T2DM in humans, and contribute significantly to the etiology of the disease. We review the evidence that insulin pulsatility improves the efficacy of secreted insulin on its targets, particularly hepatic glucose production, but also examine evidence that pulsatility alters or is altered by changes in peripheral glucose uptake. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for oscillatory insulin secretion. Understanding how insulin pulsatility contributes to normal glucose homeostasis and is altered in metabolic disease states may help improve the treatment of T2DM. PMID:25637831

  14. Glucose tolerance and myocardial F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in normal regions in coronary heart disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shinji; Kusuoka, Hideo; Uehara, Toshiisa; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Hori, Masatsugu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the relation between glucose tolerance and myocardial uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), FDG-PET with 75 g oral glucose loading was performed on 43 coronary artery disease patients (twice in 2 patients). The patients were divided into 4 groups based on the blood glucose level (BS) and the insulinogenic index (II): group 1, normal (n=9); group 2, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=12); group 3, mild diabetes mellitus (DM) (II>0.4, n=12); and group 4, severe DM (II≤0.4, n=12). Percent (%) dose uptake of FDG in the normal regions of the myocardium was not significantly different in groups 1, 2, and 3, but it was much lower in group 4 than in groups 1 and 2. In groups 2, 3, and 4, % dose uptake showed a definite negative correlation with BS 60 min after glucose loading (r=-0.450, p<0.05), and a close positive correlation with II (r=0.363, p<0.05). These findings indicate that myocardial FDG uptake in normal regions is not greatly impaired in patients with IGT or mild DM. Myocardial viability can be assessed by oral glucose loading in patients with IGT and mild DM as well as in patients with normal glucose tolerance. (author)

  15. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  16. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    GREENWALD, SAMANTHA; SEGER, EDWARD; NICHOLS, DAVID; RAY, ANDREW D.; RIDEOUT, TODD C.; GOSSELIN, LUC E.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercis...

  17. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    -free masses in the offspring of obese mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Obese mother-newborn dyads were recruited and 2-h plasma glucose levels were assessed during gestational weeks 27-30; neonatal body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours of birth. RESULTS...

  18. The shape of the glucose response curve during an oral glucose tolerance test heralds biomarkers of type 2 diabetes risk in obese youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shape of the glucose response curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), monophasic versus biphasic, identifies physiologically distinct groups of individuals with differences in insulin secretion and sensitivity. We aimed to verify the value of the OGTT-glucose response curve against m...

  19. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Contraction-mediated glucose uptake is increased in men with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Skovbro, Mette; Flint, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Exercise superimposed on insulin stimulation is shown to increase muscle glucose metabolism and these two stimuli have synergistic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate glucose infusion rates (GIR) in groups with a wide variation in terms of insulin sensitivity during insulin...

  1. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    times varied greatly between groups, ranging from 7–12 mmol/L, and 35–70 min. The group with the lowest and earliest plasma glucose peak had the lowest estimated cardiovascular risk, while the group with the most delayed plasma glucose peak and the highest 2-h value had the highest estimated risk. One...

  2. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Provides Superior Patient Comfort and Tolerance Compared to Intravenous Midazolam in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sedative during awake intubation, but its utility in fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB is not clear. We evaluated the effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on patient’s response to FOB. The patients received either midazolam, 0.02 mg/kg (group M, n=27, or dexmedetomidine, 1 µg/kg (group D, n=27. A composite score of five different parameters and a numerical rating scale (NRS for pain intensity and distress were used to assess patient response during FOB. Patients rated the quality of sedation and level of discomfort 24 h after the procedure. Ease of bronchoscopy, rescue medication requirement, and haemodynamic variables were noted. Ideal or acceptable composite score was observed in 15 and 26 patients, respectively, in group M (14.48 ± 3.65 and group D (9.41 ± 3.13, p<0.001. NRS showed that 11 patients in group M had severe pain and discomfort as compared to one patient with severe pain and two with severe discomfort in group D during the procedure, p<0.001. Rescue midazolam requirement was significantly higher in group M (p=0.023. We conclude that during FOB, under topical airway anaesthesia, IV dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg provides superior patient comfort and tolerance as compared to IV midazolam (0.02 mg/kg.

  3. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  4. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  5. Glucose tolerance female-specific QTL mapped in collaborative cross mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Toamih Atamni, Hanifa J; Ziner, Yaron; Mott, Richard; Wolf, Lior; Iraqi, Fuad A

    2017-02-01

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by impaired glucose tolerance. Despite environmental high risk factors, host genetic background is a strong component of T2D development. Herein, novel highly genetically diverse strains of collaborative cross (CC) lines from mice were assessed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with variations of glucose-tolerance response. In total, 501 mice of 58 CC lines were maintained on high-fat (42 % fat) diet for 12 weeks. Thereafter, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed for 180 min. Subsequently, the values of Area under curve for the glucose at zero and 180 min (AUC 0-180 ), were measured, and used for QTL mapping. Heritability and coefficient of variations in glucose tolerance (CVg) were calculated. One-way analysis of variation was significant (P < 0.001) for AUC 0-180 between the CC lines as well between both sexes. Despite Significant variations for both sexes, QTL analysis was significant, only for females, reporting a significant female-sex-dependent QTL (~2.5 Mbp) associated with IPGTT AUC 0-180 trait, located on Chromosome 8 (32-34.5 Mbp, containing 51 genes). Gene browse revealed QTL for body weight/size, genes involved in immune system, and two main protein-coding genes involved in the Glucose homeostasis, Mboat4 and Leprotl1. Heritability and coefficient of genetic variance (CVg) were 0.49 and 0.31 for females, while for males, these values 0.34 and 0.22, respectively. Our findings demonstrate the roles of genetic factors controlling glucose tolerance, which significantly differ between sexes requiring independent studies for females and males toward T2D prevention and therapy.

  6. A cross-sectional study of impaired glucose tolerance amongst undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kavisha Singh; Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar; Dinesh R. Samel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an important chronic disease both in terms of prevalence and associated morbidity and early mortality. Mortality rates in diabetics are two- to threefold higher than those without diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is preceded by a period of abnormal glucose homeostasis and hence early diagnosis is important in decreasing this morbidity and mortality. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of diabetes. Methods: This c...

  7. Spontaneous hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in athymic nude BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, A; Tosco, C; Kumar, D; Slavin, B; Parker, J

    1982-09-01

    Basal plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were investigated in young and mature athymic nude BALB/c mice and in age-matched controls. Basal plasma glucose levels in male athymic nude mice were similar to those of controls at 1, 3, and 4 wk of age. At 6, 8, and 12 wk of age, male athymic nudes had significantly higher basal plasma glucose levels when compared with controls (P less than 0.01). Plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were similar in athymic nudes and controls at 1 wk of age, but at 3 wk of age and subsequently at 6, 8, and 12 wk athymic nude mice had significantly decreased insulin levels when compared with their age-matched controls (P less than 0.05). We found impaired glucose tolerance in male athymic nude mice at all age groups when compared with both female athymic nudes and control BALB/c mice. The discovery of a spontaneous diabetic syndrome (hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased insulin secretion) in a colony of athymic nude mice may provide an excellent model for studying the genetics and interactions between the immune and endocrine systems.

  8. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  9. Assessment of time to glucose peak during an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the article from Chung et al. on the association between time to glucose peak and prediabetes.(1) We agree with the authors in that the morphology of the glucose curve is worth investigating as an additional indicator of prediabetes and diabetes risk. This is a rather well...... studied topic in the literature, and most authors agree that adding an intermediate glucose measurement (at 30 or 60 minutes) improves the ability to identify subgroups with forms of dysglycaemia not picked up by the traditional guidelines based on fasting and 2-hour values. This article is protected...... by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with decompensated cirrhosis being evaluated for liver transplantation: the utility of oral glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa Bragança

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and protein calorie malnutrition are important issues in cirrhotic patients because they can increase the progression of liver disease and worsen its prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation and their impacts on a 3-month follow-up, and to compare fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutively included adult patients. Diabetes mellitus was established through fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosing diabetes mellitus in this population. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes were calculated, and nutritional assessment was performed by subjective global assessment, anthropometry and handgrip strength through dynamometry. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 40 patients (64.5%, 9 (22.5% of them by fasting glycemia and 31 (77.5% of them by oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance was found in 40 (69% of the patients. There was no relationship between diabetes mellitus and the etiology of cirrhosis. Protein calorie malnutrition was diagnosed in a range from 3.22% to 45.2% by anthropometry, 58.1% by subjective global assessment and 88.7% by handgrip strength. Diabetes mellitus identified by oral glucose tolerance test was related significantly to a higher prevalence of infectious complications and deaths in a 3-month period (P = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and protein calorie malnutrition is high in cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. There were more infectious complications and/or deaths in a 3-month follow-up period in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test seems to be

  11. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  12. [The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Ana Gabriela; Rehme, Marta Francis Benevides; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Pimenta, Walkyria de Paula; Carvalho, Lídia Raquel de; Pontes, Anaglória

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) in women with PCOS. A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO) (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL) and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL). A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body mass index (BMI) of 18.3 to 54.9 kg/m² (32.5±7.6). The percentage of obese patients was 64%, the percentage of overweight patients was 18.6% and 17.4% had healthy weight. The oral glucose tolerance test identified 14 cases of DM-2 (5.7%), while fasting glucose detected only three cases (1.2%), and the frequency of these disorders was higher with increasing age and BMI. The results of this study demonstrate the superiority of the oral glucose tolerance test in relation to fasting glucose in diagnosing DM-2 in young women with PCOS and should be performed in these patients.

  13. Oral l-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, l-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion and improved glucose clearance in WT mice, but not in Glp1r knockout littermates. Taken together these findings identify l-arginine as a GLP-1 secretagogue in vivo and demonstrate that improvement of glucose tolerance by oral l-arginine depends on GLP-1R-signaling. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that l-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals. PMID:23959939

  14. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Influence Glucose Tolerance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Hanson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose intolerance and apolipoprotein ε4 allele (E4+ are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Insulin sensitizers show promise for treating AD, but are less effective in E4+ individuals. Little is known about how the APOE genotype influences glucose metabolism. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 319 older adults who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests; a subset had insulin, amyloid beta (Aβ42, and Mini Mental Status Examination. Glucose and insulin patterns with respect to cognitive diagnosis, E4 status, and sex were examined with analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation. Results: People with cognitive impairment had higher fasting insulin levels. E4 status did not affect fasting glucose values, whereas men had higher fasting glucose levels than women. E4+ men had the lowest and E4+ women had the highest glucose levels, compared to E4- groups; insulin did not differ by sex or E4 group. E4 status and sex moderated correlations between metabolic measures and AD risk factors including age and Aβ. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was associated with cognitive impairment, and sex, E4 status, and glucose values are interrelated in older adults at risk of AD. Understanding glucose metabolism for different APOE and sex groups may help elucidate differences in therapeutic responses.

  15. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  17. Skin Autofluorescence Based Decision Tree in Detection of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Smit, Jitske M.; Botterblom, Gijs J.; Mulder, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We

  18. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    was performed. Information of oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcome were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The risk of hypertensive complications, cesarean section, induction of labor and macrosomia was significantly increased in both overweight women (body mass index [BMI] 25...

  19. Plasma insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test in type-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the plasma insulin pattern in type 2 diabetic Nigerians both in the fasting state and in response to a standard oral glucose tolerance test. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Diabetic clinic, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria Nigeria. Subjects: Forty type 2 diabetic patients and thirty six ...

  20. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    -fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...... (TAG), serum free fatty acid and leptin between the groups. However, the butter-fed rats had a lower content of TAG in the white gastrocnemius muscle (7.7  1.5 vs. 23.1  6.2 mg/g tissue, p=0.01), and a much higher n-3 PUFA content (total n-3 PUFAs 1,43  0.06 vs 0.73  0.02g/mg tissue, p

  1. Appraisal of timing for oral glucose tolerance testing in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-17

    Feb 17, 2015 ... Key words:Gestational diabetes mellitus, intra‑uterine fetal death, maternal obesity, macrosomia, oral glucose tolerance test. Date of Acceptance: ... first degree relatives, intrauterine fetal death, macrosomic baby, and age above .... thought to expose the fetus to in utero programming that may initiate future ...

  2. Peripheral somatic nerve function in relation to glucose tolerance in an elderly caucasian population : The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Neeling, J. N D; Beks, P. J.; Bertelsmann, F. W.; Heine, R. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Only sparse and contradictory data are available on peripheral somatic nerve function in relation to the total range of glucose tolerance. A random sample (n = 708) of people, stratified by age, sex, and glucose tolerance, from a Caucasian population aged 50 to 74 years was invited to undergo an

  3. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in obese Argentinean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Carmen S; Ozuna, Blanca; Krochik, Andrea Gabriela; Araujo, María Beatriz

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in obese children and adolescents and to examine insulin resistance and insulin secretion. We studied 427 asymptomatic obese patients. DM2 and IGT were diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance and P-cell function were assessed by using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), insulin/glucose index (I/GI), fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity index (ISI-composite). Thirty patients showed IGT (7%) and seven had DM2 (1.6%). The mean age was 10.7 +/- 3.5 years, the diabetic group being significantly older than the normal group (p < 0.01). The mean body mass index was 30 +/- 5.3 kg/m2 without significant differences between groups. beta-Cell function declined significantly in the patients with IGT and DM2, and insulin resistance increased significantly. Given the rather high prevalence of glucose metabolism impairment, children with obesity should undergo glucose tolerance testing for appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  4. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Min Hyuk; Oh, Tae Jung; Choi, Karam; Lee, Jung Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Background The oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of ?-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans. Methods Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10) and T2DM (n=14). The parameters in the computational model were estimate...

  5. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    -induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...... and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, l-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion...

  6. Does a GLP-1 receptor agonist change glucose tolerance in patients treated with antipsychotic medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Rask; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic disturbances, obesity and life-shortening cardiovascular morbidity are major clinical problems among patients with antipsychotic treatment. Especially two of the most efficacious antipsychotics, clozapine and olanzapine, cause weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Addition......BACKGROUND: Metabolic disturbances, obesity and life-shortening cardiovascular morbidity are major clinical problems among patients with antipsychotic treatment. Especially two of the most efficacious antipsychotics, clozapine and olanzapine, cause weight gain and metabolic disturbances...... treatment with either clozapine or olanzapine. Outcomes: The primary endpoint is the change in glucose tolerance from baseline (measured by area under the curve for the plasma glucose excursion following a 4 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test) to follow-up at week 16. The secondary endpoints include changes...

  7. Angelica dahurica Extracts Improve Glucose Tolerance through the Activation of GPR119.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 119 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal L cells, and is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 release, respectively. Therefore, the development of GPR119 agonists is a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. We screened 1500 natural plant extracts for GPR119 agonistic actions and investigated the most promising extract, that from Angelica dahurica (AD, for hypoglycemic actions in vitro and in vivo. Human GPR119 activation was measured in GeneBLAzer T-Rex GPR119-CRE-bla CHO-K1 cells; intracellular cAMP levels and insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 cells; and GLP-1 release was measured in GLUTag cells. Glucose tolerance tests and serum plasma insulin levels were measured in normal C57BL6 mice and diabetic db/db mice. AD extract-treated cells showed significant increases in GPR119 activation, intracellular cAMP levels, GLP-1 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with controls. In normal mice, a single treatment with AD extract improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Treatment with multiple doses of AD extract or n-hexane fraction improved glucose tolerance in diabetic db/db mice. Imperatorin, phellopterin and isoimperatorin were identified in the active fraction of AD extract. Among these, phellopterin activated GPR119 and increased active GLP-1 and insulin secretion in vitro and enhanced glucose tolerance in normal and db/db mice. We suggest that phellopterin might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Serum Galanin Concentration is Increased in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yan; Li, Yin; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Gu, Xuewen; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Although extensive data have shown that galanin can regulate the food intake and glucose metabolism of animals, little is known regarding the galanin concentration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether serum galanin levels and other metabolic parameters are changed in patients with IGT compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Data regarding serum galanin levels and relative metabolic parameters were collected in 12 patients with IGT and 12 healthy patients with NGT. At 1 hour and 2 hours after dinner, serum galanin, insulin and glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with IGT than in controls with NGT. Additionally, the body weights of patients with IGT was higher than those of the controls. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose concentrations (r=-0.580; p=0.048) in patients with IGT. The higher serum galanin levels as well as the negative correlation between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose content in patients with IGT may result from the interaction between insulin and galanin in differing conditions, suggesting that the galanin level may be used as a potential biomarker for the prediction of IGT in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin therapy in pneumonia: results of the first post-marketing surveillance study with intravenous moxifloxacin in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J; Stauch, K; Landen, H

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of sequential intravenous (IV)/oral therapy with moxifloxacin in pneumonia under general hospital treatment conditions. Patients with pneumonia were documented in this non-interventional multicentre study. The patients were treated with IV moxifloxacin or moxifloxacin sequential therapy (IV and oral) in hospitals throughout Germany. Exclusion criteria were limited to the contraindications mentioned in the summary of product characteristics. The participating hospital-based physicians documented the patients' demography, anamnesis, antibiotic pretreatment, concomitant diseases and medications. Moxifloxacin therapy and symptom status were recorded daily up to the ninth day and on the last day of treatment. The physicians assessed the efficacy and tolerability of IV moxifloxacin therapy and reported all adverse events observed within the treatment period. The 1749 documented patients had a mean age of 66.2 (SD 15.5) years; 56.4% were males and 43.5% females. The majority (99.3%) were treated with moxifloxacin 400mg once daily. On average, moxifloxacin was given for 7.6 days (SD 3.2). In cases of sequential therapy (78.9% of patients), IV moxifloxacin was switched to oral moxifloxacin after a mean of 4.1 days (SD 1.8). Moxifloxacin produced a significant clinical improvement in 58.2% of patients by day 3 of therapy, in 84.2% by day 5 and in 89.4% by day 7. Recovery occurred in 27.0% of patients by day 5, in 54.0% by day 7 and in 87.0% by day 14. It took a mean of 3.4 days (SD 1.9) until improvement and 7.2 days (SD 3.0) until cure. Overall efficacy of IV moxifloxacin therapy was rated by the physicians as 'very good' or 'good' in 82.9% of patients. Tolerability was rated in 94.3% of patients as 'very good' or 'good'. Adverse events were recorded for 92 (5.3%) patients, but events were considered by the attending physician to be related to moxifloxacin therapy for only 45 patients (2.6%). IV

  10. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  11. Risk factors for autonomic and somatic nerve dysfunction in different stages of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Rumyana; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Tournev, Ivailo; Chakarova, Nevena; Grozeva, Greta; Dakovska, Lilia

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluates autonomic and somatic nerve function in different stages of glucose tolerance and its correlation with different cardio-metabolic parameters. Four hundred seventy-eight subjects, mean age 49.3±13.7years and mean BMI 31.0±6.2kg/m2, divided according to glucose tolerance: 130 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 227 with prediabetes (125 with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 102 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT)), and 121 with newly-diagnosed T2D (NDT2D), were enrolled. Glucose tolerance was studied during OGTT. Antropometric indices, blood pressure, HbA1c, serum lipids, hsCRP and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were assessed. Body composition was estimated by a bioimpedance method (InBody 720, BioSpace). Tissue AGEs accumulation was assessed by skin autofluorescence (AGE-Reader-DiagnOpticsTM). Electroneurography was performed by electromyograph Dantec Keypoint. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) was assessed by ANX-3.0 method applying standard clinical tests. CAN was found in 12.3% of NGT, 19.8% of prediabetes (13.2% of IFG and 20.6% of iIGT), and 32.2% of NDT2D. The prevalence of diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN) was 5.7% in prediabetes and 28.6% in NDT2D. The panel of age, QTc interval, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and 120-min plasma glucose was related to sympathetic activity (F [5451]=78.50, p<0.001). The panel of age, waist circumference, and QTc interval was related to parasympathetic power (F [3453]=132.26, p<0.001). HbA1c and age were related to sural SNAP (F [2454]=15.12, p<0.001). HbA1c and AGEs were related to sural SNCV (F [2454]=12.18, p<0.001). Our results demonstrate a high prevalence of autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunction in early stages of glucose intolerance. Age, postprandial glycemia, central obesity, diastolic blood pressure and QTc interval outline as predictive markers of CAN; hyperglycemia, glycation and age of DSPN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O 2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO 2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O 2 ) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance

  13. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ingestion of probiotics can modify gut microbiota and alter insulin resistance and diabetes development in rodents. We hypothesized that daily intake of Lactobacillus reuteri increases insulin sensitivity by changing cytokine release and insulin secretion via modulation of the release...... cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of gut microbiota with L. reuteri increases insulin secretion, possibly due to augmented incretin release, but does not directly affect insulin sensitivity or body fat distribution. This suggests that oral ingestion of one specific strain may serve as a novel therapeutic....... reuteri SD5865 or placebo over 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose...

  14. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... blood glucose level is a stronger predictor of future type 2 diabetes than the 2-h level and is associated with diabetes complications and mortality....

  15. High heritability and genetic correlation of intravenous glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion among non-diabetic family members of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Hornbak, Malene; Allin, Kristine H.

    2014-01-01

    -induced beta cell response. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) having an exclusive effect on either glucose- or tolbutamide-stimulated insulin release were identified. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic family members of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a t......-FSIGT with intravenous injection of glucose at t∈=∈0 min and tolbutamide at t∈=∈20 min. Measurements of plasma glucose, serum insulin and serum C-peptide were taken at 33 time points from fasting to 180 min. Insulin secretion rate, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI) after glucose and disposition index...... after tolbutamide (DIT), insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (SG) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose were calculated. A polygenic variance component model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations and associations. Results: We found high heritabilities for acute insulin...

  16. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  17. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  18. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Jaquet, Muriel; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Cani, Patrice D; Burcelin, Rémy G; Corthesy, Irène; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2008-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

  19. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  20. MicroRNA Expression Varies according to Glucose Tolerance, Measurement Platform, and Biological Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D, although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n=4, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=4, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=4 were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR. Of the five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs identified by NGS, only the directional increase of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT was confirmed in whole blood and serum, using qRT-PCR. Functional enrichment of miR-27b gene targets identified biological pathways associated with glucose transport and insulin regulation. In conclusion, this study showed poor correlation in miRNA expression profiled using NGS and qRT-PCR and in whole blood and serum. The consistent increased expression of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT across measurement platform and biological source holds potential as a biomarker for risk stratification in our population.

  1. Incretin Effect and Glucagon Responses to Oral and Intravenous Glucose in Patients with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young - Type 2 and Type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoft, Signe H; Bagger, Jonatan I; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    -diabetes), but only patients with HNF1A-diabetes had impaired incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon responses to OGTT. Both groups of patients with diabetes showed normal suppression of glucagon in response to intravenous glucose. Thus, HNF1A-diabetes, similar to type 2 diabetes, is characterized by an impaired...

  2. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from a Kusaya gravy metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Yaoi, Katusro; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    β-glucosidases (BGLs) hydrolyze cello-oligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (∼mM) concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (∼10,000 colonies) and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue) colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v) glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa) and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7) was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0-6.5 and retained full or 1.5-2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1-0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 μM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose) and high V max (91 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with cellobiose) among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose) inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  3. Meal timing affects glucose tolerance, substrate oxidation and circadian-related variables: A randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandín, C; Scheer, F A J L; Luque, A J; Ávila-Gandía, V; Zamora, S; Madrid, J A; Gómez-Abellán, P; Garaulet, M

    2015-05-01

    Timing of food intake associates with body weight regulation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in meal timing on energy-expenditure, glucose-tolerance and circadian-related variables. Thirty-two women (aged 24±4 years and body mass index 22.9±2.6 kg m(-2)) completed two randomized, crossover protocols: one protocol (P1) including assessment of resting-energy expenditure (indirect-calorimetry) and glucose tolerance (mixed-meal test) (n=10), the other (P2) including circadian-related measurements based on profiles in salivary cortisol and wrist temperature (Twrist) (n=22). In each protocol, participants were provided with standardized meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) during the two meal intervention weeks and were studied under two lunch-eating conditions: Early Eating (EE; lunch at 13:00) and Late Eating (LE; lunch 16:30). LE, as compared with EE, resulted in decreased pre-meal resting-energy expenditure (P=0.048), a lower pre-meal protein-corrected respiratory quotient (CRQ) and a changed post-meal profile of CRQ (P=0.019). These changes reflected a significantly lower pre-meal utilization of carbohydrates in LE versus EE (P=0.006). LE also increased glucose area under curve above baseline by 46%, demonstrating decreased glucose tolerance (P=0.002). Changes in the daily profile of cortisol and Twrist were also found with LE blunting the cortisol profile, with lower morning and afternoon values, and suppressing the postprandial Twrist peak (Pfood on Twrist. These results may be implicated in the differential effects of meal timing on metabolic health.

  4. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  5. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    effect, glucose tolerance, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Design Randomised, controlled, open-label. Methods Ten healthy subjects (6 women) (age: 40±5 years (mean±SEM); BMI: 24±3 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose: 5.1±0.2 mmol/l; HbA1c: 34±1 mmol...... on the paired study days. Significant increases in fasting levels and OGTT-induced responses of active GLP-1 and GIP were seen after DPP-4 inhibition. No significant impact of DPP-4 inhibition on fasting plasma glucose (5.1±0.1 vs 4.9±0.1 mmol/l, p=0.3), glucose tolerance (AUC for plasma glucose: 151±35 vs 137...

  6. Relationship between urine pH and abnormal glucose tolerance in a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sakiko; Miyake, Teruki; Yamamoto, Shin; Furukawa, Shinya; Niiya, Tetsuji; Senba, Hidenori; Kanzaki, Sayaka; Yoshida, Osamu; Ishihara, Toru; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Hirooka, Masashi; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2017-11-16

    The association between urine pH and abnormal glucose tolerance in men and women is unclear; therefore, we carried out a community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate sex-specific associations between these values, possible indicators of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. We enrolled 4,945 Japanese individuals (2,490 men and 2,455 women), who had undergone annual health checkups. To investigate the relationship between low urine pH and abnormal glucose tolerance, participants were divided into three groups based on their fasting plasma glucose levels (levels (≤44.3 mmol/mol, 44.3-47.5 mmol/mol and ≥47.5 mmol/mol). To examine the effects of urine pH on abnormal glucose tolerance, participants were categorized into five groups based on their urine pH (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5 and ≥7.0). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and antidiabetic agent use showed significant associations between low urine pH and both high fasting plasma glucose and high glycated hemoglobin levels (P for trend = 0.0260, 0.0075) in men. Furthermore, after the same adjustments, prevalence rates of abnormal glucose tolerance (≥6.11 mmol/L and ≥6.99 mmol/L), increased significantly as urine pH levels decreased (P for trend = 0.0483, 0.0181) in men. In women, a similar trend was observed without a significant difference. Low urine pH is significantly associated with abnormal glucose tolerance; therefore, measuring urine pH might prove useful for identifying patients at high risk for diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  8. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  9. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  10. Effects of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria S; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Nielsen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is important for postprandial glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), whereas the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains to be resolved. We aimed to explore the relative importance of endogenously...... secreted GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance and beta-cell function after RYGB. We used DPP-4 inhibition to enhance concentrations of intact GIP and GLP-1 and the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex-9) for specific blockage of GLP-1 actions. Twelve glucose tolerant patients were studied after RYGB...... postprandial hyperglucagonaemia compared with placebo, whereas sitagliptin had no effect despite 2-3-fold increased concentrations of intact GLP-1 and GIP. Similarly, sitagliptin did not affect glucose tolerance or beta-cell function during GLP-1R blockage. This study confirms the importance of GLP-1...

  11. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  12. Pharmacological Sirt6 inhibition improves glucose tolerance in a type 2 diabetes mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociali, Giovanna; Magnone, Mirko; Ravera, Silvia; Damonte, Patrizia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Von Holtey, Maria; Vellone, Valerio G; Millo, Enrico; Caffa, Irene; Cea, Michele; Parenti, Marco Daniele; Del Rio, Alberto; Murone, Maximilien; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Grozio, Alessia; Nencioni, Alessio; Bruzzone, Santina

    2017-07-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a sirtuin family member involved in a wide range of physiologic and disease processes, including cancer and glucose homeostasis. Based on the roles played by SIRT6 in different organs, including its ability to repress the expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, inhibiting SIRT6 has been proposed as an approach for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, so far, the lack of small-molecule Sirt6 inhibitors has hampered the conduct of in vivo studies to assess the viability of this strategy. We took advantage of a recently identified SIRT6 inhibitor, compound 1, to study the effect of pharmacological Sirt6 inhibition in a mouse model of T2DM ( i.e., in high-fat-diet-fed animals). The administration of the Sirt6 inhibitor for 10 d was well tolerated and improved oral glucose tolerance, it increased the expression of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and -4 in the muscle and enhanced the activity of the glycolytic pathway. Sirt6 inhibition also resulted in reduced insulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in plasma. This study represents the first in vivo study of a SIRT6 inhibitor and provides the proof-of-concept that targeting SIRT6 may be a viable strategy for improving glycemic control in T2DM.-Sociali, G., Magnone, M., Ravera, S., Damonte, P., Vigliarolo, T., Von Holtey, M., Vellone, V. G., Millo, E., Caffa, I., Cea, M., Parenti, M. D., Del Rio, A., Murone, M., Mostoslavsky, R., Grozio, A., Nencioni, A., Bruzzone S. Pharmacological Sirt6 inhibition improves glucose tolerance in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. © FASEB.

  13. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

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    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  14. Association of glycated hemoglobin with carotid intimal medial thickness in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Amutha, Anandakumar; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Vamsi, Mamilla; Mohan, Viswananthan

    2012-01-01

    To assess the association of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Subjects with NGT were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study carried out on a representative population of Chennai, South India. All subjects had fasting plasma glucose 5.8) (p<0.001). Regression analysis showed that HbA1c had a strong association with CIMT after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HOMA-IR and smoking (ß - 0.046, p=0.047). Even among subjects with NGT, there is a significant increase in CIMT with increasing levels of HbA1c, showing the value of using HbA1c for diagnosis of glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects....... RESULTS: GIP and GLP-1 levels increased significantly in both experiments (P response was exaggerated compared with control subjects after mixed meal (P ...OBJECTIVE: Defects in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion have been reported in some patients with type 2 diabetes after meal ingestion. We addressed the following questions: 1) Is the quantitative impairment in GLP-1 levels different after mixed meal or isolated glucose ingestion? 2) Which...

  16. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  17. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose infusion and test meal in rats with microencapsulated islet allografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.M.; Strubbe, J.H.; Wolters, G.H.J.; Schilfgaarde, R. van

    Albino Oxford rats made diabetic with 75 mg/kg streptozotocin were intraperitoneally transplanted with 2500-2900 alginate-polylysine microencapsulated Lewis islets (n = 9, total islet tissue volume 8.0-11.0-mu-l), or a similar volume of non-encapsulated Lewis islets (n = 5). All rats with

  18. Comparing glucose and insulin data from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test in metabolic syndrome subjects and marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuve, Miguel; Perpinan, Gilberto; Severeyn, Erika; Wong, Sara

    2016-08-01

    Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a medical test used to screen for prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. In the 5-sample 2-hour OGTT, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are measured after a fast and then after oral intake of glucose, at intervals of 30 minutes. In this work, a statistical analysis is carried out to find significant differences between the five stages of the OGTT for plasma glucose and insulin data. In addition, the behavior of the glucose and insulin data is compared between subjects with the metabolic syndrome and marathon runners. Results show that marathon runners have plasma glucose and insulin levels significantly lower (p Insulin secretion decreases in marathon runners due to a significant reduction in plasma glucose concentration, but insulin secretion does not decrease in metabolic syndrome subjects due to insulin resistance, consequently plasma glucose concentration does not achieve normal levels.

  19. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Samantha; Seger, Edward; Nichols, David; Ray, Andrew D; Rideout, Todd C; Gosselin, Luc E

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO 2 max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods). Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (0 minutes), and 60 and 120 minutes after glucose ingestion. Both kettlebell and high-intensity interval running exercise significantly lowered blood glucose 60 minutes after glucose ingestion compared with control. However, there was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two exercise conditions at any time point. In addition, there were no significant differences in insulin concentration between high intensity interval running, kettlebell, and control conditions at all time points. Results indicate that an acute bout of kettlebell exercise is as effective as high intensity interval running at improving glucose tolerance in sedentary young men.

  20. On the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-jie Lu

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study is to estimate the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, as well as to learn the effect of chemotherapy on the glucose metabolism of breast cancer patients. METHODS: All the 79 breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis, with the mean age of 53.2 years, and 96 breast cancer patients before the 5th or 6th cycle of chemotherapy, with the mean age of 51.5 years, participated in the study from December 2012 to October 2013. After an overnight fast, participants underwent OGTT test, and fasting and 2-hour glucose levels were measured to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (i.e., impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in them. Previously diagnosed diabetes among the female breast cancer patients was determined on the self-report and the medical record. RESULTS: The overall incidences of total normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, diabetes in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were 24.1% and 38.5% (p0.05, respectively, and the differences of normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes instead of diabetes between the two groups were statistically significant. About 84% of the total diabetes and prediabetes in the female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and 79.7% of those during chemotherapy need to be diagnosed with OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer patients have high incidences of diabetes and prediabetes. After chemotherapy even with steroids, some breast cancer patients with abnormal glucose metabolism may even become normal. Isolated hyperglycemia 2 hours after glucose loading is common, and OGTT should be made for breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy.

  1. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  2. Circulating soluble CD36 is a novel marker of liver injury in subjects with altered glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel; Handberg, Aase; Ortega, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    ) and indicators of liver health. We evaluated a cohort of men from the general population (n=117). As expected, serum (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were associated positively with body mass index (BMI) and age and negatively with SI (minimal model method). Circulating...... sCD36 was positively associated with ALT, AST and GGT in subjects with altered glucose tolerance, but not in those with normal glucose tolerance. The difference in the slope of the relationships was significant (P=.01). Age, BMI and triglycerides (but not sCD36) contributed independently to 29......% of ALT variance in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. In contrast, SI and sCD36 contributed independently to 39% of ALT variance in subjects with altered glucose tolerance. The correlation between ALT activity and sCD36 was confirmed in an independent, replication study. In summary, circulating s...

  3. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for a poor outcome after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive insulin treatment aiming at normoglycemia can markedly improve the survival of critically ill patients, but the broad clinical application is limited by its practicab......OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for a poor outcome after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive insulin treatment aiming at normoglycemia can markedly improve the survival of critically ill patients, but the broad clinical application is limited by its...... practicability and the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, the glucose-lowering effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery. DESIGN: Randomised clinical study. SETTING: A surgical unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS...... AND MEASUREMENTS: Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (five men, three women; age, 49+/-15 yrs; body mass index, 28+/-3 kg/m; glycosylated hemoglobin, 8.0%+/-1.9%), who had undergone major surgical procedures, were studied between the second and the eighth postoperative day with the intravenous administration...

  4. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  5. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Maekawa,1 Tetsuya Kawahara,2 Ryosuke Nomura,1 Takayuki Murase,1 Yasuyoshi Ann,1 Masayuki Oeholm,1 Masaru Harada31Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization, Niigata Rosai Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan; 3Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: In recent years, the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT has increased steadily worldwide. It is clear that the prevention of diabetes is important from the perspective of public health, medical care, and economics. It was recently reported that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is useful for achieving weight loss and glycemic control, but there is no information about the effects of the LCD on IGT. We designed a 7-day in-hospital educational program focused on the LCD for IGT.Methods: The subjects were 72 patients with IGT (36 in the LCD group and 36 in the control group who were enrolled from April 2007–March 2012 and followed for 12 months. We retrospectively compared the LCD group with the control group.Results: In 69.4% of the LCD group, blood glucose was normalized at 12 months and the 2-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reduced by 33 mg/dL. In addition, the incidence of diabetes was significantly lower in the LCD group than in the control group at 12 months (0% versus 13.9%, P=0.02. The LCD group showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance value, body weight and serum triglycerides (TGs at 12 months, while there was a significant increase of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level.Conclusion: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type 2 diabetes in

  6. The relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Sumritsopak, Rungtip; Saetung, Sunee; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 plays a role in glucose regulation. Sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnea, insufficient or poor sleep quality) have been shown to adversely affect glucose metabolism. This study aimed to explore the relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 regulation in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. Seventy-one adults with haemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and sleep duration and efficiency were obtained from 7-day actigraphy recordings. Obstructive sleep apnea was assessed using an overnight home monitor. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were measured during a 75-g glucose tolerance. The area under the curve of glucagon-like peptide 1 was calculated. The mean age (SD) was 55.1 (8.3) years and median (interquartile range) haemoglobin A1c was 5.97% (5.86, 6.23). There was no relationship between sleep duration or efficiency and fasting or area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels did not differ among those sleeping ≤ 5.75, > 5.75-sleep apnea severity, correlated with lower area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.242, P = 0.045), but not with fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.213, P = 0.079). After adjusting for sex, haemoglobin A1c and body mass index, increasing apnea-hypopnea index was negatively associated with having area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 in the highest quartile (odds ratio 0.581, P = 0.028, 95% CI 0.359, 0.942). This study demonstrated that increasing obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with lower glucagon-like peptide 1 response to glucose challenge. This could possibly be an additional mechanism by which obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism. Whether raising glucagon-like peptide 1 levels in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance with more severe obstructive sleep apnea will be beneficial should be explored. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European

  7. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in Indian children: relationship to infant feeding pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Wills, A K; Hill, J C; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2011-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of complementary foods are associated with lower glucose concentrations and insulin resistance (IR-HOMA) in Indian children. Breast-feeding duration (six categories from l [95% CI -0.10, -0.004]; p = 0.03) and IR-HOMA (β = -0.05 [95% CI -0.10, -0.001]; p = 0.046) at 5 years, adjusted for the child's sex, age, current BMI, socioeconomic status, parent's education, rural/urban residence, birthweight and maternal gestational diabetes status. Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher 120-min glucose concentration at 5 years (β = 0.08 mmol/l [95% CI 0.001, 0.15; p = 0.03]) but lower 120-min glucose concentration at 9.5 years (β = -0.09 [95% CI -0.16, -0.03]; p = 0.006). Age at starting complementary foods was unrelated to the children's glucose tolerance and IR-HOMA. Within this cohort, in which prolonged breast-feeding was the norm, there was evidence of a protective effect of longer duration of breast-feeding against glucose intolerance at 9.5 years. At 5 years longer duration of breast-feeding was associated with lower IR-HOMA.

  9. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  10. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid levels in a general Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance: A U-shaped curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyang Wang

    Full Text Available Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and serum uric acid (SUA levels, the results were inconsistent. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate this relationship in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance.A total of 5,726 women and 5,457 men with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Generalized additive models and two-piecewise linear regression models were applied to assess the relationship.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA was observed. After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflection points of FPG levels in the curves were 4.6 mmol/L in women and 4.7 mmol/L in men respectively. SUA levels decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose concentrations before the inflection points (regression coefficient [β] = -36.4, P < 0.001 for women; β = -33.5, P < 0.001 for men, then SUA levels increased (β = 17.8, P < 0.001 for women; β = 13.9, P < 0.001 for men. Additionally, serum insulin levels were positively associated with FPG and SUA (P < 0.05.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA levels existed in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The association is partly mediated through serum insulin levels.

  11. Strength training improves muscle aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, P; Andersson, E; Pontén, M; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, M; Sahlin, K

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term resistance training (RET) on mitochondrial protein content and glucose tolerance in elderly. Elderly women and men (age 71 ± 1, mean ± SEM) were assigned to a group performing 8 weeks of resistance training (RET, n = 12) or no training (CON, n = 9). The RET group increased in (i) knee extensor strength (concentric +11 ± 3%, eccentric +8 ± 3% and static +12 ± 3%), (ii) initial (0-30 ms) rate of force development (+52 ± 26%) and (iii) contents of proteins related to signaling of muscle protein synthesis (Akt +69 ± 20 and mammalian target of rapamycin +69 ± 32%). Muscle fiber type composition changed to a more oxidative profile in RET with increased amount of type IIa fibers (+26.9 ± 6.8%) and a trend for decreased amount of type IIx fibers (-16.4 ± 18.2%, P = 0.068). Mitochondrial proteins (OXPHOS complex II, IV, and citrate synthase) increased in RET by +30 ± 11%, +99 ± 31% and +29 ± 8%, respectively. RET resulted in improved oral glucose tolerance measured as reduced area under curve for glucose (-21 ± 26%) and reduced plasma glucose 2 h post-glucose intake (-14 ± 5%). In CON parameters were unchanged or impaired. In conclusion, short-term resistance training in elderly not only improves muscular strength, but results in robust increases in several parameters related to muscle aerobic capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  13. Loss of high-frequency glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic islets correlates with impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsoul, Barbara; Schraenen, Anica; Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Segal, Andrei; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Margolskee, Robert F; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Gilon, Patrick; Nilius, Bernd; Schuit, Frans C; Vennekens, Rudi

    2010-03-16

    Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (V(m)) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca(2+)](cyt)). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like properties is significantly reduced in Trpm5(-/-) cells. Ca(2+)-imaging and electrophysiological analysis show that glucose-induced oscillations of V(m) and [Ca(2+)](cyt) have on average a reduced frequency in Trpm5(-/-) islets, specifically due to a lack of fast oscillations. As a consequence, glucose-induced insulin release from Trpm5(-/-) pancreatic islets is significantly reduced, resulting in an impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5(-/-) mice.

  14. Loss of high-frequency glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic islets correlates with impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsoul, Barbara; Schraenen, Anica; Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Segal, Andrei; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Margolskee, Robert F.; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Gilon, Patrick; Nilius, Bernd; Schuit, Frans C.; Vennekens, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (Vm) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca2+]cyt). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca2+-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like properties is significantly reduced in Trpm5−/− cells. Ca2+-imaging and electrophysiological analysis show that glucose-induced oscillations of Vm and [Ca2+]cyt have on average a reduced frequency in Trpm5−/− islets, specifically due to a lack of fast oscillations. As a consequence, glucose-induced insulin release from Trpm5−/− pancreatic islets is significantly reduced, resulting in an impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5−/− mice. PMID:20194741

  15. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  16. Changes in Blood Values of Glucose, Insulin and Inorganic Phosphorus in Healthy and Ketotic Dairy Cows after Intravenous Infusion of Propionate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Djoković

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissue on the basis of changes in blood concentrations of glucose, insulin and inorganic phosphorus in healthy (n = 10 and ketotic cows (n = 10 after intravenous infusion of propionate solution. Blood samples were taken in both groups of examined cows at the following time intervals: just before (time 0 and 8, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 480 min after the intravenous infusion of 1.84 mol l-1 solution of propionate in the amount of 1 ml kg-1 of body weight. Glucose and insulin blood serum values in both groups of cows increased significantly within 120 min of the experiment (p p p p < 0.05 in blood value of inorganic phosphorus in ketotic cows in comparison with healthy ones. This is linked with the active entry of glucose into glucolytic pathway of peripheral tissues. It can thus be concluded that there is a higher degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissues in ketotic cows.

  17. Assessment of insulin resistance in Chinese PCOS patients with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhou, Li; Hong, Jie; Chen, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate insulin resistance (IR) status in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and further to evaluate feasible diagnostic method for those patients. Three hundred and twenty-five PCOS women with NGT and ninety-five healthy age-matched controls were recruited with Rotterdam criterion and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR status was estimated following a glycemic and insulinemic OGTT (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min). A modified HOMA-IR formula was applied to each time-course value of glycemia and insulinemia. The predictive performance of each IR index was analyzed with the use of ROC curves. Compared with healthy controls, both non-obese and obese PCOS patients with NGT had a higher BMI, serum glucose, insulin value (p PCOS-NGT was a HOMA-M30 value of 20.36 or more (AUC: 0.753). In obese PCOS-NGT population, the best predictive performance was obtained by a HOMA-M60 value of 32.17 or more (AUC: 0.868). IR was common in Chinese PCOS women with NGT, and the early assessment of IR should be heeded. We recommended HOMA-M30 (Cutoff: 20.36) and HOMA-M60 (Cutoff: 32.17) as the best predictive parameters for non-obese and obese PCOS-NGT patients, respectively.

  18. Dose escalation study to evaluate safety, tolerability and efficacy of intravenous etoposide phosphate administration in 27 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Pierre; Serres, François; Marescaux, Laurent; Hordeaux, Juliette; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Gomes, Bruno; Tierny, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Comparative oncology has shown that naturally occurring canine cancers are of valuable and translatable interest for the understanding of human cancer biology and the characterization of new therapies. This work was part of a comparative oncology project assessing a new, clinical-stage topoisomerase II inhibitor and comparing it with etoposide in dogs with spontaneous lymphoma with the objective to translate findings from dogs to humans. Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used in various humans' solid and hematopoietic cancer, but little data is available concerning its potential antitumor efficacy in dogs. Etoposide phosphate is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide which is expected to be better tolerated in dogs. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety, the tolerability and the efficacy of intravenous etoposide phosphate in dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Seven dose levels were evaluated in a traditional 3+3 phase I design. Twenty-seven owned-dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma were enrolled and treated with three cycles of etoposide phosphate IV injections every 2 weeks. Adverse effects were graded according to the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group criteria. A complete end-staging was realized 45 days after inclusion. The maximal tolerated dose was 300 mg/m2. At this dose level, the overall response rate was 83.3% (n = 6, 3 PR and 2 CR). Only a moderate reversible gastrointestinal toxicity, no severe myelotoxicity and no hypersensitivity reaction were reported at this dose level. Beyond the characterization of etoposide clinical efficacy in dogs, this study underlined the clinical and therapeutic homologies between dog and human lymphomas.

  19. Proglucagon products in plasma of noninsulin-dependent diabetics and nondiabetic controls in the fasting state and after oral glucose and intravenous arginine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Jeppesen, J; Madsbad, S

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the major products of proglucagon (PG) processing in plasma in the fasting state, after intravenous arginine and after an oral glucose load in noninsulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) and in weight matched controls using specific radioimmunoassays and analytical gel filtration....... The elevated levels of immunoreactive GLP-1 in diabetics in the fasting state were mainly due to an increased concentration of major proglucagon fragment....

  20. Tolerance and biochemical effects from intravenous injection of ioxaglate in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.E.; Aspelin, P.; Nyman, U.; Hedner, U.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1984-01-01

    The influence of intravenous injection of ioxaglate (Hexabrix, 320 mg I/ml) on various biochemical, coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters, fractionated plasma proteins, precordial ECG and blood pressure was prospectively and sequentially studied in 9 healthy volunteers. One ml/kg body weight of the contrast medium was injected within one minute into an antecubital vein. Small, but statistically significant, changes in some of the biochemical parameters were found during the observation period, 2 to 4 days. All values of the biochemical parameters were, however, within the normal reference range for each parameter. No significant alterations were seen in the coagulation parameters. Increased fibrinolysis was recorded in some subjects both before and after the injection. No fibrinolytic degradation products were found indicating that the fibrinolysis was nominal. No significant changes were observed in the fractionated plasma proteins. The heart rate decreased significantly 15 seconds after commencing the injection. No significant changes in blood pressure were recorded. Two participants became nauseated and one of them vomited during the injection. Apart from this, no adverse effects were noted. No clinically significant changes following the injections were found. (orig.)

  1. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  3. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Fouzia; Crompton, Leslie A; Scaife, Jes R; Lomax, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin) and essential amino acids (EAA) would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of synergistic effects between

  4. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  5. Sweet taste disorder and vascular complications in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Imai, Kenjiro; Kanda, Sayaka; Kakei, Masafumi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-10-15

    It remains unknown whether taste disorders can be a risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular diseases in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional study in a nationally representative samples of 848 and 849 US adults (aged ≥40years) with diabetes or prediabetes who had sweet and salt taste disorders, respectively, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Among the study population, 5.7% had sweet taste disorder and 8.6% had salt taste disorder. These data correspond to approximately 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance aged 40years or older in the US population, respectively. In the adjusted model, sweet taste disorder was significantly associated with complication of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.81; P=0.04). Moreover, sweet taste disorder in patients with diabetes was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09-7.69; P=0.03) and diabetic nephropathy (adjusted OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.07-9.36; P=0.03). Meanwhile, salt taste disorder was not significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Total sugar intake was significantly higher in patients with sweet taste disorder than in those without it, whereas total daily intake of carbohydrate did not differ significantly. No significant association was observed between salt taste disorder and daily intake of sodium after multivariate analysis. Sweet taste disorder in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with increased sugar intake and vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Intergenerational transmission of macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, J; Miazgowski, T

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that neonatal macrosomia may contribute to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life. Much less is known about the association between maternal birth weight (MBW) and offspring birth weight (OBW). This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence of macrosomia in women with treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. The study also investigated associations between MBW and OBW. Medical records of 519 pregnant women with treated GDM and 766 women with normal glucose tolerance, referred to the Gestational Diabetes Outpatient Clinic in Szczecin, Poland, were analyzed. The following data were assessed: maternal age, pregravid body weight, height, gestational weight gain, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, MBW and OBW. Birth weight was classified as small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia (≥4000g). OBW was obtained from birth certificates, and MBW was obtained from birth certificates or self-report. The overall prevalence of macrosomia was 8.1%, and was comparable in subgroups of women with and without GDM (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively; p=0.905). The frequencies of SGA, AGA and LGA did not differ between study groups. A positive correlation was found between MBW and OBW in women with treated GDM (r=0.211, pmacrosomia in offspring [odds ratio (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.36 in women with treated GDM; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.76 in women with normal glucose tolerance). Other independent predictors of fetal macrosomia were gestational weight gain, prior macrosomia and pregravid body mass index (BMI). MBW, prior macrosomia, pregravid BMI and gestational weight gain were predictors of macrosomia in offspring, but GDM was not. High MBW seems to contribute to intergenerational transmission of macrosomia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucose tolerance and lipid-lipoprotein levels in middle-aged powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, B F; Hagberg, J M; Seals, D R; Ehsani, A A; Goldberg, A P; Holloszy, J O

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of a form of strength training (powerlifting) on certain coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in middle-aged men. The risk factors studied were the plasma lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels, all of which have been shown to be favourably influenced by endurance training in middle-aged and older men. Five elite powerlifters (52 +/- 9 years) were compared to distance runners and sedentary controls of similar age with whom they were matched in terms of body fatness as estimated from skin-fold thickness measurements. The powerlifters had a significantly (P less than 0.01) lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level (34 +/- 4 mg/100 ml) than the sedentary controls (48 +/- 12 mg/100 ml) and runners (54 +/- 8 mg/100 ml). The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, a good indicator of CAD risk, was 41% higher in the powerlifters than in the controls, and 57% higher than in the runners (both P less than 0.01). The total area under the glucose tolerance curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the powerlifters was 74% higher than for the sedentary controls (P less than 0.05) and 229% higher than for runners (P less than 0.01). Similarly, the total area under the OGTT insulin curve for the powerlifters was 68% higher than for sedentary controls and 332% higher than for the runners (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that middle-aged powerlifters, in marked contrast to endurance athletes, have an increased risk of developing CAD.

  8. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T

    2009-01-01

    to hepatic glucose production during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Furthermore, we examined rs560887 for association with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: rs560887 was genotyped in the Inter99...... an increased acute insulin response (p = 4 x 10(-4)) during an IVGTT. Among elderly twins, G allele carriers had higher basal hepatic glucose production (p = 0.04). Finally, the G allele associated with the risk of having IFG (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.47, p = 0.002), but not with IGT (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.......82-1.08, p = 0.4) or type 2 diabetes (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84-1.04, p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting glycaemia and increased risk of IFG, associations that may be partly related to an increased basal hepatic glucose...

  9. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons.Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE.218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%.SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  10. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels slightly increase rather than decrease after a glucose load in subjects with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Ma, Xiaojing; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yufei; He, Xingxing; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies showed that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are significantly reduced in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it remains unclear how 1,5-AG levels acutely change in response to a glucose load. This study explored acute changes in 1,5-AG levels after a glucose load and the related influencing factors in individuals with differing degrees of glucose tolerance. A total of 681 participants (353 without DM and 328 with DM) without a prior history of DM were enrolled. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting and postload (30, 60, 120, and 180 min) levels of plasma glucose, serum 1,5-AG, and insulin were measured. In all participant groups, serum 1,5-AG levels were slightly elevated after a glucose load and reached peak values at 120 min after loading (all P glucose load. Further studies in different 1,5-AG transport models are needed to investigate the relevant metabolic pathways.

  11. Age, BMI, and race are less important than random plasma glucose in identifying risk of glucose intolerance: the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Caudle, Jane M; Irving, Jade M; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m(2) provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility.

  12. Comparative study of HbA1cand fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, H; Ambreen, A; Jamil, M; Garred, P; Petersen, J H; Nielsen, S D; Bygbjerg, I C; Christensen, D L

    2017-06-01

    To compare HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA 1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39) were diagnosed with diabetes using HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose criteria, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.94) for HbA 1c and 0.61 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.73) for fasting plasma glucose, with a borderline significant difference between the two tests (P=0.07). HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood glucose fluctuations when using fasting plasma glucose. HbA 1c may be a more reliable test in individuals with transient hyperglycaemia. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Single Oral or Intravenous Administration of 200 mg Tedizolid Phosphate in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John S; Flanagan, Shawn D; Arrieta, Antonio C; Jacobs, Richard; Capparelli, Edmund; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial US FDA approved for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in adults. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in adolescents (12-17 years old) after administration of a single intravenous (IV) or oral dose. In this multicenter, open-label study, a single IV infusion (N = 10) or oral dose (N = 10) of 200 mg tedizolid phosphate was administered to adolescents already receiving antibacterial treatment for presumed or documented infection. Blood and urine samples were collected predose and over 24 hours. Tedizolid pharmacokinetics was generally similar after IV or oral administration of 200 mg tedizolid phosphate. Mean (standard deviation) half-life values were similar for oral and IV routes, 8.3 (2.0) and 6.6 (0.7) hours, respectively. Absolute oral bioavailability of tedizolid (90% confidence interval) was 88.8% (70.4%-112.1%). Geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of area under the concentration-time curve values for adolescents relative to values previously reported for adults after 200 mg of single-dose IV or oral administration were 0.847 (0.736-0.975). Tedizolid was well tolerated. Overall pharmacokinetics of tedizolid was similar after administration of a single oral or IV 200 mg dose, and bioavailability was high. Exposure profiles were similar to those in adults. With clinical outcomes based on area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration and current susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens, results suggest that the 200 mg daily regimen of tedizolid phosphate can be extended to adolescents for clinical trials, and that dose adjustment may not be required when switching routes.

  14. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of Flebogamma 10% DIF, a high-purity human intravenous immunoglobulin, in primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin; Pinciaro, Paul J; Althaus, Arthur; Ballow, Mark; Chouksey, Akhilesh; Moy, James; Ochs, Hans; Stein, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Flebogamma 10% DIF represents an evolution of intravenous immune globulin from the previous 5% product to be administered at higher rates and with smaller infusion volumes. Pathogen safety is enhanced by the combination of multiple methods with different mechanisms of action. The objective of this study as to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of Flebogamma 10% DIF for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). Flebogamma 10% DIF was administered to 46 subjects with well-defined PIDD at a dose of 300-600 mg/kg every 21-28 days for 12 months. Serious bacterial infection rate was 0.025/subject/year. Half-life in serum of the administered IgG was approximately 35 days. No serious treatment-related adverse event (AE) occurred in any patient. Most of the potentially treatment-related AEs occurred during the infusion, accounting for 20% of the 601 infusions administered. Flebogamma 10% DIF is efficacious and safe, has adequate pharmacokinetic properties, and is well-tolerated for the treatment of PIDD.

  16. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose...... into the systemic circulation, followed by increased insulin secretion and glucose disappearance appears to drive the changes in the glucose profile observed after RYGB, while endogenous glucose production remains unchanged. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559792. FUNDING: The study was part of the UNIK...

  17. Microgram amounts of abscisic acid in fruit extracts improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulinemia in rats and in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Mirko; Ameri, Pietro; Salis, Annalisa; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Emionite, Laura; Murialdo, Giovanni; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-12-01

    2-Cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that is present also in animals. Several lines of evidence suggest that ABA contributes to the regulation of glycemia in mammals: nanomolar ABA stimulates insulin release from β-pancreatic cells and glucose transporter-4-mediated glucose uptake by myoblasts and adipocytes in vitro; plasma ABA increases in normal human subjects, but not in diabetic patients, after a glucose load for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The presence of ABA in fruits prompted an exploration of the bioavailability of dietary ABA and the effect of ABA-rich fruit extracts on glucose tolerance. Rats underwent an OGTT, with or without 1 µg/kg ABA, either synthetic or present in a fruit extract. Human volunteers underwent an OGTT or a standard breakfast and lunch, with or without a fruit extract, yielding an ABA dose of 0.85 or 0.5 µg/kg, respectively. Plasma glucose, insulin, and ABA were measured at different time points. Oral ABA at 0.5-1 µg/kg significantly lowered glycemia and insulinemia in rats and in humans. Thus, the glycemia-lowering effect of low-dose ABA in vivo does not depend on an increased insulin release. Low-dose ABA intake may be proposed as an aid to improving glucose tolerance in patients with diabetes who are deficient in or resistant to insulin. © FASEB.

  18. Ceratonia siliqua L. (immature carob bean) inhibits intestinal glucose absorption, improves glucose tolerance and protects against alloxan-induced diabetes in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Saidani, Khouloud; Sebai, Hichem; Amri, Mohamed; Eto, Bruno; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of immature carob pod aqueous extract (ICPAE) on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well as the potential antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. OGTT was carried by administration of glucose (2 g kg -1 , p.o.) and after treatment with extract (50, 100 and 200 mg kg -1 body weight). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg kg -1 ). However, the extracts at various doses or glibenclamide (GLB, 10 mg kg -1 body weight) were given by oral administration for 2 weeks. ICPAE (50-2000 µg mL -1 ) exerted dose-dependent reduction of sodium-dependent glucose transport across isolated mice jejunum and the maximal inhibition exceeded 50%.The ICPAE treatment improved glucose tolerance. More importantly, ICPAE at various doses showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and biochemical profiles in diabetic rats. Our findings confirm that the degree of maturity of carob characterized by a different phytochemical composition may be responsible for these actions. Therefore, these compounds may be used as a food supplement in hyperglycemia and diabetes treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  20. Glucose tolerance in Papua New Guinea: ethnic differences, association with environmental and behavioural factors and the possible emergence of glucose intolerance in a highland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H; Finch, C; Collins, A; Koki, G; King, L F; Heywood, P; Zimmet, P

    1989-08-21

    That Melanesians of non-Austronesian genetic ancestry may be relatively resistant to glucose intolerance was supported by the results of a study of two semitraditional non-Austronesian villages in the Papua New Guinean highlands in 1983, in which an absence of diabetes and a high degree of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed. The second of this series of surveys was conducted in 1985 in three non-traditional communities: a periurban, non-Austronesian village in the highlands, and rural and periurban Austronesian villages in coastal locations. Although an absence of diabetes was demonstrated once again in the highlanders, these periurban subjects showed an unexpectedly high insulin response which may be a precursor of glucose intolerance. The notion that highland communities that are living in non-traditional circumstances in Papua New Guinea presently are in "metabolic transition" towards diabetes and other non-communicable diseases, if correct, is of importance to the public health of the nation. In the periurban, coastal-dwelling Austronesians, diabetes with severe hyperglycaemia was demonstrated, and there was some evidence of a secular trend towards increasing glucose intolerance. The two-hour plasma glucose concentrations were shown to be associated with obesity, modernity and Seventh-Day Adventist religious persuasion. However, important and unexplained differences in glucose tolerance remained between rural and periurban coastal dwellers after taking these factors into account.

  1. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Katayama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM using a retrospective design. Patients and Methods Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG. We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. Results Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. Conclusions Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves.

  2. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...... (±SD) of -4.22% (±5.19) in the intensive-care group and -2.48% (±4.01) in the usual-care group after 1 month (p = 0.047). In patients with abnormal glucose tolerance, RLSS improved by -5.01% (±5.28) in the intensive-care group and -2.15% (±4.22) in the usual-care group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Early...... high-dose statin treatment improved RLSS in the infarct area in patients with AMI, and a trend of greater improvement was seen in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance....

  3. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin...... at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...

  4. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    , inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN...... determined. RESULTS: We identified a variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in intron 2 of the DPP4 gene that, after correction for multiple comparisons and appropriate adjustment, revealed a significant genotype-body fat interaction effect on glucose-stimulated plasma GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0021). Notably, no genotype......-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS: A common variant, i...

  5. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  6. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To estimate the 1-year progression rates from both IFG and IGT to diabetes in individuals identified in a pragmatic diabetes screening programme in general practice (the ADDITION Study, Denmark [Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes...... in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  7. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  8. The effect of moderate consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners on glucose tolerance and body composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Ashley P; Navalta, James W; Kruskall, Laura J; Young, John C

    2017-11-01

    Glucose tolerance and body composition were determined in male rats given non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) (aspartame or sucralose) in drinking water. Areas under the curve for glucose and insulin with NNS did not differ from control. NNS treatment had no effect on weight gain or percent body fat. Epididymal fat pad mass was higher with aspartame and the ratio of trunk to total fat was less with sucralose versus control, suggesting that NNS consumption altered body fat distribution.

  9. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2......)). Method: Before and after the life style intervention an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained in the fasted state. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured by an indirect test. Results: After the intervention body weight was decreased (P...

  10. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and local tolerance at injection site of marbofloxacin administered by regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Elodie; Trencart, Pierre; Tahier, Carine; Dron, Frederic; Paulin, Angelique; Tessier, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic variables and local tolerance at injection-site of marbofloxacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion (RIVLP) in standing horses. Adult horses (n = 6). RIVLP were performed with rubber tourniquets applied to the forelimbs of standing sedated horses. Marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) was randomly injected in 1 forelimb, with the contralateral limb serving as a control (0.9% NaCl solution). Samples of jugular blood and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint of the marbofloxacin-perfused limb were collected before and at intervals after RIVLP for determination of drug concentrations. All injection sites were evaluated before, 24 and 48 hours after RIVLP by means of ultrasonographic examination, circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores by veterinarians unaware of treatment received. No adverse effects associated with the technique or antibiotic were observed. High marbofloxacin concentrations were obtained in the synovial fluid, AUCINF was significantly higher in synovial fluid than in plasma (78.64 ± 49.41 and 2.85 ± 0.60 µg h/mL respectively, P = .028). The efficacy indices, AUC0-24 /MIC90 and Cmaxobs/MIC90 , predicted a favorable outcome in the treatment of synovial fluid infections caused by enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. After RIVLP, there was no statistically significant difference between marbofloxacin-injected and control limbs for lameness, visual inflammation score, limb circumference, and ultrasonographic appearance of the veins. Marbofloxacin injected limbs had a significantly greater subcutaneous thickness, compared with control limbs. These data suggest that RIVLP of marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) could be a safe and effective method for treatment of infections of the distal portion of the limb for susceptible organisms. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of an intensive follow-up program on the postpartum glucose tolerance testing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Daley, Julie; Breault, Pauline; Lopes, Vrishali V; Paine, Virginia; Goldman, Dona; Francis, Mary Jean; Delgado, Blanca; Coustan, Donald R

    2014-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong risk factor for the development of diabetes. We assessed the impact of a 1-year intensive follow-up demonstration program, using direct nurse and outreach worker case management, aimed at increasing compliance with postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). During the year of implementation, a nurse or bilingual outreach worker contacted patients to encourage attendance at their scheduled postpartum 2-h 75-g OGTT and assisted in overcoming obstacles to testing. All patients with GDM seen in our specialty clinic the previous year served as a control group for comparison. One hundred eighty-one patients treated during the year prior to implementation were compared to the 207 in the demonstration program. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After the program's implementation, postpartum OGTT adherence increased from 43.1 to 59.4 % (p worker case management leads to a modest, but important increase in adherence to postpartum OGTT testing.

  13. Influence of maternal obesity on fetal growth at different periods of pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kei; Matsushima, Miho; Izawa, Tomoko; Furukawa, Seishi; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2018-01-18

    We aimed to examine the influence of maternal obesity on fetal growth in utero at different periods of pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance. A retrospective cohort study on 356 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance was conducted. The women were categorized by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as obese (OB; BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) or non-obese (n-OB). Z-scores of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) and the rate of fetal macrosomia (AC ≥ 90th percentile) at 19, 30, and 36 gestational weeks (GW) were compared between the two groups. Maternal demographics (age, parity, height, pre-pregnancy BMI, history of prior large-for-gestational-age delivery) were compared between the pregnancies with and without fetal macrosomia at each gestational age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for fetal macrosomia. Birthweights of the neonates were significantly higher in the OB group. Z-scores of the fetal AC were significantly higher in the OB group at 30 and 36 GW, while no significant difference was found at 19 GW. The rates of fetal macrosomia in the OB group were also higher at 30 and 36 GW, while maternal obesity was not associated with fetal macrosomia at 19 GW. Pre-pregnancy BMI was detected as the independent predictor of fetal macrosomia at 30 GW (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI]) and 36 GW (odds ratio, 1.13 [95% CI]). Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity has a promoting effect on fetal growth from the third trimester through birth. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Oral 2-oleyl glyceryl ether improves glucose tolerance in mice through the GPR119 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, H A; Engelstoft, M S; Sichlau, R M

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal G protein-coupled receptor GPR119 is a novel metabolic target involving glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-derived insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis. Endogenous and diet-derived lipids, including N-acylethanolamines and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) activate GPR119. The purpose...... of this work is to evaluate whether 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG) improves glucose tolerance through GPR119, using wild type (WT) and GPR 119 knock out (KO) mice. We here show that GPR119 is essential for 2-OG-mediated release of GLP-1 and CCK from GLUTag cells, since a GPR119 specific antagonist completely...... abolished the hormone release. Similarly, in isolated primary colonic crypt cultures from WT mice, GPR119 was required for 2-OG-stimulated GLP-1 release while there was no response in crypts from KO mice. In vivo, gavage with 2-oleyl glyceryl ether ((2-OG ether), a stable 2-OG analog with a potency of 5.3 µ...

  15. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyana Dimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most research efforts have been focused on studying insulin-sensitizing adipokines. One of the most recently discovered adipokines is vaspin, a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor. Vaspin levels have been found significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been assumed that vaspin serves as an insulin sensitizer with anti-inflammatory effects and might act as a compensatory mechanism in response to decreased insulin sensitivity. Most studies in humans have shown a positive correlation between vaspin gene expression and serum levels, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Vaspin gene expression is influenced by age and gender, and the administration of insulin sensitizers enhances it in mice, whereas the use of metformin decreases serum vaspin levels in humans, probably due to different regulatory mechanisms. Presumably vaspin plays local and endocrine role in the development of initial and advanced atherosclerosis in obese subjects and might be used as a predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. It is believed that vaspin could be regarded as a new link between obesity and related metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance. The entire understanding of vaspin intimate mechanism of action might enable the development of novel etiology-based treatment strategies, targeting metabolic and glucose tolerance disorders.

  16. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  17. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  18. Intergenerational effects of prenatal ethanol on glucose tolerance and insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathryn M; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2014-03-01

    Consequences of prenatal exposure to ethanol (E) include morphological, physiological, and cognitive deficits and are collectively classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Adult prenatal E exposed offspring show insulin resistance, and given that in utero hyperglycemic environment can cause metabolic disorders in subsequent generations; we investigated the effects of grandmaternal E on functional glucose and insulin responses of the second generation. Sprague-Dawley (S) rat dams, mated with S males, received E-containing liquid diet and two different control diets between gestational days 8 and 20. Additionally, because prenatal E-induced behavioral deficits can be reversed by simultaneous thyroxine (T4) treatment, another group of dams received 0.3 mg/l T4 in their E diet. Their first-generation (F1) offspring were mated with control Brown Norway (B) males or females to produce SB and BS F2 progeny. Dams consuming E during pregnancy were hyperglycemic, and their F1 offspring showed insulin resistance in the glucose tolerance test (GTT). However, F2 responses to GTT varied based on the sex of prenatal E-exposed parent. BS F2 females, and both male and female SB F2 progeny, displayed hypoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic GTT response patterns. Although administering T4 to E dams normalized thyroid function of the F1 generation, it did not reverse their prenatal E-induced metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, administration of T4 to the alcohol-consuming grandmother reversed or alleviated the aberrant GTT responses of the F2 progeny. Prenatal E-induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism can affect the next generation, possibly via ethanol effects on the germline of the F1 fetus.

  19. Study of impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in a south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic disease and leads to an important cardiovascular and global mortality rate, either directly or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors. Aim: We sought to study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MS, and cardiovascular risk (CVR in a south Indian population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in a cohort of 96 healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, total lipid profiles, fating plasma glucose (FPG, post lunch plasma glucose (PLPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine and insulin were measured by standard methods. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used to determine differences between mean and frequency values of continuous and categorical variables. Results: Significant differences were observed in the means of BMI (28.89 kg/m 2 (P<0.0001, FPG (102.41 mg/dL (P<0.0001, insulin (18.1 μU/L (P<0.0001, PLPG (149.05 mg/dL (P<0.0001, diastolic BP (84.41 mmHg (P<0.01, total cholesterol (166.72 mg/dL (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (90.65 mg/dL (P<0.0001 in overweight subjects when compared to normal subjects . The prevalence of dyslipidemia, IGT, MS and CVR was significantly higher in younger (<45years than middle-aged (46-55years subjects. Conclusions: The condition of being overweight, expressed as BMI, appears to be a good indicator of risk for IGT, MS, and CVR, particularly in young non-obese subjects (BMI<30.

  20. Evaluation of a minimally invasive system for measuring glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance tests: usefulness of sweat monitoring for precise measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Tomita, Koji; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kaneto, Hideaki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiromu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system for measuring glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Sweat contamination during interstitial fluid glucose (IG) extraction affects the accuracy of glucose AUC measurement, because this technology uses extracted sodium ion levels as an internal standard. Therefore, we developed a sweat monitoring patch to reduce this effect and investigated its efficacy in volunteers undergoing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Fifty diabetes mellitus inpatients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing the 75 g OGTT were included. Two sites on the forearm were pretreated with microneedle arrays, then hydrogels for interstitial fluid extraction were placed on the treated sites. Simultaneously, hydrogels for sweat monitoring were placed on untreated sites near the treated sites. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h to calculate reference AUC values. Using MIET, IG AUC was calculated from extracted glucose and sodium ion levels after attachment of the hydrogel for 2 h. Good correlation between IG AUC measurements using MIET and reference AUCs measured using PG levels was confirmed over a wide AUC range (202-610 mg/h/dl) after correction for the sweat-induced error detected by the hydrogel patches on the nonpretreated skin. Strong correlation between IG AUC and peak glucose levels indicates that glucose spikes can be easily detected by this system. We confirmed the effectiveness of a sweat monitoring patch for precise AUC measurement using MIET. This novel, easy-to-use system has potential for glucose excursion evaluation in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  2. Absence of an acute insulin response predicts onset of type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population with impaired glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijpels, G.; Boorsma, W.; Dekker, J.M.; Hoeksema, F.; Kostense, P.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: In persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), both impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few studies have used criterion standard measures to asses the predictive value of impaired insulin secretion

  3. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  4. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in men with impaired glucose tolerance : impact of insulin stimulation and weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.; Corpeleijn, E.; Bouwman, F.G.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) state is characterized by insulin resistance. Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may underlie this reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prediabetic state is accompanied by changes in the expression

  5. Postprandial interleukin-6 release from skeletal muscle in men with impaired glucose tolerance can be reduced by weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Saris, W.H.; Jansen, E.H.; Roekaerts, P.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Objective: This study addressed the question of whether IL-6 was released from skeletal muscle after a high-fat meal in men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a prediabetic

  6. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with or without low-to-medium dose glucocorticoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, J.N.; van der Goes, M.C.; van Raalte, D.H.; van der Zijl, N.J.; den Uyl, D.; Lems, W.F.; Lafeber, F.P.G.J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Diamant, M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare glucose tolerance and parameters of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function between chronic glucocorticoid (GC)-using and GC-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Frequently sampled 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 58 chronic GC-using and

  7. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati...

  8. Biomarkers of food intake and nutrient status are associated with glucose tolerance status and development of type 2 diabetes in older Swedish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Otto; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Bergström, Göran

    2017-01-01

    multiple dietary biomarkers.Design: Dietary biomarkers were measured in plasma from 64-y-old Swedish women with different GTS [normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 190), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 209), and diabetes (n = 230)]. The same subjects were followed up after 5 y to determine changes...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors prior to the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in persons with impaired glucose tolerance: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Kostense, P.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiovascular risk factors as predictors for developing noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in people with impaired glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional survey of glucose tolerance was conducted in people, aged 50-74, who were randomly selected from

  10. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  11. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  12. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyuk Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans.MethodsPlasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10 and T2DM (n=14. The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups.ResultsThe insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group.ConclusionThe oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans.

  13. Polymorphisms of the Fibrinogen-Beta Gene are Related to 2-Hour Glucose Level after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Hong Kong Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Y. F. Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen, an acute phase protein, is an important inflammatory marker that is associated with cardiovascular diseases. We studied the association of three common human fibrinogen-β gene (FGB variants, −455G>A, −249C>T, and −148C>T with glycemic parameters in 265 non-diabetic Hong Kong Chinese subjects. Both FGB variants, −455G>A and −148C>T were in complete linkage disequilibrium and were associated with higher levels of plasma fibrinogen and 2-h glucose after a 75-g oral glucose load (p <0.01. Carriers of FGB AC-haplotype, comprising the two nucleotide variants at positions −455 and −249, had higher fibrinogen level (2.64 ± 0.65 vs 2.42 ± 0.52 g/L, p = 0.002 and 2-h glucose after a 75-g oral glucose load (5.87 ± 1.14 vs 5.47 ± 1.22 g/L, p = 0.006. The associations were significant in men, but not women. In stepwise multiple regression analysis, AC-haplotype was independently associated with plasma fibrinogen level and 2-h glucose (p = 0.002 and 0.010 respectively. This suggests that fibrinogen may play a role in the development of impaired glucose tolerance.

  14. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  15. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  16. Intravenous supplementation of acetate, glucose or essential amino acids to an energy and protein deficient diet in lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, S.; Nielsen, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    amino acid supply is suboptimal. Goats were fed a basal diet deficient in energy (90% of requirements) and protein (80% of requirements), and were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 4-d continuous intravenous infusions of isoosmotic...

  17. Dietary Patterns Predict Changes in Two-Hour Post-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Plasma Glucose Concentrations in Middle-Aged Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period...... and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces......) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive...

  18. The patterns of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among rural Chinese twin children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Wang, Binyan; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Liu, Xue; Tang, Gengfu; Xing, Houxun; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-12-01

    Pubertal insulin resistance (IR) is well recognized; but little data are available for glucose and insulin pattern from a large, unselected lean population. This report describes the age- and sex-specific distributions of glucose tolerance and IR in a rural Chinese twin population. This report includes 4488 subjects aged 6 to 24 years. The primary variables of interest are fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload plasma glucose (2-h PG), fasting serum insulin, 2-hour postload insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment for IR. Age- and sex-specific patterns for the primary variables are described using smoothing plot, arithmetic or geometric mean, and percentiles. There is an increase in fasting plasma glucose, 2-h PG, and IR during puberty (10-19 years) and a return to prepuberty level by the age of 20 years. Insulin resistance peaks at around the age of 14 years in girls and 16 years in boys. Two-hour postload plasma glucose and 2-hour postload insulin are higher in girls than in boys from early puberty, and the sex differences are more pronounced afterward. Moreover, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) increases after puberty and is higher in girls than in boys. In this community-based, nonobese rural Chinese twin population, we observed sex-specific remarkable pubertal surge of IR and modest increase in plasma glucose as well as increasing prevalence of IFG and IGT with age. Notably, females had higher 2-h PG and higher prevalence of IFG and IGT. Our study underscored that adolescence (even more so in females) is a critical period for developing IR and prediabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Strength, Power, Muscle Aerobic Capacity, and Glucose Tolerance through Short-term Progressive Strength Training Among Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Eva A; Frank, Per; Pontén, Marjan; Ekblom, Björn; Ekblom, Maria; Moberg, Marcus; Sahlin, Kent

    2017-07-05

    This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity. Strength training was performed in a gym with only robust fitness equipment. An isokinetic dynamometer for knee extensor strength permitted the measurement of concentric, eccentric, and static strength, which increased for the RET group (8-12% post- versus pre-test). The power (rate of force development, RFD) at the initial 0-30 ms also showed an increase for the RET group (52%). A glucose tolerance test with frequent blood glucose measurements showed improvements only for the RET group in terms of blood glucose values after 2 h (14%) and the area under the curve (21%). The blood lipid profile also improved (8%). From muscle biopsy samples prepared using histochemistry, the amount of fiber type IIa increased, and a trend towards a decrease in IIx in the RET group reflected a change to a more oxidative profile in terms of fiber composition. Western blot (to determine the protein content related to the signaling for muscle protein synthesis) showed a rise of 69% in both Akt and mTOR in the RET group; this also showed an increase in mitochondrial proteins for OXPHOS complex II and citrate synthase (both ~30%) and for complex IV (90%), in only the RET group. We demonstrate that this type of progressive resistance training offers various improvements (e.g., strength, power, aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, and plasma lipid profile).

  20. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehse, Frauke; Trautmann, Michael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: First-phase insulin secretion (within 10 min after a sudden rise in plasma glucose) is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The incretin mimetic exenatide has glucoregulatory activities in DM2, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... by iv glucose challenge. PATIENTS: Thirteen evaluable DM2 subjects were included in the study: 11 males, two females; age, 56 +/- 7 yr; body mass index, 31.7 +/- 2.4 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 6.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- sd) treated with diet/exercise (n = 1), metformin (n = 10), or acarbose (n = 2). Controls...

  2. Insulin resistance according to β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyeong Song

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. IR is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have investigated IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate IR and β-cell function in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. Additionally, we sought to evaluate the usefulness of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived IR indices in lean women with PCOS.We recruited 100 women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance and 100 age- and BMI-matched women as controls. IR and insulin secretory indices, including the homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and the Stumvoll index, were calculated from an OGTT. Increased β-cell function was defined as>75th percentile for the HOMA-F in control women.Women with PCOS had higher values for post-load 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, post-load 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and lower values for the Stumvoll index than the controls (all Ps<0.05. Women with PCOS and increased β-cell function showed lower Stumvoll index values than the matched controls (P<0.05. The HOMA-F was significantly associated with the HOMA-M120 and Stumvoll index when adjusted for age and BMI in a multiple regression analysis (all Ps<0.05. The HOMA-M120 was positively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone, and the Stumvoll index was negatively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone in lean women with PCOS (all Ps<0.05.Women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance showed higher IR than controls matched for age, BMI, and β-cell function. β-cell function was increased in women with PCOS when compared to the matched controls, but not when the lean subjects were compared to the matched controls separately. Therefore, early evaluation of IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance may be needed.

  3. Increased plasma leptin through l-carnitine supplementation is associated with an enhanced glucose tolerance in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2009-04-01

    In this study 0 or 4 g of l-carnitine was supplemented for 7 days in a cross-over design of six healthy ponies to modulate glucose metabolism and leptin production. At the end of each period, serial blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response, leptin, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and creatine phosphokinase. l-carnitine supplementation was associated with a decrease in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, indicating an enhanced glucose tolerance. In contrast, postprandial plasma leptin concentration was increased when l-carnitine was supplemented. Yet, this increase in leptin concentration was not preceded by an increase in insulin concentration, suggesting that other factors apart from plasma insulin concentration could influence plasma leptin concentration. Although NEFA and TG were not significantly influenced by l-carnitine supplementation under these experimental conditions, further research must clarify whether net TG synthesis might be responsible for this increase in leptin.

  4. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  5. Relation of steroid hormones to glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in men. Importance of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernof, A; Després, J P; Dupont, A; Bélanger, A; Nadeau, A; Prud'homme, D; Moorjani, S; Lupien, P J; Labrie, F

    1995-03-01

    Low plasma testosterone levels are associated with hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance in men. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities are related to the concomitant alteration in regional adipose tissue (AT) accumulation associated with reduced androgen levels. We measured plasma steroid levels in a sample of 79 men, ranging from lean to obese (aged 29-42 years), for whom an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometric and computed tomography (CT) measurements of body fatness, and AT distribution were performed. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the following steroids were measured after extraction from plasma and chromatography: dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, testosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E2). Several significant negative correlations were found between adrenal C19 steroid precursors, testosterone, SHBG, and fasting insulin levels, as well as between plasma glucose and insulin concentrations measured during the OGTT (-0.25 or = P > or = 0.001). The best steroid correlate of plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis indexes was the E2: testosterone ratio (0.34 or = P > or = 0.001). However, after correction of steroid levels for either fat mass, body mass index (BMI), or visceral AT area, as measured by CT, no significant residual associations were noted between testosterone, adrenal C19 steroid, SHBG, and estrogen levels and indexes of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis, although the positive association between the E2: testosterone ratio and glucose area remained significant after adjustment for total body fat mass and BMI. Furthermore, 15 pairs of obese subjects, matched for visceral AT area, showing either low or high levels of the steroids studied, did not differ in fasting insulin and postglucose plasma insulin levels or in glucose tolerance. These results suggest that the previously reported relationships between androgen levels and indexes of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis

  6. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gestational diabetes is a herald of NIDDM in Navajo women. High rate of abnormal glucose tolerance after GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, J R; Sugarman, J R; Connell, F A

    1997-06-01

    To estimate the rate of deterioration of glucose tolerance and evaluate risk factors for development of NIDDM in Navajo women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A retrospective analysis of 111 GDM deliveries over a 4-year period, 1983-1987, was conducted in 1994 to determine glucose tolerance status. Patients who had not developed NIDDM were recalled for a 2-h glucose tolerance test (GTT). Tested and non-tested patients were compared, as estimate of conversion to NIDDM was calculated, and risk factors for NIDDM were evaluated. A life-table analysis was developed to estimate the probability of NIDDM after GDM. At the time of chart review, 32 patients (29%) had already been diagnosed with NIDDM. Of the patients, 79 were offered GTT testing, and 56 (71%) returned for follow-up; 15 were diagnosed with NIDDM and 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 47 (42%) and 64 (58%) patients in the cohort had developed NIDDM or NIDDM/IGT at the conclusion of the study period. Patients who developed NIDDM had greater BMIs, parity, and infant weights. Fasting blood glucose > 5.83 mmol/l, GTT > 41.63 mmol/l, and recurrence of GDM were associated with later NIDDM. A life-table analysis estimated a 53% likelihood of having NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up; a second model, based only on patients with known NIDDM status, predicted a 70% rate of NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up. A high proportion of Navajo women with GDM progressed to NIDDM. Postpartum counseling and periodic GTTs are recommended.

  8. Inappropriate glucagon response after oral compared with isoglycemic intravenous glucose administration in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristine J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    glucose infusion (IIGI) in patients with type 1 diabetes. Nine patients without residual beta-cell function [age: 25 +/- 9 yr; body mass index (BMI): 24 +/- 2 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 9.5 +/- 2.1 mM; Hb A(1c): 8.4 +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SD)] and eight healthy subjects (age: 28 +/- 5 yr; BMI: 24...... +/- 3 kg/m(2); FPG: 5.3 +/- 0.2 mM; Hb A(1c): 5.0 +/- 0.1%) were examined on two separate occasions: 4-h 50-g OGTT and IIGI. Isoglycemia during IIGIs was obtained using 53 +/- 5 g of glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes and 30 +/- 3 g in control subjects (P gastrointestinal...... that the inappropriate glucagon response to glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes occurs as a consequence of the oral administration way, suggesting a role of the gastrointestinal tract, possibly via glucagonotropic signaling from gut hormones (e.g., glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide), in type 1 diabetic...

  9. Role of the glucose tolerance test as a predictor of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cordero, M; Sepúlveda-Martínez, A; Preisler, J; Pastén, J; Soto-Chacón, E; Valdés, E; Rencoret, G

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) play a role as predictors of preeclampsia (PET) in pregnant women. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 2,002 singleton pregnancies that had a uterine artery (UtA) Doppler at 22-25 weeks and an OGTT. The UtA Doppler and OGTT were adjusted based on maternal characteristics, and the results were expressed as multiples of the expected normal median and compared between groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether maternal characteristics, OGTT, and UtA Doppler significantly contribute to the prediction of early- (37 weeks) PET. The performance of the screening was determined by ROC curves. Women who developed PET were characterized by an older maternal age, an increased body mass index, and an altered UtA Doppler. The group with intermediate-onset PET was the only one associated with higher 2-hour OGTT levels compared to controls. Combined models were developed via logistic regression analysis using maternal characteristics, UtA Doppler, and OGTT to predict PET. These combined models were able to detect around 74, 42, and 21% of women who later developed early-, intermediate-, or late-onset PET, respectively, with only a 5% false-positive rate. This study shows that the combination of maternal characteristics, second-trimester UtA Doppler, and OGTT is a predictor of the development of PET in healthy pregnant women. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Strategies for individual phenotyping of linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism using an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Saccenti

    Full Text Available The ability to restore homeostasis upon environmental challenges has been proposed as a measure for health. Metabolic profiling of plasma samples during the challenge response phase should offer a profound view on the flexibility of a phenotype to cope with daily stressors. Current data modeling approaches, however, struggle to extract biological descriptors from time-resolved metabolite profiles that are able to discriminate between different phenotypes. Thus, for the case of oxylipin responses in plasma upon an oral glucose tolerance test we developed a modeling approach that incorporates a priori biological pathway knowledge. The degradation pathways of arachidonic and linoleic acids were modeled using a regression model based on a pseudo-steady-state approximated model, resulting in a parameter A that summarizes the relative enzymatic activity in these pathways. Analysis of the phenotypic parameters As suggests that different phenotypes can be discriminated according to preferred relative activity of the arachidonic and linoleic pathway. Correlation analysis shows that there is little or no competition between the arachidonic and linoleic acid pathways, although they share the same enzymes.

  11. Evaluation of Total Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Hypertension and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Cherniavska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Timely reveal of the patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases for whom earlier intervention for cardiovascular risk correction is the most effective. Materials and methods. Seventy patients aged 30–55 years old with stage 2 hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high cardiovascular risk were examined according to Framingham criteria. Cardiovascular risk was compared by SCORE and PROCAM results. Results. Percentage ratio of males with high cardiovascular risk was higher by 52.3 % in comparison to females by SCORE and by 2.3 % in comparison to females by PROCAM. Males did not present any significant discrepancy by evaluation of cardiovascular risk by both scores unlike females. Obtained results showed that total cardiovascular risk in females was twofold higher by PROCAM compared to SCORE scale. Conclusions. Total cardiovascular risk level in patients with stage 2 hypertension and IGT is influenced by age, systolic blood pressure level, smoking, lipid storage disease and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. When we evaluate total cardiovascular risk, we should not be limited only by determination of factors determined in SCORE. It is reasonable to evaluate risk factors by PROCAM, too, especially for females.

  12. Weight Cycling Increases T-Cell Accumulation in Adipose Tissue and Impairs Systemic Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily K.; Gutierrez, Dario A.; Kennedy, Arion; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the U.S. Accumulation of proinflammatory immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) contributes to the development of obesity-associated disorders. Weight loss is the ideal method to counteract the negative consequences of obesity; however, losses are rarely maintained, leading to bouts of weight cycling. Fluctuations in weight have been associated with worsened metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes; yet, the mechanisms explaining this potential correlation are not known. For determination of whether weight cycling modulates AT immune cell populations, inflammation, and insulin resistance, mice were subjected to a diet-switch protocol designed to induce weight cycling. Weight-cycled mice displayed decreased systemic glucose tolerance and impaired AT insulin sensitivity when compared with mice that gained weight but did not cycle. AT macrophage number and polarization were not modulated by weight cycling. However, weight cycling did increase the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in AT. Expression of multiple T helper 1–associated cytokines was also elevated subsequent to weight cycling. Additionally, CD8+ effector memory T cells were present in AT of both obese and weight-cycled mice. These studies indicate that an exaggerated adaptive immune response in AT may contribute to metabolic dysfunction during weight cycling. PMID:23733197

  13. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  14. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  15. Effects of sitagliptin and metformin treatment on incretin hormone and insulin secretory responses to oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardarli, Irfan; Arndt, Elisabeth; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors prevent degradation of incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]), whereas metformin may increase GLP-1 levels. We examined, in a four-period crossover trial, the influence of metformin (2,00...

  16. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafusco, Dario; Stoppoloni, Fabrizio; Salvia, Gennaro; Vernetti, Gilberto; Passaro, Patrizia; Petrovski, Goran; Prisco, Francesco

    2008-07-01

    Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS). In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) (Medtronic, CA) was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  17. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Patrizia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  18. Coffee consumption and incidence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Coffee contains several substances that may affect glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and the incidence of IFG, IGT and type 2 diabetes. Methods. We used cross-sectional and prospective data from the

  19. Assessment of toxicity and tolerability of a combination vehicle; 5% Pharmasolve, 45% Propylene glycol and 50% Polyethylene glycol 400 in rats following repeated intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Nalge, Prashant; Are, Purnachander; Vincent, Sthevaan; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2017-12-01

    The selection of a suitable vehicle for administration of NCEs in non-clinical studies is always a challenge for poorly soluble compounds. Challenge is increased if the dose formulation is intended for intravenous (i.v.) administration where isotonic, biologically compatible pH and solution form is an absolute requirement. Vehicle toxicity and tolerability data are not readily available for a number of combination vehicles therefore, an i.v. tolerability studies was planned in rats with 5% v/v Pharmasolve (NMP), 45% v/v Propylene glycol (PG) and 50% v/v Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 combination, at dose volume of 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mL/kg body weight for 28 days. The vehicle combination was administered via lateral tail vein and effects on clinical signs, body weights, feed consumption, clinical pathology and histopathology were evaluated. Clinical signs of toxicity like tremors, convulsions and death were noticed at 5 mL/kg during the course of the study. At 2 mL/kg, injection site injury without systemic toxicity was noticed. In conclusion, 1 mL/kg of a combination vehicle of 5% NMP, 45% PG and 55% PEG 400 can be administered intravenously once-a-day up to 28 days without any discomfort or injury to rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...... glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but increased the insulinogenic index in normal animals (from 83 +/- 42 to 192 +/- 108; P animals. GIP seems to contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect of VP in this model...

  1. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in patients with advanced heart failure on continuous intravenous inotropic support use-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, Patrícia; Bolzan, Douglas W; Santos, Vinícius B; Moreira, Rita Simone Lopes; de Almeida, Dirceu Rodrigues; Trimer, Renata; de Souza Brito, Flávio; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J; Guizilini, Solange

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a short-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation program on exercise tolerance in hospitalized patients with advanced heart failure who have suffered an acute decompensation and are under continuous intravenous inotropic support. A randomized controlled study. Initially, 195 patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure were recruited, but 70 were randomized. Patients were randomized into two groups: control group subject to the usual care ( n = 35); neuromuscular electrical stimulation group ( n = 35) received daily training sessions to both lower extremities for around two weeks. The baseline 6-minute walk test to determine functional capacity was performed 24 hours after hospital admission, and intravenous inotropic support dose was daily checked in all patients. The outcomes were measured in two weeks or at the discharge if the patients were sent back home earlier than two weeks. After losses of follow-up, a total of 49 patients were included and considered for final analysis (control group, n = 25 and neuromuscular electrical stimulation group, n = 24). The neuromuscular electrical stimulation group presented with a higher 6-minute walk test distance compared to the control group after the study protocol (293 ± 34.78 m vs. 265.8 ± 48.53 m, P Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group also demonstrated a significantly higher dose reduction of dobutamine compared to control group after the study protocol (2.72 ± 1.72 µg/kg/min vs. 3.86 ± 1.61 µg/kg/min, P = 0.001, respectively). A short-term inpatient neuromuscular electrical stimulation rehabilitation protocol improved exercise tolerance and reduced intravenous inotropic support necessity in patients with advanced heart failure suffering a decompensation episode.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerance of the Phage Endolysin-Based Candidate Drug SAL200 after a Single Intravenous Administration among Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jang, In Jin; Yoon, Seonghae; Jang, Kyungho; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo Youn; Seong, Moon-Woo; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2017-06-01

    This study was a phase 1, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dosing, and dose-escalating study of intravenous SAL200. It is a new candidate drug for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections based on a recombinant form of the phage endolysin SAL-1. The study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance among healthy male volunteers after the intravenous infusion of single ascending doses of SAL200 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg of body weight). SAL200 was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events (AEs) were observed in this clinical study. Most AEs were mild, self-limiting, and transient. The AEs reported in more than three participants were fatigue, rigors, headache, and myalgia. No clinically significant values with respect to the findings of clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyses, urinalysis, vital signs, and physical examinations were observed, and no notable trends in our electrocardiogram (ECG) results for any tested dose were noticed. A greater-than-dose-proportional increase with regard to systemic exposure and the maximum serum concentration was observed when the SAL200 dose was increased from 0.1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. This investigation constitutes the first-in-human phase 1 study of an intravenously administered, phage endolysin-based drug. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01855048 and at the Clinical Research Information Service [https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/] under identifier KCT0000968.). Copyright © 2017 Jun et al.

  3. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamon can improve fasting glucose in humans yet data on insulin sensitivity are limited and controversial. Eight male volunteers (aged 25 +/- 1 years, body mass 76.5 +/- 3.0 kg, BMI 24.0 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2); mean +/- SEM) underwent two 14-day interventions involving cinnamon or placebo...... supplementation (3 g day(-1)). Placebo supplementation was continued for 5 days following this 14 day period. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on days 0, 1, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Cinnamon ingestion reduced the glucose response to OGTT on day 1 (-13.1 +/- 6.3% vs. day 0; P ....5 +/- 8.1% vs. day 0; P = 0.09). Cinnamon ingestion also reduced insulin responses to OGTT on day 14 (-27.1 +/- 6.2% vs. day 0; P cinnamon feeding. Cinnamon may improve glycaemic...

  4. Crystal structure and identification of a key amino acid for glucose tolerance, substrate specificity, and transglycosylation activity of metagenomic β-glucosidase Td2F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Jo, Toshinori; Uchiyama, Taku; Manninen, Jenny A; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Fushinobu, Shinya; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-06-01

    β-Glucosidase Td2F2 isolated from a compost metagenome has high glucose tolerance and transglycosylation activity. In this study, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of Td2F2. It has a unique structure at the -1 subsite that is important for substrate specificity but not for glucose tolerance. To elucidate the mechanism(s) of glucose tolerance, we isolated a glucose-sensitive Td2F2 mutant using random mutagenesis. In this mutant, Asn223 residue located between subsites +1 and +2 was mutated. The Asn223 mutation resulted in reduced glucose tolerance and transglycosylation activity, and drastically changed substrate specificity. These results indicate that the structure between subsites +1 and +2 is critical for the glucose tolerance and substrate specificity of Td2F2. Our findings shed light on the glucose tolerance and transglycosylation activity mechanisms of glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidases. The atomic coordinates and structure factors (codes 3WH5, 3WH6, 3WH8, 3WH7, 5AYB, and 5AYI) have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (http://wwpdb.org/). © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05). The glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p < 0.05). At 30, 60, and 90 min, the levels of insulin in the RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p < 0.05). The amount of hepatic glycogen was more than 3 times higher in the RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  6. Sleep Duration, Lifestyle Intervention, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Peltonen, Markku; Partinen, Markku; Lavigne, Gilles; Eriksson, Johan G.; Herder, Christian; Aunola, Sirkka; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lindström, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both short and long sleep duration have frequently been found to be associated with an increased risk for diabetes. The aim of the present exploratory analysis was to examine the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes after lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance in a 7-year prospective follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 522 individuals (aged 40–64 years) were randomly allocated either to an intensive diet-exercise counseling group or to a control group. Diabetes incidence during follow-up was calculated according to sleep duration at baseline. Sleep duration was obtained for a 24-h period. Physical activity, dietary intakes, body weight, and immune mediators (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured. RESULTS Interaction between sleep duration and treatment group was statistically significant (P = 0.003). In the control group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for diabetes were 2.29 (1.38–3.80) and 2.74 (1.67–4.50) in the sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, respectively, compared with for that of the 7–8.5 h group. In contrast, sleep duration did not influence the incidence of diabetes in the intervention group; for sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.60–2.01) and 0.73 (0.34–1.56), respectively, compared with that in the reference group (7–8.5 h sleep). Lifestyle intervention resulted in similar improvement in body weight, insulin sensitivity, and immune mediator levels regardless of sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Long sleep duration is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Lifestyle intervention with the aim of weight reduction, healthy diet, and increased physical activity may ameliorate some of this excess risk. PMID:19651919

  7. Impact of body fat percentage change on future diabetes in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxue; Lin, Ziwei; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the work was to determine the effect of body fat change on risk of diabetes in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) population. A total of 1,857 NGT subjects were included and followed up for an average period of 44.57 months. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjects were grouped based on the BF% and/or body mass index (BMI) state. Among all subjects, 28 developed diabetes after follow-up. Compared with subjects with stable normal BF% (control), subjects who became obesity at follow-up were defects in insulin secretion and had a higher risk of developing diabetes (7.102, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.740-28.993), while no difference in diabetic risk could be viewed between subjects with abnormal BF% at baseline but normal at the end of follow-up and control subjects after adjustment of confounding factors. Moreover, compared with those keeping normal BF% and BMI both at baseline and follow-up, subjects who had normal BMI at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BF% at baseline or/and follow-up still had a higher risk to develop diabetes (4.790, 95% CI 1.061-21.621), while those with normal BF% at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BMI at baseline or/and follow-up had not. Subjects from normal BF% at baseline to obese at follow-up are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Maintaining normal body fat is more relevant than BMI in preventing diabetes. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(12):947-955, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Addition of a Gastrointestinal Microbiome Modulator to Metformin Improves Metformin Tolerance and Fasting Glucose Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Matthew; Johnson, Jolene; Hsia, Daniel S; Greenway, Frank L; Heiman, Mark L

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of metformin are primarily related to gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance that could limit titration to an efficacious dose or cause discontinuation of the medication. Because some metformin side effects may be attributable to shifts in the GI microbiome, we tested whether a GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) used in combination with metformin would ameliorate the GI symptoms. A 2-period crossover study design was used with 2 treatment sequences, either placebo in period 1 followed by GIMM in period 2 or vice versa. Study periods lasted for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period between. During the first week, type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) who experienced metformin GI intolerance took 500 mg metformin along with their assigned NM504 (GIMM) or placebo treatment with breakfast and with dinner. In the second week, the 10 subjects took 500 mg metformin (t.i.d.), with GIMM or placebo consumed with the first and third daily metformin doses. Subjects were permitted to discontinue metformin dosing if it became intolerable. The combination of metformin and GIMM treatment produced a significantly better tolerance score to metformin than the placebo combination (6.78 ± 0.65 [mean ± SEM] versus 4.45 ± 0.69, P = .0006). Mean fasting glucose levels were significantly (P < .02) lower with the metformin-GIMM combination (121.3 ± 7.8 mg/dl) than with metformin-placebo (151.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl). Combining a GI microbiome modulator with metformin might allow the greater use of metformin in T2D patients and improve treatment of the disease. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Plasma DPP4 Activities Are Associated With Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women With Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianpeng; Yang, Liuxue; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Qin, Shenghua

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for osteoporosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. To investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and osteoporosis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Guilin, China. A total of 744 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, inflammatory markers, blood lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher triglyceride, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and osteocalcin and lower BMD (lumbar spine and femoral neck) and active GLP-1 compared with participants in the lowest quartile (P < .05). DPP4 activities were associated positively with triglyceride, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, IL-6, hs-CRP, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and osteocalcin and negatively with active GLP-1 and BMD (P < .05). In the highest DPP4 quartile, osteoporosis risk was significantly higher (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-5.43) than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for osteoporosis increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, HOMA-IR, IL-6, and hs-CRP (P < .05), but not with higher levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol or lower levels of active GLP-1. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are independently associated with osteoporosis. The mechanisms may be partly explained by the effect of DPP4 on inflammation and insulin resistance.

  10. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    +/- SD] years) and body mass index (BMI; 26.0 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) did not differ between the groups. Subjects with IGT displayed lower TIS during the initial 30 minutes after oral glucose (0.97 +/- 0.17 [mean +/- SEM] v 1.75 +/- 0.23 nmol/L in NGT; P =.018) and lower OGIS (397 +/- 21 v 463 +/- 12 mL/min/m(2......); P =.005). The incremental 30-minute TIS times OGIS (reflecting insulin secretion in relation to insulin sensitivity) was significantly reduced in IGT (359 +/- 51 v 774 +/- 91 nmol/min/m(2), P =.001). This measure correlated inversely to the 2-hour glucose level (r = -0.71; P ...). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  11. Smoking affects the oral glucose tolerance test profile and the relationship between glucose and HbA1c in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, A; Colom, C; García Patterson, A; Ubeda, J; María, M A; Orellana, I; Adelantado, J M; de Leiva, A; Corcoy, R

    2016-09-01

    Current smokers in the general population have a lower 2 h plasma glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a higher HbA1c than non-smokers, but the relationships between OGTT/HbA1c and smoking status have not been addressed in pregnancy. We analysed glycaemic measurements in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to smoking status. We performed a review of the prospectively collected database of the diabetes and pregnancy clinic. We included women with gestational diabetes mellitus and a singleton pregnancy who delivered between 1986 and 2006. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate patient characteristics in relation to smoking status. A total of 2361 women met the inclusion criteria: 556 (23.5%) were active smokers, 266 (11.3%) quit during pregnancy and 1539 (65.2%) were non-smokers. Most baseline characteristics were similar across groups. Diagnostic OGTT was performed at a gestational age of [median (25th, 75(th) centiles)] 29 weeks (26, 33). Women who smoked at the beginning of pregnancy had a higher 1-h plasma glucose than non-smokers [11.8 (11, 12.7), 11.6 (11, 12.6) and 11.5 (10.8, 12.5) mmol/l, for active smokers, those who quit during pregnancy and non-smokers, respectively, P smoked at the beginning of pregnancy. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the independent association of smoking status with HbA1c and OGTT plasma glucose. In women with gestational diabetes mellitus who smoke at the beginning of pregnancy, the shape of the OGTT is consistent with accelerated glucose absorption, and HbA1c is higher than expected for glycaemic values. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. Defective Lipid Delivery Modulates Glucose Tolerance and Metabolic Response to Diet in Apolipoprotein E–Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Susanna M.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Greer, Todd M.; Coburn, Beth A.; Grant, Erin; Basford, Joshua E.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hui, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) regulates plasma lipid levels via modulation of lipolysis and serving as ligand for receptor-mediated clearance of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. This study tested the impact of modulating lipid delivery to tissues on insulin responsiveness and diet-induced obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ApoE+/+ and apoE−/− mice were placed on high-fat–high-sucrose diabetogenic diet or control diet for 24 weeks. Plasma TG clearance, glucose tolerance, and tissue uptake of dietary fat and glucose were assessed. RESULTS Plasma TG clearance and lipid uptake by adipose tissue were impaired, whereas glucose tolerance was improved in control diet–fed apoE−/− mice compared with apoE+/+ mice after an oral lipid load. Fat mass was reduced in apoE−/− mice compared with apoE+/+ mice under both dietary conditions. The apoE−/− mice exhibited lower body weight and insulin levels than apoE+/+ mice when fed the diabetogenic diet. Glucose tolerance and uptake by muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) was also improved in mice lacking apoE when fed the diabetogenic diet. Indirect calorimetry studies detected no difference in energy expenditure and respiratory quotient between apoE+/+ and apoE−/− mice on control diet. Energy expenditure and uncoupling protein-1 expression in BAT were slightly but not significantly increased in apoE−/− mice on diabetogenic diet. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrated that decreased lipid delivery to insulin-sensitive tissues improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates diet-induced obesity. PMID:17914034

  13. Glucose tolerance and free fatty acid metabolism in adults with variations in TCF7L2 rs7903146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Varghese, Ron T; Zhou, Lianzhen; Vella, Adrian; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 and glucose tolerance on free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. We recruited 120 individuals, half homozygous for the major CC allele and half homozygous for the minor TT allele at rs7903146; each underwent a 2-h, 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid concentrations were measured on blood collected before and during the OGTT. Total FFA concentrations and percent FA species during OGTT were not different in CC and TT carriers when males and females were considered together. However, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations and percentages were greater in TT than CC females during the OGTT. TT carriers with high HOMA-IR had significantly greater fasting FFA concentrations, lower disposition index (DI) and greater AUC of glucose than high HOMA-IR CC carriers, whereas no such differences were observed in the low HOMA-IR group. We found that fasting (826±25 vs. 634±22μmol/L, P<0.0001) and OGTT plasma FFA concentrations were greater in IGT than NGT subjects, and the difference remained after adjusting for sex, age, BMI, and genotype. Finally, IGT subjects had greater MUFA concentrations and percentages than NGT subjects during OGTT. Despite similar fasting insulin and glucose, fasting plasma FFA are greater in IGT than NGT adults. Insulin resistance and sex influence plasma FFA responses amongst carriers of the minor T allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria versus the 1985 World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance : poor agreement in the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, F; Dekker, J M; Stehouwer, C D; Nijpels, G; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced new diagnostic criteria. These new criteria are based on fasting plasma glucose levels, avoiding the burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We compared the 1997 ADA criteria with the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO)

  15. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study compa...

  16. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  17. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  18. Inhibitor tolerance of a recombinant flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during glucose and xylose co-fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Cheng; Gou, Zi-Xi; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    Lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have negative effects on the ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of eight typical inhibitors, including weak acids, furans, and phenols, on glucose and xylose co-fermentation of the recombinant xylose-fermenting flocculating industrial S. cerevisiae strain NAPX37 were evaluated by batch fermentation. Inhibition on glucose fermentation, not that on xylose fermentation, correlated with delayed cell growth. The weak acids and the phenols showed additive effects. The effect of inhibitors on glucose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest): vanillin>phenol>syringaldehyde>5-HMF>furfural>levulinic acid>acetic acid>formic acid. The effect of inhibitors on xylose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest): phenol>vanillin>syringaldehyde>furfural>5-HMF>formic acid>levulinic acid>acetic acid. The NAPX37 strain showed substantial tolerance to typical inhibitors and showed good fermentation characteristics, when a medium with inhibitor cocktail or rape straw hydrolysate was used. This research provides important clues for inhibitors tolerance of recombinant industrial xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibitor tolerance of a recombinant flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during glucose and xylose co-fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have negative effects on the ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of eight typical inhibitors, including weak acids, furans, and phenols, on glucose and xylose co-fermentation of the recombinant xylose-fermenting flocculating industrial S. cerevisiae strain NAPX37 were evaluated by batch fermentation. Inhibition on glucose fermentation, not that on xylose fermentation, correlated with delayed cell growth. The weak acids and the phenols showed additive effects. The effect of inhibitors on glucose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: vanillin > phenol > syringaldehyde > 5-HMF > furfural > levulinic acid > acetic acid > formic acid. The effect of inhibitors on xylose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: phenol > vanillin > syringaldehyde > furfural > 5-HMF > formic acid > levulinic acid > acetic acid. The NAPX37 strain showed substantial tolerance to typical inhibitors and showed good fermentation characteristics, when a medium with inhibitor cocktail or rape straw hydrolysate was used. This research provides important clues for inhibitors tolerance of recombinant industrial xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae.

  20. Association of leukocyte count and hsCRP with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (CURES - 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, K; Deepa, R; Sampathkumar, R; Balasubramanyam, M; Mohan, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of leukocyte count and high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) (n = 865) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES]. Standard methods were used for assessing hsCRP [Nephelometry, in a subset] and leukocytes [Flowcytometry, Sysmex SF-3000]. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Assessment model (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA IR and hsCRP increased significantly with increasing tertiles of leukocyte count [p for trend leukocyte count and hsCRP showed a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Leukocyte count showed a positive correlation with hsCRP [p = 0.008]. Both mean leukocyte count [p leukocyte count [p leukocyte count and hsCRP] and MS/cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians even among non-diabetic subjects.

  1. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  2. Metabolic consequences of the incorporation of a Roux limb in an omega loop (mini) gastric bypass: evaluation by a glucose tolerance test at mid-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himpens, Jacques M; Vilallonga, Ramon; Cadière, Guy-Bernard; Leman, Guido

    2016-07-01

    In the technique used in our department, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) anatomically only differs from the mini- or omega loop gastric bypass (OLGB) by the incorporation of an isolated alimentary limb, called the Roux limb. The metabolic consequences of the incorporation of a Roux limb are unknown. To evaluate differences in glucose and insulin dynamics between RYGB and OLGB in normoglycemic patients, by submitting them to a glucose challenge after stabilization of their weight. Nondiabetic patients who had undergone OLGB 4 years earlier were matched with nondiabetic patients who had undergone RYGB around the same time and with healthy controls. Participants underwent oral (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Endpoints of the study were: progression of plasma glucose and insulin, changes in their concentration [calculated by area under the curve (AUC)] at OGTT and IVGTT, incretin effect and incidence of hypoglycemia. Each of the three groups comprised 14 participants. At OGTT, plasma glucose and insulin incremental values were comparable after OLGB and RYGB, and substantially higher than in controls. Overall glucose concentration, however, did not vary across the three groups. Thirty-minute and overall insulin plasma concentration, indicators of early and total insulin secretion, respectively, was significantly higher in both bypass groups than in controls, and was greatest in OLGB. Severe hypoglycemia occurred in one out of two patients in both bypass groups. At IVGTT, no differences were registered across the three groups and no participant experienced hypoglycemia. The incretin effect was higher after OLGB than after RYGB, but the difference was not statistically significant. The incorporation of a Roux limb in a loop gastric bypass appears to create a statistically nonsignificant tendency toward reducing insulin hypersecretion observed at OGTT after OLGB, and consequently toward tapering the incretin effect.

  3. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  4. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...... with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis. INTERVENTION(S): Hormone analyses and ACTH tests during cycle days 2-8, 2 hours of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and vaginal ultrasound. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): End diagnosis, fasting, 30-, 60-, and 120-minute oral glucose-stimulated levels of insulin....... During OGTT, 4.9% (13 of 263) had previously undiagnosed diabetes; no significant difference in diabetes prevalence was found between idiopathic hirsutism and PCOS. For 50.8%, fasting insulin values were in the upper quartile for a reference population. CONCLUSION(S): Initial evaluation of hirsute...

  5. [Effect of renshen jianxin capsule for alleviating insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease and glucose tolerance impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2009-09-01

    To explore the effect of Renshen Jianxin Capsule (RJC) on insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and glucose tolerance impairment (GTI). Eighty patients with CHD-GTI of qi-deficiency blood-stasis syndrome were randomly assigned to 2 groups equally, the treated group was treated by RJC and the control group by metformin, based on the conventional Western medical treatment with nitric esters for 20 weeks. Changes before and after treatment in clinical symptoms and levels of blood glucose insulin, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were observed. The scores of clinical symptoms of Chinese medicine decreased in both groups, which showed statistical significances compared with those before treatment (P 0.05). RJC was effective in improving insulin resistant, which may be one of the mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on CHD.

  6. Glucose tolerance status of Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes at 6weeks to 1year postpartum (WINGS-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Maheswari, Kumar; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Ranjani, Harish; Ninov, Lyudmil; Pastakia, Sonak D; Usha, Sriram; Malanda, Belma; Belton, Anne; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-07-01

    To determine postpartum glucose tolerance status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recruited under the Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) Model of Care (MOC). Through the WINGS MOC programme, 212 women with GDM were followed till delivery between November 2013 and August 2015. All women were advised to return for a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6-12weeks after delivery. A multivariate logistic regression (MLR) model was developed to identify the risk factors for postpartum dysglycemia which was defined as presence of diabetes (DM) or prediabetes. 203/212(95.8%) women completed their postpartum OGTT. Of the 161 women (79.3%) who came back for the test between 6 and 12weeks, 2(1.2%) developed DM, 5(3.1%), isolated IFG, 13(8.1%), isolated IGT and 5(3.1%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 25(15.5%)]. 136 women (84.5%) reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Of the 42 women who came back between 12weeks and a year, 5(11.9%) developed DM, 10(23.8%), isolated IFG and 1(2.4%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 16(38.1%)]. 26/42 women (61.9%) reverted to NGT. Thus overall dysglycemia occurred in 41/203 women (20.2%). MLR showed that BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) was significantly associated with postpartum dysglycemia (odds ratio: 4.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-11.2, p=0.001). Among Asian Indian women with GDM, over 20% develop dysglycemia within one year postpartum, and BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) increased this risk four-fold. Early postpartum screening can identify high risk women and help plan strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of the interactive effects of oral contraceptive use and dietary fat intake on blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity and glucose tolerance in normotensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straznicky, N E; Barrington, V E; Branley, P; Louis, W J

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the interactive effects of oral contraceptive pill use and dietary fat intake on cardiovascular haemodynamics and metabolic parameters in young normotensive women. Thirty-two women participated, of whom 16 were taking oral contraceptive pills (ethinyl-oestradiol plus levonorgestrel) and 16 were age-matched and weight-matched controls not taking such pills. Subjects consumed either a high-fat or a low-fat diet for 2 weeks in an open, randomized, crossover study lasting 6 weeks. Investigations were performed at the end of each diet during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood pressure was measured by 24 h ambulatory recording; cardiovascular reactivity was determined by examining blood pressure responses to systemic infusions of noradrenaline and angiotensin II and to the cold pressor test; and carbohydrate metabolism was investigated by an intravenous glucose-tolerance test. Plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in women taking oral contraceptive pills compared with non-users on both diets; however, responses of lipoprotein levels to the two diets did not differ between study groups (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 15 and 17% in oral contraceptive pill users and by 14% each in non-users, on the low-fat compared with the high-fat diet). Fasting plasma insulin levels, the insulin-production response to administration of glucose (insulin area under the curve) and resting clinic and night-time systolic blood pressures were all significantly reduced on the low-fat diet, but only in non-users. Blood pressure responses to noradrenaline and maximal heart rate response to cold were significantly attenuated during the low-fat diet in oral contraceptive pill users. During the low-fat diet, resting systolic, 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressures and insulin area under the curve were all significantly higher for women taking the oral contraceptive pills. Users of these pills also exhibited a greater

  8. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and intravenous morphine self-administration on regional glucose metabolism ([18 F]FDG-PET) of male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas Y; Nishida, Kevin S; Wilson, Colin M; Jaiswal, Shalini; Scott, Jessica; Hoy, Andrew R; Selwyn, Reed G; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Choi, Kwang H

    2017-04-01

    Although certain drugs of abuse are known to disrupt brain glucose metabolism (BGluM), the effects of opiates on BGluM are not well characterized. Moreover, preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies anesthetize animals during the scan, which limits clinical applications. We investigated the effects of (i) isoflurane anesthesia and (ii) intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) on BGluM in rats. Jugular vein cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered either saline (SSA) or morphine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion, 4 h/day for 12 days). All animals were scanned twice with [ 18 F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET/CT at a baseline and at 2-day withdrawal from self-administration. After the IV injection of FDG, one batch of animals (n = 14) was anesthetized with isoflurane and the other batch (n = 16) was kept awake during the FDG uptake (45 min). After FDG uptake, all animals were anesthetized in order to perform a PET/CT scan (30 min). Isoflurane anesthesia, as compared to the awake condition, reduced BGluM in the olfactory, cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia, while increasing BGluM in the midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Morphine self-administered animals exhibited withdrawal signs (piloerection and increased defecation), drug seeking, and locomotor stimulation to morphine (0.5 mg/kg) during the 2 day withdrawal. The BGluM in the striatum was increased in the MSA group as compared to the SSA group; this effect was observed only in the isoflurane anesthesia, not the awake condition. These findings suggest that the choice of the FDG uptake condition may be important in preclinical PET studies and increased BGluM in the striatum may be associated with opiate seeking in withdrawal. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...... used to determine oral glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and DIOGTT was calculated as the product of SI OGTT and GSISOGTT. Our novel SI OGTT showed high agreement with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (typical error = +3.6%; r = 0.69, P

  10. Effects of Polar Compounds Generated from the Deep-Frying Process of Palm Oil on Lipid Metabolism and Glucose Tolerance in Kunming Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Dewei; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-01-11

    In the present study, effects of deep-fried palm oil, specifically polar compounds generated during the frying process, on animal health including lipid and glucose metabolism and liver functions were investigated. Kunming mice were fed a high-fat diet containing deep-fried palm oil or purified polar compounds for 12 weeks. Their effects on animal health including hepatic lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemistry, and glucose tolerance were analyzed. Our results revealed that the consumption of polar compounds was related to the change of lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue, as well as glucose tolerance alteration in Kunming mice. Correspondingly, the transcription study of genes involved in lipid metabolism including PPARα, Acox1, and Cpt1α indicated that polar compounds probably facilitated the fatty acid oxidation on peroxisomes, whereas lipid oxidation in mitochondria was suppressed. Furthermore, glucose tolerance test (GTT) revealed that a high amount of polar compound intake impaired glucose tolerance, indicating its effect on glucose metabolism in vivo. Our results provide critical information on the effects of polar compounds generated from the deep-frying process of palm oil on animal health, particularly liver functions and lipid and glucose metabolism, which is important for the evaluation of the biosafety of frying oil.

  11. Gestational diabetes and gestational impaired glucose tolerance in 1653 teenage pregnancies: prevalence, risk factors and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Buyukkaragoz, Bahar; Kandemir, Omer; Yalvac, Serdar; Kıykac-Altınbaş, Sadiman; Haberal, Ali

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) in adolescent pregnancies, associated risk factors, and pregnancy complications. Retrospective study. Community-based teaching hospital. Results of 1653 pregnant women age ≤ 19 years in 2005-2007 were reviewed. All pregnant women screened with 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) and patients with a GCT result ≥ 140 mg/dl underwent a 3-hour 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed with at least two abnormal results and GIGT was diagnosed with one abnormal result. GDM and GIGT cases were evaluated for the presence of any associated risk factors and effects of presence of risk factors on pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of GDM was 0.85% (95% CI, 0.41-1.29), GIGT was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.15-0.81) and GDM+GIGT was 1.35% (95% CI, 0.78-1.88) by Carpenter and Coustan criteria. 68% of patients had at least one of the risk factors including body mass index ≥ 25, family history of diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Only 9.1% (n = 2) of them required insulin for glucose regulation during pregnancy with 9.1% (n = 2) macrosomia rate. All patients were primiparous and cesarean delivery rate was 27.3% (n = 6). We could not find any effect of presence of risk factors on pregnancy outcomes in GDM and GIGT cases. We demonstrated that GDM and GIGT are strongly associated with high BMI before pregnancy, PCOS, and family history of diabetes. Since GDM is a state of prediabetes, it is important to diagnose in adolescent pregnancies considering their life expectancy to take preventive measures to avoid diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chia (salvia Hispanica L.) Enhances Hsp, Pgc-1 Alpha Expressions And Improves Glucose Tolerance In Diet-induced Obese Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marineli; Rafaela da Silva; Moura; Carolina Soares; Moraes; Erica Aguiar; Lenquiste; Sabrina Alves; Barboza Lollo; Pablo Christiano; Morato; Priscila Neder; Amaya-Farfan; Jaime; Marostica; Mario Roberto; Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chia seed and chia oil on heat shock protein (HSP) and related parameters in diet-induced obese rats. Methods: Animals were divided in six groups: control, high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFF), and HFF with chia seed or chia oil in short (6-wk) and long (12-wk) treatments. Plasma indicators of glucose tolerance and liver damage, skeletal muscle expression of antioxidant enzymes, and proteins controlling oxidative energy metab...

  13. Dexmedetomidine-based intravenous anesthesia of a pediatric patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nanae; Ogawa, Takashi; Wajima, Zen'ichiro; Omi, Akibumi

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, resulting in deficits in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate production, an important intracellular antioxidant enzyme. G6PD-deficient subjects present with a susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress and hemolysis, and should avoid drugs or stressors that have oxidative actions. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic agent with antioxidant actions. A 5-year-old boy with G6PD deficiency. The patient was diagnosed with G6PD deficiency at birth. His red blood cell levels were indicating Class II G6PD activity by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, but had no history of hemolytic anemia. Because of the patient's anxiety and hyperactivity prior to an operation for upper labial frenum resection, we performed perioperative management using intravenous sedation with dexmedetomidine, which provides upper airway patency and has an antioxidant action. There was no abnormal breathing observed during anesthesia, and arousal was smooth with stable hemodynamics. The patient had no symptoms of hemolytic anemia up to 1 week postsurgery. Antioxidant sedatives such as dexmedetomidine may be useful for reducing the risk of hemolysis after surgery in infant G6PD deficiency cases.

  14. Calculating glucose fluxes during meal tolerance test: a new computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Roman; Jayatillake, Harsha; Rogatsky, Eduard; Tomuta, Vlad; Hovorka, Tomas; Stein, Daniel T

    2007-08-01

    A new calculation method is proposed to quantify the endogenous glucose production (EGP), the glucose appearance rate due to meal ingestion (R(a meal)), and the glucose disposal (R(d)) during a three-tracer study design. The method utilizes the maximum likelihood theory combined with a regularization method to achieve a theoretically coherent computational framework. The method uses the two-compartment formulation of the glucose kinetics. Instead of assuming smoothness of unlabeled and labeled glucose concentrations, the method assumes that the EGP, the R(a meal), and the fractional glucose clearance are smooth, increasing plausibility of their individual estimates. The method avoids transformation of the measurement errors, which may skew the estimates of the EGP, R(a meal), and R(d) with the traditional approach. Finally, the sequential nature of the calculations is replaced by calculating the EGP, R(a meal), and R(d) in "one go" to avoid the propagation of the errors from the EGP and R(a meal) into R(d). An example study is shown demonstrating the utility of the approach. A better performance of the new method is demonstrated in a simulation study.

  15. Surveillance study on the tolerability and safety of Flebogamma® DIF (10% and 5% intravenous immunoglobulin) in adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Laia; Mohr, Andreas; Montañés, Maria; Oliver, Xènia; Martín, Esperanza; Pons, Jaime; Drewe, Elizabeth; Papke, Jens; Günther, Georg; Chee, Ronnie; Gompels, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Direct comparisons of tolerability and safety of concentrated intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) versus less concentrated products are scarce. In this postauthorization, prospective, observational, multicenter study, a systematic comparison of 10% and 5% concentrations of Flebogamma® DIF IVIG was performed in both adult and pediatric patients treated with the studied IVIG products according to the approved indications under routine conditions. Dose of product administered, adverse events (AEs), physical assessments, laboratory tests, and concomitant therapy were analyzed. Patient recruitment in the 10% and 5% product groups was, respectively, 34 (32 analyzed, 13 of them children, receiving 130 IVIG infusions) and 35 (34 analyzed, receiving 135 IVIG infusions). Twenty-four infusions (18.5%; 95% CI: 11.8, 25.1) with the 10% product and 3 (2.2%; 95% CI: -0.3, 4.7) with the 5% product were associated with potentially treatment-related AEs (P DIF 10% and 5% concentrations, which were therefore deemed as safe and well-tolerated IVIG in the studied population. The frequency of infusions associated with treatment-related AEs was lower with the 5% concentration. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  17. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) enhances HSP, PGC-1α expressions and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Moura, Carolina Soares; Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chia seed and chia oil on heat shock protein (HSP) and related parameters in diet-induced obese rats. Animals were divided in six groups: control, high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFF), and HFF with chia seed or chia oil in short (6-wk) and long (12-wk) treatments. Plasma indicators of glucose tolerance and liver damage, skeletal muscle expression of antioxidant enzymes, and proteins controlling oxidative energy metabolism were determined. The limit of significance was set at P chia seed or chia oil did not reduce body weight gain or abdominal fat accumulation. However, chia seed and chia oil in both treatments improved glucose and insulin tolerance. Chia oil in both treatments induced expression of HSP70 and HSP25 in skeletal muscle. Short treatment with chia seed increased expression of HSP70, but not HSP25. Chia oil in both treatments restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression. Extended treatment with chia seed and short treatment with chia oil restored peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression. Chia oil restored the antioxidant system and induced the expression of a higher number of proteins than chia seed. The present study demonstrated new properties and molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of chia seed and chia oil consumption in diet-induced obese rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute sleep disruption- and high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation are not related to glucose tolerance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic insufficient sleep is a major societal problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic disease. Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to hyperphagia and weight gain in diet-induced obesity, but insufficient sleep-induced neuroinflammation has yet to be examined in relation to metabolic function. We therefore fragmented sleep of adult male C57BL/6 J mice for 18 h daily for 9 days to determine whether sleep disruption elicits inflammatory responses in brain regions that regulate energy balance and whether this relates to glycemic control. To additionally test the hypothesis that exposure to multiple inflammatory factors exacerbates metabolic outcomes, responses were compared in mice exposed to sleep fragmentation (SF, high-fat diet (HFD, both SF and HFD, or control conditions. Three or 9 days of high-fat feeding reduced glucose tolerance but SF alone did not. Transient loss of body mass in SF mice may have affected outcomes. Comparisons of pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations among central and peripheral metabolic tissues indicate that patterns of liver interleukin-1β concentrations best reflects observed changes in glucose tolerance. However, we demonstrate that SF rapidly and potently increases Iba1 immunoreactivity (-ir, a marker of microglia. After 9 days of manipulations, Iba1-ir remains elevated only in mice exposed to both SF and HFD, indicating a novel interaction between sleep and diet on microglial activation that warrants further investigation.

  19. Xenin-25 amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in humans with normal and impaired glucose tolerance but not type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wice, Burton M; Reeds, Dominic N; Tran, Hung D; Crimmins, Dan L; Patterson, Bruce W; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J; Ladenson, Jack H; Villareal, Dennis T; Polonsky, Kenneth S

    2012-07-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This response is blunted in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Xenin-25 is a 25-amino acid neurotensin-related peptide that amplifies GIP-mediated GSIS in hyperglycemic mice. This study determines if xenin-25 amplifies GIP-mediated GSIS in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or T2DM. Each fasting subject received graded glucose infusions to progressively raise plasma glucose concentrations, along with vehicle alone, GIP, xenin-25, or GIP plus xenin-25. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon levels and insulin secretion rates (ISRs) were determined. GIP amplified GSIS in all groups. Initially, this response was rapid, profound, transient, and essentially glucose independent. Thereafter, ISRs increased as a function of plasma glucose. Although magnitudes of insulin secretory responses to GIP were similar in all groups, ISRs were not restored to normal in subjects with IGT and T2DM. Xenin-25 alone had no effect on ISRs or plasma glucagon levels, but the combination of GIP plus xenin-25 transiently increased ISR and plasma glucagon levels in subjects with NGT and IGT but not T2DM. Since xenin-25 signaling to islets is mediated by a cholinergic relay, impaired islet responses in T2DM may reflect defective neuronal, rather than GIP, signaling.

  20. Single abnormal value on 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, Jared T; Sanchez-Ramos, Luis; Jijon-Knupp, Rubymel; Kaunitz, Andrew M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women with 1 abnormal value on 3-hour 100-g oral glucose tolerance test are at an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gestational diabetes mellitus is diagnosed by a 2-step method, with a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test that is reserved for women with an abnormal 1-hour, 50-g glucose challenge test. Although the increased maternal-fetal morbidity with gestational diabetes mellitus is well established, controversy remains about the risk that is associated with an isolated abnormal value during a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test. Prospective and retrospective studies that evaluated the maternal and perinatal impact of 1 abnormal glucose value during a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test were identified with the use of computerized databases. Data were extracted and quantitative analyses were performed. Twenty-five studies (7 prospective and 18 retrospective) that met criteria for metaanalysis included 4466 women with 1 abnormal glucose value on oral glucose tolerance test. Patients with 1 abnormal glucose value had significantly worse pregnancy outcomes compared with women with zero abnormal values with the following pooled odds ratios: macrosomia, 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.19); large for gestational age, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.76); increased mean birthweight, 44.5 g (95% confidence interval, 8.10-80.80 g); neonatal hypoglycemia, 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.38); total cesarean delivery, 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.05); pregnancy-induced hypertension, 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.83), and Apgar score of test (normal glucose screen). With the exception of birthweight, outcomes of patients with 1 abnormal glucose value were similar to outcomes of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. Women with 1 abnormal value on 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test have a significantly increased risk for poor outcomes comparable

  1. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar se tolerância diminuída à glicose (TDG está associada a neuropatia vegetativa realizamos estudo transversal de que participaram 44 pacientes com intolerância a glicose (Grupo 1 os quais foram comparados com 43 indivíduos controles apresentando teste de tolerância à glicose normal (Grupo 2. Os pacientes de ambos os grupos, após aceitarem participar da pesquisa, eram submetidos a anamnese, exames clínico e laboratoriais e estudo da função vegetativa (intervalo QT, prova da arritmia sinusal, manobra de Valsalva e teste postural. Os pacientes com TDG apresentaram mais hipertensão arterial sistêmica, obesidade centrípeta, hiperglicemas de jejum e pós-prandiais e dislipidemias que os controles. O teste de arritmia sinusal estava alterado em 54,5% dos grupo 1 e em 32,5% do grupo 2. A manobra de Valsalva foi anormal em 34,1% no grupo 1 e em 7% dos controles (p=0,004. A prova postural não foi diferente nos dois grupos. O comprometimento do sistema neurovegetativo foi mais freqüente nos pacientes com TDG que nos controles. A maior freqüência de fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica cardiovascular e o concomitante comprometimento do sistema nervoso vegetativo nos pacientes com TDG podem ser os responsáveis pelas elevadas taxas de letalidade devida a vasculopatias observadas nessa população.Impaired glucose tolerance (1GT is a clinical situation characterized by mild hyperglicemia, which is estimated to afflict 7.8% of the Brazilian population. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common: complication in diabetes mellitus and it is related to morbidity and lethality in this disease. The associatior between IGT and peripheral neuropathy is still a matter of great concern. PURPOSE AND METHOD: In order to determine if IGT is associated with autonomic neuropathy a cross-sectional study in 44 patients with impaired glucose tolerance test (Group 1 was performed. The patients were compared to 43 control

  2. Change of Oral to Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Exacerbated Glucose Tolerance in a Patient with Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yui; Ashida, Kenji; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Emoto, Akiko; Yamanouchi, Hiroko; Takagi, Satoko; Mori, Hitoe; Kawata, Nozomi; Hisata, Yoshio; Sakanishi, Yuta; Izumi, Kenichi; Sugioka, Takashi; Anzai, Keizo

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is known as the most frequent disease treated by long-term topical steroids. It is also known that patients with thick, chronic plaques require the highest potency topical steroids. However, the treatment is limited to up to four weeks due to risk of systemic absorption. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 16 years before, and was being administered insulin combined with alpha glucosidase inhibitor. He was diagnosed with plaque psoriasis and his oral steroid treatment was switched to topical steroid treatment due to lack of improvement and poorly controlled blood glucose level. The hypoglycemic events improved after the psoriatic lesions improved. CONCLUSIONS Control of blood glucose level is difficult at the very beginning of topical steroid treatment for psoriasis especially if a patient is receiving insulin treatment. Intense monitoring of blood glucose level during initiation of topical steroid treatment is necessary to prevent unfavorable complications.

  3. Early insulin response and insulin sensitivity are equally important as predictors of glucose tolerance after correction for measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Lars; Berne, Christian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Garmo, Hans; Zethelius, Björn

    2009-12-01

    We estimated measurement error (ME) corrected effects of insulin sensitivity (M/I), from euglycaemic insulin clamp, and insulin secretion, measured as early insulin response (EIR) from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), on fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and type 2 diabetes longitudinally and cross-sectional. In a population-based study (n=1128 men) 17 men made replicate measurements to estimate ME at age 71 years. Effect of 1 SD decrease of predictors M/I and EIR on longitudinal response variables fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c at follow-ups up to 11 years, were estimated using uncorrected and ME-corrected (with the regression calibration method) regression models. Uncorrected effect on FPG at age 77 years was larger for M/I than for EIR (effect difference 0.10mmol/l, 95% CI 0.00;0.21), while ME-corrected effects were similar (0.02mmol/l, 95% CI -0.13;0.15mmol/l). EIR had greater ME-corrected impact than M/I on HbA1c at age 82 years (-0.11%, -0.28; -0.01%). Due to higher ME effect of EIR on glycaemia is underestimated as compared with M/I. By correcting for ME valid estimates of relative contributions of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity on glycaemia are obtained.

  4. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study...

  5. The prevalence of glucose inTolerance among anTenaTal clienTs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... Exclusion criteria: Clients who had pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, those already diagnosed with glucose intolerance in the current pregnancy or in previous pregnancy, clients who did not consent and clients on medications for chronic treatment. Sampling frame: This consisted of antenatal mothers.

  6. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Secretion, and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; Aceves-de la Mora, Martha C Aceves-de; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Ramos-Núñez, Julia L; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-12-20

    Chlorogenic acid has been described as a novel polyphenol with metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid administration on glycemic control, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 30 patients with IGT; 15 patients randomly assigned to oral chlorogenic acid received 400 mg three times per day for 12 weeks, and the other 15 patients received placebo in the same way. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic measurements, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c, and a lipid profile, were performed. Area under the curve of glucose and insulin as well as the insulinogenic, Stumvoll, and Matsuda indices were calculated. Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were performed, and P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant decreases in FPG (5.7 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), insulinogenic index (0.71 ± 0.25 vs. 0.63 ± 0.25, P = .028), body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein levels in the chlorogenic acid group, with an increment in the Matsuda index (1.98 ± 0.88 vs. 2.30 ± 1.23, P = .002). There were no significant differences in the placebo group. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid administration in patients with IGT decreased FPG and insulin secretion, while increasing insulin sensitivity and improving both anthropometric evaluations and the lipid profile.

  7. Influência do tratamento com metformina sobre a tolerância à glicose induzida por corticosteróides em ratos Wistar = Influence of metformin treatment on glucose tolerance induced by corticosteroid administration in rats Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Gonçalves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticóides induzem um estado de intolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina e hiperglicemia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a participação de corticosteróides endógenos sobre a hiperglicemia aguda em modelo experimental de intolerância à glicose induzida por dexametasona (0,1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 dias. O modelo experimental foicaracterizado pela determinação da concentração de glicose sanguínea, volume urinário de 24 horas, consumo de ração e água. Os ratos foram tratados com clorpropamida (100 mg kg-1, metformina (300 mg kg-1 ou pioglitazona (10 mg kg-1 durante 4 dias e o efeito do tratamento foi avaliado pelo teste de tolerância à glicose endovenoso (GTT. Aadrenalectomia corrigiu o quadro de intolerância à glicose destes animais, demonstrando que a dexametasona promove hiperglicemia por meio de um provável efeito sinérgico sobre os corticosteróides endógenos. O tratamento com metformina reduziu a alteração glicêmica.Nossos resultados sugerem um efeito benéfico na utilização da metformina como profilático no uso de corticóides em pacientes hiperglicêmicos.This work evaluated the effect of the corticosteroid administration on glucose intolerance state induced by dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 days. The experimental model was characterized through bloodand urine glucose levels determination, 24 hour urinary volume, food and water intake. The rats were treated with chlorpropamide (100 mg kg-1, metformin (300 mg kg-1 or pioglitazone (10 mg kg-1 during 4 days. The effect of adrenalectomy or the drugs treatment effectiveness on hyperglycemia state were evaluated during intravenousGTT. Metformin treatment restored the altered hyperglycemia observed in this experimental model. Results suggest that dexamethasone promotes a hyperglycemia state through a synergic effect on endogenous corticosteroids, and that metformin treatment restores these altered responses. Indeed, the dexamethasone induced

  8. The influence of maternal glucose metabolism on fetal growth, development and morbidity in 917 singleton pregnancies in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, G; Russell, G; Hamilton-Nicol, D R; Ogenbede, H O; Ross, I S; Pearson, D W; Thom, H; Kerridge, D F; Sutherland, H W

    1988-03-01

    To study the effects on the fetus of variations in maternal glucose tolerance, a 25 g rapid intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed at or about 32 weeks gestation in 917 randomly selected nondiabetic women with singleton pregnancies. The results were withheld from the patients and their obstetricians and paediatricians, and no treatment or advice was offered. Fasting plasma glucose and indices of glucose disposal (including a new index which we have termed "summed glucose") were distributed unimodally, with no evidence of a separate pathological group towards the diabetic end of the distributions. Significant associations were found between maternal glucose metabolism and various measures of neonatal nutrition and morbidity, including the incidence of congenital malformations and morbidity related to asphyxia, suggesting that variations within the normal range in maternal glucose metabolism can influence growth and development in the fetus. These relationships were continuous throughout the range of maternal glucose tolerance and were not of predictive value in individual cases.

  9. Efficient production of L-lactic acid by newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with high glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingding; Ye, Lidan; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-05-01

    A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with tolerance to high concentration of glucose was isolated from soil and used to produce optically pure L-lactic acid from glucose and starch. In batch fermentation at pH 6.0, 240 g/L of glucose was completely consumed giving 210 g/L of L-lactic acid with a yield of 95 % and a productivity of 3.5 g/L/h. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at 50 °C without sterilizing the medium, 200 g/L of corn starch was completely consumed producing 202.0 g/L of L-lactic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this strain shows the highest osmotic tolerance to glucose among the strains ever reported for lactic acid production. This is the first report of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch for lactic acid production under a non-sterilized condition.

  10. Preserving Duodenal-Jejunal (Foregut) Transit Does Not Impair Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Remission Following Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Sprague-Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, Ponnie R; Yao, Libin; Li, Chao; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Shi, Linsen; Widjaja, Jason

    2017-11-02

    Possible mechanisms underlying diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) include eradication of putative factor(s) with duodenal-jejunal bypass. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass rat model. In order to verify the effect of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass, 22 type 2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat models established through high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) administered intraperitoneally were assigned to one of three groups: gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT n = 8), gastric bypass without duodenal-jejunal transit (RYGB n = 8), and sham (n = 6). Body weight, food intake, blood glucose, as well as meal-stimulated insulin, and incretin hormone responses were assessed to ascertain the effect of surgery in all groups. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted three and 7 weeks after surgery. Comparing our GB-DJT to the RYGB group, we saw no differences in the mean decline in body weight, food intake, and blood glucose 8 weeks after surgery. GB-DJT group exhibited immediate and sustained glucose control throughout the study. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were also significantly increased from preoperative level in the GB-DJT group (p transit does not impede glucose tolerance and diabetes remission after gastric bypass in type-2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat model.

  11. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanson, Amanda; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; Ritchie, Ian R; MacDonald, Tara; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2014-06-23

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow's milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 -enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.

  12. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  13. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M?rquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hern?ndez, Salvador; R?os-Silva, M?nica; D?az-Reval, Mar?a I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, X?chitl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the ...

  14. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in European non-diabetic carriers of a polymorphism upstream of CDKN2A and CDKN2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hribal, M L; Presta, I; Procopio, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry.......The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry....

  15. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition

  16. Dual specificity phosphatase 6 deficiency is associated with impaired systemic glucose tolerance and reversible weight retardation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Pfuhlmann

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT, compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic

  17. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Joseph W; Binns, Scott E; Davis, Janelle L; Giordano, Gregory R; Klochak, Anna L; Paris, Hunter L; Schweder, Melani M; Peltonen, Garrett L; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO 3 - ) increases NO formation, via NO 3 - reduction to nitrite (NO 2 - ) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34.0 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 ) ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g), with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit NO 3 - reduction to NO 2 - . Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes ( P = 0.004). Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity), was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults ( P = 0.009). Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese (5.7 ± 0.7 versus 4.9 ± 0.6) but not in nonobese (8.1 ± 1.0 versus 8.9 ± 0.9) adults ( P = 0.048). In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals.

  18. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Beals

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3- increases NO formation, via NO3- reduction to nitrite (NO2- by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3±0.8 kg/m2 (mean ± SE and 10 obese adults (34.0±0.8 kg/m2 ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g, with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit NO3- reduction to NO2-. Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes (P=0.004. Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity, was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults (P=0.009. Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese (5.7±0.7 versus 4.9±0.6 but not in nonobese (8.1±1.0 versus 8.9±0.9 adults (P=0.048. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals.

  19. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients with Iron Deficiency at a Hospital Outpatient Clinic: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Real-World Clinical Practice

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    António Robalo Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM is an intravenous iron formulation to correct iron deficiency. Although its use has been extensively studied in clinical trials, real-world evidence regarding FCM treatment is scarce. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of FCM treatment in patients with iron deficiency, with or without anemia, at a hospital outpatient clinic. Data was collected retrospectively from medical records. During this 2-year study, 459 patients were included. Mean age was 58.6 ± 17.5 years and most patients received cumulative FCM doses of 501–1000 mg (63.2%. Six weeks after administration of FCM, efficacy endpoints hemoglobin increase ≥2 g/dL, hemoglobin increase ≥3 g/dL, and transferrin saturation > 20% were attained by 41%, 20%, and 63% of patients, respectively. Patients who received higher FCM doses showed significant reduced odds of not achieving hemoglobin increase ≥2 g/dL (501–1000 mg, adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.62; 1001–3000 mg, OR: 0.19, 95% CI 0.07–0.49, compared to 500 mg doses. Treatment-emergent adverse events were documented in <4% of patients. In conclusion, FCM treatment was effective and well-tolerated by outpatients with iron deficiency at a hospital clinic, and its dosage should be adjusted to improve iron deficiency management in clinical practice.

  20. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose to tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Wilks, R.; Gaskin, P.; Luke, A.; Jahoor, F.; Adeyemo, A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)

  1. β-Glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp. is a salt-tolerant enzyme that is stabilized by its reaction product glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sushant K; Datta, Supratim

    2016-10-01

    β-Glucosidase (BG) is widely applied in the biofuel's industry, as part of a cellulase cocktail to catalyze the hydrolysis of the β-1,4 linkages that join two glucose molecules in a cellulose polymer. The hydrolysis step is generally recognized as the major limiting step in the development of efficient enzyme-based technologies for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and the production of biofuels due to the accumulation of the reaction product, glucose. Relieving this glucose inhibition of BG is therefore a major challenge. In this study, O08324, a putative BG gene encoded in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp., was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. O08324 showed maximum activity between pH 5-6.8 and at 78 °C and was thermostable with a half-life of 860 min at 78 °C in the presence of 1.5 M glucose. O08324 was not inhibited by glucose up to the highest assayable concentration of 4 M and also shows no decrease in activity in the presence of up to 4 M of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. O08324 supplementation of Trichoderma viride cellulase enhanced glucose production by more than 50 % compared to a commercially available BG, when Avicel (10 %, w/v) was used as a substrate at 37 °C. Multiple sequence alignments across previously reported glucose-tolerant BGs shows that many conserved residues previously implicated in glucose tolerance are not conserved in this BG suggesting a need for a relook at understanding the molecular basis of glucose tolerance.

  2. Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mingrone, G; Nolfe, G; Gissey, G Castagneto

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance......(-1)). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: An incretin circadian rhythm was shown for the first time in morbid obesity. The effect of BPD on the 24 h pattern of incretin differed between NGT and diabetic patients. GLP1 secretion impairment was reversed in NGT and could not be overcome by surgery in diabetes....... On the other hand, GIP secretion was blunted after the operation only in diabetic patients, suggesting a role in insulin resistance and diabetes....

  3. Modulating the gut microbiota improves glucose tolerance, lipoprotein profile and atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Christian Schiøth

    2016-01-01

    cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets...... on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors...... in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets...

  4. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...

  5. The impact of EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Federspiel, Cecilie A; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal......AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose...

  6. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...

  7. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  8. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  9. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  10. Increased Short-Term Beat-to-Beat QT Interval Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.

  11. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  12. Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity measurements derived from the non-insulin-assisted minimal model and the clamp techniques are concordant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jan Erik; Alford, Frank; Ward, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concordance between glucose effectiveness (SG) and insulin sensitivity (SI), derived from the unmodified dynamic non-insulin-assisted intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) implemented by SG(MM) and SI(MM); simulation analysis and modelling/conversational interaction (SAAM....../CONSAM) versus the eu/hyperglycaemic basal insulinaemic and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (SG(CLAMP) and SI(CLAMP))....

  13. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...... to a mixed group of subjects ranging from healthy volunteers to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Glucose, insulin, and total GLP-1 concentrations were measured. Prior population data analysis on measurements of glucose and insulin were performed in order to estimate the glucose absorption rate...

  14. Prior ingestion of exogenous ketone monoester attenuates the glycaemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myette-Côté, Étienne; Neudorf, Helena; Rafiei, Hossein; Clarke, Kieran; Little, Jonathan Peter

    2018-02-15

    The recent development of exogenous ketone supplements allows direct testing of the metabolic effects of elevated blood ketones without the confounding influence of widespread changes experienced with ketogenic diets or prolonged fasting. In the present study, we determined the effect of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate ketone monoester on the glycaemic response and insulin sensitivity index during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in humans. The results obtained show that consuming a ketone monoester supplement 30 min prior to an OGTT reduced the glycaemic response and markers of insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion. The findings of the present study provides evidence that ketone supplements could have therapeutic potential for future application as a glucose-lowering nutritional supplement. The main objectives of the present study were: (i) to determine whether acute ingestion of ketone monoester (K me ); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and (ii) to compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute K me supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18 and 35 years took part in a randomized cross-over study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a K me supplement (ΔG®; TΔS Ltd, UK, Oxford, UK; 0.45 ml kg -1 body weight) or placebo (water) 30 min before completing a 75 g OGTT. Blood samples were collected every 15-30 min over 2.5 h. The participants and study personnel performing the laboratory analyses were blinded to the study condition. K me acutely raised blood d-beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) to 3.2 ± 0.6 mm within 30 min with levels remaining elevated throughout the entire OGTT. Compared to placebo, K me significantly decreased the glucose area under the curve (AUC; -16%, P = 0.001), non-esterified fatty acid AUC (-44%, P < 0

  15. Synergetic Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal High Sucrose Intake on Glucose Tolerance and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Zhu, Di; Zhang, Yueming; Li, Lingjun; Chen, Xionghui; Zhang, Wenna; Shi, Ruixiu; Tao, Jianying; Han, Bing; Xu, Zhice

    2018-03-01

    High sucrose intake during pregnancy is linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and altered insulin resistance. This study attempts to ascertain whether prenatal high sucrose intake (20% sucrose) alleviates the detrimental effects of high postnatal sugar consumption in the offspring, and the molecular mechanisms are investigated using a rat model. High prenatal sucrose exposure increases the body weight of the offspring at 1-3 weeks of age. Exposure to both prenatal and postnatal high sucrose increases glucose tolerance in the 4-month-old adult offspring compared with offspring receiving other treatments. Postnatal high sucrose exposure suppresses food intake but increases the total daily caloric and fluid intake. Both fasting blood glucose and plasma triglyceride levels are increased, but the fasting insulin level is unaffected. Prenatal high sucrose intake enlarges pancreatic islet area; however, prenatal-plus-postnatal high sucrose exposure induces smaller pancreatic islets. IRS-1(S612) protein phosphorylation is significantly increased, and the GSK-3β (S9) phosphorylation level is reduced. Both prenatal and prenatal-plus-postnatal high sucrose exposure substantially affect biological functions related to insulin homeostasis. IRS-1(S612) protein phosphorylation appears to be a part of the molecular mechanism underlying these effects. These results add to the understanding of how high sucrose intake contributes to insulin resistance and diabetes pathogenesis and how postnatal nutrition and lifestyle may mitigate detrimental prenatal exposures. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Microbial-Host Co-metabolites Are Prodromal Markers Predicting Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Behavior, Obesity, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Emmanuel Dumas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the gut microbiome on metabolic and behavioral traits is widely accepted, though the microbiome-derived metabolites involved remain unclear. We carried out untargeted urine 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping in an isogenic C57BL/6J mouse population (n = 50 and show that microbial-host co-metabolites are prodromal (i.e., early markers predicting future divergence in metabolic (obesity and glucose homeostasis and behavioral (anxiety and activity outcomes with 94%–100% accuracy. Some of these metabolites also modulate disease phenotypes, best illustrated by trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO, a product of microbial-host co-metabolism predicting future obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and behavior while reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chronic in vivo TMAO treatment limits IGT in HFD-fed mice and isolated pancreatic islets by increasing insulin secretion. We highlight the prodromal potential of microbial metabolites to predict disease outcomes and their potential in shaping mammalian phenotypic heterogeneity.

  17. Understanding the role of residues around the active site tunnel towards generating a glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shubhasish; Das, Shibashis; Datta, Supratim

    2017-07-01

    Most β-glucosidases are subjected to inhibition by the final hydrolysis product glucose resulting in the accumulation of cellobiose and oligosaccharides. This accumulated cellobiose and oligosaccharides further inhibit the activities of endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolases, resulting in the inhibition of cellulose degradation and a more expensive biofuel. To elucidate the mechanism(s) of glucose tolerance, we designed and characterised six mutations of a moderately glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase (H0HC94) from the mesophilic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. The hydrophobicity and steric were varied across non-conserved residues in specific regions of the active site tunnel. In contrast to the uncompetitive inhibition of WT enzyme by glucose, C174V and H229S are competitively inhibited pointing towards a possible glucose-binding site in the protein at these positions. Increasing hydrophobicity at the +1 subsite and increasing hydrophobicity and steric at +2 subsites seemed to be critical for glucose tolerance for this BG. Additionally, in L178E, specific activity was 1.8 times higher on the natural substrate cellobiose while both W127F and L178E mutants showed an enhancement in thermostability. The kinetic stability of W127F, V176A, L178A and L178E also increased between 2- and 3-folds compared to WT. Our results indicate that while the structure between subsites +1 and +2 is critical for the glucose tolerance, the specific residues may not be identical across such enzymes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Role of diuretics, β blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: reanalysis of data from the NAVIGATOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Shah, Bimal R; Reyes, Eric M; Thomas, Laine; Wojdyla, Daniel; Diem, Peter; Leiter, Lawrence A; Charbonnel, Bernard; Mareev, Viacheslav; Horton, Edward S; Haffner, Steven M; Soska, Vladimir; Holman, Rury; Bethel, M Angelyn; Schaper, Frank; Sun, Jie-Lena; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Krum, Henry

    2013-12-09

    To examine the degree to which use of β blockers, statins, and diuretics in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors is associated with new onset diabetes. Reanalysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial. NAVIGATOR trial. Patients who at baseline (enrolment) were treatment naïve to β blockers (n=5640), diuretics (n=6346), statins (n=6146), and calcium channel blockers (n=6294). Use of calcium channel blocker was used as a metabolically neutral control. Development of new onset diabetes diagnosed by standard plasma glucose level in all participants and confirmed with glucose tolerance testing within 12 weeks after the increased glucose value was recorded. The relation between each treatment and new onset diabetes was evaluated using marginal structural models for causal inference, to account for time dependent confounding in treatment assignment. During the median five years of follow-up, β blockers were started in 915 (16.2%) patients, diuretics in 1316 (20.7%), statins in 1353 (22.0%), and calcium channel blockers in 1171 (18.6%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and time varying confounders, diuretics and statins were both associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.44, and 1.32, 1.14 to 1.48, respectively), whereas β blockers and calcium channel blockers were not associated with new onset diabetes (1.10, 0.92 to 1.31, and 0.95, 0.79 to 1.13, respectively). Among people with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors and with serial glucose measurements, diuretics and statins were associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes, whereas the effect of β blockers was non-significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097786.

  19. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  20. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): Relationship Between Higher Cutoff Values for 100 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Insulin Requirement During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Jessica; Martín-Nieto, Alicia; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Tartón, Teresa; Menéndez-Prada, Teresa; Ragnarsson, Cecilia S; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Menéndez-Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-07-01

    Objectives To study if there is any relationship about higher cutoff values for 100 g oral glucose tolerance test and the need for insulin in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective population-based study of 201 women diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) between January 2012 and June 2014 in the area of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. According to diagnostic criteria recommended by GEDE, NDDG, gestational diabetes is diagnosed if two or more plasma glucose levels meet or exceed the following threshold: fasting glucose of 105 mg/dl, 1-h 190 mg/dl, 2-h 165 mg/dl, or 3-h 145 mg/dl. We aim to know if there is any relationship between higher cutoffs and insulin requirement. Results 36 out of 201 patients (17.91%) needed insulin to achieve the targets of blood glucose control. There were no differences in mean maternal age and birthweights. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in women with further need for insulin than those who only needed diet and exercise (p oral glucose intake were statistically different between the two groups (p 0.032). AUC for fasting glucose value was the highest according to ROC curve. Conclusions Fasting cutoff vales for 100 g oral glucose tolerance test are consistently higher in women diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes that further needed insulin to achieve adequate blood glucose control. The positive predictive value of fasting glucose value 105 mg/dl on OGTT was 81.1%, whereas for the cut-off 95 mg/dl it was 54.0%.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, S; Rose, P; Mattheus, M; Cinca, R; Pinnetti, S; Broedl, U C; Woerle, H J

    2014-02-01

    This open-label, parallel-group study investigated the effect of various degrees of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin. Thirty-six subjects [8 each with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classification), and 12 matched controls with normal hepatic function] received a single 50 mg dose of empagliflozin. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed. After reaching peak levels, plasma drug concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion. Compared with subjects with normal hepatic function, geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of AUC(0-∞) and C(max) were 123.15% (98.89-153.36) and 103.81% (82.29-130.95), respectively, in patients with mild hepatic impairment, 146.97% (118.02-183.02) and 123.31% (97.74-155.55), respectively, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and 174.70% (140.29-217.55) and 148.41% (117.65-187.23), respectively, in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Adverse events, all mild or moderate in intensity, were reported in three subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, two subjects with severe hepatic impairment and six subjects with normal hepatic function. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in subjects with hepatic impairment. Increases in empagliflozin exposure were less than twofold in patients with hepatic impairment; therefore no dose adjustment of empagliflozin is required in patients with hepatic impairment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improved thermostability of a metagenomic glucose-tolerant β-glycosidase based on its X-ray crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2017-12-01

    MeBglD2, a metagenomic β-glycosidase, is stimulated by various saccharides, including D-glucose, D-xylose, and maltose, and it promotes the enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass. To improve the thermostability of MeBglD2, its X-ray crystal structure was analyzed, and the amino acid residues responsible for its thermostability were identified using the structural information. Mutations in His8, Asn59, and Gly295 improved the thermostability of MeBglD2, and the combination of these mutations resulted in the highest thermostability. Compared with wild-type MeBglD2, thermostable MeBglD2 mutants promoted plant biomass saccharification using Trichoderma reesei cellulase. In addition to thermostability, the thermostable mutants exhibited higher tolerance to ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and copper ions, indicating that the MeBglD2 mutants generated in this study were improved in their tolerance to not only high temperature but also to organic solvents and metal ions.

  3. Comparison of fatty acid proportions in serum cholesteryl esters among people with different glucose tolerance status: The CoDAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Kuijsten, A.; Kallen, C.J.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Blaak, E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim - Altered fatty acid patterns in blood may be associated with insulin resistance and related disorders. We investigated whether serum proportions of cholesteryl fatty acids and desaturase activity are associated with glucose tolerance status and insulin resistance. Methods and

  4. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  5. Effects of additional starch or fat in late-gestating high nonstarch polysaccharide diets on litter performance and glucose tolerance in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding additional starch or fat from d 85 of gestation until parturition on litter performance and on glucose tolerance in sows that were fed a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied. The day after breeding, 141 multiparous sows were

  6. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    -related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...

  7. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  8. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Osei; S. Fonville (Susanne); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Brouwers (Paul); L.J.M.M. Mulder (Laus); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility,

  9. Prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. Results of a risk-stratified screening based on FINDRISC questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Győző; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ≥12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ≥12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680

  10. Han Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome risk variants in women of European ancestry: relationship to FSH levels and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Georgopoulos, N A; Braaten, T J; Bjonnes, A C; Koika, V; Panidis, D; Welt, C K

    2015-06-01

    associated with insulin (-0.16 ± 0.05, P = 0.0029) and glucose levels (-0.20 ± 0.05, P = 0.0002) 120 min after an oral glucose test. The study was large and contained replication cohorts, but was limited by a small number of controls in the Greek cohort and a small number of cases in the second Boston cohort. The second Boston group was identified using electronic medical record review, but was validated for the cardinal features of PCOS. This study demonstrates a cross-ethnic PCOS risk locus in FSHR in women of European ancestry with PCOS. The variant may influence FSH receptor responsiveness as suggested by the associated change in FSH levels. The relationship between a variant near RAB5B and SUOX and glucose stimulated insulin and glucose levels suggests an influence of one of these genes on glucose tolerance, but the absence of a relationship with PCOS points to potential differences in the international PCOS patient populations. The project was supported by Award Number R01HD065029 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development, Award Number 1 UL1 RR025758, Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, from the National Center for Research Resources, award 1-10-CT-57 from the American Diabetes Association and the Partners Healthcare Center for Personalized Genetics Project Grant. C.K.W. is a consultant for Takeda Pharmaceuticals. NCT00166569. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity.

  12. Impact of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal markers of glycaemic variability and oxidative stress in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-09-01

    We measured the effects of a single bout of exercise on diurnal and nocturnal oxidative stress and glycaemic variability in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance versus obese healthy controls. Subjects (in random order) performed either a single 30-min bout of moderate-intensity exercise or remained sedentary for 30 min at two separate visits. To quantify glycaemic variability, standard deviation of glucose (measured by continuous glucose monitoring system) and continuous overlapping net glycaemic action of 1-h intervals (CONGA-1) were calculated for three 12-h intervals during each visit. Oxidative stress was measured by 15-isoprostane F(2t) levels in urine collections for matching 12-h intervals. Exercise reduced daytime glycaemic variability (ΔCONGA-1 = -12.62 ± 5.31 mg/dL, p = 0.04) and urinary isoprostanes (ΔCONGA-1 = -0.26 ± 0.12 ng/mg, p = 0.04) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Daytime exercise-induced change in urinary 15-isoprostane F(2t) was significantly correlated with both daytime standard deviation (r = 0.68, p = 0.03) and with subsequent overnight standard deviation (r = 0.73, p = 0.027) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance group. Exercise significantly impacts the relationship between diurnal oxidative stress and nocturnal glycaemic variability in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Exercise or physical activity and cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ren Ru; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Although some studies suggest that physical exercise can minimize age-related cognitive declines or improve brain morphology or function, benefits in diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of exercise or physical activity on cognition in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. An electronic search for studies published from the earliest record until February 2017 was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Any experimental or observational study designs were included, as long as they were conducted in individuals of any age with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance, and they directly examined exercise/physical activity effects on cognitive outcomes or the relationship between changes in cognition and changes in either insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Study quality was assessed using the PEDro scale; data on participant and intervention characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Six studies enrolling 2289 participants met the eligibility criteria. Quality was modest and effect sizes variable and mostly small or negligible. Overall, four of the six studies (67%) reported significant benefits of greater exercise/physical activity participation for some aspects of cognition, but only 26% of cognitive outcomes were significant across all trials. Clinical improvements in insulin resistance/glucose homeostasis were related to improvements in cognitive function in three studies. Overall results were inconsistent, with benefits varying across exercise types and cognitive domains. Literature does not provide evidence that physical activity or exercise interventions contribute to a better cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Large-scale, long-term, robust randomized controlled trials are required to

  14. Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28% individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2% were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21.1% had prediabetes, that is, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or the combination of both, and the remainder 287 (50.9% had normal glucose tolerance. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in prediabetes and screen-detected diabetes than in normal glucose tolerance (both p≤0.033 and in screen-detected diabetes compared to known diabetes on treatment (p=0.019. There was no difference in global DNA methylation between known diabetes on treatment and normal glucose tolerance (p>0.999. In multivariable linear regression analysis, only NOS3 was associated with increasing global DNA methylation (β=0.943; 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.560. The association of global DNA methylation with screen-detected diabetes but not treated diabetes suggests that glucose control agents to some extent may be reversing DNA methylation. The association between NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms and DNA methylation suggests gene-epigenetic mechanisms through which vascular diabetes complications develop despite adequate metabolic control.

  15. Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutize, Tinashe; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28%) individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2%) were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21.1%) had prediabetes, that is, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or the combination of both, and the remainder 287 (50.9%) had normal glucose tolerance. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in prediabetes and screen-detected diabetes than in normal glucose tolerance (both p ≤ 0.033) and in screen-detected diabetes compared to known diabetes on treatment (p = 0.019). There was no difference in global DNA methylation between known diabetes on treatment and normal glucose tolerance (p > 0.999). In multivariable linear regression analysis, only NOS3 was associated with increasing global DNA methylation (β = 0.943; 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.560). The association of global DNA methylation with screen-detected diabetes but not treated diabetes suggests that glucose control agents to some extent may be reversing DNA methylation. The association between NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms and DNA methylation suggests gene-epigenetic mechanisms through which vascular diabetes complications develop despite adequate metabolic control. PMID:27990443

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Misso, Marie L; Wild, Robert A; Norman, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS A literature search was conducted (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, clinical trial registries and hand-searching) identifying studies reporting prevalence or incidence of IGT, DM2 or metabolic syndrome in women with and without PCOS. Data were presented as odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] with fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis by Mantel-Haenszel methods. Quality testing was based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scaling and The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. Literature searching, data abstraction and quality appraisal were performed by two investigators. RESULTS A total of 2192 studies were reviewed and 35 were selected for final analysis. Women with PCOS had increased prevalence of IGT (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.63, 3.77; BMI-matched studies OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.44, 4.47), DM2 (OR 4.43, 95% CI 4.06, 4.82; BMI-matched studies OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.97, 8.10) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.40, 3.45; BMI-matched studies OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36, 3.56). One study assessed IGT/DM2 incidence and reported no significant differences in DM2 incidence (OR 2.07, 95% CI 0.68, 6.30). One study assessed conversion from normal glucose tolerance to IGT/DM2 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.7, 8.0). No studies reported metabolic syndrome incidence. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS had an elevated prevalence of IGT, DM2 and metabolic syndrome in both BMI and non-BMI-matched studies. Few studies have determined IGT/DM2 or metabolic syndrome incidence in women with and without PCOS and further research is required.

  17. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015±0.008 mM to 0.012±0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13±0.02 mM to 0.08±0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting increased by ∼60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism.

  19. Loss of high-frequency glucose-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic islets correlates with impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5−/− mice

    OpenAIRE

    Colsoul, Barbara; Schraenen, Anica; Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Segal, Andrei; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Margolskee, Robert F.; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Gilon, Patrick; Nilius, Bernd; Schuit, Frans C.; Vennekens, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (V(m)) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca(2+)](cyt)). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like proper...

  20. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy: glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Algenes; Malabu, Usman H; Vangaveti, Venkat; Reda, Elham Saleh; Tan, Yong Mong; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh

    2014-06-01

    To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia's Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups. No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance development after gestational diabetes: A three-year, prospective, randomized, clinical-based, Mediterranean lifestyle interventional study with parallel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Del Valle, Laura; Torrejón, Maria José; Barca, Idoya; Calvo, María Isabel; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel A; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2015-08-01

    Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in later life. The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of glucose disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or DM2) in women with prior GDM. A total of 260 women with prior GDM who presented with normal fasting plasma glucose at six to twelve weeks postpartum were randomized into two groups: a Mediterranean lifestyle intervention group (n = 130) who underwent an educational program on nutrition and a monitored physical activity program and a control group (n = 130) with a conventional follow-up. A total of 237 women completed the three-year follow-up (126 in the intervention group and 111 in the control group). Their glucose disorders rates, clinical and metabolic changes and rates of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle were analyzed. Less women in the intervention group (42.8%) developed glucose disorders at the end of the three-year follow-up period compared with the control group (56.75%), p women with prior GDM. Body weight gain and an unhealthy fat intake pattern were found to be the most predictive factors for the development of glucose disorders. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN24165302. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/24165302. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Højberg, Patricia V

    2007-01-01

    differences in patients with CP and DM. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of GIP amplification of the late insulin response to iv glucose develops alongside the deterioration of glucose tolerance in patients with CP, suggesting that the same may be true for the loss of the GIP effect in patients with T2DM.......BACKGROUND: The incretin effect is reduced and the insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is abolished in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To evaluate the causality of this deficiency we investigated 8...... patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 5.5 (4.5-6.0) mM (mean (range); HbA(1c): 5.8 (5.4-6.3) %) and 8 patients with CP and secondary diabetes not requiring insulin (FPG: 7.1 (6.0-8.8) mM; HbA(1c): 7.0 (5.8-10.0) %) during three 15-m...

  3. Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3 Is Regulated by Food Intake, Improves Glucose Tolerance and Induces Mucinous Metaplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Ge

    Full Text Available Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3, also called intestinal trefoil factor or Itf, is a 59 amino acid peptide found as a homodimer predominantly along the gastrointestinal tract and in serum. TFF3 expression is elevated during gastrointestinal adenoma progression and has been shown to promote mucosal wound healing. Here we show that in contrast to other trefoil factor family members, TFF1 and TFF2, TFF3 is highly expressed in mouse duodenum, jejunum and ileum and that its expression is regulated by food intake. Overexpression of TFF3 using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV vector, or daily administration of recombinant TFF3 protein in vivo improved glucose tolerance in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Body weight, fasting insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol and leptin levels were not affected by TFF3 treatment. Induction of mucinous metaplasia was observed in mice with AAV-mediated TFF3 overexpression, however, no such adverse histological effect was seen after the administration of recombinant TFF3 protein. Altogether these results suggest that the therapeutic potential of targeting TFF3 to treat T2D may be limited.

  4. ARHGEF11 affecting the placental insulin signaling pathway in fetal macrosomia of normal glucose tolerance pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Su, Rina; Lin, Li; Yang, Huixia

    2018-03-01

    Fetal macrosomia has confirmed be related to multiple labor complications and metabolism syndromes later in life. However, the mechanism of fetal macrosomia in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) and the insulin signaling pathway in placenta affecting fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. Eighty-nine pregnant women with paired antepartum BMI were recruited and divided into four groups: NGT with normal birth weight (NGT-N, n = 30) or macrosomia (NGT-M, n = 22) and GDM with normal birth weight (GDM-N, n = 22) or macrosomia (GDM-M, n = 15). Placenta tissue was collected to examine the expression of ARHGEF11, ROCK1, the phosphorylation of Tyr612 IRS-1 (p-Y612), Ser307 IRS-1 (p-S307), PI3K, AKT, pAKT, GLUT4 and S6K. Gene expression of ARHGEF11, ROCK1, p-S307 and S6K in placenta was significantly increased in the NGT-M group (p macrosomia in NGT pregnant women. The insulin signaling pathway was suppressed in GDM placenta, but was not closely related to fetal macrosomia, indicated different mechanism in fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  6. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare ...

  7. Acute disruption of glucagon secretion or action does not improve glucose tolerance in an insulin-deficient mouse model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Vivi R.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Pedersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    receptor antagonism, in order to evaluate the effect of these on glucose tolerance. Methods: Severe diabetes was induced in transgenic and wild-type mice by streptozotocin. Glucose metab. was investigated using OGTT in transgenic mice with the human diphtheria toxin receptor expressed in proglucagon...... producing cells allowing for diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced alpha cell ablation and in mice treated with either a specific high affinity glucagon antibody or a specific glucagon receptor antagonist. Results: Near-total alpha cell elimination was induced in transgenic mice upon DT administration and resulted...

  8. Point and trend accuracy of a continuous intravenous microdialysis-based glucose-monitoring device in critically ill patients: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, J. H.; van Hooijdonk, R. T. M.; Boshuizen, M.; Winters, T.; Bos, L. D.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Hoek, A. M. T.; Fischer, J. C.; van Dongen-Lases, E. C.; Schultz, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Microdialysis is a well-established technology that can be used for continuous blood glucose monitoring. We determined point and trend accuracy, and reliability of a microdialysis-based continuous blood glucose-monitoring device (EIRUS(®)) in critically ill patients. Prospective study involving

  9. Predictors of success of a lifestyle intervention in relation to weight loss and improvement in glucose tolerance among individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the FIN-D2D project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Nina; Jokelainen, Jari; Saaristo, Timo; Oksa, Heikki; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhala, Mauno; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Moilanen, Leena; Saltevo, Juha; Niskanen, Leo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-01-01

    The authors assessed the predictors of success of a lifestyle intervention (weight loss ≥ 5% and improved glucose tolerance) in individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes in a 1-year follow-up in a primary health care setting. High-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes were identified by opportunistic screening in the implementation of the Finnish National Diabetes Prevention Program (FIN-D2D). All together, 3880 individuals participated in the 1-year follow-up. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status and behavior, family history of diabetes, clinical factors, and health care provider were considered possible predictors of lifestyle intervention success. In sum, 19.3% of individuals lost at least 5% of weight, and 32.6% with abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline showed improvement in glucose tolerance. Abnormal glucose tolerance was the strongest predictor of weight loss and improvement in glucose tolerance. High attendance at lifestyle intervention visits, being outside of labor force, and high body mass index at baseline were also related to weight loss, and high education was related to improvement in glucose tolerance. In "real-life settings," glucose tolerance status, number of intervention visits, employment status, education, and body mass index explained the success of lifestyle intervention. These factors may help in targeting interventions, although they may not be generalized to other cultural settings.

  10. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  11. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  12. Circulating soluble RAGE isoforms are attenuated in obese, impaired-glucose-tolerant individuals and are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Edwin R; Somal, Vikram S; Mey, Jacob T

    2017-01-01

    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM...... development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA, and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Group......RAGE, and esRAGE were all lower with IGT and T2DM, while the ratio of cRAGE to esRAGE (cRAGE:esRAGE) was only lower (P obesity, cRAGE:esRAGE was higher with obesity and lower with IGT (P

  13. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P breakfast...

  14. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with type 2 diabetes and altered lipid or carbohydrate metabolism in glucose tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of PPARalpha were performed in 56...... for the Leu162Val variant had, on average, a 20% decrease in fasting serum triglyceride levels (P=0.014). This finding was replicated in middle-aged subjects (P=0.023). The Leu162Val polymorphism was not related to alterations in insulin sensitivity, insulin release or level of glycaemia. In conclusion......, the Leu162Val polymorphism of PPARalpha is associated with a decreased level of fasting serum triglyceride in glucose tolerant white subjects....

  15. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C......-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-tolerant subjects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of the polymorphism on the serum insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous GDM and to investigate...

  16. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, A; Işık, H; Radeke, H H; Dignass, A; Stein, J

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565. In June 2016, we systematically searched for studies analysing efficacy and safety of intravenous iron for IDA therapy in IBD. Primary outcome was therapy response, defined as Hb normalisation or increase ≥2 g/dL. Five randomised, controlled trials (n = 1143 patients) were included in a network meta-analysis. Only ferric carboxymaltose was significantly more effective than oral iron [OR=1.9, 95% CrI: (1.1;3.2)]. Rank probabilities showed ferric carboxymaltose to be most effective, followed by iron sucrose, iron isomaltose and oral iron. Pooled data from the systematic review (n = 1746 patients) revealed adverse event rates of 12.0%, 15.3%, 12.0%, 17.0% for ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran and iron isomaltose respectively. One drug-related serious adverse event (SAE) each was reported for ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside, and one possibly drug-related SAE for iron sucrose. Ferric carboxymaltose was the most effective intravenous iron formulation, followed by iron sucrose. In addition, ferric carboxymaltose tended to be better tolerated. Thus, nanocolloidal IV iron products exhibit differing therapeutic and safety characteristics and are not interchangeable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Circulating soluble RAGE isoforms are attenuated in obese, impaired-glucose-tolerant individuals and are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Edwin R; Somal, Vikram S; Mey, Jacob T; Blackburn, Brian K; Wang, Edward; Farabi, Sarah; Karstoft, Kristian; Fealy, Ciaran E; Kashyap, Sangeeta; Kirwan, John P; Quinn, Laurie; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M

    2017-12-01

    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) may be protective against inflammation associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sRAGE isoforms and whether sRAGE isoforms are associated with risk of T2DM development in subjects spanning the glucose tolerance continuum. In this retrospective analysis, circulating total sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were quantified via ELISA, and cleaved RAGE (cRAGE) was calculated in 274 individuals stratified by glucose tolerance status (GTS) and obesity. Group differences were probed by ANOVA, and multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to test the association between sRAGE isoform concentrations and the proportional odds of developing diabetes, vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). When stratified by GTS, total sRAGE, cRAGE, and esRAGE were all lower with IGT and T2DM, while the ratio of cRAGE to esRAGE (cRAGE:esRAGE) was only lower ( P < 0.01) with T2DM compared with NGT. When stratified by GTS and obesity, cRAGE:esRAGE was higher with obesity and lower with IGT ( P < 0.0001) compared with lean, NGT. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater total sRAGE (odds ratio, 0.91; P < 0.01) and cRAGE (odds ratio, 0.84; P < 0.01) were associated with lower proportional odds of developing T2DM. Reduced values of sRAGE isoforms observed with both obesity and IGT are independently associated with greater proportional odds of developing T2DM. The mechanisms by which each respective isoform contributes to obesity and insulin resistance may reveal novel treatment strategies for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Increased glucose tolerance despite low adiponectin levels in obesity resistent aP2-Ucp 1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeleník, Tomáš; Rossmeisl, Martin; Ogston, N. C.; Slámová, Kristýna; Jílková, Zuzana; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77 ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Ucp1 transgenic mice * glucose tolerance * adiponectin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  19. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2015-09-28

    We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared from milk collected from cows fed a high fermentable carbohydrate diet to create subacute rumen acidosis (SARA); control (non-SARA) butter was collected from cows fed a low grain diet. Female fatty Zucker rats (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments: i) low fat (10 % kcal), ii) 45 % kcal lard, iii) 45 % kcal SARA butter, or iv) 45 % kcal non-SARA butter. A low fat fed lean Zucker group was used as a control group. After 8 weeks, i) glucose and insulin tolerance tests, ii) insulin signaling in muscle, adipose and liver, and iii) metabolic caging measurements were performed. Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly impaired in all fatty Zucker groups, but to the greatest extent in the LARD and SARA conditions. Insulin signaling (AKT phosphorylation) was impaired in muscle, visceral (perigonadal) adipose tissue and liver in fatty Zucker rats, but was generally similar across dietary groups. Physical activity, oxygen consumption, food intake and weight gain were also similar amongst the various fatty Zucker groups. Increasing the consumption of a food naturally enriched with CLAt10,c12 significantly worsens glucose and insulin tolerance in a diabetes-prone rodent model. This outcome is not explained by changes in tissue insulin signaling, physical activity, energy expenditure, food intake or body mass.

  20. Are serum adiponectin concentrations in a population sample of 64-year-old Caucasian women with varying glucose tolerance associated with ultrasound-assessed atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, C J; Brohall, G; Hulthe, J; Wikstrand, J; Fagerberg, B

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid arteries in Caucasian women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. From a population-based cohort of 64-year-old Swedish women, 533 subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2, n=177), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=178) or normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=178) were recruited. Anthropometrics, usual cardiovascular risk factors were examined and ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries was performed. Women with low adiponectin concentrations were characterized by thick IMT, higher prevalence of DM2, history of previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, anti-hypertensive treatment and high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma insulin, serum triglycerides, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and low serum HDL cholesterol levels. Carotid IMT correlated with HbA1c (r=0.24, PDM2 (r=0.16, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.16, P<0.001), blood glucose (r=0.16, P<0.001), triglycerides (r=0.15, P<0.001), and reversely to adiponectin (r=-0.11, P=0.01), HDL cholesterol (r=-0.13, P=0.004), and alcohol intake (r=-0.087, P<0.05). A more detailed analysis of underlying associations was difficult due to a high co-linearity between these variable. Low serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with increased carotid artery IMT, and several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, mainly those constituting the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  2. A survey of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to gynaecology clinics of Shiraz university of medical sciences

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    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.

  3. PROPERTIES OF NEW SALTS OF 2-(5-(ADAMANTANE-1-YL-4-R-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-YLTIOACETIC ACIDS IN THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of glucose in the blood is one of the integral indicators of the internal environment that reflects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body. Glucose is a key component of human metabolism. The level of blood sugar is one of the most important controlled constants of body that defines homeostasis and displays the status of carbohydrate metabolism. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition when blood glucose is critically low. The aim of research. The aim of our study was pharmacological screening of the effects of the newly synthesized salts of 2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids on glucose blood level in experimental animals. Materials and methods. The compounds have been synthesized at the Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Toxicology of Zaporozhye State Medical University (the Head of the chair, Professor Panasenko O.I.. Blood glucose levels of saults of2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids in rats have been evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT. IGTT was reproduced by glucose load on animals in a dose of 2 g / kg of rat’s body weight. White nonlinear rats weighing 160-230 g were involved in experiments. Animals were divided into 13 groups of 7 animals in each group: the 1st is intact one; the 2nd is control one with glycemia (untreated, the 3rd group of the animals received glibenclamide in the dose of 1 mg / kg; the groups 3-13 received 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. The compounds were dissolved in purified water at the rate of 1 ml per 100 g of animals’ weight and were injected intraperitoneally. Glucose content in blood has been measured by glucosidase method using glucometer «Accu Chek Active» in 30 minutes from the load moment. The research results have been processed by modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using a standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and

  4. Effect of the consumption of β-lactoglobulin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate with or without calcium on glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnovale, Valérie; Pilon, Geneviève; Britten, Michel; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may modulate their health benefits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the synergistic effect of consuming β-lg and EGCG complexes on glucose tolerance of C57BL/6 male mice given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and randomized to one of the following treatments administered prior to the OGTT: 1) simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF(-)), 2) SMUF(-) + EGCG, 3) SMUF(-) + β-lg, 4) SMUF(-) + EGCG + β-lg, 5) SMUF + calcium (SMUF(+)) and 6) SMUF(+) + EGCG + β-lg. We found no significant between-group difference in postprandial glucose response. However, when mice were separated in those who received β-lg from those who did not, we found that the latter displayed significantly higher postprandial glucose concentrations. Our results support the beneficial impact of β-lg on glycemic control and suggest that concomitant EGCG or calcium consumption does not improve this effect.

  5. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  6. Genetic Association Analysis of Fasting and 1- and 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test Data Using a Generalized Index of Dissimilarity Measure for the Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Yee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose tolerance tests have been devised to determine the speed of blood glucose clearance. Diabetes is often tested with the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, along with fasting glucose level. However, no single test may be sufficient for the diagnosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO/International Diabetes Federation (IDF has suggested composite criteria. Accordingly, a single multi-class trait was constructed with three of the fasting phenotypes and 1- and 2-hour OGTT phenotypes from the Korean Association Resource (KARE project, and the genetic association was investigated. All of the 18 possible combinations made out of the 3 sets of classification for the individual phenotypes were taken into our analysis. These were possible due to a method that was recently developed by us for estimating genomic associations using a generalized index of dissimilarity. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were found to have the strongest main effect are reported with the corresponding genes. Four of them conform to previous reports, located in the CDKAL1 gene, while the other 4 SNPs are new findings. Two-order interacting SNP pairs of are also presented. One pair (rs2328549 and rs6486740 has a prominent association, where the two single-nucleotide polymorphism locations are CDKAL1 and GLT1D1. The latter has not been found to have a strong main effect. New findings may result from the proper construction and analysis of a composite trait.

  7. Rapid and Weight-Independent Improvement of Glucose Tolerance Induced by a Peptide Designed to Elicit Apoptosis in Adipose Tissue Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Sartor, Maureen A.; Bain, James R.; Sandoval, Darleen; Stevens, Robert D.; Medvedovic, Mario; Newgard, Christopher B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    A peptide designed to induce apoptosis of endothelium in white adipose tissue (WAT) decreases adiposity. The goal of this work is to determine whether targeting of WAT endothelium results in impaired glucose regulation as a result of impaired WAT function. Glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 2 and 3 of treatment with vehicle (HF-V) or proapoptotic peptide (HF-PP) and mice pair-fed to HF-PP (HF-PF) in obese mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Serum metabolic variables, including lipid profile, adipokines, individual fatty acids, and acylcarnitines, were measured. Microarray analysis was performed in epididymal fat of lean or obese mice treated with vehicle or proapoptotic peptide (PP). PP rapidly and potently improved glucose tolerance of obese mice in a weight- and food intake–independent manner. Serum insulin and triglycerides were decreased in HF-PP relative to HF-V. Levels of fatty acids and acylcarnitines were distinctive in HF-PP compared with HF-V or HF-PF. Microarray analysis in AT revealed that pathways involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, and branched-chain amino acid degradation were changed by exposure to HFD and were reversed by PP administration. These studies suggest a novel role of the AT vasculature in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. PMID:22733798

  8. Impaired incretin effect is an early sign of glucose dysmetabolism in nondiabetic patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, M; Lauritsen, Tina Vilsbøll; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The gastrointestinal system plays a major role in normal glucose metabolism, and in healthy individuals, postprandial insulin secretion is largely mediated by the gut incretin hormones. This potentiation is termed...... the incretin effect and is reduced in type 2 diabetes. The impact of psoriasis on gastrointestinal factors involved in glucose metabolism has not previously been examined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incretin effect, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and/or secretion of glucagon...... and gut incretin hormones are impaired in normal glucose-tolerant patients with psoriasis. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests and intravenous isoglycaemic glucose infusions were performed in 12 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and 12 healthy matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients...

  9. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection.

  10. Pioglitazone Improves In Vitro Viability and Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigoni, Valentina; Picconi, Angela; Cito, Monia; Ridolfi, Valentina; Bonomini, Sabrina; Casali, Chiara; Zavaroni, Ivana; Gnudi, Luigi; Metra, Marco; Dei Cas, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the PPARγ-agonist insulin sensitizer pioglitazone, may provide potential beneficial cardiovascular (CV) effects beyond its anti-hyperglycaemic function. A reduced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes, conditions characterised by increased CV risk. Aim To evaluate whether pioglitazone can provide benefit in vitro in EPCs obtained from IGT subjects. Materials and Methods Early and late-outgrowth EPCs were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 14 IGT subjects. The in vitro effect of pioglitazone (10 µM) with/without PPARγ-antagonist GW9662 (1 µM) was assessed on EPC viability, apoptosis, ability to form tubular-like structures and pro-inflammatory molecule expression. Results Pioglitazone increased early and late-outgrowth EPC viability, with negligible effects on apoptosis. The capacity of EPCs to form tubular-like structures was improved by pioglitazone in early (mean increase 28%; p = 0.005) and late-outgrowth (mean increase 30%; p = 0.037) EPCs. Pioglitazone reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecule expression in both early (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012 respectively) and late-outgrowth (p = 0.047 and p = 0.048, respectively) EPCs. Similarly, pioglitazone reduced TNFα gene and protein expression in both early (p = 0.034;p = 0.022) and late-outgrowth (p = 0.026;p = 0.017) EPCs compared to control. These effects were prevented by incubation with the PPARγ-antagonist GW9662. Conclusion Pioglitazone exerts beneficial effects in vitro on EPCs isolated from IGT subjects, supporting the potential implication of pioglitazone as a CV protective agents. PMID:23139771

  11. Higher Fruit Intake Is Related to TNF-α Hypomethylation and Better Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Zulet, Maria Ángeles; Milagro, Fermín I; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This study hypothesized an association between healthy dietary patterns, hypermethylation of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter and decreased risk of metabolic changes. Forty normal-weight young women were involved in this cross-sectional study. DNA was isolated from white blood cells, and CpG site methylation in TNF-α was analyzed by Sequenom EpiTyper. The quality of the diet was assessed by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005). Contradicting our hypothesis, HEI-2005 score was negatively associated with CpG5 (r = -0.460, p = 0.003) and TNF-α total methylation (r = -0.355, p = 0.026). A higher intake of fruits was related to lower insulin, HOMA-IR, and TNF-α methylation. No other dietary pattern was related to TNF-α methylation. TNF-α total methylation correlated positively with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.323; p = 0.042) and CpG5 methylation with body mass index (r = 0.333, p = 0.036). Furthermore, fiber intake was negatively associated with the CpG5 (r = -0.324, p = 0.041) and TNF-α total methylation (r = -0.434, p = 0.005), whereas vitamin C intake was negatively associated with TNF-α total methylation (r = -0.411, p = 0.009). Intakes of apples and citrus fruits were negatively associated with TNF-α total methylation. A healthy dietary pattern and higher fruit intake (particularly apples and citrus fruits) were related to better glucose tolerance in healthy subjects, which could be mediated by lower TNF-α methylation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The effect of glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) on glucose elimination in healthy subjects depends on the pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielson, M; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) decreases plasma glucose in type II diabetic patients and in healthy subjects indirectly by stimulation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion, whereby the hepatic glucose production decreases. However, recent studies indicate that GLP-I may also directly...... influence peripheral and hepatic glucose uptake. We infused somatostatin (SS) intravenously (500 or 1,000 microgram/h) in 13 healthy subjects to suppress insulin and glucagon secretion from the endocrine pancreas, together with infusion of either GLP-I (50 pmol / kg / h) or saline intravenously. After 30...... min, a 25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was carried out, and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GLP-I were measured during the following 2 h. IVGTT together with GLP-I infusion significantly elevated insulin during 500 microgram/h SS but not during 1,000 microgram...

  13. Gastro-Resistant Insulin Receptor-Binding Peptide from Momordica charantia Improved the Glucose Tolerance in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice via Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2017-10-25

    Momordica charantia is a commonly used food and has been used for the management of diabetes. Our previous study has identified an insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) from Momordica charantia. Here we identified the gastro-resistant hypoglycemic bioactive peptides from protease-digested mcIRBP. By in vitro digestion and IR kinase activity assay, we found that a 9-amino-acid-residue peptide, mcIRBP-9, was a gastro-resistant peptide that enhanced IR kinase activities. mcIRBP-9 activated IR signaling transduction pathway, which resulted in the phosphorylation of IR, the translocation of glucose transporter 4, and the uptake of glucose in cells. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of mcIRBP-9 stimulated the glucose clearance by 30.91 ± 0.39% and 32.09 ± 0.38%, respectively, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, a pilot study showed that daily ingestion of mcIRBP-9 for 30 days decreased the fasting blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by 23.62 ± 6.14% and 24.06 ± 1.53%, respectively. In conclusion, mcIRBP-9 is a unique gastro-resistant bioactive peptide generated after the digestion of mcIRBP. Furthermore, oral administration of mcIRBP-9 improves both the glucose tolerance and the HbA1c levels in diabetic mice via targeting IR signaling transduction pathway.

  14. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable for the treatment of elevated hemoglobin

  15. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Márquez-Ibarra

    Full Text Available Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance.Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups.Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable for the treatment of

  16. Gluten-free diet increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K; Josefsen, Knud; Antvorskov, Julie Christine

    2016-10-01

    Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesized that GF diet would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF-HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks. Short-term (6-24 weeks) GF-HF versus HF feeding impaired glucose tolerance and increased fasting glucose. Long-term (36-42 weeks) GF-HF versus HF feeding improved glucose tolerance and decreased fasting leptin. Mice fed a GF-HF versus HF diet for 42 weeks showed higher volumes of beta cells, islets and pancreas. The beta-cell volume correlated with the islet- and pancreas volume as well as body weight. GF-HF versus HF diet did not influence toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression in intestine. STD versus GF feeding did not affect any parameter studied. Long-term feeding with GF-HF versus HF increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in B6 mice. The mechanism may include beta-cell rest, but is unlikely to include TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines in the intestine. Beta-cell volume correlates with pancreas volume and body weight, indicating that insulin secretion capacity controls pancreas volume. Thus, long-term GF diets may be beneficial for obese type 2 diabetes patients and trials should be performed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  18. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated...... measures ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test. Plasma glucose concentrations were equally normalized with all GLP-1 doses (P fasting state (P ... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  19. Peripheral, but not central, GLP-1 receptor signaling is required for improvement in glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Jill S.; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Yin, Huali

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes profound weight loss and remission of diabetes by influencing metabolic physiology, yet the mechanisms behind these clinical improvements remain undefined. After RYGB, levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that enhances insulin secretion and promotes satiation, are substantially elevated. Because GLP-1 signals in both the periphery and the brain to influence energy balance and glucose regulation, we aimed to determine the relative requirements of these systems to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance following RYGB surgery in mice. By pharmacologically blocking peripheral or central GLP-1R signaling, we examined whether GLP-1 action is necessary for the metabolic improvements observed after RYGB. Diet-induced obese mice underwent RYGB or sham operation and were implanted with osmotic pumps delivering the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9–39) (2 pmol·kg−1·min−1 peripherally; 0.5 pmol·kg−1·min−1 centrally) for up to 10 wk. Blockade of peripheral GLP-1R signaling partially reversed the improvement in glucose tolerance after RYGB. In contrast, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, as well as body weight, were unaffected by GLP-1R antagonism. Central GLP-1R signaling did not appear to be required for any of the metabolic improvements seen after this operation. Collectively, these results suggest a detectable but only modest role for GLP-1 in mediating the effects of RYGB and that this role is limited to its well-described action on glucose regulation. PMID:27026085

  20. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    meal before (Pre), 1 wk, 3 mo, and 1 yr after RYGB. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent-insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), ß-cell glucose sensitivity (ß-GS), and disposition index (D......(ß-GS): ß-GS × 1/HOMA-IR) were calculated. Within the first week after RYGB, fasting glucose [T2D Pre: 8.8 ± 2.3, 1 wk: 7.0 ± 1.2 (P ....003)] but not in NGT. HOMA-IR decreased by 50% in both groups. ß-GS increased in T2D [Pre: 1.03 ± 0.49, 1 wk: 1.70 ± 1.2, (P = 0.012)] but did not change in NGT. The increase in DI(ß-GS) was 3-fold in T2D and 1.5-fold in NGT. After RYGB, glucagon secretion was increased in response to the meal. GIP secretion...

  1. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  2. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jonas B; Overgaard, Rune V; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2010-02-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR (0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1):150-158, 2001). In total 174 subjects underwent both an OGTT and a tolbutamide modified IVGTT. Estimation of parameters in the oral minimal model (OMM) was performed using the FOCE-method in NONMEM VI on insulin and C-peptide measurements. The suggested SDE models were based on a continuous AR(1) process, i.e. the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and the extended Kalman filter was implemented in order to estimate the parameters of the models. Inclusion of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process caused improved description of the variation in the data as measured by the autocorrelation function (ACF) of one-step prediction errors. A main result was that application of SDE models improved the correlation between the individual first phase indexes obtained from OGTT and AIR (0-8) (r = 0.36 to r = 0.49 and r = 0.32 to r = 0.47 with C-peptide and insulin measurements, respectively). In addition to the increased correlation also the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method

  3. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral...... antihyperglycemic agents in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The degree of DPP-4 inhibition and the level of active incretin augmentation required for glucose lowering efficacy after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... concentrations; and sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Sitagliptin dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity over 24 h, enhanced active GLP-1 and GIP levels, increased insulin/C-peptide, decreased glucagon, and reduced glycemic excursion after OGTTs administered at 2 and 24 h after single oral 25...

  4. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C

    2009-01-01

    -up period (maximum 13.8 years), of 294 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 69 experienced a CHD event (13.8 years), as did 42 of 141 with IGT and 32 of 74 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DeltaGLP-1 did not predict CHD (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.52-2.28). The prevalence of IGT was associated with Delta...... = 0.10, p = 0.16) groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Impaired GLP-1 secretion is associated with IGT, but not with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This finding in the latter group might be confounded by oral glucose-lowering treatment. GLP-1 does not predict CHD. Although DeltaGLP-1 was associated...... stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow...

  5. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarashina, Akiko; Koiwai, Kazuki; Seman, Leo J; Yamamura, Norio; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Negishi, Takahiro; Sesoko, Shogo; Woerle, Hans J; Dugi, Klaus A

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled within dose groups, double-blind, single rising dose study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin in 48 healthy Japanese male subjects. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels in 1.25 to 2.50 h; thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion, with mean terminal elimination half-life ranging from 7.76 to 11.7 h. Increase in empagliflozin exposure was proportional to dose. Oral clearance was dose independent and ranged from 140 to 172 mL/min. In the 24 h following 100 mg empagliflozin administration, the mean (%CV) amount of glucose excreted in urine was 74.3 (17.1) g. The amount and the maximum rate of glucose excreted via urine increased with dose of empagliflozin. Nine adverse events, all of mild intensity, were reported by 8 subjects (7 with empagliflozin and 1 with the placebo). No hypoglycemia was reported. In conclusion, 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin had a good safety and tolerability profile in healthy Japanese male subjects. Exposure to empagliflozin was dose proportional. The amount and rate of urinary glucose excretion were higher with empagliflozin than with the placebo, and increased with empagliflozin dose.

  6. Favourable effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet on glucose tolerance and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Tabassi, Zohreh; Samimi, Mansooreh; Fahiminejad, Taherh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Although gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity, there is no consensus as to the optimal approach of nutritional management in these patients. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on glucose tolerance and lipid profiles of pregnant women with GDM. The present randomised controlled clinical trial was performed among thirty-four women diagnosed with GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either the control diet (n 17) or the DASH eating pattern (n 17) for 4 weeks. The control diet was designed to contain 45-55% carbohydrates, 15-20% protein and 25-30% total fat. The macronutrient composition of the DASH diet was similar to the control diet; however, the DASH diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, and contained lower amounts of saturated fats, cholesterol and refined grains with a total of 2400 mg Na/d. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention to measure fasting plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and lipid profiles. Participants underwent a 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests and blood samples were collected at 60, 120 and 180 min to measure plasma glucose levels. Adherence to the DASH eating pattern, compared with the control diet, resulted in improved glucose tolerance such that plasma glucose levels reduced at 60 (21·86 v. 20·45 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·02), 120 (22·3 v. 0·2 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·001) and 180 min (21·7 v. 0·22 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·002) after the glucose load. Decreased HbA1c levels (20·2 v. 0·05 %, Pgroup = 0·001) was also seen in the DASH group compared with the control group. Mean changes for serum total (20·42 v. 0·31 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·01) and LDL-cholesterol (20·47 v. 0·22 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·005), TAG (20·17 v. 0·34 mmol/l, Pgroup = 0·01) and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio (20·6

  7. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  8. Glucose lowering effects of inhaled insulin in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClue, Amy E; Leverenz, Elizabeth F; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Bryan, Margaret E; Reinero, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Inhaled medications have proven effective and well tolerated in cats, and inhaled insulin has been used successfully for the management of diabetes mellitus in humans. Thus, we hypothesize that delivery of aerosolized regular insulin can lower blood glucose in healthy cats. Five adult cats were administered aerosolized 0.9% saline (IS), regular insulin intravenously (IV) 0.5 U/kg, and aerosolized regular insulin 15 U/kg (I15) and 25 U/kg (I25) and blood glucose was evaluated. Mean blood glucose was significantly lower at 15, 30 and 45 min in the I25 and IV groups compared to baseline. Similarly, the IV and I25 groups had a significantly greater maximal percent change in blood glucose than the IS group. Significantly more cats developed severe hypoglycemia (glucose concentrations in healthy cats.

  9. Continued glucose output after re-feeding contributes to glucose intolerance in hyperthyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Holness, M J; Sugden, M C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism to elicit glucose intolerance after glucose administration were decreased under conditions where hepatic glucose output was suppressed. It is concluded that continued hepatic glucose output contributes to abnormal glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism.

  10. Cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of xenin-25 on secretion of pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin or glucagon in humans with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Wang

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP on insulin secretion rates (ISRs and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice. Fasted subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied. On eight separate occasions, each person underwent a single graded glucose infusion- two each with infusion of albumin, Xen, GIP, and GIP plus Xen. Each infusate was administered ± atropine. Heart rate and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP levels were measured. ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. All peptides profoundly increased PP responses. From 0 to 40 min, peptide(s infusions had little effect on plasma glucose concentrations. However, GIP, but not Xen, rapidly and transiently increased ISRs and glucagon levels. Both responses were further amplified when Xen was co-administered with GIP. From 40 to 240 min, glucose levels and ISRs continually increased while glucagon concentrations declined, regardless of infusate. Atropine increased resting heart rate and blocked all PP responses but did not affect ISRs or plasma glucagon levels during any of the peptide infusions. Thus, cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in mice but not humans.

  11. Cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of xenin-25 on secretion of pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin or glucagon in humans with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyan; Oestricker, Lauren Z; Wallendorf, Michael J; Sterl, Karin; Dunai, Judit; Kilpatrick, C Rachel; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Wice, Burton M

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen) amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice. Fasted subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied. On eight separate occasions, each person underwent a single graded glucose infusion- two each with infusion of albumin, Xen, GIP, and GIP plus Xen. Each infusate was administered ± atropine. Heart rate and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were measured. ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. All peptides profoundly increased PP responses. From 0 to 40 min, peptide(s) infusions had little effect on plasma glucose concentrations. However, GIP, but not Xen, rapidly and transiently increased ISRs and glucagon levels. Both responses were further amplified when Xen was co-administered with GIP. From 40 to 240 min, glucose levels and ISRs continually increased while glucagon concentrations declined, regardless of infusate. Atropine increased resting heart rate and blocked all PP responses but did not affect ISRs or plasma glucagon levels during any of the peptide infusions. Thus, cholinergic signaling mediates the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in mice but not humans.

  12. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemostasis was well achieved. The tumor weighed 6.7 kg. The postoperative course. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis. Narayanaswamy Mariyappa, Uday Kumar Manikyam1, Dinesh Krishnamurthy2, Preeti K,. Yamini Agarwal, Prakar U. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1Pathology and 2Anaesthesia, Sri Devaraj ...

  13. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: In addition to blood glucose concentrations measured in the fasting state and 2 h after an OGTT, intermediate measures during an OGTT may provide additional information regarding a person’s risk of future diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). First, we aimed to characterise...... heterogeneity of glycaemic patterns based on three time points during an OGTT. Second, we compared the incidences of diabetes and CVD and all-cause mortality rates among those with different patterns. Methods: Our cohort study included 5861 participants without diabetes at baseline from the Danish Inter99 study....... At baseline, all participants underwent an OGTT with measurements of plasma glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min. Latent class mixed-effects models were fitted to identify distinct patterns of glycaemic response during the OGTT. Information regarding incident diabetes, CVD and all-cause mortality rates during...

  14. The exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 response is important for the improved β-cell function and glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2013-01-01

    -cell function and meal-induced glucagon release before the operation, but did impair glucose tolerance. After RYGB, β-GS decreased to preoperative levels, glucagon secretion increased and glucose tolerance was impaired by Ex-9 infusion. Thus, the exaggerated effect of GLP-1 after RYGB is of major importance......β-cell function is improved in patients with type 2 diabetes in response to an oral glucose stimulus after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This has been linked to an exaggerated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, but causality has not been established. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the role of GLP-1 in improving β-cell function and glucose tolerance and in regulating glucagon release after RYGB, using the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-specific antagonist, Exendin(9-39) (Ex-9). Nine patients with type 2 diabetes, were examined before, 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Each visit...

  15. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Freire Rezende; Ailton Melo; Judith Pousada; Zulmira Freire Rezende; Norma Lúcia Santos; Irenio Gomes

    1997-01-01

    Com o objetivo de determinar se tolerância diminuída à glicose (TDG) está associada a neuropatia vegetativa realizamos estudo transversal de que participaram 44 pacientes com intolerância a glicose (Grupo 1) os quais foram comparados com 43 indivíduos controles apresentando teste de tolerância à glicose normal (Grupo 2). Os pacientes de ambos os grupos, após aceitarem participar da pesquisa, eram submetidos a anamnese, exames clínico e laboratoriais e estudo da função vegetativa (intervalo QT...

  16. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  17. Increased glucose tolerance despite low adiponectin levels in obesity-resistent aP2-Ucp1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Jeleník, Tomáš; Ogston, N. C.; Slámová, Kristýna; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 755-755 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adiponectin * transgenic mice * obesity * mitochondria * glucose tolerance * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  18. THE ICET-A RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DISTURBANCES OF GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in patients with thalassemia major (TM affects glucose regulation, and is mediated by several mechanisms. These include the oxidative damage inflicted by iron on the pancreatic ß -cells and liver cells leading to pancreatic and hepatic dysfunction and insulin resistance. These disturbances have been identified by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, euglycemic insulin clamp, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGT and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. A group of endocrinologists, hematologists and paediatricians, members of the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescence Medicine (ICET-A convened to formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in thalassemia major patients on the basis of available evidence from clinical and laboratory data and consensus practice. The results of their work and discussions are described in this article. Key words: Thalassemia major; Glucose homeostasis; Diagnosis; Management; Guidelines

  19. The solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of cinnamic acid from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Luijk, N. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced thefine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine

  20. Estimates of insulin sensitivity from the intravenous-glucose-modified-clamp test depend on suppression of lipolysis in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Sabine; Nowotny, Bettina; Piepel, Simon; Nowotny, Peter J; Strassburger, Klaus; Herder, Christian; Pacini, Giovanni; Roden, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The combined IVGTT-hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (Botnia clamp) allows the assessment of insulin secretion and sensitivity in one experiment. It remains unclear whether this clamp yields results comparable with those of the standard hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (SHEC) in diabetes patients. We hypothesised that the IVGTT induces responses affecting insulin sensitivity assessment. Of 22 randomised diet- or metformin-treated patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, 19 randomly underwent a Botnia clamp and an SHEC, spaced by 2 weeks, in one clinical research centre in a crossover study. The main outcomes were whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity as measured by the clamp and [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. Substrate utilisation was assessed from indirect calorimetry and beta cell function from insulin dynamics during IVGTT. The values of whole-body insulin sensitivity obtained from Botnia clamp and SHEC were correlated (r = 0.87, p clamp, but differed after IVGTT. The contribution of glucose oxidation to glucose disposal increased by 2.2 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4 mg kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1) min(-1) (Botnia and SHEC, p clamps correlated with individual variations of insulin sensitivity. The Botnia clamp provides similar estimates of insulin sensitivity as SHEC in patients with type 2 diabetes, but changes in NEFA during IVGTT may affect insulin sensitivity and thereby the discrimination between insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01397279 FUNDING: The study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Research of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the German Federal Ministry of Health, and supported in part by grants from the Federal Ministry for Research to the Centers for Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Alliance Imaging and Curing Environmental Metabolic Diseases and the Schmutzler-Stiftung.

  1. Comparison of single and combination diuretics on glucose tolerance (PATHWAY-3): protocol for a randomised double-blind trial in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian

    2015-08-07

    Thiazide diuretics are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. This risk may arise from K(+)-depletion. We hypothesised that a K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve glucose tolerance, and that combination of low-dose thiazide with K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve both blood pressure reduction and glucose tolerance, compared to a high-dose thiazide. This is a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, comparing hydrochlorothiazide 25-50 mg, amiloride 10-20 mg and combination of both diuretics at half these doses. A single-blind placebo run-in of 1 month is followed by 24 weeks of blinded active treatment. There is forced dose-doubling after 3 months. The Primary end point is the blood glucose 2 h after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink (OGTT), following overnight fasting. The primary outcome is the difference between 2 h glucose at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Secondary outcomes include the changes in home systolic blood pressure (BP) and glycated haemoglobin and prediction of response by baseline plasma renin. Eligibility criteria are: age 18-79, systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥ 140 mm Hg and home BP ≥ 130 mm Hg and one component of the metabolic syndrome additional to hypertension. Principal exclusions are diabetes, estimated-glomerular filtration rate 200 mm Hg or DBP >120 mm Hg (box 2). The sample size calculation indicates that 486 patients will give 80% power at α=0.01 to detect a difference in means of 1 mmol/L (SD=2.2) between 2 h glucose on hydrochlorothiazide and comparators. PATHWAY-3 was approved by Cambridge South Ethics Committee, number 09/H035/19. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Eudract number 2009-010068-41 and clinical trials registration number: NCT02351973. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Effect of camel milk on glucose metabolism in adults with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in Raica community: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Poornima; Gafoorunissa, Shreyans Jain; Ibrahim, S Ahamed; Shah, Bela; Shukla, D K; Kaur, Tanveer

    2011-12-01

    To investigate effects of camel milk consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in normal and type-2 diabetics of Raika and Non-Raika community. 28 raika and non-raika male were enrolled in study, categorized in 2 groups, non-diabetic and diabetic after one month stabilization. Non-diabetics were supplemented with cow milk and diabetics with camel milk; followed by one-month washout period. Afterwards regimen was interchanged for 3 months. Biochemical and anthropometric data was recorded at baseline, after stabilization, before and after washout and at end of study. An improving trend was observed in both the groups for camel milk effect (FBS 203.86 +/- 24.09 to 161.43 +/- 11.39 mg/dl; pcamel milk consumption (8.39 +/- 0.64 to 7.27 +/- 0.67%) whereas deteriorated in the case of cow milk (7.36 +/- 0.66 to 8.26 +/- 0.60%) in diabetic group. The HOMA-IR reduced from 13.21 +/- 4.88 to 4.38 +/- 0.75, AUC-glucose from 37253.57 +/- 2859.08 to 30724.29 +/- 3677.33 and AUC-insulin from 5871.86 +/- 1210.73 to 3301.86 +/- 629.98 in the camel milk group. In type-2 diabetics camel milk reduces FBS, post-prandial glucose and HbA1c. AUC-insulin and AUC-glucose also decreased significantly along with HOMA-IR. It shows hypoglycemic effect of camel milk reducing insulin resistance. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  3. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood.

  4. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) deficiency causes impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance coincident with an attenuation of mitochondrial function in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Shinichi; Okano, Satoshi; Nohara, Hidekazu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Naito, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kelly, Vincent P; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nakajima, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    In vertebrates, the initial step in heme biosynthesis is the production of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by ALA synthase (ALAS). ALA formation is believed to be the rate-limiting step for cellular heme production. Recently, several cohort studies have demonstrated the potential of ALA as a treatment for individuals with prediabetes and type-2 diabetes mellitus. These studies imply that a mechanism exists by which ALA or heme can control glucose metabolism. The ALAS1 gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed isozyme. Mice heterozygous null for ALAS1 (A1+/-s) experience impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance (IR) beyond 20-weeks of age (aged A1+/-s). IGT and IR were remedied in aged A1+/-s by the oral administration of ALA for 1 week. However, the positive effect of ALA proved to be reversible and was lost upon termination of ALA administration. In the skeletal muscle of aged A1+/-s an attenuation of mitochondrial function is observed, coinciding with IGT and IR. Oral administration of ALA for 1-week brought about only a partial improvement in mitochondrial activity however, a 6-week period of ALA treatment was sufficient to remedy mitochondrial function. Studies on differentiated C2C12 myocytes indicate that the impairment of glucose metabolism is a cell autonomous effect and that ALA deficiency ultimately leads to heme depletion. This sequela is evidenced by a reduction of glucose uptake in C2C12 cells following the knockdown of ALAS1 or the inhibition of heme biosynthesis by succinylacetone. Our data provide in vivo proof that ALA deficiency attenuates mitochondrial function, and causes IGT and IR in an age-dependent manner. The data reveals an unexpected metabolic link between heme and glucose that is relevant to the pathogenesis of IGT/IR.

  5. Effect of lifestyle interventions on glucose regulation among adults without impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanping; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Thomas, William; Cheng, Yiling J; Lobelo, Felipe; Norris, Keri; Devlin, Heather M; Ali, Mohammed K; Gruss, Stephanie; Bardenheier, Barbara; Cho, Pyone; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Mudaliar, Uma; Saaddine, Jinan; Geiss, Linda S; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically assessed the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on glycemic indicators among adults (⩾18years) without IGT or diabetes. Randomized controlled trials using physical activity (PA), diet (D), or their combined strategies (PA+D) with follow-up ⩾12months were systematically searched from multiple electronic-databases between inception and May 4, 2016. Outcome measures included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and bodyweight. Included studies were divided into low-range (FPG HOMA-IR (%change: -22.82% [-29.14, -16.51]), and bodyweight (%change: -3.99% [-4.69, -3.29]). The same effect sizes in FPG reduction (0.07) appeared among both low-range and high-range groups. Similar effects were observed among all groups regardless of lengths of follow-up. D and PA+D interventions had larger effects on glucose reduction than PA alone. Lifestyle interventions significantly improved FPG, HbA1c, FI, HOMA-IR, and bodyweight among adults without IGT or diabetes, and might reduce progression of hyperglycemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  7. Indexes of carbohydrate exchange (CE) and results of toleration test to glucose after effect of low dose of ionizing radiation in late periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The indexes of tolerance test to glucose and values of generalized criterion (GC) being information index of CE system status were determined for 100 liquidators of Chernobyl accident with purpose of study of carbohydrate exchange (CE) status. Analysis of these mean values was carried out according to participation data in liquidation works, exposition duration, rate of radioactive contamination of zone, absorbed dose of external irradiation and age of examined persons. Contribution of each studied components of radiation factor on CE status is estimated. It is determined that both the absorbed dose and the exposition duration are main factors influencing on CE. In examined group there were 32 men with disorders of CE , 20 of them (GC=18.33±0.48) were placed to group of higher risk, 9 men have high tolerance of organism to glucose (GC=32.84±1.37) and 3 men have diabetes of II type (GC=68.6±2.16). Frequency of cases of liquidators' of Chernobyl accident CE disorders allows to made conclusion that ills have dis-function of endocrine section of pancreas

  8. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Impact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Andres E; Flynn, Michael G; Pinkston, Catherine; Markofski, Melissa M; Jiang, Yan; Donkin, Shawn S; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2013-06-01

    The impact of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance was investigated. Twenty-three overweight and obese (age: 26.1±4.7 y; BMI: 31.3±3.2 kg/m(2); 25-hydroxyvitamin D: 19.3±7.2 ng/mL) adults were recruited for participation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly divided into vitamin D (VitD, 4000 IU/d; 5 females, 5 males) and placebo (PL; 7 females, 6 males) groups. Both groups completed 12 weeks of resistance training. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, body composition, and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Muscle function (strength and power) was assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During the intervention, 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased and parathyroid hormone decreased in the VitD group (Pchange in 25-hydroxyvitamin D with the change in waist-to-hip ratio (R(2)=0.205, P=0.02). No other improvements were observed with supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio. NCT01199926. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on psoriasis in glucose-tolerant patients – a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Gyldenløve, M; Rohde, U

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes might also improve their psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide in glucose-tolerant patients with pla...... end points were improvement in PASI and dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Secondary end points included changes in weight and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, as well as adverse events. RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, no significant change in PASI was found.......2 (liraglutide); P = 0.992). Liraglutide treatment resulted in a bodyweight loss of 4.7 ± 2.5 kg compared with 1.6 ± 2.7 kg in the placebo group (P = 0.014) accompanied by decreased cholesterol levels. No serious adverse events occurred during the 8-week observation period. The most common complaint...... was transient nausea, which occurred in 45% of the liraglutide-treated patients but in none from the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Liraglutide treatment for 8 weeks did not significantly change PASI, DLQI, or hsCRP in a small group of glucose-tolerant obese patients with plaque psoriasis compared with placebo...

  11. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  12. Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Arshad, Fatimah; Abdul Ghani, Rohana; Wahab, Norasyikin A; Safii, Nik Shanita; Nisak, Mohd Yusof Barakatun; Chinna, Karuthan; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

    2013-05-24

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and weight management is recommended to reduce the risk. Conventional dietary recommendations (energy-restricted, low fat) have limited success in women with previous GDM. The effect of lowering Glycaemic Index (GI) in managing glycaemic variables and body weight in women post-GDM is unknown. To evaluate the effects of conventional dietary recommendations administered with and without additional low-GI education, in the management of glucose tolerance and body weight in Asian women with previous GDM. Seventy seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM, between 20- 40y were randomised into Conventional healthy dietary recommendation (CHDR) and low GI (LGI) groups. CHDR received conventional dietary recommendations only (energy restricted, low in fat and refined sugars, high-fibre). LGI group received advice on lowering GI in addition. Fasting and 2-h post-load blood glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HPP) were measured at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Anthropometry and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, three and six months after intervention. The study is registered at the Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR) with Research ID: 5183. After 6 months, significant reductions in body weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were observed only in LGI group (Pweight loss ≥5% in LGI compared to CHDR group (33% vs. 8%, P=0.01). Changes in 2HPP were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: median (IQR): -0.2(2.8) vs. +0.8 (2.0) mmol/L, P=0.025). Subjects with baseline fasting insulin≥2 μIU/ml had greater 2HPP reductions in LGI group compared to those in the CHDR group (-1.9±0.42 vs. +1.31±1.4 mmol/L, Pweight reduction as compared to conventional low-fat diets with similar energy prescription.

  13. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, You Jeong; Park, Bo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period. Methods We performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=100), pre-diabetes (n=73), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=11). Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery. Results Eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups. Conclusion Although diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM. PMID:21977455

  14. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jeong Hwang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD; continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period.MethodsWe performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=100, pre-diabetes (n=73, and diabetes mellitus (DM (n=11. Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery.ResultsEating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups.ConclusionAlthough diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM.

  15. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (−9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23883680

  16. Imeglimin normalizes glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and improves mitochondrial function in liver of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Guillaume; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Bendridi, Nadia; Durand, Annie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Madec, Anne-Marie; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Éric; Acquaviva, Cécile; Hallakou-Bozec, Sophie; Bolze, Sébastien; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Imeglimin is the first in a new class of oral glucose-lowering agents currently in phase 2b development. Although imeglimin improves insulin sensitivity in humans, the molecular mechanisms are unknown. This study used a model of 16-week high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) mice to characterize its antidiabetic effects. Six-week imeglimin treatment significantly decreased glycemia, restored normal glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity without modifying organs, body weights, and food intake. This was associated with an increase in insulin-stimulated protein kinase B phosphorylation in the liver and muscle. In liver mitochondria, imeglimin redirects substrate flows in favor of complex II, as illustrated by increased respiration with succinate and by the restoration of respiration with glutamate/malate back to control levels. In addition, imeglimin inhibits complex I and restores complex III activities, suggesting an increase in fatty acid oxidation, which is supported by an increase in hepatic 3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and acylcarnitine profile and the reduction of liver steatosis. Imeglimin also reduces reactive oxygen species production and increases mitochondrial DNA. Finally, imeglimin effects on mitochondrial phospholipid composition could participate in the benefit of imeglimin on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, imeglimin normalizes glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by preserving mitochondrial function from oxidative stress and favoring lipid oxidation in liver of HFHSD mice. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Probing the role of helix α1 in the acid-tolerance and thermal stability of the Streptomyces sp. SK Glucose Isomerase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, Ben Hlima; Dorra, Zouari Ayadi; Monia, Mezghani; Samir, Bejar; Nushin, Aghajari

    2014-03-10

    In order to investigate the role of helix α1 in the different biochemical properties between class I and class II Glucose Isomerases, a histidine and a phenylalanine residue were inserted at position 17 and 19 of Streptomyces sp. SK Glucose Isomerase (SKGI). In addition, W16 was substituted by a histidine. The H17/F19 insertion displaced the optimal pH of SKGI from 6.5 to 7-8 and slightly decreased the thermostability. As for the W16H mutant, a shift in optimal pH of SKGI from 6.5 to 6 was observed along with a decrease in the enzyme thermostability at 85°C with a half-life time reduced twice compared to the wild-type enzyme. Three-dimensional structure analysis suggested that the insertion of a histidine at position 17 results in the formation of new hydrogen bond with D287, thereby preventing it from deprotonating the O2 hydroxyl of the sugar at low pH, while the substitution W16H induced opposite effect by preventing hydrogen bond formation between D287 and W16 and thereby probably facilitating the hydrogen transfer during the isomerization reaction. The findings highlight the essential role of helix α1, which bears the three introduced mutations, in the acid-tolerance and the thermostability of SKGI and of glucose isomerases in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  19. Bone Turnover Markers in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and/or Type 2 Diabetes during Oral Glucose and Isoglycemic iv Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagensen, Henrik; Junker, Anders E; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2018-01-01

    Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vice versa, and both conditions are associated with an increased risk of fractures and altered bone turnover. While NAFLD patients typically suffer from decreased bone mineral density (BMD), T2D...... is associated with normal to high BMD. The pathophysiology is uncertain, but may involve the gut-bone axis. Objective: We investigated the influence of the gut on glucose-induced changes in plasma bone turnover markers in healthy controls and patients with T2D and/or biopsy-verified NAFLD. Design: Cross-sectional...... cohort study. Patients: NAFLD patients with normal glucose tolerance, NAFLD patients with T2D, T2D patients without liver disease and healthy controls. Interventions: 4-hour 50g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI). Main Outcome Measures: Collagen type...

  20. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  1. Glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinaemia in obese women : role of adipose tissue distribution, muscle fibre characteristics and androgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krotkiewski, M; Seidell, J C; Björntorp, P

    1990-01-01

    The separate independent statistical contribution of abdominal distribution of fat, hyperandrogenicity and muscle morphology to glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia was analysed in 88 obese women. In univariate analyses the waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR), body fat and lean body mass were

  2. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    .029) and in mice fed a high-fat diet (P=0.036). This was accompanied by increased plasma levels of insulin and intact GLP-1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets isolated from NVP DPP728-treated animals after 8 weeks of treatment was increased as compared with islets from control animals at 5.6, 8...

  3. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Jansen, Remi D.; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  4. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anneloes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  5. HAA1 and PRS3 overexpression boosts yeast tolerance towards acetic acid improving xylose or glucose consumption: unravelling the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Costa, Carlos E; Ferraz, Luís; Romaní, Aloia; Johansson, Björn; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2018-04-02

    Acetic acid tolerance and xylose consumption are desirable traits for yeast strains used in industrial biotechnological processes. In this work, overexpression of a weak acid stress transcriptional activator encoded by the gene HAA1 and a phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase encoded by PRS3 in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain containing a xylose metabolic pathway was evaluated in the presence of acetic acid in xylose- or glucose-containing media. HAA1 or PRS3 overexpression resulted in superior yeast growth and higher sugar consumption capacities in the presence of 4 g/L acetic acid, and a positive synergistic effect resulted from the simultaneous overexpression of both genes. Overexpressing these genes also improved yeast adaptation to a non-detoxified hardwood hydrolysate with a high acetic acid content. Furthermore, the overexpression of HAA1 and/or PRS3 was found to increase the robustness of yeast cell wall when challenged with acetic acid stress, suggesting the involvement of the modulation of the cell wall integrity pathway. This study clearly shows HAA1 and/or, for the first time, PRS3 overexpression to play an important role in the improvement of industrial yeast tolerance towards acetic acid. The results expand the molecular toolbox and add to the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in higher acetic acid tolerance, paving the way for the further development of more efficient industrial processes.

  6. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained