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Sample records for intrauterine growth retardation

  1. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

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    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  2. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

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    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  3. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

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    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  5. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  6. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

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    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  7. Neonatal cardiovascular system adaptation in babies with intrauterine growth retardation

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    I. N. Petrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the adaptive features of the cardiovascular system in newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR on the basis of a clinical instrumental study.Subjects and methods. A study group included 100 newborn infants with IUGR; a control group consisted of 40 babies with normal anthropometric measurements at birth. Medical history and clinical data and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings were analyzed.Results. All the examinees with IUGR had manifestations of cardiovascular system dysadaptation. There was a high rate of electrocardiographic changes, such as cardiac arrhythmias; low voltage; systolic overload of the right heart and left ventricle; signs of ventricular hypertrophy; and transient myocardial ischemia. The specific features of cardiac hemodynamics were decreased sizes of the left ventricle, lower parameters of its systolic function, and longer functioning of fetal communications.Conclusion. IUGR is associated with the development of cardiovascular system dysadaptation syndrome, which is due to prior perinatal hypoxia. The findings necessitate a follow-up of children by involving a cardiologist.

  8. [Definitions: small for gestational age and intrauterine growth retardation].

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    Ego, A

    2013-12-01

    Screening for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major component of antenatal care, but the debate about the choice of birthweight standards is longstanding. The objective of this first chapter is to provide guidelines about optimal definition of IUGR. Literature review about available birthweight curves to define IUGR, including the analysis of their diagnosis accuracy and their relevance to identify babies at risk of poor perinatal outcomes. Intrauterine growth curves are more suitable for "normal" growth modeling than birth weight curves, and fetal growth is influenced by individual characteristics, fetal gender being the most important among them (EL2). Infants with a low birth weight are either constitutionally small babies or babies with pathological fetal growth failure. Use of "SGA" for all Small for Gestational Age infants is now recommended, "IUGR" being appropriate only for infants with pathological growth restriction (Professional consensus). Depending on reference curves, identified SGA babies and pregnancy outcomes may be different. Customized birth weight standards are based on an intrauterine growth modeling adjusted for fetal gender, maternal height, weight and parity, and appear to be the most accurate to identify SGA births at risk (EL3). However, their benefit on perinatal morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated by prospective studies. Benefits and drawbacks of customized birth weight curves seem in favor of their use. Their application in ante and postnatal investigations is a real opportunity to standardize clinical practice and make information provided to parents more consistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p language comprehension, total expressive language (vocabulary, structure, content), naming skills and non-words repetition. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between relative growth of the head [(Actual head circumference - head circumference at birth)/(Body weight - birth weight)] and language outcome. Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p language comprehension and total expressive language. Intrauterine growth retardation has a negative impact on language development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amplitude of pubertal growth in short stature children with intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Lienhardt, Anne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Coutant, Régis; Chaussain, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-01

    Pubertal growth contributes to 15-18% of adult height. A blunted pubertal peak could contribute to short adult height in short children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Pubertal growth, from onset of puberty to final height, was investigated in 75 short IUGR children: 47 were treated with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) (tx) before pubertal onset (mean dose: 0.4 IU/kg/week); 28 were not treated (no-tx). They were compared with 98 normal children. Puberty occurred later in IUGR children than in controls (boys 14.2 +/- 1 years vs. 12.1 +/- 0.8 years; girls 12 +/- 1 years vs. 11.2 +/- 0.8 years; p pubertal spurt, a finding that should be further evaluated in clinical trials. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Changes in GH/IGF-1 axis in intrauterine growth retardation: consequences of fetal programming?

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    Setia, S; Sridhar, M G

    2009-11-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process that depends on the genotype and epigenotype of the fetus, maternal nutrition, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, intrauterine insults, and a variety of growth factors and proteins of maternal and fetal/placental origin. In the fetus, growth hormone (GH) plays little or no role in regulating fetal growth, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) control growth directly independent of fetal GH secretion. Placental growth hormone (PGH) is the prime regulator of maternal serum IGF-1 during pregnancy. Total as well as free PGH and IGFs are significantly lower in pregnancies with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The GH/IGF axis is significantly affected by intrauterine growth retardation and some of these alterations may lead to permanent pathological programming of the IGF axis. Alterations in the IGF axis may play a role in the future occurrence of insulin resistance and hypertension. In this review we focus on the regulation of fetal growth and the role of fetal programming in the late consequences of a poor fetal environment reflected in IUGR.

  12. Alterations of fasting glucose and fat metabolism in intrauterine growth-retarded newborn dogs.

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    Kliegman, R M

    1989-03-01

    Maternal nutritional deprivation resulted in reduced fetal weight at term gestation (251 +/- 7 vs. 277 +/- 7 g, P less than 0.01) in newborn dogs. Growth-retarded pups developed lower blood glucose levels after 3, 6, and 9 h of neonatal fasting, reduced plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) at 9 and 24 h, and lower ketone bodies at 24 h compared with age-matched newborn control pups. Systemic rates of palmitate and alanine turnover were not affected, but systemic glucose turnover was reduced for 3-9 h after birth. The rate of alanine incorporation into glucose from 3 to 9 h was also reduced in growth-retarded pups compared with timed controls. Paradoxically, the rate of incorporation of palmitate into triglycerides was augmented in the smaller growth-retarded pups. Hepatic glycogen content was reduced at every time in the study among growth-retarded pups, whereas the rates of glycogenolysis between birth and 24 h were equivalent in the two pup groups. In contrast, hepatic triglyceride levels were augmented throughout the study in pups with growth retardation. Maternal starvation and lower glucose levels resulted in a lower hepatic energy charge, and augmented cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD-to-NADH ratios in intrauterine growth-retarded pups. These data suggest that intrauterine growth retardation in dogs results in fasting neonatal hypoglycemia that is due in part to reduced systemic glucose production. We speculate that reduced rates of gluconeogenesis from alanine and reduced oxidation of alternate fuels such as FFA contribute to hypoglycemia. FFA recycling to triglyceride synthesis rather than oxidative pathways may contribute to the observed reduction of circulating glucose levels.

  13. THE COURSE OF THE EARLY NEONATAL PERIOD OF LIFE IN NEWBORNS WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

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    L. V. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex clinical and anamnestic, laboratory, instrumental examination, a number of aspects of the health status of children born in the outcome of physiologically occurring and complicated pregnancies in practically healthy mothers (including delayed development of the fetus and without it, as well as in mothers with aggravated somatic and gynecological anamnesis. The intrauterine growth retardation was associated with cerebral ischaemia of I-II degrees of severity, toxic erythema, polycythemia, hypoglycaemia, prolapse of the anterior mitral valve leaf, limited and less sympathetic activity, tension of depleted compensatory resources, acceleration of atrio-ventricular conduction, lower frequency of contractile and impaired relaxation functions of the myocardium. As a result of the work, the criteria for early diagnosis of health disorders in term infants with intrauterine growth retardation were determined. The features of the course of the early neonatal period of life, adaptation, and the state of the vegetative nervous and cardiovascular systems are proved.  

  14. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  15. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  16. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of intrauterine growth retardation

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    Carranza Samanez, Maynor; García Linares, Sixto; Profesor Asociado del D.A. Médico Quirúrgico; Dulanto Vargas, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and the maternal periodontal disease (MPD). This case-control study of 120 mothers, 38 cases (mothers of babies with IUGR) and 82 controls (mothers of babies without IUGR) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and their medical histories were reviewed. Data was recorded, such as: the education level, marital status, smoking, alcohol and drug habits. All the mot...

  17. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involved...

  18. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth-retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulstra-Ramakers, M. T. E. W.; Huisjes, H. J.; Visser, G. H. A.

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or

  19. Infant growth patterns in the slums of Dhaka in relation to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity.

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    Arifeen, S E; Black, R E; Caulfield, L E; Antelman, G; Baqui, A H; Nahar, Q; Alamgir, S; Mahmud, H

    2000-10-01

    Relations between size and maturity at birth and infant growth have been studied inadequately in Bangladesh, where the incidence of low birth weight is high and most infants are breast-fed. This study was conducted to describe infant growth patterns and their relations to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity. A total of 1654 infants born in selected low-socioeconomic areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth. Weight and length were measured at birth and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. The infants' mean birth weight was 2516 g, with 46.4% weighing birth weight, SGA, or preterm categories were retained throughout infancy. Mean z scores based on the pooled breast-fed sample were -2.38, -1. 72, and -2.34 at birth, 3 mo, and 12 mo. Correlation analysis showed greater plasticity of growth in the first 3 mo of life than later in the first year. Infant growth rates were similar to those observed among breast-fed infants in developed countries. Most study infants experienced chronic intrauterine undernourishment. Catch-up growth was limited and weight at 12 mo was largely a function of weight at birth. Improvement of birth weight is likely to lead to significant gains in infant nutritional status in this population, although interventions in the first 3 mo are also likely to be beneficial.

  20. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Br?ssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; N?rnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 10...

  1. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN'S HEALTH IN LATER LIFE. THE POSSIBILITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

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    T. V. Belousova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of development, homeostasis and metabolism habits, long-term effects on the health of infants delivered with intrauterine growth retardation are considered. Principals and aspects of nutrition choice for these particular infants as well as some controversial aspects on this topic are discussed. Research data represents nutrition of newborns and up to 3 months infants, including those with the IGR and moderate postnatal inanition, fed with goat milk based formula, containing pre- and probiotics. 

  2. Potential Utility of Melatonin in Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Fetal Growth Retardation, and Perinatal Asphyxia.

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    Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Reiter, Russel J; Gitto, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases during gestation and the perinatal period. During pregnancy, increased oxygen demand augments the rate of production of free radicals. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, increased levels of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidative capacities may contribute to the pathogenesis of perinatal asphyxia. Melatonin, an efficient antioxidant agent, diffuses through biological membranes easily and exerts pleiotropic actions on every cell and appears to be essential for successful gestation. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge concerning the role of melatonin in reducing complications during human pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Melatonin levels are altered in women with abnormally functioning placentae during preeclampsia and IUGR. Short-term melatonin therapy is highly effective and safe in reducing complications during pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Because melatonin has been shown to be safe for both mother and fetus, it could be an attractive therapy in pregnancy and is considered a promising neuroprotective agent in perinatal asphyxia. We believe that the use of melatonin treatment during the late fetal and early neonatal period might result in a wide range of health benefits, improved quality of life, and may help limit complications during the critical periods prior to, and shortly after, delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Epigenetics of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension following intrauterine growth retardation rat: epigenetics in PAH following IUGR

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    Xu Xue-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR. Methods The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS. We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1 gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia. Results The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.

  4. ROLE OF DOPPLER STUDY IN THE EVALUATION OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

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    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a fetal growth disorder defined on the basis of a fetal weight below 10 th percentile for the corresponding gestational age. Our study was an effort at establishing the role of Umbilical artery (UA and Middle cere bral artery (MCA Doppler indices in predicting the adverse perinatal out come in clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies, and to determine the role of Doppler velocimetry in clinical management of such pregnancies. Elevation of the umbilical artery systolic /diastolic ratio or of the pulsatility index (PI; absent or reversed end - diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and decreased systolic/diastolic ratio or pulsatility index in the fetal internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries are the predictors of ab normal perinatal outcome. Our study was to evaluate the role of ratio of pulsatility index (PI which is called as Cerebroplacental Ratio i.e. MCAPI/UAPI Doppler ratio as the most accurate predictor of adverse perinatal outcome among women with clinical sus picion of IUGR attending our (SVRR Govt. hospital. METHODOLOGY : 50 Antenatal women attending the antenatal O.P.D who were clinically suspected as having growth retardation based on clinical history of previous child with growth retardation , signs of pallor ( anaemia and high documented Blood pressures – s/o PIH, reduced abdominal height for gestational age , were evaluated using screening ultrasound. Doppler velocity wave forms were obtained from umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery fro m all the 50 cases. 16 cases were followed up with repeat Doppler. Pulsatility index ratio of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery, also called as Cerebroplacental ratio was evaluated in each case. Abnormal ratio is defined as Cerebroplacental ratio < 1.08 was considered as a cut off value. Ratio was calculated and correlated clinically with the perinatal outcomes – in the form of IUD’s, low APGAR

  5. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine

  6. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of three years growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in children with idiopathic short stature and intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Kamp; D. Mul (Dick); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); M. Jansen (Maarten); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); L. Verhoeven-Wind; M. Frölich (Marijke); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed the effectiveness and safety of 3 yr combined GH and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in a randomized controlled study in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Gonadal suppression, GH reserve, and

  8. The effect of antenatal administration of solcoseryl on hepatic glycogen synthesis in rat fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Takahashi, H; Cheng, K M; Araki, T

    1993-06-01

    The effect of antenatal solcoseryl administration on hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage was studied in normal developing and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rat fetuses using biochemical analyses. The maximal effect of solcoseryl occurred 2 hours after administration. The glycogen content of the liver showed a significant increase in normal and IUGR fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration compared to their non-solcoseryl counterparts (p solcoseryl administration. Active synthase also increased in normal fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration (p solcoseryl administration stimulates hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage in IUGR rat fetuses, and thus might favorably influence the development of neonatal hypoglycemia.

  9. Heterogeneous growth and mental development of intrauterine growth-retarded infants during the first 3 years of life.

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    Villar, J; Smeriglio, V; Martorell, R; Brown, C H; Klein, R E

    1984-11-01

    Postnatal growth and development were studied in two groups of term infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and one group of infants with normal birth weight up to 3 years of age (total sample, 205 infants). Infants with IUGR were classified as having low ponderal index (IUGR-LPI) or adequate ponderal index (IUGR-API). At birth, the two groups of infants with IUGR had similar birth weight, but length and head circumference measurements were significantly different. Overall, the IUGR-API infants remained lighter and shorter and had smaller head circumferences up to 30 months of age. The IUGR-LPI infants experienced catch-up growth in weight during the first months, because of greater fat deposition. At 24 months of age, the IUGR-API infants scored below the others on mental items. At 3 years of age the IUGR-API infants had the lowest values on seven of eight developmental measures and on the composite score; at these two time periods, the group with normal birth weight scored the highest, and the IUGR-LPI infants obtained intermediate values. It is concluded that infants with IUGR tend to follow postnatal growth and developmental patterns that are associated with their physical characteristics at birth.

  10. The relationship between the quantity and quality of prenatal movements in pregnancies complicated by intra-uterine growth retardation and premature rupture of the membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    1992-01-01

    In 17 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we studied the quantity of general movements and fetal breathing movements both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In IUGR fetuses, cross-sectional comparisons were made between the quantity of fetal movements and (1) the fetal clinical

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF PRENATAL MOVEMENTS IN PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION AND PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, DA; VISSER, GHA; PRECHTL, HFR

    1992-01-01

    In 17 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we studied the quantity of general movements and fetal breathing movements both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In IUGR fetuses, cross-sectional comparisons were made between the quantity of fetal movements and (1) the fetal clinical

  12. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation

  13. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in pigle...

  14. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets...

  15. [Age-dependent alteration of insulin and ghrelin expression in pancreatic islets of intrauterine growth-retarded rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Min; Liang, Li; Du, Li-Zhong

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the age-dependent alteration of insulin and ghrelin expression in the pancreatic islets of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rats during development and to identify the role of ghrelin in insulin resistance induced by IUGR. Neonatal SD rats were divided into normal birth weight group (N group) and intrauterine growth-retarded group (I group). Plasma glucose, ghrelin and serum insulin were analyzed at day 1, 3, 7 and 10 and at week 2, 3, 4,8 and 12 after birth.Entire pancreas samples were collected for determination of ghrelin and insulin mRNA. Immunohistochemical double-staining and confocal microscopy was performed on rat pancreas. Plasma insulin levels of I group were lower than those of N group at day 1, 3 and 7 (P insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) of I group was higher than that of N group at day 1, 3 and 7 (Pinsulin, HOMA-IR and ghrelin concentrations decreased in an age-dependent manner (F = 4.12 to approximately 125.97, P insulin (+) cells and ghrelin (+) cells in both groups decreased in an age-dependent manner (F = -49.29 to approximately 427.28, PInsulin secretion was negatively correlated with ghrelin contents in both groups (r=-0.895, P=0.000; r=-0.458, P=0.002). Percentage of insulin(+) cells was negatively correlated with the percentage of ghrelin (+) cells in pancreatic islets in both groups (r=-0.810,P=0.000; r=-0.714, P=0.000). The distributions of ghrelin (+) cells in pancreatic islets of I group were different from those of N group. The effects of IUGR on weight, plasma ghrelin levels and insulin secretion of pups rats persist after birth and ghrelin may be involved in the process of insulin resistance in IUGR rats.

  16. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P UtA. Our results suggested that using color doppler ultrasound for examination of hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could revealed UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  17. Report of a consultants meeting on causes and consequences of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in populations from developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Headquarters in Vienna convened a consultants meeting from 9-13 December, 2002, to provide the Agency current insights into the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as tool to support studies aimed at assessing the causes of Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR). The consultants were: Dr. B. Caballero, Dr. D. Labadarios, Dr. G. Carroli, Dr. L.S. Bakketeig and Dr. P.T.V Nair. Representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. G. Glugston and Dr. S. Khanum, were present as observers during the initial part of the meeting. Given the Consultants' areas of expertise and the topics covered in the discussions, the scope of the Meeting was modified to 'The application of isotopic and nuclear techniques to address the problem of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in populations from developing countries'. The objectives of the meeting were to: (i) Evaluate the overall scope of a new co-ordinated research project (CRP) and suggest options for specific areas of research within that scope; (ii) Examine the applicability of nuclear and isotope based techniques in researches related to practical approaches for monitoring maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy (e.g. body composition and energy balance assessment); (iii) Establish harmonised methods and criteria for appropriate weight gain and foetal growth charts for pregnant women in developing countries; (iv) Suggest approaches to assess the effectiveness of nutrition interventions aimed at reducing IUGR and its consequences. This meeting benefited from the broad areas of experience of scientists from both developed and developing countries. Their expertise in the use of isotopes and nuclear techniques, and in studies on human nutrition, epidemiology, IUGR, Low birth weight and undernutrition provided the advocacy and approaches to fellow in the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as part of maternal malnutrition and IUGR studies

  18. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Lang, Iris S; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  19. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  20. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease....

  1. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease.......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...

  2. Comparison of blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded neonates and normal term neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranpour, R.; Besharati, Amir A.; Nasseri, F.; Hashemipour, M.; Kelishadi, R.; Balali-Mood, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to compare the blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) neonates and normal term neonates. From April 2005, we carried out a cross-sectional, prospective study in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Blood lead levels were measured in the umbilical cord and maternal venous blood samples in the 32 mother-infant pairs with IUGR full term neonates and 34 mother-infant pairs with normal full term neonates. Blood-lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean lead concentration in neonates of IUGR and normal groups was not significantly different (107.47+- 16.75 versus 113.08+-19.08 ug/L, p=0.2). The mean lead concentration in mothers of IUGR group was lower than normal groups, but this difference was not significant (124.56+-19.71 versus 135.26+-26.91 ug/L, p=0.07). Maternal lead levels were strongly related with related with cord blood in both IUGR and normal groups (r=0.8, p 100ug/L by the centers for disease control; however, this was not statistically different between the groups. Our results indicate that the mean lead level was not higher in IUGR neonates, and the whole blood lead was not related to the birth weight. In addition, maternal and cord blood lead levels were strongly correlated, and there were remarkable lead burdens on both the mothers and their neonates in this industrial area. (author)

  3. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Daniel; Mondon, Françoise; Garcès-Duran, Alexandra; Mignot, Thérèse-Marie; Robert, Brigitte; Rebourcet, Régis; Jammes, Hélène; Chelbi, Sonia T; Quetin, Frédérique; Marceau, Geoffrey; Sapin, Vincent; Piumi, François; Danan, Jean-Louis; Rigourd, Virginie; Carbonne, Bruno; Ferré, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH) were applied to early (11 weeks) human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific) were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas) were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE) could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5), which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically, suggesting that the

  4. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH were applied to early (11 weeks human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR. Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5, which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically

  5. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  6. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... to 40 weeks of gestation, but IGF-I levels are four to five times lower than those in the maternal circulation. Thus IGF-I levels in fetal as well as in maternal circulation are thought to regulate fetal growth. Circulating levels of IGF-I are thought to be genetically controlled and several IGF-I gene...... in healthy adults, and this decline could hypothetically be responsible for the increased risk of IHD with ageing. A recent nested case-control study found that adults without IHD, but with low circulating IGF-I levels and high IGF binding protein-3 levels, had a significantly increased risk of developing...

  7. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    to 40 weeks of gestation, but IGF-I levels are four to five times lower than those in the maternal circulation. Thus IGF-I levels in fetal as well as in maternal circulation are thought to regulate fetal growth. Circulating levels of IGF-I are thought to be genetically controlled and several IGF-I gene......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... gestational week, and rises gradually during pregnancy where it replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation. The rise in placental GH may explain the pregnancy-induced rise in maternal serum IGF-I levels. In the fetal compartment, IGF-I levels increase significantly in normally growing fetuses from 18...

  8. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  9. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  10. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  11. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weipeng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Zhixiong; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased ( P supplementation increased ( P supplemented diet exhibited increases ( P supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets.

  12. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  13. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B; Le Normand, L; Savary, G; Holst, J J; Oswald, I P; Metges, C C; Guilloteau, P

    2012-06-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets from sows fed a control (C, 12.1% protein), a high protein (HP, 30% protein), or a low protein (LP, 6.5% protein) diet during pregnancy. Newborns were classified as IUGR (birth weight ≤1.18 kg) and non-IUGR (birth weight >1.18 kg). The piglets were euthanized on postnatal day (PD)1, PD28 and PD188. The LP diet in non-IUGR neonates resulted in decreased body weight on PD1. The LP and HP diets resulted in both decreased body weight and delayed catch-up growth in the IUGR piglets. The HP and LP-diets increased the length of villi on PD1 in non-IUGRs but not in IUGRs. At birth, the expressions of Ki67 and active caspase 3 in mid-jejunum epithelium of HP and LP non-IUGR neonates were significantly lower as compared to C non-IUGRs whilst in IUGRs the respective expressions were as high as in C non-IUGRs. The postnatal dynamics of brush border enzyme activities and vacuolated enterocytes disappearance showed significant drop in enterocyte maturation in IUGR as compared to non-IUGR neonates. In conclusion, both HP and LP diets led to retarded development of non-IUGR piglets. In IUGR piglets both HP and LP diets resulted in delayed catch-up growth, without adaptive changes in brush border digestive enzymes.

  14. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome

  15. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  16. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg·d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg·d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose-effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time-course study were analyzed by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Uterine Doppler wave form and the prediction of the recurrence of pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation in patients treated with low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, B; Uzan, M; Bréart, G; Uzan, S

    1995-10-01

    To examine if early uterine Doppler remains a predictor of vascular complications in pregnant women treated with low-dose aspirin for a poor previous obstetrical history. A study of the uterine diastolic index and the uterine notch with a continuous wave Doppler ultrasound. The maternity Hospital Port-Royal Baudelocque Paris, France. All pregnant women between 1991-1992 (n = 48) early treated with 100 mg daily of aspirin (15.9 (S.D. = 1) weeks) for a poor previous obstetrical history. The 48 patients underwent a uterine Doppler examination at 23.8 (S.D. = 2.6) weeks. A diastolic index was calculated and the presence of diastolic notch was noted. Vascular complications (pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation), birth weight. Twenty six patients (54.2%) had an abnormal early uterine Doppler. Nine patients (18.7%) had a vascular complication, which occurred more frequently in pregnant patients with an abnormal uterine Doppler (8/26 vs. 1/22; P < 0.05). The mean birth weight was lower in patients with a pathological uterine Doppler (2419 (S.D. = 679) vs. 2841 (S.D. = 482) g; P < 0.05). In pregnant, early treated with low-dose aspirin for poor previous pregnancies, early uterine Doppler predicted patients with a high-risk of recurrence of vascular complications.

  18. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  19. Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, and HELLP syndrome: an immunohistochemical study with caspase-3 and bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, U; Cavkaytar, S; Sirvan, L; Danisman, N

    2013-01-01

    To examine the placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, and HELLP syndrome. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 pregnant women between December 2006 and August 2007 at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women Health Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Placental tissue samples were obtained from 15 pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, 15 pregnancies with normotensive IUGR, five pregnancies with HELLP syndrome, and 15 gestational age-matched normotensive pregnancies without intrauterine infection as a control group. The placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 has been investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Caspase-3 immunostaining score was significantly higher in each group when compared with the control group (p = 0.002). However there was no statistically signifant difference with bcl-2 immunostaining in each group when compared with the control group. Apoptotic marker caspase-3 is significantly increased in the villous trophoblasts of patients with preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and IUGR indicating increased placental apoptosis.

  20. Consumo calórico, estado nutricional materno, y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino Energy intake, maternal nutritional status and intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bender Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la asociación entre el consumo de energía en el embarazo y el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU, se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso-cohorte en tres hospitales de maternidad de la ciudad de México, entre enero y agosto de 1995. De un total de 4.000 partos que ocurrieron en este período, nos referimos en este estudio a los resultados de un análisis de 264 casos de RCIU y 892 controles. Se procedió a un análisis de regresión logística no condicionada, en el que también se ajustaron los factores maternos potencialmente proclives a la confusión. Para el total de los casos no se observó un efecto directo del consumo de energía en el RCIU (RM: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,99-1,00. Sin embargo, entre las mujeres que comenzaron el embarazo con un peso de 50 kilos o menos, el consumo de energía en relación a RCIU mostró una razón de momios de 2,31 (RM: 2,31; IC 95%: 1,59-3,36; para las mujeres primigestas de 1,72 (RM: 1,72; IC 95%: 1,18-2,51; en aquellas con antecedente de bajo peso al nacer de 3,54 (RM: 3,54; IC 95%: 1,93-6,46 y para aquellas que presentaron tensión arterial alta en el embarazo de 1,61 (RM: 1,61; IC 95%: 1,00-2,59.To explore the association between low caloric intake during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, a case-control study with 264 cases and 892 controls was conducted in three maternity hospitals in Mexico City from January to August 1995. Nutritional information on pregnancy was recorded using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for other known maternal risk factors in the non-conditional logistic regression analysis, for the total sample, caloric intake did not present a direct effect on IUGR (OR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.99-1.00. However the odds ratios were as follows for women: with low pre-gestational weight (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.59-3.36, in first gestation (OR: 1.72; CI 95%: 1.18-2.51, with low birth weight infants (OR: 3.54; CI 95%: 1.93-6.46, and

  1. Antenatal risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study pregnancy and delivery characteristics in mothers who have given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were studied in 315 mothers who had given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction (a study group. The studies have shown that toxemia, anemia, and preeclampsia prevent physiological pregnancy that concurrent with placental insufficiency leads to serious metabolic disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system and eventually lead to intrauterine growth restriction. A set of pathological factors of pregnancy required surgical delivery in mothers with fetal growth restriction.

  2. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  3. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  4. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Psupplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Psupplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  5. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  6. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  8. Retardo no crescimento intrauterino, baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade em recém-nascidos de grávidas com malária, na Colômbia Intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and prematurity in neonates of pregnant women with malaria in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tobón-Castaño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: É frequente a associação da malária com complicações como prematuridade, retardo no crescimento intrauterino, baixo peso ao nascer e mortalidade infantil, efeitos pouco estudados em áreas hipoendêmicas para malaria. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a relação da malária gestacional com estes efeitos em recém-nascidosnuma região endêmica para malária na Colômbia, entre 1993 e 2007. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as características em 1.716 recém-nascidos num estudo de coorte. Fez-se seguimento em 394 gestantes com malária (27% por Plasmodium falciparum e 73% por P. vivax e 1.322 sem malária. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada uma relação entre a exposição à malária na gestação e o risco maior de baixo peso ao nascer (RR = 1,37; 1,03-1,83, assim como estatura baixa (RR = 1,52; 1,25-1,85, retardo no crescimento intrauterino (RR = 1,29; 1,0-1,66 e prematuridade (RR = 1,68; 1,3-2,17. A frequência de nascimentos prematuros foi maior nas mães com malária por P. falciparum (77% que aquelas com P. vivax (RR = 1,77; IC 95%: 1,2-2,6. CONCLUSÕES: O baixo peso ao nascer e o retardo no crescimento foi associado com malária na gestação na Colômbia. A infecção por P. vivax foi relacionada com efeitos adversos sobre o recém-nascido, de modo semelhante em relação ao P. falciparum.INTRODUCTION: Association between malaria and pregnancy complications, such as prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight and infant mortality has been reported. These effects have been studied widely in areas hyperendemic for malaria, but studies in low-endemic areas are scarce. The study investigated the relation between gestational malaria and low birthweight and intrauterine growth retardation in neonates of a malarial endemic region in Colombia, between 1993 and 2007. METHODS: The pattern of development in 1,716 neonates of women with and without malaria infection during pregnancy was evaluated in a cohort study. A

  9. CONTINUOUS MATERNAL HYPEROXYGENATION IN THE TREATMENT OF EARLY FETAL GROWTH-RETARDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIBBERT, LSM; VANLINGEN, RA; VISSER, GHA

    Continuous maternal hyperoxygenation treatment (2.5 l/min by means of a nasopharyngeal cannula) was given in four patients presenting with intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) fetuses and decelerative fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns at 27-28 weeks of gestation. The effect of maternal hyperoxia was

  10. Cardiac and extra-cardiac flow velocity waveforms in the growth-retarded human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.L. Groenenberg (Irene)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe central theme in this thesis is the documentation of Doppler flow velocity waveforms in a number of cardiac and extra-cardiac arterial vessels with emphasis on changes in the flow velocity waveforms relative to intrauterine growth retardation and fetal and neonatal condition. The

  11. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    García-Robles, Reggie; Deparatamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Ayala-Ramírez, Paola Andrea; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Espinosa, Alejandra; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Olaya, Mercedes; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.; Rojas, Juan Diego; Unidad de Medicina Materno Fetal, Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bermúdez, Martha; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears to be caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction. Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with id...

  12. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  13. Unveiling causes for growth retardation in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Escobar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of hyper‐prolific sow breeds has led to a higher number of piglets born per sow per year. This increase in litter size has enlarged the number of light weight (or growth retarded) piglets, increased pre‐weaning mortality and heterogeneity at the end of the nursery phase (ten weeks of

  14. New Approaches to Treatment of Severe Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Kurmangali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality due to placental insufficiency. Currently, one of the new approaches to treating this disease is the injection of nutrients to the fetus through intravascular port-systems (catheters.Objective. To assess the impact of nutrient injections as treatment to fetuses with severe growth retardation.Materials and methods. Pregnant women with IUGR (abdominal circumference (AC < 5th percentile with the absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and a fetal gestational age of less than 30 weeks were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group included six pregnant women who had an intravascular port-system for the infusion of nutrients (amino acids and glucose in the umbilical vein of the fetus for 14 ± 3 days. The control group consisted of eight patients who received only traditional dynamic monitoring and delivery at the optimum time of pregnancy. Fetal status was assessed using ultrasound equipment Accuvix V20 (Medison, South Korea by examining indicators of biometry and Doppler study of blood flow in utero, umbilical arteries, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus with fetal vascular resistance index calculation - pulsatility index (PI. Criteria for blood flow disturbances in the vessels were considered PI values above normal values for their gestational age, which were defined as absence or reverse blood flow in a diastole in the umbilical artery.Results. In a comparative analysis of the two groups, the treatment led to a 44.7% increase in AC of the fetus (121.0 ± 11.5 mm and 219.3 ± 18.3 mm, respectively, p ˂ 0.001. In all cases, the profile of blood flow in the umbilical artery had a positive diastolic component. As a result, there was a 45.3% decrease in PI in the umbilical artery (2.14 ± 0.54 and 1.17 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.05. Average fetal weight in the study group was not significantly higher than the

  15. Features of the cardiovascular system in babies born with different types of intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of clinical and anamnestic examination, cardiointervalography, electrocardiography, and Doppler echocardiography, the investigators examined the features of the cardiovascular system in children born by women with compromised somatic and gynecological histories in the outcome of complicated pregnancy. Groups 1 and 2 included 72 and 69 infants with and without fetal growth restriction, respectively. Group 1 comprised Subgroup 1a of 57 infants with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and Subgroup 1b of 15 children with symmetrical one; of them there were 13 and 2 infants with hypoplastic and dysplastic types. Apparently healthy infants born by apparently healthy mothers in the outcome of physiological pregnancies made up Group 3 (n = 25.There is proof that there are significantly important features of autonomic regulation of cardiac activity and morphofunctional characteristics of the heart. The infants with symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation, unlike those with asymmetrical one, were observed to have impaired autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, which was less obvious at birth, deteriorating over time. At birth, the babies had morphological features of the heart and a greater frequency of functioning of fetal communications. Impaired myocardial metabolic processes prevailed within the first month of life and there was a large frequency of changes similar to those in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by the end of the first half of life.The featuresrevealed in the infants with different types of intrauterine growth restriction require electrocardiographic and ultrasound examinations, a pediatric cardiologist’s consultations at a maternity hospital, and a subsequent personalized follow-up with corrective measures at an outpatient setting. 

  16. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  17. Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline clinical and experimental evidences of the association between IUGR, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and NAFLD and discuss on a possible management to avoid the risk of MS in adulthood.

  18. Experimental intra-uterine growth retardation in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.N. Lafeber (Harrie)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world perinatal mortality rates have been reduced to low levels for various reasons but mainly because of better perinatal care. However morbidity is still relatively high and the concern of every parent for the quality of life of his newborn child demands continuing

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the genitourinary tract in males. It is an incomplete fusion of urethral folds early in fetal development and may be associated with other malformations of the genital tract. The etiology is poorly understood and may be hormonal, genetic, or environmental, but most often is idiopathic or multifactorial. Among many possible risk factors identified, of particular importance is low birth weight, which is defined in various ways in the literature. No mechanism has been identified for the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, but some authors propose placental insufficiency as a common inciting factor. Currently, there is no standardized approach for evaluating children with hypospadias in the setting of intrauterine growth restriction. We reviewed the available published literature on the association of hypospadias and growth restriction to determine whether it should be considered a separate entity within the category of disorders of sexual differentiation. PMID:25337123

  20. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    -fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  1. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. ... It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with increasing spot temperature. It is also ... Manuscript received: 29 November 2001; Manuscript revised: 24 June 2002 ...

  2. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  3. Economic analysis comparing induction of labour and expectant management for intrauterine, growth restriction at term (DIGITAT trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Boers, Kim E.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Bijlenga, Denise; Bekedam, Dick J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Boer, Karin; Bremer, Henk A.; le Cessie, Saskia; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Hasaart, Tom H. M.; Kwee, Anneke; van Lith, Jan M. M.; van Meir, Claudia A.; van Pampus, Maria G.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Rijken, Monique; Roumen, Frans J. M. E.; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Spaandermann, Marc E. A.; Willekes, Christine; Wijnen, Ella J.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The Dutch nationwide disproportionate intrauterine growth intervention trial at term (DIGITAT trial) showed that induction of labour and expectant monitoring were

  4. Which intrauterine growth restricted fetuses at term benefit from early labour induction? A secondary analysis of the DIGITAT randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; van Wyk, Linda; Boers, Kim E.; le Cessie, Saskia; Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; Roumen, Frans; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Porath, Martina; van Pampus, Maria G.; Spaanderdam, Marc E. A.; Kwee, Anneke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Bremer, Henk A.; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Willekes, Christine; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    The Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial at Term (DIGITAT trial) showed that in women with suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, there were no substantial outcome differences between induction of labour and expectant monitoring. The objective of the present

  5. Which intrauterine growth restricted fetuses at term benefit from early labour induction? A secondary analysis of the DIGITAT randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; van Wyk, Linda; Boers, Kim E.; le Cessie, Saskia; Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; Roumen, Frans; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Porath, Martina; van Pampus, Maria G.; Spaanderdami, Marc E. A.; Kwee, Anneke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Bremer, Henk A.; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Willekes, Christine; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    Objective: The Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial at Term (DIGITAT trial) showed that in women with suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, there were no substantial outcome differences between induction of labour and expectant monitoring. The objective of the

  6. Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Stephanie; Odibo, Anthony O; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been used for several years for the prevention of preeclampsia (PE). LDA started in early pregnancy is associated with improvement of placental implantation. The best evidence suggest that LDA can prevent more than half of PE cases in high-risk women when started before 16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, LDA started in early pregnancy reduces the risk of other placenta-mediated complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal death. The efficacy of LDA has been demonstrated in women with abnormal first-trimester uterine artery Doppler or with prior history of chronic hypertension or preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic Value of Fetal Thymus Size in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Atalay; Gezer, Cenk; Taner, Cuneyt Eftal; Solmaz, Ulas; Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ozeren, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the size of the fetal thymus by sonography in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to search for a possible relationship between a small fetal thymus and adverse perinatal outcomes. The transverse diameter of the fetal thymus was prospectively measured in 150 healthy and 143 IUGR fetuses between 24 and 40 weeks' gestation. The fetuses with IUGR were further divided according to normal or abnormal Doppler assessment of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries and ductus venosus. Measurements were compared with reference ranges from controls. To determine which perinatal outcomes were independently associated with a small fetal thymus, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Thymus size was significantly lower in IUGR fetuses compared to controls (P thymus size was significantly smaller in IUGR fetuses with abnormal Doppler flow compared to normal flow (P thymus in IUGR fetuses was independently associated with early delivery (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.49; P= .023), respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P= .005), early neonatal sepsis (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.11-2.42; P= .001), and a longer stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71; P = .017). Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with fetal thymic involution, and a small fetal thymus is an early indicator of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by IUGR. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term: DIGITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisjes Anjoke JM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 80% of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR infants are born at term. They have an increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity including behavioral problems, minor developmental delay and spastic cerebral palsy. Management is controversial, in particular the decision whether to induce labour or await spontaneous delivery with strict fetal and maternal surveillance. We propose a randomised trial to compare effectiveness, costs and maternal quality of life for induction of labour versus expectant management in women with a suspected IUGR fetus at term. Methods/design The proposed trial is a multi-centre randomised study in pregnant women who are suspected on clinical grounds of having an IUGR child at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks. After informed consent women will be randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant management with maternal and fetal monitoring. Randomisation will be web-based. The primary outcome measure will be a composite neonatal morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes will be severe maternal morbidity, maternal quality of life and costs. Moreover, we aim to assess neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral outcome at two years as assessed by a postal enquiry (Child Behavioral Check List-CBCL and Ages and Stages Questionnaire-ASQ. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Quality of life analysis and a preference study will also be performed in the same study population. Health technology assessment with an economic analysis is part of this so called Digitat trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term. The study aims to include 325 patients per arm. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for which strategy is superior in terms of neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, costs and maternal quality of life aspects. This will be the first randomised trial for IUGR at term. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register and ISRCTN

  9. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  10. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  11. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the

  12. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  13. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Motghare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight of the newborn is below 10th percentile for gestational age on the intrauterine growth curve. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17 package. Percentages, odds ratios with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used wherever appropriate. Results: Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status and number of antenatal visits were found to be the significant socio-demographic factors associated with Intrauterine growth restriction while, maternal height, parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and anemia were the maternal biological factors found to be significantly associated on bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and antenatal visits as significant maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions: A focus on good antenatal care, especially on high risk pregnancies would go a long way in reducing the problem of intrauterine growth restriction in the community thereby ensuring a safe and healthy future for our youngest generation.

  14. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Freije, William A.; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression p...

  15. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  16. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasound screening for intrauterine growth restriction : study protocol of a nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial in The Netherlands (The IRIS Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, Jens; Verfaille, Viki; Viester, Laura; Westerneng, Myrte; Molewijk, Bert; Franx, Arie; van der Horst, Henriette; Bosmans, Judith E; de Jonge, Ank; Jellema, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack

  17. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasound screening for intrauterine growth restriction : Study protocol of a nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial in The Netherlands (The IRIS Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, Jens; Verfaille, Viki; Viester, Laura; Westerneng, Myrte; Molewijk, Bert; Franx, Arie; van der Horst, Henriette; Bosmans, Judith E.; de Jonge, Ank; Jellema, Petra; van Baar, Anneloes L.; Bais, Joke; Bonsel, Gouke J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; van Duijnhoven, Noortje T L; Grobman, William A.; Groen, Henk; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; Klomp, Trudy; Kok, Marjolein; de Kroon, Marlou L.; Kruijt, Maya; Kwee, Anneke; Ledda, Sabina; Lafeber, Harry N.; van Lith, Jan M.; Mol, Ben Willem; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Oei, Guid; Oudejans, Cees; Marieke Paarlberg, K.; Pajkrt, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Reddy, Uma M.; De Reu, Paul A O M; Rijnders, Marlies; de Roon-Immerzeel, Alieke; Scheele, Connie; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Snijders, Rosalinde; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Torij, Hanneke W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.; Twisk, Jos; Zeeman, Kristel C.; Zhang, Jun; {collab} The IRIS Study Group, The IRIS Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack

  18. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martinez-Payo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report - We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion - We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies.

  20. Ouabain Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy of Male Rat Offspring Exposed to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Following High-Salt Diet Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yue, Jing; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Juan; Hu, Yali

    2015-12-01

    Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure of the adult intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring through retaining the number of glomeruli of the IUGR newborn. However, the melioration of hemodynamic features coinciding with the improvement in cardiac structure and function is poorly understood. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced in pregnant rats with protein intake restriction, and ouabain was administrated using osmotic mini pumps from the second gestational day. The male offspring of the mothers with normal diet, low-protein diet, and low-protein diet added with ouabain treatment were randomly divided into 2 groups, one of which received normal diet and the other was treated with isocaloric 8% high-salt diet. We found that maternal malnutrition caused fetal growth retardation. At the end of a 40-week research, the offspring of the IUGR group presented high blood pressure and deteriorative cardiac performance and even worse in the offspring fed with 8% high-salt diet. Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure and improve the cardiac performance, even if following 8% high-salt diet challenge. Pathological and molecular analyses showed IUGR following 8% high-salt diet significantly increased the cardiac hypertrophy, whereas the unfavorable effects were ameliorated in the offspring treated with ouabain. Results suggest that the effects of ouabain on restoration of glomerular number in newborn and normalization of blood pressure during adulthood in IUGR male offspring can benefit the cardiac structure and function, especially under high-salt diet challenge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  2. Evaluation of Abdominal Fetal Electrocardiography in Early Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa L. Velayo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This descriptive study was performed to evaluate the capability of a non-invasive transabdominal electrocardiographic system to extract clear fetal electrocardiographic (FECG measurements from intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR fetuses and to assess whether abdominal FECG parameters can be developed as markers for evaluating the fetal cardiac status in IUGR.Methods: Transabdominal FECG was attempted in 20 controls and 15 IUGR singleton pregnancies at 20+0−33+6 weeks gestation. Standard ECG parameters were compared between the study groups and evaluated for their correlation. Accuracy for the prediction of IUGR by cut off values of the different FECG parameters was also determined.Results: Clear P-QRST complexes were recognized in all cases. In the IUGR fetuses, the QT and QTc intervals were significantly prolonged (p = 0.017 and p = 0.002, respectively. There was no correlation between ECG parameters and Doppler or other indices to predict IUGR. The generation of cut off values for detecting IUGR showed increasing sensitivities but decreasing specificities with the prolongation of ECG parameters.Conclusion: The study of fetal electrocardiophysiology is now feasible through a non-invasive transabdominal route. This study confirms the potential of FECG as a clinical screening tool to aid diagnosis and management of fetuses after key limitations are addressed. In the case of IUGR, both QT and QTc intervals were significantly prolonged and thus validate earlier study findings where both these parameters were found to be markers of diastolic dysfunction. This research is a useful prelude to a test of accuracy and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC study.

  3. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  4. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. 1. Introduction. Despite the advances in the understanding of fatigue failure and the consequent improvement in the design of structures and components, fatigue is still the most common cause of service failure. During the growth of a.

  5. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD, growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1 resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week administered by subcutaneous injection.

  6. [Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD), growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week) administered by subcutaneous injection.

  7. Gitelman′s syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gitelman′s syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman′s syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman′s syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation.

  8. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review covers updated management of growth failure in these children including adequate nutrition, treatment of metabolic alterations, and early administration of recombinant human growth hormone (GH.

  9. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  10. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Paulina; Pinto, Viola; Rodriguez, Josefina; Zambrano, Maria Jose; Mericq, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review c...

  12. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  13. GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Wilhelm

    2000-06-01

    Plant growth retardants are applied in agronomic and horticultural crops to reduce unwanted longitudinal shoot growth without lowering plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. To date, four different types of such inhibitors are known: (a) Onium compounds, such as chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, chlorphonium, and AMO-1618, which block the cyclases copalyl-diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase involved in the early steps of GA metabolism. (b) Compounds with an N-containing heterocycle, e.g. ancymidol, flurprimidol, tetcyclacis, paclobutrazol, uniconazole-P, and inabenfide. These retardants block cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, thereby inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid. (c) Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid, which is the co-substrate of dioxygenases that catalyze late steps of GA formation. Acylcyclohexanediones, e.g. prohexadione-Ca and trinexapac-ethyl and daminozide, block particularly 3ss-hydroxylation, thereby inhibiting the formation of highly active GAs from inactive precursors, and (d) 16,17-Dihydro-GA5 and related structures act most likely by mimicking the GA precursor substrate of the same dioxygenases. Enzymes, similar to the ones involved in GA biosynthesis, are also of importance in the formation of abscisic acid, ethylene, sterols, flavonoids, and other plant constituents. Changes in the levels of these compounds found after treatment with growth retardants can mostly be explained by side activities on such enzymes.

  14. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack.

  15. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  16. Effects of intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight following intrauterine death: implications for assessment of fetal growth restriction at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, J; Hutchinson, J C; Ashworth, M; Heazell, A E; Levine, S; Sebire, N J

    2016-11-01

    According to the classification system used, 15-60% of stillbirths remain unexplained, despite undergoing recommended autopsy examination, with variable attribution of fetal growth restriction (FGR) as a cause of death. Distinguishing small-for-gestational age (SGA) from pathological FGR is a challenge at postmortem examination. This study uses data from a large, well-characterized series of intrauterine death autopsies to investigate the effects of secondary changes such as fetal maceration, intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight. Autopsy findings from intrauterine death investigations (2005-2013 inclusive, from Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London) were collated into a research database. Growth charts published by the World Health Organization were used to determine normal expected weight centiles for fetuses born ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, and the effects of intrauterine retention (maceration) and postmortem interval were calculated. There were 1064 intrauterine deaths, including 533 stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation with a recorded birth weight. Of these, 192 (36%) had an unadjusted birth weight below the 10 th centile and were defined as SGA. The majority (86%) of stillborn SGA fetuses demonstrated some degree of maceration, indicating a significant period of intrauterine retention after death. A significantly greater proportion of macerated fetuses were present in the SGA population compared with the non-SGA population (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between increasing intrauterine retention interval and both more severe maceration and reduction in birth weight (P autopsy and, as postmortem interval increased, fetal weight loss increased (P = 0.0001). Based on birth weight alone, 36% of stillbirths are classified as SGA. However, fetuses lose weight in utero with increasing intrauterine retention and continue to lose weight between delivery and autopsy, resulting in erroneous overestimation of

  17. Bone ultrasound velocity in neonates with intrauterine growth deficit reflects a growth continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston W K; Bajaj, Monika; Hockman, Elaine M; Hammami, Mouhanad

    2011-01-01

    Both bone mass by densitometry and speed of sound (SOS) from quantitative ultrasound of the bone (QUS) are directly related to bone strength. However, reports of lower bone mass but higher SOS in neonates with intrauterine growth deficit lead to apparent contradictory conclusions on bone strength. Three groups of infants were studied: small for gestation (SGA) with birth weights ≤10th percentile for gestation and 2 control groups with appropriate birth weights (11th to 90th percentile) for gestation (AGA): matched to SGA group for gestation and birth weight, respectively. SOS was measured with a commercial QUS instrument (Sunlight Omnisense 7000, Sunlight Medical Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel) and 2 manufacturer supplied ultrasound probes (CS and CR) for small bones. The SGA group had significantly (p<0.01) higher SOS compared with weight matched but gestational less matured control group by an average of 54m/s with the CS probe and 80m/s with the CR probe but not significantly different from gestation-matched AGA group. SOS values from both probes were significantly correlated (r=0.71-0.91) but were significantly different between probes. Probe failure occurred with both probes. We conclude that QUS SOS values in SGA neonates are a reflection of a continuum of intrauterine maturation of the skeleton. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postnatal Growth in a Cohort of Sardinian Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR undergo catch-up growth during infancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the postnatal growth in a cohort of IUGR infants born in a tertiary-level Obstetric University Hospital of Northern Sardinia. An observational retrospective study was conducted on 12 IUGR (group A and 12 control infants (group B by measuring the anthropometric parameters of weight (W, length (L and head circumference (HC from birth to the 3rd postnatal year. At birth, significant differences were found between group A and group B with regard to all the auxological parameters (W, mean 1846.6 versus 3170.8 g, p < 0.0001; HC, 30.1 versus 34.4 cm, p < 0.0001; L, mean 43.4 versus 49.4 cm, p < 0.0001. During the 1st year, 8 of 12 (70% IUGR infants exhibited a significant catch-up growth in the 3 anthropometric parameters and a regular growth until the 3rd year of follow-up. The majority but not all infants born with IUGR in our series showed significant postnatal catch-up growth essentially during the first 12 months of life. An improved knowledge of the causes of IUGR will help to develop measures for its prevention and individualized treatment.

  19. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...

  20. Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Reolon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been indications that intrauterine and early extrauterine growth can influence childhood mental and motor function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and early extrauterine head growth on the neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins. Thirty-six monozygous twin pairs were evaluated at the corrected age of 12 to 42 months. Intrauterine growth restriction was quantified using the fetal growth ratio. The effects of birth weight ratio, head circumference at birth and current head circumference on mental and motor outcomes were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression models. Separate estimates of the between (interpair and within (intrapair effects of each measure on development were thus obtained. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, by a psychologist blind to the exposure. A standardized neurological examination was performed by a neuropediatrician who was unaware of the exposures under investigation. After adjustment, birth weight ratio and head circumference at birth were not associated with motor or mental outcomes. Current head circumference was associated with mental but not with motor outcomes. Only the intrapair twin effect was significant. An increase of 1 cm in current head circumference of one twin compared with the other was associated with 3.2 points higher in Mental Developmental Index (95%CI = 1.06-5.32; P < 0.03. Thus, no effect of intrauterine growth was found on cognition and only postnatal head growth was associated with cognition. This effect was not shared by the co-twin.

  1. Crescimento intra-uterino restrito diagnosticado pelo índice ponderal de Rohrer e sua associação com morbidade e mortalidade neonatal precoce Intrauterine growth retardation diagnosed by Rohrer's ponderal index and its association with morbidity and early neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adehilde Maria Martins Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: diagnosticar o crescimento intra-uterino restrito (CIUR por meio do índice ponderal de Rohrer e sua associação com morbidade e mortalidade neonatal precoce. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e de coorte transversal, no qual foram incluídos 2741 recém-nascidos (RN, sendo 2053 casos de grávidas hígidas, 228 de pré-eclâmpsia leve (PE, 52 com PE grave, 25 com PE que evoluiu para eclâmpsia, 136 de ruptura prematura das membranas (RPM e 247 de tabagistas. O índice ponderal (IP de Rohrer foi calculado segundo a equação: IP = peso/estatura³ x 100 e se utilizaram os valores 2,25 e 3,10 dos percentis 10 e 90 de Lubchenco. Classificou-se como CIUR assimétrico aquele RN com IP PURPOSE: to diagnose intrauterine growth restriction (IGR and its connection with early neonatal morbidity and mortality, through Roher's ponderal index (PI. METHODS: this was a retrospective, descriptive study of transversal cohort, in which 2741 newborns (NB were included, 2053 of them from healthy pregnant women, 228 from women with mild pregnancy-related hypertension, 52 from those with severe pregnancy-related hypertension, 25 from those with mild pregnancy-related hypertension that evolved to eclampsia, 136 from those with premature membrane rupture, and 247 from women who smoked along gestation. Roher's PI was calculated by the equation: PI = weight/height ³ x 100 and the values 2.25 and 3.10 of Lubchenco's 10 and 90 percentiles were used to classify the types of IGR. IGR was classified as asymmetric for NB with PI < 2.25 and weight lower than percentile 10, as symmetric, with PI from 2.25 to 3.10 and weight lower than percentile 10, and adequate for gestational age with PI from 2.25 to 3.10, and weight from 10 to 90 percentiles. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-paired t test, the non-parametric chi2 test and Fisher's exact test, with significance set at a value of p<0.05. RESULTS: low birth weight (< 2,500 g was present in 3

  2. Growth hormone treatment in growth-retarded adolescents after renal transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Stijnen, T.; de Ridder, M. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.; Wolff, E. D.; de Jong, M. C.; Donckerwolcke, R. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Blum, W. F.; Drop, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Growth failure is a psychosocial problem for many patients who have undergone renal transplantation. 18 adolescents (mean age 15.6, range 11.3-19.5) with severe growth retardation after renal transplantation were treated with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH) for 2 years. All received prednisone,

  3. [Customized and non-customized French intrauterine growth curves. I - Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, A; Prunet, C; Lebreton, E; Blondel, B; Kaminski, M; Goffinet, F; Zeitlin, J

    2016-02-01

    We developed intrauterine growth references, called EPOPé curves, in line with recommendations for screening of intra-uterine growth restriction issued in 2013 by the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Using the French Perinatal Survey (FPS) 2010, we adapted the methodology developed by Gardosi (1) to model intrauterine growth and its distribution and (2) to adjust for physiological fetal and maternal factors influencing fetal weight. Based on this model, 3 reference curves (unadjusted, adjusted for fetal sex, and adjusted for fetal sex, and maternal height, weight and parity) were proposed. We applied these models to births in the 2010 FPS and the French hospital discharge database (PMSI) in 2011-2012. Among singleton live births in the FPS and the PMSI, the model adjusted for fetal sex identified 3.2 and 3.3% of births below the 3rd centile respectively, and 10.0 and 10.2% below the 10th. In model adjusted for maternal factors, 4.0% of births from the FPS 2010 were reclassified, but population rates remained at 3.0 and 10.0%. This growth model is appropriate for French births, and allows for the implementation of a homogeneous definition of small for gestational age infants during pregnancy and at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Estudo Longitudinal, Bioquímico e Histoquímico, de Placentas de Ratas Diabéticas: Relação com a Macrossomia e o Retardo de Crescimento Intra-uterino Biochemical and Histochemical Longitudinal Analysis of Placentas of Diabetic Rats: Relationship with Macrosomatia and Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: o estudo longitudinal, entre o 18º e o 21º dias de prenhez, das alterações bioquímicas e histoquímicas das placentas de ratas diabéticas, cujos fetos tiveram macrossomia e retardo de crescimento intra-uterino (CIUR. Material e Método: usando modelo experimental em ratas, foram estudados 3 grupos: controle, diabete moderado e grave. A prenhez foi resolvida por cesárea no 18º ou no 21º dia. Compararam-se as glicemias materna e fetal; a incidência de recém-nascidos (RN de peso pequeno (PIP, adequado (AIP e grande (GIP para tempo de prenhez; peso, índice e conteúdo de DNA, RNA e proteínas placentários e quantidade de glicogênio na superfície de trocas materno-fetais. Resultados: no diabete moderado houve maior proporção de RN-GIP com placentas ricas em DNA e diminuição progressiva de glicogênio em suas membranas no final da prenhez. No diabete grave houve predomínio de RN-GIP e as placentas exibiram menor conteúdo de DNA, síntese aumentada de RNA e tendência a maior produção protéica, com manutenção dos depósitos de glicogênio. Conclusões: concluiu-se que, entre o 18º e o 21º dias, os desvios do crescimento fetal no diabete materno, moderado e grave relacionam-se a alterações placentárias distintas. No moderado há apenas hiperplasia celular, com desaparecimento do glicogênio no final da prenhez. No grave, a superfície de trocas materno-fetais é mais espessada e, além de hiperplasia, há hipertrofia das células, com manutenção dos estoques placentários de glicogênio.Purpose: placental alterations were evaluated in macrosomatia and fetal growth retardation in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Three groups of rats, used as experimental models, were studied: control, moderate and severe diabetes. Material and Method: cesarian sections were carried out on the 18th or 21st day of pregnancy. Maternal and fetal glycemia, newborn weight, placental weight, relationship between placental and fetal

  5. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.

  6. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Grote (Floor); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); D. Mul (Dick); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. ten Cate (Rebecca); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); W.H.J. van Luijk (Wilma); C.J.A. Jansen-Van Wijngaarden (C. J A); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims:

  7. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, FK; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Mul, D; Hop, WCJ; ten Cate, R; Oostdijk, W; Van Luijk, W; Jansen-van Wijngaarden, CJA; Keizer-Schrama, SMPFD

    Background: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims: To study the

  8. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes

  9. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  10. Color Doppler myocardial imaging demonstrates reduced diastolic tissue velocity in growth retarded fetuses with flow redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lene U; Petersen, Olav B; Sloth, Erik; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2011-04-01

    In fetuses suffering from intrauterine growth retardation with cerebroplacental redistribution (IUGR CPR), the diastolic heart function may be particularly susceptible to hypoxemia as described in postnatal pathological conditions. Using the newly introduced ultrasound technique, color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI), we investigated the correlation between diastolic tissue velocities and diastolic blood flow velocities and compared diastolic myocardial tissue velocities in fetuses with IUGR CPR and normal fetuses. Peak early and active atrial tissue velocities (E' and A') were acquired from both ventricular free walls in 18 fetuses with IUGR CPR and 42 normal fetuses. In 35 normal fetuses, blood flow across the atrio-ventricular valves was also recorded. Umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus (DV) flows were obtained in all fetuses. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency towards increased E' and A' with fetal age in normal pregnancies. No correlation between tissue velocity and blood flow velocity was established. IUGR CPR fetuses had significantly lower E' and A', but when indexing to heart length, only A' remained significantly lower. E'/A' ratio was increased in the left ventricle but unchanged in the right. CDMI is easily applicable during standard fetal echocardiography and provides new information on the diastolic properties of the fetal myocardium. In fetuses with IUGR CPR, diastolic tissue velocities are abnormal and especially A' may be a marker of diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal Genotype for the Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme "NQO1" Influences Intrauterine Growth among Infants Whose Mothers Smoked during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Thomas S.; Grosser, Tilo; Plomin, Robert; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy retards fetal growth and depresses infant birth weight. The magnitude of these effects may be moderated by fetal genotype. The current study investigated maternal smoking, fetal genotype, and fetal growth in a large population sample of dizygotic twins. Maternal smoking retarded fetal growth in a dose-dependent…

  12. Nocturnal growth hormone and gonadotrophin secretion in growth retarded children with Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Farthing, M J; Campbell, C A; Walker-Smith, J; Edwards, C R; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1981-01-01

    Although impaired growth hormone secretion in response to pharmacological stimuli occurs in some growth retarded children with Crohn's disease, its relationship to past and future th is uncertain. We have therefore determined the growth hormone and gonadotrophin response to the physiological stimulus of sleep by continuous venous sampling in five severely gonadotrophin profiles, the mean plasma hormone concentrations during the first five hours of sleep were determined. In three of the five p...

  13. Epiphyseal growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling is decreased in chronic kidney disease-related growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Landau, Daniel; Kachko, Leonid; Rabkin, Ralph; Segev, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Linear growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been ascribed to insensitivity to growth hormone. This resistance state has been attributed to impaired growth hormone signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in liver and skeletal muscle leading to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Here we determine whether systemic and growth plate alterations in growth hormone signaling contribute to CKD-induced linear growth retardation using partially nephrectomized and pair-fed control 20-day-old rats. Serum growth hormone did not change in rats with CKD, yet serum IGF-I levels were decreased and growth retarded. The tibial growth plate hypertrophic zone was wider and vascularization at the primary ossification center was reduced in CKD. This was associated with a decrease in growth plate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and immunostainable VEGF and IGF-I levels. Growth plate growth hormone receptor and STAT5 protein levels were unchanged, while JAK2 was reduced. Despite comparable growth hormone and growth hormone receptor levels in CKD and control rats, relative STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CKD. Of note, the mRNA of SOCS2, an inhibitor of growth hormone signaling, was increased. Thus, linear growth impairment in CKD can in part be explained by impaired long bone growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, an abnormality that may be caused by an increase in SOCS2 expression.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  15. Effect of the growth retardant Cycocel® in controlling the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Hydroponic culture of Gladiolus tristis: Application of paclobutrazol for flowering and height control. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(3): 239-243. Ninnemann H, Zeevaart JAD, Kende H, Lang A (1964). The plant growth retardant CCC as an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in. Fusarium moniliforme. Planta (Bert.) ...

  16. School performance and behaviour in extremely preterm growth-retarded infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, A. H.; Wolf, H.; Bruinse, H. W.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; van Ertbruggen, I.; Treffers, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe school performance and behaviour of extremely preterm, growth-retarded infants. DESIGN: Cohort study at two tertiary care centres. Included were all surviving, singleton infants (N= 127) with fetal growth retardation due to placental insufficiency. All were delivered by

  17. Intrauterine Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    S HARE W ITH W OMEN INTRAUTERINE DEVICES INTRAUTERINE DEVICES What is An Intrauterine Device? An intrauterine device (IUD) is anything that is placed inside the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. ...

  18. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  19. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  20. Sildenafil citrate treatment enhances amino acid availability in the conceptus and fetal growth in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, M Carey; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-02-01

    Adequate placental blood flow is essential for the optimal delivery of nutrients from mother to fetus for conceptus growth. Restricted fetal development results from pathophysiological and environmental factors that alter utero-placental blood flow, placental function, and, therefore, nutrient availability in the fetus. To test this hypothesis, 0, 75, or 150 mg/d sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was administered subcutaneously from d 28 to 115 of gestation to either nutrient-restricted [50% of NRC requirements) or adequately-fed ewes (100% of NRC requirements). On d 115, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected. Concentrations of total amino acids and polyamines in uterine venous and arterial sera, amniotic and allantoic fluids, and fetal umbilical venous serum were lower (P < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes than in adequately fed ewes, as were the ratios of total amino acids in fetal umbilical venous serum to uterine arterial serum. Sildenafil citrate dose-dependently increased (P < 0.05) total amino acids and polyamines in amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal serum without affecting values in maternal serum. Fetal weight was lower (P < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes on d 115. Sildenafil citrate treatment dose-dependently increased (P < 0.05) fetal weight in both nutrient-restricted and adequately fed ewes. This study supports the hypothesis that long-term sildenafil citrate treatment enhances fetal growth, at least in part, by increasing the availability of amino acids in the conceptus. These findings may lead to the clinical use of sildenafil citrate in human pregnancies suspected to be at risk for intrauterine fetal growth retardation.

  1. Testosterone is protective against impaired glucose metabolism in male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapad, Suttira; Dasinger, John Henry; Fahling, Joel M; Backstrom, Miles A; Alexander, Barbara T

    2017-01-01

    Placental insufficiency alters the intrauterine environment leading to increased risk for chronic disease including impaired glucose metabolism in low birth weight infants. Using a rat model of low birth weight, we previously reported that placental insufficiency induces a significant increase in circulating testosterone in male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring (mIUGR) in early adulthood that is lost by 12 months of age. Numerous studies indicate testosterone has a positive effect on glucose metabolism in men. Female growth-restricted littermates exhibit glucose intolerance at 6 months of age. Thus, the aim of this paper was to determine whether mIUGR develop impaired glucose metabolism, and whether a decrease in elevated testosterone levels plays a role in its onset. Male growth-restricted offspring were studied at 6 and 12 months of age. No impairment in glucose tolerance was observed at 6 months of age when mIUGR exhibited a 2-fold higher testosterone level compared to age-matched control. Fasting blood glucose was significantly higher and glucose tolerance was impaired with a significant decrease in circulating testosterone in mIUGR at 12 compared with 6 months of age. Castration did not additionally impair fasting blood glucose or glucose tolerance in mIUGR at 12 months of age, but fasting blood glucose was significantly elevated in castrated controls. Restoration of elevated testosterone levels significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance in mIUGR. Thus, our findings suggest that the endogenous increase in circulating testosterone in mIUGR is protective against impaired glucose homeostasis.

  2. Skeletal muscle protein accretion rates and hindlimb growth are reduced in late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Zastoupil, Laura; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Goldstrohm, David A; Strahan, Brittany; Cree-Green, Melanie; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Meschia, Giacomo; Hay, William W; Wilkening, Randall B; Brown, Laura D

    2018-01-01

    Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass, which may contribute to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. We demonstrate slower hindlimb linear growth and muscle protein synthesis rates that match the reduced hindlimb blood flow and oxygen consumption rates in IUGR fetal sheep. These adaptations resulted in hindlimb blood flow rates in IUGR that were similar to control fetuses on a weight-specific basis. Net hindlimb glucose uptake and lactate output rates were similar between groups, whereas amino acid uptake was significantly lower in IUGR fetal sheep. Among all fetuses, blood O 2 saturation and plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were positively associated and norepinephrine was negatively associated with hindlimb weight. These results further our understanding of the metabolic and hormonal adaptations to reduced oxygen and nutrient supply with placental insufficiency that develop to slow hindlimb growth and muscle protein accretion. Reduced skeletal muscle mass in the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) persists into adulthood and may contribute to increased metabolic disease risk. To determine how placental insufficiency with reduced oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus affects hindlimb blood flow, substrate uptake and protein accretion rates in skeletal muscle, late gestation control (CON) (n = 8) and IUGR (n = 13) fetal sheep were catheterized with aortic and femoral catheters and a flow transducer around the external iliac artery. Muscle protein kinetic rates were measured using isotopic tracers. Hindlimb weight, linear growth rate, muscle protein accretion rate and fractional synthetic rate were lower in IUGR compared to CON (P fetal norepinephrine and reduced IGF-1 and insulin. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

  4. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  5. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strazzullo

    Full Text Available The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74% transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26% transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65% of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium.

  6. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A; Summers, Scott A; Branch, D Ware; Lane, Robert H; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P 30% elevated, P 5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS. © FASEB.

  7. Prevention of intrauterine growth retardation by multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberfroid, D.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of an idea. This is the account of its journey from birth to the delivery of new hypotheses. Reproduction, birth, but also death, are indeed at the heart of this research in which we assessed, in Burkina Faso, the health benefits of providing pregnant women with multiple

  8. Volumetric analysis of the normal infant brain and in intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Ring, P B

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-eight infants with postmenstrual ages (PMA) in the range of 32-80 weeks were investigated. Twenty were newborn; among these the observed birth weight divided by the expected weight ranged from 0.31 to 1.1. Axial magnetic resonance images were recorded with a triple spin-echo sequence and t...

  9. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  10. Doppler-based fetal heart rate analysis markers for the detection of early intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher W; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen J; Clifford, Gari D

    2017-11-01

    One indicator for fetal risk of mortality is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Whether markers reflecting the impact of growth restriction on the cardiovascular system, computed from a Doppler-derived heart rate signal, would be suitable for its detection antenatally was studied. We used a cardiotocography archive of 1163 IUGR cases and 1163 healthy controls, matched for gestation and gender. We assessed the discriminative power of short-term variability and long-term variability of the fetal heart rate, computed over episodes of high and low variation aiming to separate growth-restricted fetuses from controls. Metrics characterizing the sleep state distribution within a trace were also considered for inclusion into an IUGR detection model. Significant differences in the risk markers comparing growth-restricted with healthy fetuses were found. When used in a logistic regression classifier, their performance for identifying IUGR was considerably superior before 34 weeks of gestation. Long-term variability in active sleep was superior to short-term variability [area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of 72% compared with 71%]. Most predictive was the number of minutes in high variation per hour (AUC of 75%). A multivariate IUGR prediction model improved the AUC to 76%. We suggest that heart rate variability markers together with surrogate information on sleep states can contribute to the detection of early-onset IUGR. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  12. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  13. Influence of catch up growth on spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition.IUGR was induced by 50% maternal caloric undernutrition throughout late gestation. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum or food restricted. The pups were divided into: Normal prenatal diet-Normal postnatal diet (NN, Restricted prenatal diet- Normal postnatal diet + catch up growth (RN+, Normal prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (NR and Restricted prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (RR. At 4 weeks of age, memory was assessed via a water maze test. To evaluate synaptic function, 2 specific synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density-95 [PSD95], synaptophysin as well as insulin receptors (IR were tested by Western Blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serum insulin levels were also studied.The RN+ group presented a learning curve similar to the NN animals. The RR animals without CUG showed learning disabilities. PSD95 was lower in the RR group than in the NN and RN+ mice. In contrast, synaptophysin was similar in all groups. IR showed an inverse expression pattern to that of the PSD95. In conclusion, perinatal nutrition plays an important role in learning. CUG after a period of prenatal malnutrition seems to improve learning skills. The functional alterations observed might be related to lower PSD95 activity and a possible dysfunction in the hormone regulation of synaptic plasticity.

  14. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the IUGR rats that had restricted milk intake during the suckling period (SM/SP; n = 4, p < 0.05 as compared to the normal growth controls (CM/CP; n=4, and access to ad lib milk intake during the sucking period partially corrected the hepatic TLR4 expression (SM/CP; n = 4. IUGR had no effect on the splenic (n = 4 or intestinal (n = 4 TLR4 mRNA levels. In the liver, IUGR led to a 20% increase in baseline tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA expression ( p < 0.03 and a 70% increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA expression ( p < 0.008 as compared to the control rats (CM/CP; n = 7. LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α release was significantly higher in SM/SP as compared to CM/CP. We propose that IUGR dysregulates TLR4 expression and function in the offspring, which may help explain the increased risk of Gram-negative sepsis and inflammatory diseases in this population.

  15. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in jejunum of Sus scrofa with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Hu, Liang; Gong, Desheng; Lu, Hanlin; Xuan, Yue; Wang, Ru; Wu, De; Chen, Daiwen; Zhang, Keying; Gao, Fei; Che, Lianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may elicit a series of postnatal body developmental and metabolic diseases due to their impaired growth and development in the mammalian embryo/fetus during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR may lead to abnormally regulated DNA methylation in the intestine, causing intestinal dysfunctions. We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology to study the jejunum tissues from four newborn IUGR piglets and their normal body weight (NBW) littermates. The results revealed extensively regional DNA methylation changes between IUGR/NBW pairs from different gilts, affecting dozens of genes. Hiseq-based bisulfite sequencing PCR (Hiseq-BSP) was used for validations of 19 genes with epigenetic abnormality, confirming three genes (AIFM1, MTMR1, and TWIST2) in extra samples. Furthermore, integrated analysis of these 19 genes with proteome data indicated that there were three main genes (BCAP31, IRAK1, and AIFM1) interacting with important immunity- or metabolism-related proteins, which could explain the potential intestinal dysfunctions of IUGR piglets. We conclude that IUGR can lead to disparate DNA methylation in the intestine and these changes may affect several important biological processes such as cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immunity, which provides more clues linking IUGR and its long-term complications.

  17. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  18. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

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    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  19. Comparison between Urinary Oestrogen Assay and Serial Ultrasonic Cephalometry in Assessment of Fetal Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart; Kurjak, Asim

    1972-01-01

    Urinary oestrogen assay and serial ultrasonic cephalometry were performed on 284 patients who were considered on clinical grounds to be at risk of having a growth-retarded fetus. It was found that ultrasonic cephalometry was significantly better than oestrogens in diagnosing the small-for-dates baby, but that there was no significant difference between the two methods in predicting perinatal asphyxia. Of the 14 stillbirths, three were in the normal ultrasonic growth rate group and five had normal oestrogen excretion. Both methods were found to be of value in the diagnosis of fetal growth-retardation, although cephalometry would seem to have some advantages, especially in distinguishing between fetal growth-retardation and mistaken maturity. PMID:4673993

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of intrauterine fetal growth restriction in interspecies sheep pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, A; Vázquez-Martínez, E R; Murcia, C; Rodríguez, A; Cerbón, M; Mejía, O

    2015-10-01

    Interspecies pregnancies between closely related species are usually performed in livestock to obtain improved and enriched offspring. Indeed, different hybrids have been obtained for research purposes since many years ago, and the maternal-fetal interactions have been studied as a possible strategy for species preservation. The aim of this study was to characterize by physiological and molecular approaches the interspecies pregnancy between bighorn sheep () and domestic sheep (). Hybrids were obtained by artificial insemination; the blood pressure and protein urine levels were measured during the last two-thirds of gestation. After parturition, offspring and placentas were weighed and measured and cotyledons were counted and weighed and their surface area determined. Plasma samples were obtained between wk 8 and 21 of gestation to assess progesterone (P4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF) levels and cell-free RNA was isolated during the same period to assess hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (α) gene expression. Hybrid and normal pregnancies were analyzed using physiological and molecular parameters during the last two-thirds of gestation (wk 8-21). The results show that during the measurement period, ewes with a hybrid pregnancy presented normal blood pressure and no alteration in urinary protein content. However, compared with sheep with a normal pregnancy, those with a hybrid pregnancy had a decrease in fetal and placental growth as well as in the cotyledonary surface area. Furthermore, in the hybrid group, there was placental insufficiency, characterized by a decrease in P4 production, as well as indications of endothelial dysfunction, characterized an increase in plasma levels of VEGF and PlGF as well as in plasma gene expression of α. Overall, the results indicate that hybrids of and presented intrauterine growth restriction, essentially due to altered endothelial function and chronic placental insufficiency

  1. Effect of maternal dietary energy types on placenta nutrient transporter gene expressions and intrauterine fetal growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Zhuo, Yong; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Wu, De

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal dietary energy types on the mRNA expressions of the placental nutrient transporter and intrauterine fetal growth and to examine whether altered intrauterine fetal growth could be associated with different gene expressions relating to fetal energy metabolism and DNA methylation. Seventy-two 3-mo-old rats were allocated to one of four groups: low fat/low fiber (L-L), low fat/high fiber, high fat/low fiber (H-L), or high fat/high fiber. Rats were fed the treatment diets 4 wk before mating and continued in pregnancy until sample collections were obtained on days 13.5 and 17.5 of pregnancy. The fetal weight in the L-L group was significantly lower than that in the H-L group (P 0.05) and energy metabolism-related genes. Collectively, these results demonstrated that intrauterine fetal growth could be affected by different energy intake types through placenta nutrient transporter gene expressions, and different fetal growths were associated with altered fetal genes related to DNA methylation and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered intrauterine ultrasound, fetal head circumference growth and neonatal outcomes among suspected cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Alex Sandro Rolland; Souza,Ariani Impieri de; Faquin,Silvia de Lourdes Loreto; Santos Neto,Orlando Gomes dos; Honorato,Emanuele; Mattos,Alice Góes Liberato; Holanda,Simone Cristina; Figueiroa,José Natal; Schettini,Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to describe altered intrauterine ultrasound, analyze fetal head circumference (HC) growth and neonates' outcomes among presumed cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Methods: 30 women were included in the study with suspected history of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal's brain altered on ultrasound diagnosis. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, prenatal altered ultrasounds, HC and other perinatal outcomes have been described. The...

  3. Long-term impact of perinatal bereavement. Comparison of grief reactions after intrauterine versus neonatal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, A. H.; Wolf, H.; Bruinse, H. W.; Barkhof-van de Lande, S.; Treffers, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible differences in emotional impact on parents following either a deliberate intrauterine death or a neonatal death in extremely preterm growth retarded infants. DESIGN: Retrospectively matched study by audiotaped semi-structured interview, 3-9 years after the

  4. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  5. Preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth restriction-Two pathogenetically different entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic-Stevanovic, Jelena; Krstic, Miljan; Radovic-Janosevic, Dragana; Stefanovic, Milan; Antic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the differences in histopathological features of basal decidua and placenta in cases of preeclampsia with or without fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A prospective case-control study included a study group consisting of 30 pregnant women with preeclampsia completed by cesarean section (CS), in 19 of whom preeclampsia was associated with IUGR, and in 11 it was not. The control group consisted of 20 healthy pregnant women delivered by elective CS. Placentas and samples of placental bed obtained during CS were histopathologically (HP) analyzed after hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical labeling of Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) trophoblastic cells in decidua. Regarding the HP changes in the spiral arteries in preeclampsia, the most frequent features were inadequate transformation of spiral arteries with poor trophoblastic invasion (70.0%) and fibrinoid necrosis of the media (66.7%), and rarely acute atherosis (33.3%) and thrombosis (30.0%). Villous hypermaturity was more frequently found in placentas of patients with preeclampsia with IUGR (p preeclampsia with and without IUGR regarding some of HP alterations of placental bed. Alterations of the placental bed in terms of decidual vasculopathy are more the characteristics of the preeclampsia itself than IUGR, while changes in placental villi primarily follow the presence of IUGR, which could indicate that preeclampsia with and without IUGR are two pathogenetically different entities.

  6. HEMODYNAMIC DOPPLER PARAMETERS IN THE FETUS FETOPLACENTAL UNIT WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTIONWITHIN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

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    Snezana Stamenovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the spectral analysis of Doppler velocity waveform in uteroplacental and fetoplacental circulation, a Doppler parameters diagnostic efficiency was examined in fetus prenatal detection with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR within Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH and their respiratory menace.A prospective analysis was performed in 141 third-trimester pregnancies. The control group included 65 normal pregnancies and the expeimental group included 76 high-risk pregnancies, which was divided into three sub-groups, namely, 31 with IUGR within PIH, 24 with PIH only and 21 with IUGR only. The uterine artery was examined in uteroplacental circulation and umbilical artery was examined in fetoplacental circulation. Perinatal outcome and birth weight were recorded in each case.Uteroplacental circulation analysis showed statistically higer values of Pourcelot resistance index Ri in uterine artery in IUGR within PIH pregnancies. Statistically higher pulsatility index in umbilical artery was recorded in IUGR pregnancies compared to the control group and PIH subgroup. Higher values of pulsatility index were particulary noticed in IUGR within PIH subgroup. Doppler parameters in uteroplacental and fetoplacental circulation showed a significant negative correlation in relation to Apgar score of the newborn.In combination with biophysical profile and CTG, Doppler parameters diagnostic efficiency is increased on the evaluation of the fetus respiratory menace with IUGR and PIH.

  7. Gender-specific heart rate dynamics in severe intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2013-06-01

    Management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major issue in perinatology. The objective of this paper was the assessment of gender-specific fetal heart rate (FHR) dynamics as a diagnostic tool in severe IUGR. FHR was analyzed in the antepartum period in 15 severe IUGR fetuses and 18 controls, matched for gestational age, in relation to fetal gender. Linear and entropy methods, such as mean FHR (mFHR), low (LF), high (HF) and movement frequency (MF), approximate, sample and multiscale entropy. Sensitivities and specificities were estimated using Fisher linear discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out method. Overall, IUGR fetuses presented significantly lower mFHR and entropy compared with controls. However, gender-specific analysis showed that significantly lower mFHR was only evident in IUGR males and lower entropy in IUGR females. In addition, lower LF/(MF+HF) was patent in IUGR females compared with controls, but not in males. Rather high sensitivities and specificities were achieved in the detection of the FHR recordings related with IUGR male fetuses, when gender-specific analysis was performed at gestational ages less than 34 weeks. Severe IUGR fetuses present gender-specific linear and entropy FHR changes, compared with controls, characterized by a significantly lower entropy and sympathetic-vagal balance in females than in males. These findings need to be considered in order to achieve better diagnostic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biophysical profile in the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Picconi, Jason L; Chadha, Rati; Kruger, Michael; Mari, Giancarlo

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biophysical profile (BPP) usefulness in the prediction of cord pH, base excess, and guidance regarding the timing of delivery in preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. A BPP was performed daily in 48 IUGR fetuses and was considered abnormal when it was 2/10 on 1 single occasion or 4/10 on 2 consecutive occasions 2 hours apart. The median gestational age and fetal weight for the total population was 27.6 weeks and 632 g, respectively. In 13 fetuses with a BPP of 6, there were 3 deaths, and 7 fetuses were acidemic. In 27 fetuses with a BPP of 8, there were 3 deaths, and 12 fetuses were acidemic. BPP alone is not a reliable test in the treatment of preterm IUGR fetuses, because of high false-positive and -negative results. The common notion of a good BPP providing reassurance for at least 24 hours is not applicable in severely preterm IUGR fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

  9. Oxidatively modified LDL particles in the human placenta in early and late onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecks, U; Rath, W; Caspers, R; Sosnowsky, K; Ziems, B; Thiesen, H-J; Maass, N; Huppertz, B

    2013-12-01

    Reduced serum LDL concentrations have been observed in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as compared to healthy pregnant women. Since increased oxidative stress has been suggested to play a major role in IUGR we now hypothesized that the lower LDL concentrations are accompanied by an accumulation of oxidized LDLs in the placenta. Fifteen placentas of near term and preterm born IUGR, and a gestational age matched control group (CTRL n = 15) were analyzed. Placental minimal modified LDL and fully oxidized LDL particles were measured by ELISA, and by immunohistochemistry, and were related to maternal and fetal serum lipid profiles. We found fully oxidized LDL but not minimal modified LDL being increased in the preterm subgroup of IUGR (n = 10) as compared to preterm CTRL (n = 10; p placenta possibly taking place in preterm IUGRs. We conclude that the reduced maternal LDL cholesterol concentration in IUGR pregnancies is attributed to increased accumulation of oxidized LDL particles within the placenta at least in early onset IUGR

  10. Sex and intrauterine growth restriction modify brain neurotransmitters profile of newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gómez, M; Valent, D; García-Contreras, C; Arroyo, L; Óvilo, C; Isabel, B; Bassols, A; González-Bulnes, A

    2016-12-01

    The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets. The results showed, firstly, significant effects of sex on the NBW newborns, with females having higher dopamine (DA) concentrations than males. The IUGR processes affected DA metabolism, with LBW piglets having lower concentrations of noradrenaline at the hippocampus and higher concentrations of the DA metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), at both the hippocampus and the amygdala than NBW neonates. The effects of IUGR were modulated by sex; there were no significant differences between LBW and NBW females, but LBW males had higher HVA concentration at the amygdala and higher concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, the serotonin metabolite, at the hippocampus than NBW males. In conclusion, the present study shows that IUGR is mainly related to changes, modulated by sex, in the concentrations of catecholamine neurotransmitters, which are related to adaptation to physical activity and to essential cognitive functions such as learning, memory, reward-motivated behavior and stress. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal Outcomes of Late-Preterm Birth Associated or Not with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Cristiane Ortigosa Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare neonatal morbidity and mortality between late-preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA infants of the comparable gestational ages (GAs. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal morbidity and mortality of 50 singleton pregnancies involving fetuses with IUGR delivered between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks of GA due to maternal and/or fetal indication. The control group consisted of 36 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous preterm delivery at the same GA, in which the infant was AGA. Categorical data were compared between IUGR and AGA pregnancies by 2 analysis and Fisher's exact test. Ordinal measures were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. The length of stay of newborns in the nursery, as well as the need for and duration of hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, was longer in the group with IUGR. Transient tachypnea of the newborn or apnea rates did not differ significantly between the IUGR and AGA groups. IUGR infants were found to be at a higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage. No respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia was observed in either group. The frequency of sepsis, thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia was similar in the two groups. Hypoglycemia was more frequent in the IUGR group. No neonatal death was observed. Conclusion. Our study showed that late-preterm IUGR infants present a significantly higher risk of neonatal complications when compared to late-preterm AGA infants.

  12. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

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    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  13. Growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Zammurrad, S.; Rasheed, U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from March 2016 to December 2016. 92 patients with JIA were included in the study. Height and weight of each patient was recorded and BMI calculated. Functional Disability was determined by calculating the CHAQ Score, while disease activity was estimated through JADAS 27 score. Growth Retardation was defined as height, weight and/or BMI below the 3rd centile according to the CDC growth charts. A cut off of ?1 for CHAQ Score was used to define severe functional disability. Results: Out of 92 patients, there were 47 male (51.1%) and 45 (48.9%) females. Height, weight and BMI below 3rd centile was observed in 30(32.6%), 49(53.3%) and 41(44.6%) patients, respectively. The overall frequency of growth retardation was 64.1% (n=59) and severe functional disability (CHAQ Score ?1) was seen in 32.6% (n=30) of patients. Conclusions: Growth retardation was seen in more than half of patients with JIA and a significant proportion had severe functional disability. Severe functional disability was seen only in patients with active disease. (author)

  14. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  15. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit brain.

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    Erwin van Vliet

    Full Text Available Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development.At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR.IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress

  16. Humanin (HN) and glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Carla; Lei, Margarida Y Y; Jeong, Il Seok D; Ganguly, Amit; Sullivan, Peggy; Paharkova, Vladislava; Capodanno, Gina; Nakamura, Hiromi; Perry, Alix; Shin, Bo-Chul; Lee, Kuk-Wha; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from a lack of nutrients transferred to the developing fetus, particularly oxygen and glucose. Increased expression of the cytoprotective mitochondrial peptide, humanin (HN), and the glucose transporter 8, GLUT8, has been reported under conditions of hypoxic stress. However, the presence and cellular localization of HN and GLUT8 in IUGR-related placental pathology remain unexplored. Thus, we undertook this study to investigate placental expression of HN and GLUT8 in IUGR-affected versus normal pregnancies. We found 1) increased HN expression in human IUGR-affected pregnancies on the maternal aspect of the placenta (extravillous trophoblastic (EVT) cytoplasm) compared to control (i.e. appropriate for gestational age) pregnancies, and a concomitant increase in GLUT8 expression in the same compartment, 2) HN and GLUT8 showed a protein-protein interaction by co-immunoprecipitation, 3) elevated HN and GLUT8 levels in vitro under simulated hypoxia in human EVT cells, HTR8/SVneo, and 4) increased HN expression but attenuated GLUT8 expression in vitro under serum deprivation in HTR8/SVneo cells. There was elevated HN expression with cytoplasmic localization to EVTs on the maternal aspect of the human placenta affected by IUGR, also associated with increased GLUT8 expression. We found that while hypoxia increased both HN and GLUT8, serum deprivation increased HN expression alone. Also, a protein-protein interaction between HN and GLUT8 suggests that their interaction may fulfill a biologic role that requires interdependency. Future investigations delineating molecular interactions between these proteins are required to fully uncover their role in IUGR-affected pregnancies.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Lutyńska, A

    2014-12-01

    A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients.

  18. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  19. An autosomal recessive disorder with retardation of growth, mental deficiency, ptosis, pectus excavatum and camptodactyly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaldi, F.; Bennaceur, B.; Hammou, A.; Hamza, M.; Gharbi, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two strikingly similar brothers issued from consanguineous parents in the second degree present the following patterns of anomalies: Retardation of growth, mental deficiency, ocular abnormalities, pectus excavatum and camptodactyly. The ocular abnormalities include ptosis, microphthalmia and hypertelorism. No endocrine or metabolic aberrations are found. The authors conclude that the disorder has probably an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. (orig.)

  20. Umbilical vessel wall fatty acids after normal and retarded fetal growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, C V; Chang, T C; Crook, D; Marsh, M; Robson, S C; Spencer, J A

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective observational study, the fatty acid content of human umbilical artery and vein wall phospholipids was determined in fetuses classified according to their change in abdominal circumference during the third trimester. Three groups were identified: appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 24 infants) and small for gestational age (SGA; 38 infants) with normal antenatal growth rate, and SGA with fetal growth retardation (22 infants). The venous linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) content (...

  1. Are intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth associated with dental caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria C D; Bettiol, Heliosa; Barbieri, Marco A; Silva, Antonio A

    2007-10-01

    To assess the association between two intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) surrogates - IUGR [small for gestational age birth (SGA) and fetal growth restriction (FGR)] and preterm birth with dental caries. Data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used, including 2- to 5.9-year-old singletons (n = 3189). Dental caries was defined as presence of any teeth with dental caries (treated or untreated) and also as presence of at least two teeth with dental caries. Exposure variables were preterm birth (education of head of household, breastfeeding, and use of baby bottle. Separate statistical analyses were conducted for IUGR and for preterm birth through the estimation of prevalence ratio (PR), taking complex sampling design into consideration and adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was conducted including and excluding 2-year-old children and also with the two definitions of dental caries. In general, the inclusion of 2-year-old children and the case definition of presence of any teeth with dental caries biased the results toward the null, but with no major changes in the results. In bivariate analysis, SGA and FGR birth were both negatively but not significantly associated with dental caries while a significant positive association was found for preterm birth. Sensitivity analysis showed that the PR for preterm in bivariate analysis varied from 1.65 (95% CI 1.14-2.40) to 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.83). After adjusting for confounders, the PR for preterm birth varied from 1.38 (95% CI 1.00-1.89) to 1.64 (95% CI 1.22-2.20). After adjustment, the PR for SGA varied from 0.79 (95% CI 0.56-101) to 0.66 (95% CI 0.33-0.96). For children from 3 to 5.9 years old, the adjusted PR for FGR using the category 'none' as reference were mild (PR 1.10; 95% CI 0.76-1.58), moderate (PR 0.66; 95% CI 0.26-167), and severe (PR 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.99). These values for FGR were very similar for the other models using other classifications of

  2. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... seeds were sawed in 288-cell plug tray and subirrigated with nutrient solution mixed by six different concentrations of paclo- butrazol or uniconazole. After five ... of recirculation and used to culture the radish plants. After five days, the length of hypocotyle was measured and compared to the standard growth ...

  3. Growth retardation in artistic compared with rhythmic elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Markou, Kostas B; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Benardot, Dan; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G

    2002-07-01

    We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, China (n = 48), and Ghent, Belgium (n = 94), respectively. RG were taller than average, with a mean height SD score above the 50th percentile, whereas AG were relatively short, with a mean height SD score below the 50th percentile. Both RG and AG followed their respective reported target height SD score, which was above the 50th percentile for the RG and below the 50th percentile for the AG. The RG followed a growth pattern that was higher than their reported target height, whereas AG exhibited a negative growth pattern. RG and AG weighed less than the population mean, with the mean weight for age below the 50th percentile for both groups. RG were taller than AG (t = 17.15; P < 0.001), with a higher reported target height SD score (t = 6.44; P < 0.001), a greater Delta height-reported target height (t = 2.74; P < 0.001), and a lower mean body fat (t = -11.83; P < 0.001) and body mass index (t = -10.73; P < 0.001) than AG. AG started their training at an earlier age than RG (t = 4.13; P < 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, actual height SD score was independently influenced positively by weight SD score for both RG (b = 0.421; t = 4.317; P < 0.001) and AG (b = 1.404; t = 16.514; P = <0.001), and by reported target height only for RG (b = 0.299; t = 3.139; P = 0.002), and negatively by body mass index only for AG (b = -0.80; t = -9.88; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in elite female AG, a deterioration of growth potential was observed, whereas in RG the genetic predisposition to growth was preserved.

  4. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  5. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  6. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats, in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype.

  7. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  8. A Comparative Pathophysiological Study of Normal and Growth Retarded Human Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Moyosore Afodun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the pathophysiology of normal and growth retarded human placental tissues. Female patients were recruited from the Antenatal Clinic of Dolu Specialist Hospital, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, between 2008 and 2012. A total of 48 normal term placentas and 15 placentas of known IUGR cases were used for this study. IUGR cases were confirmed on the basis of ultrasound follow-up and diagnosis. Normal term placentas were collected at the point of delivery by a consultant gynaecologist, the cords were clamped, and membranes were then carefully trimmed after which each placenta was weighed. About 1 cm thickness of both normal and growth retarded placenta tissues was cut, processed for hematoxylin and eosin stain, while tissues for enzyme (ALP assay were homogenized in cold 0.5 M sucrose solution. Comparative analysis of the data was done using ANOVA; P<0.05 was taken as significant. The photomicrographs were observed/studied under light microscope, using the X150 and X600 magnifications. It was revealed therein that placental tissues are homogenous (regionally, compromised of maternal spiral arterioles and deregulated villous vasculogenesis, and that there is a significant difference in the level of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. We therefore concluded that there is a distinct difference between the normal and growth retarded human placenta tissue.

  9. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  10. Potential adverse effects of antenatal melatonin as a treatment for intrauterine growth restriction: findings in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candia, Alejandro; Veliz, Marcelino; Araya, Claudio; Quezada, Sebastian; Ebensperger, Germán; Serón-Ferré, María; Reyes, Roberto V; Llanos, Aníbal J; Herrera, Emilio A

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition in which the fetus has a birthweight and/or length melatonin acts as an umbilical vasodilator and a potent antioxidant that has not been evaluated in pregnancies under chronic hypoxia that induce fetal growth restriction. However, this neurohormone has been proposed as a pharmacologic therapy for complicated pregnancies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal administration of melatonin during the last trimester of pregnancy on the biometry of the growth-restricted lambs because of developmental hypoxia. Further, we aimed to determine melatonin and cortisol levels and oxidative stress markers in plasma of pregnant ewes during the treatment. High-altitude pregnant sheep received either vehicle (n = 5; 5 mL 1.4% ethanol) or melatonin (n = 7; 10 mg/kg(-1)day(-1) in 5 mL 1.4% ethanol) daily during the last one-third of gestation. Maternal plasma levels of melatonin, cortisol, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were determined along treatment. At birth, neonates were examined, weighed, and measured (biparietal diameter, abdominal diameter, and crown-rump length). Antenatal treatment with melatonin markedly decreased neonatal biometry and weight at birth. Additionally, melatonin treatment increased the length of gestation by 7.5% and shifted the time of delivery. Furthermore, the prenatal treatment doubled plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol and significantly improved the antioxidant capacity of the pregnant ewes. Our findings indicate that antenatal melatonin induces further intrauterine growth restriction but improves the maternal plasma antioxidant capacity. Additional studies should address the efficiency and safety of antenatal melatonin before clinical attempts on humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endocrine dysfunction and growth retardation assessment in children with beta -thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureldin, A.M.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major are reported to have endocrine abnormalities and growth retardation. This study was carried out to study the cause of their growth retardation and determine the extent and rate of endocrine complications. Twenty beta-thalassemic major pubertal children, with mean baemoglobin and ferritin concentration of 8.8±0.6 and 3.597± 1.931, respectively, and twenty pubertal control children were used in the study. The anthropometric measurements that carried out revealed significant low growth rate in patient groups in comparison with control. Patients divided into two groups; I) D-thal with delayed growth and II) S-thal with stunted growth. Basal serum thyoid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in patient groups and control group. T 3 showed highly significant decrease (P 4 showed non-significant change and TSH showed highly significant increase (P<0.001). Serum growth hormone showed significant lower concentrations in patient groups with values of 2.163±0.9 ng/ml, (P<0.01) and 1.832±1.9ng/ml, (P<0.01) for delayed growth thalassemic group (D-thal) and stunted growth thalassemic group (S-thal), respectively. Serum concentration of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) hormone was studied. D-thal and S-thal had significant lower basal IGF-1 concentrationsof-58.44% (P<0.001) for D-thal and -64.37%, (P<0.001) for S-thal

  12. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early...

  13. Effect of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on intrauterine growth restriction fetuses: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juncao; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Pingyang; Luo, Kaiju; Zhang, Xiuquan

    2016-08-16

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Several clinical trials have reported L-arginine and sildenafil citrate had effect on intrauterine growth restriction fetuses. A meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on major clinical outcomes of IUGR fetuses. Systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials, references of retrieved articles, and conference proceedings from 1960 to 2015. We included randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on IUGR. Outcomes analyzed were the birth weight, gestational age at labor, Apgar score at 1and 5 min, the ratio of NRDS, the ratio of ICH and neonatal death, etc. Ten trials were included. Nine trials (576 patients) compared L-arginine with either placebo or no intervention. In the L-arginine treatment groups of the L-arginine trials, there was a significant increase in fetal birth weight (SMD 0.41, 95 % CI [0.24,0.58]), gestational age (SMD 0.30, 95 % CI [0.07,0.54]); L-arginine treatment group have a significant reduction in the ratio of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (P = 0.009), intracranial hemorrhage of fetuses (P = 0.002), but the number of included studies and people on these outcomes are small. As only one trial (41 patients) compared sildenafil citrate with placebo, it was too small for reliable conclusions about possible differential effects could be drawn. The results of this meta-analysis showed that L-arginine increased birth weight and prolonged gestational age at labor of IUGR fetuses. However, further large-scale RCTs are needed to adequately assess the effect of L-arginine and Sildenafil citrate on clinical outcomes, because the number of study may be small.

  14. Rates of nitrogen and growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINDULA, M. C.; ROCHA, V. S.; SOUZA, L. T. de.; SOUZA, M. A. de.; CAMPANHARO, M.; GROSSI, J. A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates in association with rates of the growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG and arranged in a 5×4 factorial, randomized block design, with four repetitions. A combination of five nitrogen rates (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150kg ha-1) with four rates of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1) were tested. Trinexapac-ethyl promotes reduction of soot dry mass and grain yie...

  15. Horseshoe kidney with growth retardation: Don't forget Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslansoyu-Çamlar, Seçil; Soylu, Alper; Abacı, Ayhan; Türkmen, Mehmet Atilla; Ülgenalp, Ayfer; Kavukçu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is the most frequent renal fusion anomaly that is usually asymptomatic and isolated malformation. However it can be seen with various syndromes and chromosomal anomalies. It was reported that 15-35% of Turner syndrome cases (TS) also display horseshoe kidney condition. TS is a chromosomal anomaly that had been characterized by delayed puberty, short body height and gonadal dysgenesis. In this report a five-year-old girl with horseshoe kidney, which has growth retardation during follow-up as only symptom of Turner syndrome.

  16. Prediction of fatigue crack growth and experimental result on overload retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K.; Kawamura, T.; Hashimoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomena of crack growth retardation are frequently observed under variable amplitude or irregular loading fatigue tests. This paper describes a prediction method on crack growth retardation caused by an overload during fatigue loads. The prediction reported in this paper is performed by the following procedure using the yield strength and da/dN vs. ΔK relationship of the material. 1) Determination of the residual stress distribution caused by cyclic load and overload based on the Dugdale model. 2) Determination of the effective residual stress intensity factor and effective stress intensity range (ΔKsub(eff.)). 3) Prediction of the crack growth rate using ΔKsub(eff) and da/dN vs. ΔK relationship of the material. From the viewpoint to apply the prediction to a structural component, experiments have been carried out on steel pipes with an axial through thickness crack, which are subject to an overpressure during cyclic pressure. In the paper, the experimental results are compared with the prediction. (orig.)

  17. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS WITH RETARDING ACTIVITY ON SPRING PEA FOR GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsenka ZHELYAZKOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  18. [Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  19. [Intrauterine infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2006-09-10

    A broad variety of microorganisms are capable of causing fetal infections. Among viral agents prominent are the human cytomegaly virus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immundeficiency virus (HIV), varicella, herpes zooster, rubella, parvovirus B19, measles and the hepatitis B and C viruses. Protozoa such as toxoplasma and spirocheta pallida, causing congenital syphilis are equally important. Bacterial infections are responsible for in uterus aquired listeriosis, tuberculosis, and group B streptococcus infections. Fungi including candida albicans complete the circle of infections pathogens. Infectious microrganisms may reach the fetus through the placenta are may ascend through the birth canal. The quoted pathological agents threaten the health and life of the fetus directly by the biological derangements they cause and also by inducing abortion or premature birth. The clinical manifestations include retarded growth, central nervous system damage and skin lesions. The invariable therapeutic measures vary but in general, are limited value in cases of in utero acquired infections.

  20. Growth retardation of paramecium and mouse cells by shielding them from background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Masanobu; Okuyama, Katsuyuki; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Shiomi, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Morio; Yagi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, Planel et al. reported that the growth of paramecia was decreased by shielding them from background radiation. In the 1990s, Takizawa et al. found that mouse cells displayed a decreased growth rate under shielded conditions. The purpose of the present study was to confirm that growth is impaired in organisms that have been shielded from background radiation. Radioprotection was produced with a shielding chamber surrounded by a 15 cm thick iron wall and a 10 cm thick paraffin wall that reduced the γ ray and neutron levels in the chamber to 2% and 25% of the background levels, respectively. Although the growth of Paramecium tetraurelia was not impaired by short-term radioprotection (around 10 days), which disagreed with the findings of Planel et al., decreased growth was observed after long-term (40-50 days) radiation shielding. When mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were incubated inside or outside of the shielding chamber for 7 days, the number of cells present on the 6th and 7th days under the shielding conditions was significantly lower than that present under the non-shielding conditions. These inhibitory effects on cell growth were abrogated by the addition of a 137 Cs γ-ray source disk to the chamber. Furthermore, no growth retardation was observed in XRCC4-deficient mouse M10 cells, which display impaired DNA double strand break repair. (author)

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayer, D.; Salahcheh, M.; Jazayeri, S.M.H.; Kaydani, G.A.; Kadkhodaei Elyaderani, M.K.; Shaneh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth rate and crack retardation due to an overload using a cohesive zone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silitonga, S.; Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Snijder, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a numerical method is pursued based on a cohesive zone model (CZM). The method is aimed at simulating fatigue crack growth as well as crack growth retardation due to an overload. In this cohesive zone model, the degradation of the material strength is represented by a variation of the

  3. N-Acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, reverts vascular dysfunction and endothelial epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restricted guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Francisca; Figueroa, Esteban; Villanueva, Cristian; Hernández, Cherie; Alegría, René; Arroyo-Jousse, Viviana; Peñaloza, Estefania; Farías, Marcelo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial epigenetic programming of the umbilical vessels. There is no evidence that this epigenetic programming is occurring on systemic fetal arteries. In IUGR guinea pigs we studied the functional and epigenetic programming of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Nos3 gene) in umbilical and systemic fetal arteries, addressing the role of oxidative stress in this process by maternal treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the second half of gestation. The present study suggests that IUGR endothelial cells have common molecular markers of programming in umbilical and systemic arteries. Notably, maternal treatment with NAC restores fetal growth by increasing placental efficiency and reverting the functional and epigenetic programming of eNOS in arterial endothelium in IUGR guinea pigs. In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, half of the sows receiving NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term). Fetal biometry and placental vascular resistance were followed by ultrasound throughout gestation. At term, umbilical arteries and fetal aortae were isolated to assess endothelial function by wire-myography. Primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) from fetal aorta, femoral and umbilical arteries were used to determine eNOS mRNA levels by quantitative PCR and analyse DNA methylation in the Nos3 promoter by pyrosequencing. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed that NAC reduced placental vascular resistance

  4. Distinct mechanisms are responsible for osteopenia and growth retardation in OASIS-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Hino, Shin-Ichiro; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Wanaka, Akio; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), which is a new type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the CREB/ATF family that contains a transmembrane domain and is processed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to ER stress. OASIS is selectively expressed in certain types of cells such as astrocytes and osteoblasts. We have previously demonstrated that OASIS activates transcription of the type I collagen gene Col1a1 and contributes to the secretion of bone matrix proteins in osteoblasts, and that OASIS-/- mice exhibit osteopenia and growth retardation. In the present study, we examined whether osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice is rescued by OASIS introduction into osteoblasts. We generated OASIS-/- mice that specifically expressed OASIS in osteoblasts using a 2.3-kb osteoblast-specific type I collagen promoter (OASIS-/-;Tg mice). Histological analysis of OASIS-/-;Tg mice revealed that osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice was rescued by osteoblast-specific expression of the OASIS transgene. The decreased expression levels of type I collagen mRNAs in the bone tissues of OASIS-/- mice were recovered by the OASIS transgene accompanied by the rescue of an abnormal expansion of the rough ER in OASIS-/- osteoblasts. In contrast, growth retardation in OASIS-/- mice did not improve in OASIS-/-;Tg mice. Interestingly, the serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were downregulated in OASIS-/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice. These decreased GH and IGF-1 levels in OASIS-/- mice did not change when OASIS was introduced into osteoblasts. Taken together, these results indicate that OASIS regulates skeletal development by osteoblast-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Placental 11beta-HSD2 gene expression at birth is inversely correlated with growth velocity in the first year of life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschoppe, Anja; Struwe, Ellen; Blessing, Holger; Fahlbusch, Fabian; Liebhaber, Gisela; Dörr, Helmuth G; Rauh, Manfred; Rascher, Wolfgang; Goecke, Tamme W; Schild, Ralf L; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Scheler, Cerrie; Hübler, Axel; Dahlem, Peter; Dötsch, Jörg

    2009-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk for short stature and diseases in adulthood thought to be inflicted by fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental endocrine systems involved in perinatal growth might also play a role in postnatal growth after IUGR. In a prospective controlled multicenter study, placental gene expression of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), leptin and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) were measured in 14 IUGR infants and 15 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) proven by serial ultrasound examinations. Postnatally, IUGR infants experienced a significantly higher growth velocity than AGA neonates (at 1 y: p = 0.001). Gene expression of 11beta-HSD2 at birth correlated positively with birth length (r = 0.55, p = 0.04) and inversely with growth velocity in the first year of life (r = -0.69, p = 0.01) in the IUGR, but not in the AGA group. There was no correlation between gene expression of placental IGFBP-1, leptin and birth weight, length and growth velocity during the first year of life. AGA infants showed significantly higher concentrations of cortisone in venous cord blood after birth (p = 0.02) as a surrogate of a higher 11beta-HSD2 activity in the fetoplacental unit. In conclusion, placental 11beta-HSD2 gene expression might predict postnatal growth in IUGR.

  6. Intrauterine growth restriction - a population-based study of the association with academic performance and psychiatric health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulf Strømme, Kirsten; Strømme, Petter; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in small for gestational age (SGA) infants, is associated with increased susceptibility to psychiatric problems and academic impairment in late teens. A cohort of all 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway, followed up between 2001 and 2004 (n = 2131), was linked with foetal growth data. IUGR was considered equal to SGA at the lowest 2.5th, 5th, and 10th percentiles and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) as the highest 90th percentile. Mental health was evaluated using the Hopkins Symptoms Check List and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, and academic achievements and ambitions were self-reported by the students. Psychiatric problems were equally prevalent in all groups. However, the SGA girls performed inferiorly compared to their AGA peers in the school subjects English [3.6 vs 3.9 (p = 0.03)], mathematics [4.0 vs 4.3 (p = 0.01)] and social science [4.2 vs 4.4 (p = 0.05)], but not for Norwegian. This association was not observed in boys. There was an association between academic impairment and prematurity, occurring more frequently among immigrants (p academic achievements in adolescent girls, but not boys. There was no association between SGA and psychiatric problems in either gender. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk.

  8. The impact of plasma folate levels of mothers and newborns on intrauterine growth retardation and birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Dejmek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 591, - (2005), s. 302-310 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : plasma folate level * pregnancy outcome * IUGR Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2005

  9. Intrauterine growth restriction in a low-income country: Risk factors, adverse perinatal outcomes and correlation with current WHO Multicenter Growth Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2010-07-01

    To determine risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes including nutritional status in the first week of life for newborns with intrauterine growth restriction-low birth weight (IUGR-LBW) in settings lacking facilities for routine intrauterine growth monitoring. A cross-sectional study of all infants in an inner-city hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. IUGR-LBW was defined as full-term (gestational age> or =37 weeks) infant with low birth weight (World Health Organization's Multicentre Growth Reference (WHO-MGR). Factors and adverse outcomes associated with IUGR-LBW were explored with multivariable logistic regression analyses. Some 145 (4.3%) infants were IUGR-LBW out of 2619 eligible singletons enlisted for this study. IUGR-LBW was significantly associated with teenage mothers (OR:2.90, 95% CI:1.22-6.89), lack of antenatal care (OR:1.88, 95% CI:1.33-2.65) and female gender (OR:1.38, 95% CI: 0.98-1.93; p=0.062). The incidence of adverse outcomes across gestational age showed significant linear trend only for low five-minute Apgar scores (p=0.024) and WAZ (p=0.065). IUGR-LBW was associated with poor nutritional status across all four indices (pfirst week of life based on WHO-MGR and affected infants can be detected early for effective surveillance in resource-poor settings. Improved prenatal care among teenage mothers is necessary for reducing IUGR-LBW burden. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient's first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident...

  11. Endurance exercise and growth hormone improve bone formation in young and growth-retarded chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Guterman, Mayan; Rabkin, Ralph; Landau, Daniel; Segev, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with both short stature and abnormal bone mineralization. Normal longitudinal growth depends on proper maturation of epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) chondrocytes, leading to the formation of trabecular bone in the primary ossification centre. We have recently shown that linear growth impairment in CKD is associated with impaired EGP growth hormone (GH) receptor signalling and that exercise improved insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signalling in CKD-related muscle atrophy. In this study, 20-day-old rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) or sham surgery (C) and were exercised with treadmill, with or without GH supplementation. CKD-related growth retardation was associated with a widened EGP hypertrophic zone. This was not fully corrected by exercise (except for tibial length). Exercise in CKD improved the expression of EGP key factors of endochondral ossification such as IGF-I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteocalcin. Combining GH treatment with treadmill exercise for 2 weeks improved the decreased trabecular bone volume in CKD, as well as the expression of growth plate runt-related transcription factor 2, RANKL, metalloproteinase 13 and VEGF, while GH treatment alone could not do that. Treadmill exercise improves tibial bone linear growth, as well as growth plate local IGF-I. When combined with GH treatment, running exercise shows beneficial effects on trabecular bone formation, suggesting the potential benefit of this combination for CKD-related short stature and bone disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. [Etiology, prevalence of chronic renal failure and growth retardation in Lithuanian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundziene, Birute; Masalskiene, Jūrate; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Aleksyniene, Vilte; Dobiliene, Diana; Rudaitis, Sarūnas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes, prevalence, and grades of chronic renal failure in Lithuanian children and to assess its influence on children's growth. The study was performed in Vilnius University Children's Hospital and Clinic of Children's Diseases, Kaunas University of Medicine. By March 31, 2006, 65 children with chronic renal failure had been registered. The prevalence was 88.3 cases per million children. The mean age was 10.8+/-4.9 years. The leading causes of chronic renal failure were congenital diseases (37%) and obstruction with interstitial nephritis (33.8%). At presentation, 23 (35.40%) children had mild, 17 (26.15%) had moderate, 9 (23.85%) had severe renal failure, and 16 (24.6%) had end-stage renal disease. Fourteen (21.54%) children were below the third percentile in height for their age. Growth failure was observed in one (4.35%) child with Grade 1 renal failure. The deterioration of renal function had a significant influence on growth impairment, and 13 (30.95%) children with glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 7 (43.75%) with end-stage renal disease had a height below the third percentile. Growth retardation as one of the symptoms of impairment of children's physical development depends on the severity of renal function.

  13. Effects of triazole derivatives on strigolactone levels and growth retardation in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available We previously discovered a lead compound for strigolactone (SL biosynthesis inhibitors, TIS13 (2,2-dimethyl-7-phenoxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylheptan-3-ol. Here, we carried out a structure-activity relationship study of TIS13 to discover more potent and specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor because TIS13 has a severe side effect at high concentrations, including retardation of the growth of rice seedlings. TIS108, a new TIS13 derivative, was found to be a more specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor than TIS13. Treatment of rice seedlings with TIS108 reduced SL levels in both roots and root exudates in a concentration-dependent manner and did not reduce plant height. In addition, root exudates of TIS108-treated rice seedlings stimulated Striga germination less than those of control plants. These results suggest that TIS108 has a potential to be applied in the control of root parasitic weeds germination.

  14. The effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on uterine blood flow and well being in the intrauterine growth-restricted fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Loose, Jan M; Jenkin, Graham; Wallace, Euan M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer, New York, NY) could increase uterine blood flow in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), thereby improving fetal oxygenation and well being. In fetal sheep, we induced IUGR at 105-110 days (0.7 gestation) using single umbilical artery ligation (SUAL). In SUAL and control animals, we measured uterine blood flow (UBF) and blood gases before and after sildenafil administration. SUAL fetuses were hypoxemic compared with controls. Following sildenafil, UBF was significantly decreased in both SUAL and control ewes for approximately 40 minutes. In response to sildenafil, pO(2) was decreased in SUAL and control fetuses and both groups displayed significant hypotension and tachycardia. At postmortem SUAL fetal body weight was significantly reduced by 23% compared with controls. Sildenafil does not improve UBF or fetal well being in SUAL-induced IUGR pregnancies and should be used with caution in IUGR and healthy pregnancies because of its detrimental effects on uteroplacental perfusion and on the fetus.

  15. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  16. Kidney gene expression analysis in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction reveals massive alterations of coagulation genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffat, Christophe; Boubred, Farid; Mondon, Françoise; Chelbi, Sonia T; Feuerstein, Jean-Marc; Lelièvre-Pégorier, Martine; Vaiman, Daniel; Simeoni, Umberto

    2007-11-01

    In this study, low birth weight was induced in rats by feeding the dams with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. Kidneys from the fetuses at the end of gestation were collected and showed a reduction in overall and relative weight, in parallel with other tissues (heart and liver). This reduction was associated with a reduction in nephrons number. To better understand the molecular basis of this observation, a transcriptome analysis contrasting kidneys from control and protein-deprived rats was performed, using a platform based upon long isothermic oligonucleotides, strengthening the robustness of the results. We could identify over 1800 transcripts modified more than twice (772 induced and 1040 repressed). Genes of either category were automatically classified according to functional criteria, making it possible to bring to light a large cluster of genes involved in coagulation and complement cascades. The promoters of the most induced and most repressed genes were contrasted for their composition in putative transcription factor binding sites, suggesting an overrepresentation of the AP1R binding site, together with the transcription induction of factors actually binding to this site in the set of induced genes. The induction of coagulation cascades in the kidney of low-birth-weight rats provides a putative rationale for explaining thrombo-endothelial disorders also observed in intrauterine growth-restricted human newborns. These alterations in the kidneys have been reported as a probable cause for cardiovascular diseases in the adult.

  17. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimune Fukushima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG. Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n=35 and IUGR (n=12 cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio. Results. The value of CVRR in the normal pregnancy group displayed a slight increasing trend with gestational age. However, no such trend was observed in the IUGR group. In contrast, the LF/HF ratio in both the normal pregnancy group and the IUGR group clearly increased over the gestational period; the normal group showing statistical significance. Conclusion. The development of fetal ANS activity in IUGR cases might differ from that observed in the normal pregnancy group, and this may facilitate early detection of IUGR.

  18. Placental characteristics in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction assessed by gradient angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chenyu; Li, Meizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Liu, Xiangzhen; Huang, Xuan; Zhou, Yi; Fang, Qun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the placental characteristics in selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) using gradient angiography and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from computed tomography (CT) scan data. This study included 23 sIUGR cases and 16 monochorionic twin-pregnancies without sIUGR. We injected nonionic iodinated contrast agents into the umbilical arteries and veins. Placental characteristics were analyzed after CT scanning and 3D reconstruction. 73.9% of smaller twins in sIUGR cases had marginal or velamentous cord insertions and less placental sharing. The terminal branch of the arterial tree was scored III-IV in smaller sIUGR twins, while it was scored V-VII in normal monochorionic twins and larger sIUGR twins. Arterio-arterial (A-A) anastomoses presented in all monochorionic placentas. Veno-venous (V-V) anastomoses present in 83.3% (5/6) of Type III sIUGR cases, which was higher than observed in Type I-II cases. The mean diameters of A-A and V-V anastomoses were larger in Type III sIUGR cases. Gradient angiography and 3D placental models displayed different placental angioarchitectures and voluminal placental sharing among three types of sIUGR cases. Placental dysplasia in the smaller twin may cause abnormal cord insertion and unequal placental sharing. The inter-twin anatomoses influence the umbilical cord artery (UA) Doppler and natural pathogenesis of sIUGR.

  19. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hutter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins (gal are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases.

  20. Differential effects of intrauterine growth restriction on brain structure and development in preterm infants: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Falcón, Carles; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Núria; Crispi, Fátima; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arranz, Angela; Botet, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard

    2011-03-25

    Previous evidence suggests that preterm newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have specific neurostructural and neurodevelopmental anomalies, but it is unknown whether these effects persist in early childhood. We studied a sample of 18 preterm IUGR, 15 preterm AGA - born between 26 and 34 weeks of gestational age (GA) - and 15 healthy born-term infants. Infants were scanned at 12 months corrected age (CA), in a 3T scanner, without sedation. Analyses were made by automated lobar volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in all subjects at 18 months CA with the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. IUGR infants had reduced relative volumes for the insular and temporal lobes. According to VBM, IUGR infants had bilateral reduced gray matter (GM) in the temporal, parietal, frontal, and insular regions compared with the other groups. IUGR infants had increased white matter (WM) in temporal regions compared to the AGA group and in frontal, parietal, occipital, and insular regions compared to the term group. They also showed decreased WM in the cerebellum and a non-significant trend in the hippocampus compared to term infants. IUGR infants had reduced neurodevelopmental scores, which were positively correlated with GM in various regions. These data suggest that the IUGR induces a distinct brain pattern of structural changes that persist at 1 year of life and are associated with specific developmental difficulties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in the definition of intrauterine growth restriction in routine antenatal care: a physician survey among gynecologists in Northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Brand, Tilman; Petersen, Knud; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-07-04

    To assess how intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined by gynecologists in routine practice. We surveyed primary care gynecologists in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany, between January and July 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data; consensus was considered as 90% agreement among the respondents. Multiple logistic regression models were performed for the associations between respondents' background characteristics and choice of the small for gestational age (SGA) cutoff values. Overall, 185 primary care gynecologists participated in the survey. Consensus was only observed in two items: (1) an accurate determination of gestational age (91%) and (2) repeated measurement of the abdominal circumference (91%). Umbilical artery Doppler (76%) and repeated ultrasonography (76%) were the most frequently used methods to confirm suspected IUGR diagnoses, but different responses prevailed. Notably, only 46% of the respondents opted for the 10th percentile of estimated fetal weight as a cutoff for SGA classification, which is the internationally recommended value. The results of this survey indicate considerable practice variation regarding detection and management of IUGR pregnancies. There is a need for better agreement in terminology and definition of core aspects of IUGR in antenatal care.

  2. Altered intrauterine ultrasound, fetal head circumference growth and neonatal outcomes among suspected cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe altered intrauterine ultrasound, analyze fetal head circumference (HC growth and neonates' outcomes among presumed cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Methods: 30 women were included in the study with suspected history of Zika virus (ZIKV infection during pregnancy and fetal's brain altered on ultrasound diagnosis. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, prenatal altered ultrasounds, HC and other perinatal outcomes have been described. The relation between HC and gestational age was analyzed by using random regression effects based on polynomials fractions. The Z test was calculated to determine an instant variant mean rate of the HC for each gestational age. Results: the mean gestational age of the ultrasound diagnosis was 33.3 + 4.7 weeks and HC at birth was 28.9 + 1.6 cm. The main altered brain ultrasound was microcephaly (96.7%. The analysis of the fetal head circumference showed an estimated increase of the average HC, as to gestational age, it did not occur in a linear form. The instant HC variation rate increased according to gestational age (p<0,001. Conclusions: Fetal's main morphological alteration was microcephaly, observing an increase in the head circumference according to gestational age in a non-linear form and the variation decreased with gestational age.

  3. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A gene polymorphism in pregnant women with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ozkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR are still among the most commonly researched titles in perinatology. To shed light on their etiology, new prevention and treatment strategies are the major targets of studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between gene polymorphism of one of the products of trophoblasts, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and PE/IUGR.A total of 147 women (IUGR, n = 61; PE, n = 47; IUGR + PE, n = 37; eclampsia, n = 2 were compared with 103 controls with respect to the sequencing of exon 14 of the PAPP-A gene to detect (rs7020782 polymorphism. Genotypes “AA” and “CC” were given in the event of A or C allele homozygosity and “AC” in A and C allele heterozygosity. Our findings revealed that the rate of AA, CC homozygotes, and AC heterozygotes did not differ between groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the distribution of PAPP-A genotypes among the patients with IUGR, PE, IUGR + PE, or eclampsia. Finally, birth weight, rate of the presence of proteinuria, and total protein excretion on 24-hour urine were similar in the subgroups of AA, AC, and CC genotypes in the study group. Our study demonstrated no association between PAPP-A gene rs7020782 polymorphism and PE/IUGR.

  4. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1 secretion in yaks with growth retardation. GHRP-2 enhanced muscle protein deposition mainly by up-regulated the protein synthesis pathways, whereas CS worked mainly by down-regulated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26894743

  6. Growth Retardation of Chick Embryo Exposed to a Low Dose of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, N.; Norrish, M.; Heming, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the non-ionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. Methods: one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. Results: No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Conclusion: Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100 percent safe. (author)

  7. L-Arginine treatment for severe vascular fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a randomized double-bind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Norbert; Branger, Bernard; Azria, Elie; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Descamps, Philippe; Boog, Georges; Cynober, Luc; Darmaun, Dominique

    2009-06-01

    Infants born with severe IUGR are exposed to higher neonatal mortality and morbidity rates, as compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age. They are exposed to a higher risk of developing chronic disease such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. L-Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) and may play a role in placental vascular mediation or local vasodilatation. The current study was designed to determine whether oral supplementation of gravid patients suffering from severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with L-arginine, would enhance birth weight and/or decrease neonatal morbidity. Forty-four patients with a singleton pregnancy who had been referred for IUGR detected by ultrasonic examination were included. Vascular IUGR was defined by fetal abdominal circumference less than or equal to the 3rd percentile, associated with abnormal uterine Doppler. After double-blind randomization, patients received either 14 g/day of L-arginine, or a placebo. The characteristics of the two groups of patients (IUGR with L-arginine vs IUGR with placebo) were similar upon randomization. There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning birth weight (1042+/-476 vs. 1068+/-452 g). At delivery, maternal and neonatal characteristics were similar in the two groups. There was no difference in the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score, the duration of ventilatory assistance, nor the delay between birth and full enteral feeding between the two groups. In this study which is, at the best of our knowledge, the first double-bind, multicenter, randomized trial in this condition, L-arginine is not an effective treatment for severe vascular growth restriction.

  8. Fetal window of vulnerability to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on proportional intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Hyunok Choi

    Full Text Available Although the entire duration of fetal development is generally considered a highly susceptible period, it is of public health interest to determine a narrower window of heightened vulnerability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in humans. We posited that exposure to PAHs during the first trimester impairs fetal growth more severely than a similar level of exposure during the subsequent trimesters.In a group of healthy, non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcomes, personal exposure to eight airborne PAHs was monitored once during the second trimester for the entire cohort (n = 344, and once each trimester within a subset (n = 77. Both air monitoring and self-reported PAH exposure data were used in order to statistically estimate PAH exposure during the entire gestational period for each individual newborn.One natural-log unit increase in prenatal exposure to the eight summed PAHs during the first trimester was associated with the largest decrement in the Fetal Growth Ratio (FGR (-3%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, -5 to -0%, birthweight (-105 g, 95% CI, -188 to -22 g, and birth length (-0.78 cm, 95% CI, -1.30 to -0.26 cm, compared to the unit effects of PAHs during the subsequent trimesters, after accounting for confounders. Furthermore, a unit exposure during the first trimester was associated with the largest elevation in Cephalization Index (head to weight ratio (3 μm/g, 95% CI, 1 to 5 μm/g. PAH exposure was not associated with evidence of asymmetric growth restriction in this cohort.PAH exposure appears to exert the greatest adverse effect on fetal growth during the first trimester. The present data support the need for the protection of pregnant women and the embryo/fetus, particularly during the earliest stage of pregnancy.

  9. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

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    Peilin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW breeding, body weight (BW at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON group and a high-energy diet (HED group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012, while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities.

  10. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

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    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  11. Plant-made trastuzumab (herceptin inhibits HER2/Neu+ cell proliferation and retards tumor growth.

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    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb, trastuzumab (Herceptin. A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  12. Solution-mediated growth of NBA-ZSM-5 crystals retarded by gel entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; Akhtar, Farid; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of flat tablet-shaped ZSM-5 crystals from a gel using metakaolin as aluminosilicate source and n-butyl amine as structure directing agent was investigated. The evolution inside the solid phase was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. A kinetic study indicated that the nucleation of the majority crystals occurred concurrently with the formation of the gel upon heating the starting liquid suspension. Microstructural evidences undeniably showed that the gel precipitated on ZSM-5 crystals and mineral impurities originating from kaolin. As a result, crystal growth was retarded by gel entrapment, as indicated by the configuration and morphology of the embedded crystals. The results presented herein are harmonized with a solution-mediated nucleation and growth mechanism. Our observations differ from the autocatalytic model that suggests that the nuclei rest inside the gel until released when the gel is consumed. Our results show instead that it is crystals that formed in an early stage before entrapment inside the gel that rest inside the gel until exposed at the gel surface. These results illustrate the limitation of the classical method used in the field to determine nucleation profiles when the crystals become trapped inside the gel.

  13. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

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    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  14. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; McClain, Craig J.; Toleman, C. Jean; Stuart, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of adding yogurt to animal diets which were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 μg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, 6 groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. Diets: (without PA) 1) AIN, 2) AIN with active yogurt, 3) AIN and inactive yogurt; and (with PA) 4) AIN with PA, 5) AIN with PA plus active yogurt, and 6) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain, and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (p<0.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats, however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still sub-optimal. PMID:19269152

  15. Fetal growth retardation and lack of hypotaurine in ezrin knockout mice.

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    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available Ezrin is a membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein that serves to link cell-membrane proteins with the actin-based cytoskeleton, and also plays a role in regulation of the functional activities of some transmembrane proteins. It is expressed in placental trophoblasts. We hypothesized that placental ezrin is involved in the supply of nutrients from mother to fetus, thereby influencing fetal growth. The aim of this study was firstly to clarify the effect of ezrin on fetal growth and secondly to determine whether knockout of ezrin is associated with decreased concentrations of serum and placental nutrients. Ezrin knockout mice (Ez(-/- were confirmed to exhibit fetal growth retardation. Metabolome analysis of fetal serum and placental extract of ezrin knockout mice by means of capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a markedly decreased concentration of hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine. However, placental levels of cysteine and cysteine sulfinic acid (precursors of hypotaurine and taurine were not affected. Lack of hypotaurine in Ez(-/- mice was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of hypotaurine to heterogenous dams significantly decreased the placenta-to-maternal plasma ratio of hypotaurine in wild-type fetuses but only slightly decreased it in ezrin knockout fetuses, indicating that the uptake of hypotaurine from mother to placenta is saturable and that disruption of ezrin impairs the uptake of hypotaurine by placental trophoblasts. These results indicate that ezrin is required for uptake of hypotaurine from maternal serum by placental trophoblasts, and plays an important role in fetal growth.

  16. Cytokine production and visualized effects in the feto-maternal unit. Quantitative and topographic data on cytokines during intrauterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmach, T; Hebisch, G; Joller-Jemelka, H I; Orban, P; Schwaller, J; Engelmann, M

    1995-09-01

    A large array of cytokines show high activity in amniotic fluid. Attempts have been made to quantify the concentrations or to track rising levels for diagnostic purposes when examining disturbances of the feto-maternal unit. However, the kinetics of cytokine production in the amniotic fluid are not well understood, and there is lack of knowledge about concomitant levels in fetal and maternal blood. The presence of cytokines in fetal and placental cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using mAb. Cytokines were quantified by enzymimmunoassay in amniotic fluid and fetal and maternal blood. This was done with regard to two disease states that quite frequently complicate the course of pregnancy, namely chorioamnionitis and intrauterine growth retardation. The cytokines examined were G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. In chorioamnionitis, all cytokines, except GM-CSF, were elevated about 100 times in the amniotic fluid. An accompanying increase in maternal and fetal blood was only found for IL-6 and G-CSF; IL-8 was elevated in fetal blood only. Intrauterine growth retardation was characterized by elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the amniotic fluid, whereas G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-1 beta were significantly reduced. Immunohistochemistry showed that under normal conditions the cytokines are to be found in a characteristic distribution in certain cell types in the fetus, the placenta, and the placental bed. With rising concentrations, more cells seemed to be recruited for cytokine production, especially macrophages and decidual cells. In chorioamnionitis, fetal extramedullary granulopoiesis was augmented, and in intrauterine growth retardation, erythropoiesis as well as granulopoiesis were depressed. Not only inflammatory disease but also intrauterine growth retardation is characterized by a changing cytokine pattern. Alterations in fetal hematopoiesis observed at postmortem examination of perinatal deaths can be correlated to changes in cytokine

  17. Efecto del retardo prenatal de crecimiento y la subnutrición postnatal en el crecimiento craneofacial / Craneofacial effect of prenatal growth retardation and postnatal undernutrition in craniofacial growth

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    María Eugenia Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar en animales con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC el efecto de la subnutrición proteico-calórica lactacional y postlactacional sobre la morfología craneofacial, particularizando en el crecimiento de los componentes funcionales neural y facial. Ratas Wistar fueron divididas en los grupos: Control, RPC (inducido por ligamiento parcial de ambas arterias uterinas el día 15 de gestación y Sham-operado (con igual técnica quirúrgica que RPC aunque sin ligamiento de las arterias. A su vez, el grupo RPC se dividió en: (a crías lactantes de madres con nutrición normal y a partir del destete alimentadas ad-libitum y (b crías lactantes de madres con restricción alimentaria del 25% y a partir del destete alimentadas con el 50% de lo consumido por un animal control. Se tomaron radiografías a las edades 1, 21, 42, 63 y 84 y se midieron longitud, ancho y altura de los componentes neural y facial. Se calcularon los índices volumétricos neural y facial y morfométrico neurofacial. Se aplicaron ANOVA y pruebas post-hoc y se calcularon diferencias porcentuales entre medias. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el estrés primario ocurrido durante la vida intrauterina resulta crítico en lo inmediato y en la vida postnatal, ya que aun mediando normonutrición postnatal el retardo de crecimiento perdura. Además, cuando al estrés prenatal le continúa restricción nutricional postnatal los efectos adversos son aditivos provocando retardo del crecimiento aún mayor. Finalmente, mientras que el componente neural es más resistente a las deficiencias nutricionales, el facial presenta mayor plasticidad, hecho que se evidencia en cambios de forma. Palabras clave: crecimiento craneofacial; desnutrición pre y postnatal; craneometría funcional    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of protein-calorie malnutrition during lactation and post-lactation on craniofacial morphology in intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR

  18. Quantitative Shear-Wave Elastography of the Liver in Preterm Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction.

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    Marianne Alison

    Full Text Available The feasibility and reproducibility of liver stiffness measurements using Supersonic Shear-wave Imaging (SSI in preterm neonate have not been reported. Our aim was to determine if liver stiffness differs between intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA preterm infants with/without cholestasis. We measured liver stiffness (in kPa in 45 AGA and 18 IUGR preterm infants, and assessed reproducibility in 26 preterms using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC and Bland-Altman tests. Liver stiffness values were compared between AGA and IUGR with and without cholestasis and correlated with birth weight. Measurements showed high reproducibility (ICC = 0.94-0.98 for intra-operator, 0.86 for inter-operator with good agreement (95% limits: -1.24 to 1.24 kPa. During the first postnatal week, liver stiffness was higher in IUGR (7.50 ±1.53 kPa than in AGA infants (5.11 ±0.80 kPa, p<0.001. After day 8, liver stiffness remained unchanged in AGA but increased progressively in IUGR infants (15.57 ±6.49 kPa after day 21. Liver stiffness was higher in IUGR neonates with cholestasis (19.35 ± 9.80 kPa than without cholestasis (7.72 ± 1.27 kPa, p<0.001. In conclusion, quantitative liver SSI in preterms is feasible and reproducible. IUGR preterms who will develop cholestasis present high liver stiffness even at birth, before biological cholestasis occurs.

  19. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Placental Expressions of CDKN1C and KCNQ1OT1 in Monozygotic Twins with Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chenyu; Liu, Xiangzhen; Shi, Xiaomei; Chai, Hanjing; He, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Xuan; Fang, Qun

    2017-10-01

    CDKN1C and KCNQ1OT1 are imprinted genes that might be potential regulators of placental development. This study investigated placental expressions of CDKN1C and KCNQ1OT1 in monozygotic twins with and without selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). Seventeen sIUGR and fifteen normal monozygotic(MZ) twin pairs were examined. Placental mRNA expressions of CDKN1C and KCNQ1OT1 were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. CDKN1C protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western-blotting. In the sIUGR group, smaller fetuses had a smaller share of the placenta, and CDKN1C protein expression was significantly increased while KCNQ1OT1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased. The CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 mRNA ratio was lower in the larger fetus than in the smaller fetus (p < .05). In the control group, CDKN1C protein expression showed no difference between larger and smaller fetuses, while KCNQ1OT1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the larger fetus, and the CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 mRNA ratio was higher in the larger fetus than in the smaller fetus (p < .05). Our findings showed that pathogenesis of sIUGR may be related to the co-effect of the up-regulated protein expression of CDKN1C and down-regulated mRNA expression of KCNQ1OT1 in the placenta.

  1. Islet inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis in intrauterine growth-restricted and high fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Madad, Leili; Chandra, Arin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Nolan, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal factors such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and high-fat (HF) diet contribute to type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to determine whether IUGR and HF diets interact in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, with particular attention focused on pancreatic islet morphology including assessment for inflammation. A surgical model of IUGR (bilateral uterine artery ligation) in Sprague-Dawley rats with sham controls was used. Pups were fed either HF or chow diets after weaning. Serial measures of body weight and glucose tolerance were performed. At 25 weeks of age, rat pancreases were harvested for histologic assessment. The birth weight of IUGR pups was 13% lower than that of sham pups. HF diet caused excess weight gain, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild glucose intolerance, however, this was not aggravated further by IUGR. Markedly abnormal islet morphology was evident in 0 of 6 sham-chow, 5 of 8 sham-HF, 4 of 8 IUGR-chow, and 8 of 9 IUGR-HF rats (chi-square, P = 0.007). Abnormal islets were characterized by larger size, irregular shape, inflammation with CD68-positive cells, marked fibrosis, and hemosiderosis. β-Cell mass was not altered by IUGR. In conclusion, HF and IUGR independently contribute to islet injury characterized by inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis. This suggests that both HF and IUGR can induce islet injury via converging pathways. The potential pathogenic or permissive role of iron in this process of islet inflammation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Caspase dependent and independent mechanisms of apoptosis across gestation in a sheep model of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Troy; Wright, Tanner; Galan, Henry L; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    Increased placental apoptosis is a hallmark of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR). Several molecules have been shown to be involved in the control of apoptosis during this disease. Our objective was to determine the expression of Bcl2, Bax, phospho XIAP, AIF, caspase 3 and 9, and telomerase activity across gestation in an ovine hyperthermia-induced model of IUGR. Pregnant sheep were placed in hyperthermic (HT) conditions to induce IUGR along with age-matched controls. Placental tissues were collected at 55 (early), 95 (mid-gestation) and 130 (near-term) days of gestational age (dGA) to determine the expression of apoptotic molecules during the development of IUGR. Compared to the control placenta, IGUR pregnancies showed: significantly reduced placental Bcl2 in early gestation (55 dGA) with a significant increase observed at mid gestation (95 dGA); decreased placental pXIAP at both mid and near term gestational days (95 and 130 dGA); placental AIF increased only at 55 dGA (early gestation); active caspase 3 increased at both mid and near term gestational days (95 and 130 dGA); caspase 9 only increased at mid gestation (95 dGA) and decreased Telomerase activity near term. Placental apoptosis, mediated in part by the apoptosis related molecule, participates in the development of IUGR. Findings from this study suggest a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway during early gestation and caspase-dependent apoptosis at mid and near term gestation. The data also implicate decreased activation of XIAP as a plausible factor involved in the control of placental apoptosis during IUGR.

  3. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  4. Body composition in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Letícia Duarte; Méio, Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker; Gomes Junior, Saint Clair S; de Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-02-06

    The comparison of body composition parameters between the small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) at term, 1, 3 and 5 months corrected ages in very preterm infants. This cohort study included 92 preterm infants at term age, younger than 32 weeks or preterm infants had less lean mass (g), fat mass (g) and percent fat mass but a greater LM/FM index than AGA infants (Ppreterm infants when compared to AGA preterm infants. However, the SGA preterm infants remained lighter, shorter and with smaller head circumferences than the AGA preterm infants until 3 months of corrected age. The greater lean tissue deficits and an earlier "catch-up" in fat in the SGA group can reflect growth patterns variability since the early life.

  5. Alterations in expression of imprinted genes from the H19/IGF2 loci in a multigenerational model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo; Cantu, Jessica; O'Neil, Derek; Seferovic, Maxim D; Goodspeed, Danielle M; Suter, Melissa A; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-05-01

    The H19/IGF2 imprinted loci have attracted recent attention because of their role in cellular differentiation and proliferation, heritable gene regulation, and in utero or early postnatal growth and development. Expression from the imprinted H19/IGF2 locus involves a complex interplay of 3 means of epigenetic regulation: proper establishment of DNA methylation, promoter occupancy of CTCF, and expression of microRNA-675. We have demonstrated previously in a multigenerational rat model of intrauterine growth restriction the epigenetic heritability of adult metabolic syndrome in a F2 generation. We have further demonstrated abrogation of the F2 adult metabolic syndrome phenotype with essential nutrient supplementation of intermediates along the 1-carbon pathway and shown that alterations in the metabolome precede the adult onset of metabolic syndrome. The upstream molecular and epigenomic mediators underlying these observations, however, have yet to be elucidated fully. In the current study, we sought to characterize the impact of the intrauterine growth-restricted lineage and essential nutrient supplementation on both levels and molecular mediators of H19 and IGF2 gene expression in the F2 generation. F2 intrauterine growth-restricted and sham lineages were obtained by exposing P1 (grandmaternal) pregnant dams to bilateral uterine artery ligation or sham surgery at gestational day 19.5. F1 pups were allocated to the essential nutrient supplemented or control diet at postnatal day 21, and bred at 6-7 weeks of age. Hepatic tissues from the resultant F2 offspring at birth and at weaning (day 21) were obtained. Bisulfite modification and sequencing was employed for methylation analysis. H19 and IGF2 expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Promoter occupancy was quantified by the use of chromatin immunoprecipitation, or ChIP, against CTCF insulator proteins. Growth-restricted F2 on control diet demonstrated significant down-regulation in H19

  6. Behaviour of the Foramen Ovale Flow in Fetuses with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Ângela R. L. Nader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foramen ovale (FO flow may be altered in IUGR. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods. Forty pregnant women (24–38 weeks were divided into 3 groups: group I (IUGR, group II (adequate growth and maternal hypertension, and group III (normal controls. Impedance across the FO was assessed by the FO pulsatility index (FOPI: (systolic velocity − presystolic velocity/mean velocity. Statistical analysis utilized ANOVA, Tukey test, and ROC curves. Results. Mean FOPI in IUGR fetuses (n = 15 was 3.70 ± 0.99 (3.15–4.26; in the group II (n = 12, it was 2.84 ± 0.69 (2.40–3.28, and in the group III (n = 13, it was 2.77 ± 0.44 (2.50–3.04 (p=0.004. FOPI and UtA RI were correlated (r = 0.375, p=0.017, as well as FOPI and UA RI (r = 0.356, p=0.024 and, inversely, FOPI and MCA RI (r = −0.359, p=0.023. Conclusions. The FO flow pulsatility index is increased in fetuses with IUGR, probably as a result of impaired left ventricular diastolic function.

  7. Enamel defect of primary dentition in SGA children in relation to onset time of intrauterine growth disturbance

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    Willyanti Soewondo Sjarif

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal disturbances disturb the development of organs resulting in small for gestational age (SGA babies and also causes enamel defects in primary teeth. There are disturbances occur in the beginning of pregnancy causing symmetrical SGA, and asymmetrical type of SGA, where the disturbances occur late in pregnancy. Purpose: This research was to determined differences in severity of enamel defect of primary dentition in small for gestational age children based on the time of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This was a clinical epidemiological cohort study. The Ponderal index was used to determine SGA type. The subjects were 129 SGA children aged 9-42 months, 82 with asymmetrical SGA and 47 with symmetrical SGA. Two hundred normal birth weight children were the control group. Intra-oral examinations to determine enamel defect used the FDI modification of the Developmental Defect of Enamel score at 3 months intervals. Statistical t-tests were used to test the difference in severity of enamel defect, and chisquare to find out the difference of Relative Risk Ratio (RRR. Results: The results showed that the enamel defect scores of symmetrical SGA were significantly higher than those with asymmetrical SGA. RRR for severe defect was also significantly higher in symmetrical type for anterior and canines. Conclusion: The study suggested that the severity of enamel defect for infants with symmetrical SGA was higher than those with asymmetrical SGA, indicating that the severity of the defect occurs in the beginning of pregnancy is more severe than in the late pregnancy.Latar belakang: Adanya gangguan prenatal mengganggu perkembangan organ, mengakibatkan terjadinya bayi lahir dengan kecil masa kehamilan (KMK dan defek email pada gigi sulung. Terdapat 2 tipe KMK yaitu tipe simetri; gangguan terjadi pada awal kehamilan; dimana lingkar kepala, berat dan panjang lahir lebih rendah dari normal. Tipe asimetri dimana gangguan terjadi saat

  8. Intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonawalla, R P

    1968-01-01

    This article is presented to give an idea as to how far the IUD can fulfill the purpose of population control. For the couple, this intrauterine method is most ideal. The main drawback is the side effect of bleeding, which is the cause of the high drop out rate. The other handicaps are spontaneous expulsion and pregnancy with the IUD in situ. It is also unsuited to nulliparous women. The general practitioner needs to become concerned with the gravity of the problem of overpopulation, and he must encourage his patients into the use of contraceptives. At the moment, the IUD is the method of choice.

  9. The extent of intrauterine growth restriction determines the severity of cerebral injury and neurobehavioural deficits in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A Ruff

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b can be used to evaluate new translational therapies. To address these key knowledge gaps, we characterized a chronic placental insufficiency (PI model, using bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL of dams. This injury model results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in pups, and animals recapitulate the human phenotype both in terms of neurobehavioural and anatomical deficits.Effects of BUAL were studied using luxol fast blue (LFB/hematoxylin & eosin (H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Catwalk neurobehavioural tests.Neuroanatomical analysis revealed regional ventricular enlargement and corpus callosum thinning in IUGR animals, which was correlated with the extent of growth restriction. Olig2 staining revealed reductions in oligodendrocyte density in white and grey matter structures, including the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, and nucleus accumbens. The caudate nucleus, along with other brain structures such as the optic chiasm, internal capsule, septofimbrial and lateral septal nuclei, exhibited reduced size in animals with IUGR. The size of the pretectal nucleus was reduced only in moderately injured animals. MAG/NF200 staining demonstrated reduced myelination and axonal counts in the corpus callosum of IUGR animals. NeuN staining revealed changes in neuronal density in the hippocampus and in the thickness of hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI revealed regional white and grey matter

  10. The effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, early childhood growth and famine exposure on age at menopause: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadrzadeh, S.; Verschuuren, M.; Schoonmade, L. J.; Lambalk, C. B.; Painter, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    When the follicle reserve, which is developed solely during the fetal period, is depleted, women enter menopause. Intrauterine and childhood adverse conditions might affect the ovarian capacity by influencing follicle production in the first trimester, limiting the initial follicle pool or mediate

  11. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Koichi; Mukawa, Jiro; Mekaru, Susumu; Harakuni, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Tominaga, Daisuke; Nakasone, Susumu.

    1996-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  12. Growth retardation due to idiopathic growth hormone deficiencies: MR findings in 24 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, M.; Morikawa, M.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kinoshita, E.; Hayashi, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the pituitary-hypothalamic abnormalities of ''idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency'' as demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 1.5-T unit using spin echo T-1 weighted images. The patients were divided into two groups according to MR findings: those with ectopic posterior pituitary glands (12 patients), and those with normal posterior pituitary glands (12 patients). Ten patients in the former group and four in the latter group had small anterior pituitary glands. All patients in the former group but only four in the latter group had severe GH deficiencies. Multiple hormone deficiencies were found in eight patients in the former group, but in only two in the latter group. It is speculated that perinatal abnormalities can cause posterior pituitary ectopia and that there is a close correlation between breech delivery and the male disadvantage of posterior pituitary ectopia. Half of our patients with ''idiopathic GH deficiency'' had ectopic posterior pituitaries. GH deficiency with posterior pituitary ectopia should no longer be considered idiopathic because organic lesions can now be identified during life. (orig./GD)

  13. Intrauterine growth-restricted sheep fetuses exhibit smaller hindlimb muscle fibers and lower proportions of insulin-sensitive Type I fibers near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Dustin T; Cadaret, Caitlin N; Beede, Kristin A; Riley, Hannah E; Macko, Antoni R; Anderson, Miranda J; Camacho, Leticia E; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reduces muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in offspring. Insulin sensitivity varies among muscle fiber types, with Type I fibers being most sensitive. Differences in fiber-type ratios are associated with insulin resistance in adults, and thus we hypothesized that near-term IUGR sheep fetuses exhibit reduced size and proportions of Type I fibers. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR fetuses were ∼54% smaller (P fetal muscles develop smaller fibers and have proportionally fewer Type I fibers, which is indicative of developmental adaptations that may help explain the link between IUGR and adulthood insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of postnatal nutrition restriction on the oxidative status of neonates with intrauterine growth restriction in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Lianqiang; Xuan, Yue; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Qin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-01-01

    In offspring with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), where oxidative stress may play an important role in inducing metabolic syndrome, nutrition restriction has been shown to improve oxidative status. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of postnatal nutrition restriction on the oxidative status of IUGR neonates. A total of twelve pairs of piglets, of normal birth-weight (NBW) and with IUGR (7 days old), respectively, were randomly allocated to have adequate nutritional intake (ANI) and restricted nutritional intake (RNI) for a period of 21 days, respectively. This design produced 4 experimental groups: NBW-ANI, IUGR-ANI, NBW-RNI and IUGR-RNI (n = 6 per group). Serum, ileum and liver samples were analyzed for antioxidant parameters and the mRNA expression of genes with regard to oxidative status. The data were subjected to general linear model analysis and Duncan's test with a 5% significance level. Irrespective of nutritional intake, the IUGR pigs had markedly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), gene expressions of liver mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and ileum cytoplasmic copper/zinc (CuZn)-SOD and, accordingly, there was a markedly higher malondialdehyde concentration in the liver of these pigs compared to in the NBW pigs. Irrespective of body weight, pigs receiving ANI treatment had significantly lower activities of antioxidant enzymes in the serum (total antioxidative capability, CuZn-SOD and GPX) and liver (total SOD and glutathione reductase) and decreased gene expression of liver CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD compared to the pigs receiving RNI. In addition, the IUGR pigs had a markedly lower concentration of liver reduced glutathione (GSH), ratio of GSH to oxidized glutathione, gene expression of ileum CuZn-SOD and extracellular SOD than the NBW pigs when receiving ANI, but not all of these differences were observed in those receiving RNI. IUGR neonates may have poor antioxidant defense systems, and postnatal

  15. A hierarchical analysis of transcriptome alterations in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reveals common pathophysiological pathways in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffat, C; Mondon, F; Rigourd, V; Boubred, F; Bessières, B; Fayol, L; Feuerstein, J-M; Gamerre, M; Jammes, H; Rebourcet, R; Miralles, F; Courbières, B; Basire, A; Dignat-Georges, F; Carbonne, B; Simeoni, U; Vaiman, D

    2007-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a frequent disease, affecting up to 10% of human pregnancies and responsible for increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, low birth weight is an important cause of the metabolic syndrome in the adult. Protein depletion during the gestation of rat females has been widely used as a model for human IUGR. By transcriptome analysis of control and protein-deprived rat placentas, we were able to identify 2543 transcripts modified more than 2.5 fold (1347 induced and 1196 repressed). Automatic functional classification enabled us to identify clusters of induced genes affecting chromosome structure, transcription, intracellular transport, protein modifications and apoptosis. In particular, we suggest the existence of a complex balance regulating apoptosis. Among repressed genes, we noted several groups of genes involved in immunity, signalling and degradation of noxious chemicals. These observations suggest that IUGR placentas have a decreased resistance to external aggression. The promoters of the most induced and most repressed genes were contrasted for their composition in putative transcription factor binding sites. There was an over-representation of Zn finger (ZNF) proteins and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox protein 1) putative binding sites. Consistently, Pdx1 and a high proportion of ZNF genes were induced at the transcriptional level. A similar analysis of ZNF promoters showed an increased presence of putative binding sites for the Tata box binding protein (Tbp). Consistently again, we showed that the Tbp and TBP-associated factors (Tafs) were up-regulated in IUGR placentas. Also, samples of human IUGR and control placentas showed that human orthologous ZNFs and PDX1 were transcriptionally induced, especially in non-vascular IUGR. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of PDX1 in IUGR human placentas. In conclusion, our approach permitted the proposition of hypotheses on a hierarchy of

  16. Prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction with aspirin started in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, Emmanuel; Roberge, Stéphanie; Lacasse, Yves; Bureau, Marc; Audibert, François; Marcoux, Sylvie; Forest, Jean-Claude; Giguère, Yves

    2010-08-01

    To estimate the effect of low-dose aspirin started in early pregnancy on the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed through electronic database searches (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase). Randomized controlled trials of pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia who were assigned to receive aspirin or placebo (or no treatment) were reviewed. Secondary outcomes included IUGR, severe preeclampsia and preterm birth. The effect of aspirin was analyzed as a function of gestational age at initiation of the intervention (16 weeks of gestation or less, 16 weeks of gestation or more). Thirty-four randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, including 27 studies (11,348 women) with follow-up for the outcome of preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier was associated with a significant reduction in preeclampsia (relative risk [RR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.65, prevalence in 9.3% treated compared with 21.3% control) and IUGR (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.65, 7% treated compared with 16.3% control), whereas aspirin started after 16 weeks was not (preeclampsia: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.03, prevalence in 7.3% treated compared with 8.1% control; IUGR: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10, 10.3% treated compared with 10.5% control). Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier also was associated with a reduction in severe preeclampsia (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.37, 0.7% treated compared with 15.0% control), gestational hypertension (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, 16.7% treated compared with 29.7% control), and preterm birth (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.49, 3.5% treated compared with 16.9% control). Of note, all studies for which aspirin had been started at 16 weeks or earlier included women identified to be at moderate or high risk for preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin initiated in early pregnancy is an efficient method of reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and IUGR.

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fetal monitoring. It’s a way to check your baby’s health inside your uterus. Monitoring devices are strapped over your uterus as you lie down for about 30 minutes. You will hear your baby’s heartbeat as it is recorded. Your doctor can ...

  18. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  19. Intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilian, Xiao

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this chapter is to review the worldwide use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception and the long-term contraceptive efficacy and safety of copper-bearing IUDs. The TCu380A and Multiload Cu375 have a very low failure rate (0.2-0.5%) over 10 years. The main concerns of the use of IUDs are risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases and increased menstrual blood loss and irregular bleeding. Factors associated with an increase in risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases are discussed. Preventive measures can be taken with careful screening of eligible IUD users, technical training and adequate service facilities for provision of IUDs. Levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs have the benefit of reducing menstrual blood loss in addition to high contraceptive efficacy. The copper IUD is the most effective method for emergency contraception. It can prevent over 95% of unwanted pregnancies within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Ichthyosis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, growth retardation, and metaphyseal dysplasia (Shwachman syndrome). : Report of a case with extensive skin lesions (clinical, histological, and ultrastructural findings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Goeteyn (M.); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav); R. de Groot (Ronald); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe Shwachman syndrome comprises exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, growth retardation, and bone marrow hypoplasia resulting in neutropenia. Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural studies, as well as hair analysis, were performed in a patient with Shwachman's syndrome and severe

  1. Serum adiponectin levels, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in children born small for gestational age are affected by the severity of growth retardation at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelidou, Eleni N; Giapros, Vasileios I; Challa, Anna S; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles A; Andronikou, Styliani K

    2007-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); adiponectin is a protein with insulin-sensitizing properties. This study was designed to test whether being born small for gestational age (SGA) has an effect on blood levels of adiponectin and leptin, insulin resistance parameters, and lipid profile in pre-puberty, taking into consideration the severity of IUGR. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, total cholesterol (t-CHOL), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 (Apo A-1), Apo B and Apo E, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), fasting glucose, and insulin (Ins), the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and anthropometric indices were evaluated in 70 children aged 6-8 years, born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 35) and SGA (n = 35), matched for age, gender, height, and BMI. SGA children were divided into two subgroups according to the severity of IUGR: SGA<3rd percentile (n = 20), and SGA 3rd-10th percentile (n = 15). They were also subdivided in two subgroups, those with (n = 25) and those without (n = 10) catch-up growth, considering their actual height corrected for mid-parental height. SGA children had higher Ins and HOMA-IR than AGA children (Ins, 42 +/- 23 vs 32 +/- 11 pmol/l; HOMA-IR, 1.30 +/- 0.8 vs 0.92 +/- 0.3; P<0.05). No significant difference in serum leptin was found between the SGA and the AGA groups but adiponectin showed a trend to be higher in SGA children (13.6 +/- 5.7 vs 10.8 +/- 5.9 microg/ml respectively). SGA children without catch-up growth had higher adiponectin (15.6 +/- 8.5 microg/ml, P<0.05) than AGA children. Among the SGA children, the subgroup <3rd percentile had higher Lp(a) than the subgroup 3rd-10th percentile (P<0.05). An independent positive correlation between adiponectin and Lp(a) was observed in SGA children (R = 0.59, P<0.01). SGA children, although more insulin resistant, had similar or

  2. Deletion of the MBII-85 snoRNA gene cluster in mice results in postnatal growth retardation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Skryabin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS [MIM 176270] is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by decreased fetal activity, muscular hypotonia, failure to thrive, short stature, obesity, mental retardation, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It is caused by the loss of function of one or more imprinted, paternally expressed genes on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15. Several potential PWS mouse models involving the orthologous region on chromosome 7C exist. Based on the analysis of deletions in the mouse and gene expression in PWS patients with chromosomal translocations, a critical region (PWScr for neonatal lethality, failure to thrive, and growth retardation was narrowed to the locus containing a cluster of neuronally expressed MBII-85 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA genes. Here, we report the deletion of PWScr. Mice carrying the maternally inherited allele (PWScr(m-/p+ are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. All those with the paternally inherited allele (PWScr(m+/p- consistently display postnatal growth retardation, with about 15% postnatal lethality in C57BL/6, but not FVB/N crosses. This is the first example in a multicellular organism of genetic deletion of a C/D box snoRNA gene resulting in a pronounced phenotype.

  3. No effect of plant growth retarding compounds and growth stimulators on indolo-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in greening cucumber cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Knypl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledons dissected from 5-day-old etiolated cucumber seedlings were incubated in solutions on AMO-1618, B-Nine, CCC and Phosfon D for 48 h in light. In some tests the retardants were applied in mixed solutions with GA3 or BAP. IAA oxidase was extracted and purified by means of molecular sieving through a bed of Sephadex G-25. The retardants inhibited chlorophyll synthesis by 50 % or more, and had essentially no effect on IAA oxidase activity per cotyledon basis. GA3 and BAP also had no effect on enzyme activity in spite of a fact that the compounds stimulated growth of the cotyledons. The crude enzyme extract from B-Nine treated cotyledons showed lower IAA oxidase activity in comparison with the water treated control, the effect being due to a longer lag-phase preceding the initiation of IAA oxidation. KNO3 strikingly stimulated expansional growth of the cotyledons, the effect being correlated with the accelerated chlorophyll accumulation. KNO3 had no effect on IAA oxidase activity per cotyledon and decreased it per gram fr wt. It is concluded that [1] the growth rate of cucumber cotyledons is not correlated with IAA oxidase activity, and ;[2] the growth retarding compounds do not affect IAA oxidase system is this tissue.

  4. The impact of disease and antirheumatic therapy factors on growth retardation in children suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available THE STUDY EVALUATED THE IMPACT OF REFRACTORY JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS (JIA AND INTERFERENCE OF ANTIRHEUMATIC THERAPY ON PHYSICAL STATURE AND GROWTH AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN. WE OBSERVED 133 PATIENTS WITH JIA WITH AGE FROM 4.6 TO 18 YEARS. WE ASSESSED PATIENTS' PHYSICAL STATURE (DOCUMENTING HEIGHT AND WEIGHT AND FURTHER GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STARING FROM BIRTH, BEFORE THE ONSET OF JIA, AT THE FIRST YEAR FROM THE ONSET OF THE DISB EASE AND LATER ON. PHYSICAL RETARDATION WAS MARKED IN ALL CHILDREN IN THE FIRST YEAR FROM THE ONSET OF JIA. SYSTEMIC JIA, WHICH IS KNOWN FOR HIGH ACTIVITY AND POLYARTICULAR OR GENERALIZED JOINT LESION, WAS LINKED TO SIGNIFICANT PHYSICAL RETARDATION IN ALL CHILDREN WITH SYSBTEMIC JIA. LONGBTERM GLUCOCORTICOID ADMINISTRATION, EVEN AT LOW DOSES, ACCENTUATED THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF JIA ON GROWTH RESULTING IN MARKED GROWTH DELAY OR ITS' TOTAL ARREST. WE HAVE ELABORATED RISK FACTORS FOR SHORT STATURE IN CHILDREN WITH JIA, WHICH SUGGEST THERAPY GUIDELINES, PRESENTED IN THIS ARTICLE.KEY WORDS: JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS, СHILDREN.

  5. Relationship between placental thickness and growth parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), diabetes mellitus, history of previous intrauterine growth retardation. (IUGR), hydrops foetalis, congenital ... dogs are all very different from one another at both gross and histologic levels. They also differ in certain functions that are clinically important - for ...

  6. Catch-up growth following food restriction exacerbates adulthood glucose intolerance in pigs exposed to intrauterine undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Meng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of food restriction followed by controlled refeeding on glucose tolerance in pigs exposed to intrauterine malnutrition. Pregnant sows (n = 11) were assigned to either a control (C) group or an undernutrition (U) group (75% of C) during gestation. At postnatal 68 d, the offspring (n = 16) were placed on either a cafeteria feeding (CF) group or a food-restricted (FR) group (75% of CF) for 6 wk. After that, all offspring were fed ad libitum until 189 d (dpn189). The results showed that maternal malnutrition induced offspring glucose intolerance, which was demonstrated by increased serum glucose and triacylglycerol content at dpn189, as well as increased area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (i.v.GTT) (P food restriction followed by controlled refeeding further increased serum glucose content at dpn189 and AUC during i.v.GTT in pigs born from U sows (P food restriction can exacerbate glucose intolerance in offspring exposed to intrauterine malnutrition. This may be caused by increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreased muscle glucose transport, and impaired hepatic insulin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on the hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in early intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kaiju; Chen, Pingyang; Li, Suping; Li, Wen; He, Mingfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Juncao

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in intrauterine growth-restricted rats to dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation during the lactation period early in life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON), an intrauterine growth restriction group (IUGR) and an L-Arg group (LA). The pregnant rats in the CON group were fed a 21% protein diet, and those in the IUGR and LA groups were fed a 10% low protein diet, and all rats were fed a 21% protein diet after delivery. Water was available ad libitum to the pregnant rats during the 21-day lactation period, and the water provided to the LA group included 200 mg/kg/day L-Arg. Blood glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB) protein expression, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) mRNA expression in the offspring rats were measured postnatally at 1, 3 and 8 weeks. No significant difference in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were identified at any time point among the three groups. PI3K and PKB expression was lower in the IUGR group offspring compared with that in the CON group offspring, but both were increased by dietary L-Arg supplementation. PEPCK mRNA and G-6-Pase mRNA expression levels in the offspring of the IUGR group were higher compared with those in the CON group but were downregulated following L-Arg supplementation. These results suggest that dietary L-Arg supplementation during the early lactation period promoted catch-up growth and reversed abnormalities in hepatic insulin signaling and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IUGR offspring rats.

  8. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device ...

  9. Detection and Comparison of Cytomegalovirus DNA Levels in Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Ascites in a Second-Trimester Fetus With Massive Ascites, Hyperechogenic Bowel, Ventriculomegaly and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: A prenatal diagnosis of fetal ascites in association with ventriculomegaly, hyperechogenic bowel and intrauterine growth restriction should alert physicians to congenital CMV infection in addition to aneuploidy. The present case provides evidence that CMV DNA levels are higher in amniotic fluid (amniocytes and amniotic fluid supernatant than in ascites (ascitic cells and ascitic supernatant in cases of congenital CMV infection.

  10. Use of growth retardants in wheat Utilização de redutores de crescimento em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Espindula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, lodging has been controlled by restricting nitrogen fertilizer application and/or using short cultivars. Growth retardants can also be used to solve this problem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rates and application times of three growth retardants on Pioneiro wheat cultivar. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in a randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol applied at growth stages 6 or 8, growth stage used on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Only trinexapac-ethyl and chlormequat were efficient in reducing plant height; the effect of chlormequat and paclobutrazol on plant height was independent of the application time, but the trinexapac-ethyl at growth stage 8 produced shorter plant height than at stage 6. Increasing growth retardant rates produced shorter plant heights; chlormequat and paclobutrazol did not affect grain yield. However, the highest trinexapac-ethyl rates reduced wheat yield.De modo geral, o acamamento tem sido controlado mediante restrição da aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados e/ou o uso de cultivares de porte baixo. No entanto, esse problema também pode ser solucionado pela utilização de redutores de crescimento. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento sobre plantas de trigo do cultivar Pioneiro. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 500, 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62

  11. Metabolomic analysis of the longissimus from underperforming piglets suggests impaired carbohydrate metabolism, increased lipid utilization and higher protein breakdown in comparison to piglets with normal preweaning growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal birth weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered skeletal muscle metabolism, as previously reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs relative to littermates with normal growth rates. Eight pairs of average birth...

  12. The intrauterine device and the intrauterine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Searle, E

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine contraception is used by about 100 million women worldwide, making it the most popular form of fertility regulation. In UK community contraception clinics, however, long-acting reversible contraception has increased to 28% of users, and intrauterine contraception accounts for only 8% of methods used by women accessing these services. Potential exists to increase uptake of these more effective methods. In this chapter, we review the clinical advantages, disadvantages and cost-effectiveness of intrauterine contraception. We discuss the management of complications along with advice for trainers, and briefly consider issues in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Etiology and treatment of growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Richard N

    2010-04-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in our understanding of the etiology of the growth retardation associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during the past 50 years. Significant interest has been focused on preventing and/or correcting the growth retardation because of the emergence of the dual therapeutic modalities of dialysis and renal transplantation to prolong the lives of infants, children, and adolescents afflicted with CKD and ESRD. These efforts have resulted in a significant improvement in the height Z-score over the past two decades of children with CKD and ESRD. This has had a salutary impact on the final adult height of such children which should hopefully lead to an enhanced quality of life in the future. This report addresses the progress that has been made in the management of growth retardation in the pediatric population with CKD and ESRD.

  14. Effects of the etonogestrel-releasing implant Implanon and a nonmedicated intrauterine device on the growth of breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Reinprayoon, Damrong; Thaithumyanon, Pimolratn; Praisuwanna, Pramote; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Dieben, Thom

    2006-04-01

    The study objectives were to compare the effects of an etonogestrel-releasing implant (Implanon) and a nonmedicated intrauterine device (IUD) on parameters of lactation in breast-feeding women and on the growth of their breast-fed infants over a 3-year period. Healthy lactating women (28-56 days postpartum) chose either the implant (n=42) or the IUD (n=38). Infant growth during a 3-year follow-up period is reported here. Total duration of breast-feeding coinciding with the mothers' treatment was 421.0 and 423.4 days in the Implanon and IUD groups, respectively. There were no differences between the infant groups in terms of body length, biparietal head circumference and body weight. No abnormalities were reported in psychomotor development or during physical examination. No treatment-related side effects were observed in either group. In conclusion, there were no differences in the growth of breast-fed infants of women treated with Implanon or a nonmedicated IUD. Implanon, therefore, appears to be a safe contraceptive option for breast-feeding women and their infants.

  15. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Černý

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration factor had to be considered when position of electrodes was specified and the measurement method verified. The specimen type and dimensions were proposed taking account of the investigation of shot peening effects. Physically short fatigue cracks of the length from 0.2 mm to more than 3 mm, most of them between 0.8 – 1.5 mm, were prepared under high cycle fatigue loading of a constant nominal stress amplitude plus/minus 160 MPa. Specimens with existing short fatigue cracks were shot peened using two different groups of parameters. Development of crack growth after shot peening was measured and compared with crack growth in specimens without shot peening. Retardation of crack growth was significant particularly with cracks shorter than 2 mm. For the specific stress amplitude, evaluated results enable to estimate threshold length of defects, which after the application of shot peening will be reliably arrested.

  16. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  17. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with alterations of the NO/cGMP pathway in the human umbilical vein

    OpenAIRE

    JUVET, C.

    2014-01-01

    Le retard de croissance intra-utérin (RCIU) est un problème courant, touchant environ 8% des grossesses. Le RCIU engendre une morbidité et une mortalité périnatales importantes. Des études épidémiologiques démontrent qu'il est également un facteur de risque pour le développement de différentes maladies chroniques à l'âge adulte, suggérant ainsi une modification de l'expression génique à long terme, influencée par l'environnement intra-utérin. Malgré l'identification de certains facteurs de ri...

  19. Identification of a pathogenic FTO mutation by next-generation sequencing in a newborn with growth retardation and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Hussein; Zhang, Dong; McMurray, Fiona; Yu, Andrea; Luco, Stephanie M; Vanstone, Jason; Jarinova, Olga; Carson, Nancy; Wickens, James; Shishodia, Shifali; Choi, Hwanho; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Dyment, David A; Armour, Christine M

    2016-03-01

    A homozygous loss-of-function mutation p.(Arg316Gln) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, which encodes for an iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, was previously identified in a large family in which nine affected individuals present with a lethal syndrome characterised by growth retardation and multiple malformations. To date, no other pathogenic mutation in FTO has been identified as a cause of multiple congenital malformations. We investigated a 21-month-old girl who presented distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy, reduced vision and bilateral hearing loss. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing of 4813 clinically relevant genes in the patient and her parents. We identified a novel FTO homozygous missense mutation (c.956C>T; p.(Ser319Phe)) in the affected individual. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue located in the same functional domain as the previously characterised mutation p.(Arg316Gln). Biochemical studies reveal that p.(Ser319Phe) FTO has reduced 2-oxoglutarate turnover and N-methyl-nucleoside demethylase activity. Our findings are consistent with previous reports that homozygous mutations in FTO can lead to rare growth retardation and developmental delay syndrome, and further support the proposal that FTO plays an important role in early development of human central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. [Expression of metalloproteinase MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-2 in placenta of pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczewski, Arkadiusz; Kobos, Józef; Pasiński, Jacek; Kowalska-Koprek, Urszula; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2012-06-01

    The development of pregnancy depends on many factors, among other the implantation and the development of the placenta and placental vascularity The correct course of these processes depends on the proper activity of the enzymes degradating elements of extracellular matrix and basal membrane - metalloproteinases. Assessment of the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-2 in the placenta of women with intrauterine fetal growth restriction. Two study groups were distinguished - with untreated IUGR and with IUGR treated with the acetylsalicylic acid and L-arginine and the control group with correct fetal growth and course of pregnancy Marked microscope preparations from placental samples were made with specific antibodies for MMP-9 and TIMP-2. The greatest intensity of the reaction and the villous TIMP-2 expression was characteristic of the group with untreated IUGR. Strongest expression MMP-9 was observed in the control group. The smallest surface of the trophoblast with positive MMP-9 reaction appeared in the group with untreated IUGR. High MMP-9 activity in the placenta correlates with its correct structure and function. Application of IUGR treatment reduces the expression of TIMP-2 in the placental villi.

  1. Searching the web: a survey on the quality of advice on postnatal sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction and the implication of developmental origins of health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzel, S; Huebner, H; Rascher, W; Menendez-Castro, C; Hartner, A; Fahlbusch, F B

    2017-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are pregnancy complications associated with morbidity in later life. Despite a growing body of evidence from current research on developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), little information is currently provided to parents on long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and neurologic consequences. As parents strongly rely on internet-based health-related information, we examined the quality of information on IUGR/FGR sequelae and DOHaD in webpages used by laypersons. Simulating non-clinicians experience, we entered the terms 'IUGR consequences' and 'FGR consequences' into Google and Yahoo search engines. The quality of the top search-hits was analyzed with regard to the certification through the Health On the Net Foundation (HON), currentness of cited references, while reliability of information and DOHaD-related consequences were assessed via the DISCERN Plus score (DPS). Overall the citation status was not up-to-date and only a few websites were HON-certified. The results of our analysis showed a dichotomy between the growing body of evidence regarding IUGR/FGR-related sequelae and lack of current guidelines, leaving parents without clear directions. Furthermore, detailed information on the concept of DOHaD is not provided. These findings emphasize the responsibility of the individual physician for providing advice on IUGR/FGR-related sequelae, monitoring and follow-up.

  2. How does tobacco smoke influence the morphometry of the fetus and the umbilical cord?-Research on pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction exposed to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Bizoń, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Proper structure of the umbilical cord is important for the fetal development. We evaluated effects of toxic factors from tobacco smoke on fetal and umbilical cord morphometry. 109 women in weeks 29-40 of pregnancy (31 smokers with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); 28 non-smoking women with IUGR; 50 healthy pregnancies) were included. In smokers with IUGR, cotinine, cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher than in controls (mean 55.23ng/l; 1.52ng/ml; 14.85ng/ml vs 1.07; 0.34; 9.42) and inverse correlation between lead concentration and uncoiled umbilical cord was significant (r=-0.80). In smokers with IUGR, area of Wharton's jelly was increased compared to nonsmokers and controls. Inverse correlations occurred between cotinine and cadmium concentration and fetal percentile in smokers (r=-0.87; r=-0.87) and non-smokers (r=-0.47; r=-0.78) with IUGR. Exposure to tobacco smoke measured by cotinine, cadmium and lead concentration has an impact on fetal growth and umbilical cord morphometry and correlates with intensity of IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, early childhood growth and famine exposure on age at menopause: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, S; Verschuuren, M; Schoonmade, L J; Lambalk, C B; Painter, R C

    2018-04-01

    When the follicle reserve, which is developed solely during the fetal period, is depleted, women enter menopause. Intrauterine and childhood adverse conditions might affect the ovarian capacity by influencing follicle production in the first trimester, limiting the initial follicle pool or mediate an accelerated follicular loss thereafter. To investigate if adverse early life influences result in younger age at menopause, the following online databases were systematically searched: PubMed, EMBASE, CINHAL (EBSCO) and Cochrane library (Wiley) up to 1 January 2017. Eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment was independently performed by two researchers. A total of 5278 studies were identified, 11 studies were deemed eligible and included. Nine were cohort studies, 1 case-control study and 1 twin study. Due to the diversity of reported data and risk estimates we were unable to pool data or perform meta-analysis on pooled data. Prenatal and childhood exposure to famine was significantly associated to an earlier age at menopause in three studies. Mean differences in age at menopause varied from 4 months up to 1.7 years between famine exposed and unexposed women. Three studies described a significant association between a low weight at ages 1 or 2 and a younger age at menopause. A younger age at menopause was associated with a higher weight at birth in only one study and with a high ponderal index, a measure for fatness at birth in another study. None of the nine studies reporting on low birth weight and age at natural menopause find a significant association.

  4. Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Preterm Intrauterine Growth Restricted Neonates with Antenatal Doppler Abnormalities: An Open-Label Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Vishal Vishnu; Dubey, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Reema; Vardhan, Shakti; Sreedhar, C M; Gupta, Girish

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI). Open-label randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit and fetal-maternal medicine unit in India. Preterm intrauterine growth restricted neonates' ≤32 weeks with AREDF on UA Doppler enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. Randomized to receive early or late feeding using mothers own or donor breast milk as per a feed initiation and advancement protocol. Time in days required to attain sufficient feed volume allowing discontinuation of PN and incidence of NEC in neonates fed early versus late. There were 77 eligible neonates. Sixty-two neonates were included and stratified as extreme preterm (27-29 weeks) (n = 20) and very preterm (30-32 weeks) (n = 42). Ten extreme preterm and 21 very preterm neonates were randomized to each early feeding and late feeding arm. There was a significantly faster attainment of sufficient feeds in the early feeding arm of both the stratified groups [extreme preterm: median 14 days (Interquartile range IQR: 12-15) compared with 18 days (IQR: 18-20), hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% CI: 0.626-4.078; very preterm: 12 days (IQR: 10-14) as compared with 16 days (IQR 15-17), HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.011-3.555]. There was no difference in the incidence of NEC, FI and combined outcome of NEC and FI. Early feeding in preterm IUGR neonates with AREDF on antenatal UA Doppler allowed earlier discontinuation of PN, allowing birth weight to be regained earlier and did not increase the incidence of NEC and FI.

  5. Outcome of intrauterine pregnancies with intrauterine device in place and effects of device location on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Tasdemir, Ufuk Goker; Uygur, Dilek; Aktulay, Ayla; Tasdemir, Nicel; Gulerman, H Cavidan

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcome of pregnancies with retained or removed intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the effect of IUD location on pregnancy outcome. In a retrospective cohort study, we searched 27,578 records of women who had CuT380 IUD inserted, and 144 pregnancies with IUD were analyzed. IUDs were removed from 114 patients and retained for 30 patients. The combined risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, intrauterine fetal death, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes) was 36.8% in the IUD-removed group and 63.3% in the IUD-retained group [p<.01; relative risk (RR)=2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3]. Newborns of the IUD-retained women had significantly lower Apgar scores and significantly higher admission rate to the neonatal intensive care unit (p=.01; RR=10.8; 95% CI 1.04-111.6 and p<.01; RR=4.5; 95% CI 1.5-12.9, respectively). There were more miscarriages and adverse pregnancy outcome when the IUD was retained (16.9% vs. 66.7%) in patients with an IUD in low-lying position (p<.01; RR=3.9; 95% CI 1.8-8.6). Women who conceived with an IUD in place and chose to continue the pregnancy without removing the IUD need close follow-up, as there appears to be higher risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Furthermore, when the IUD is retained in the low-lying position, there is increased risk of miscarriage and adverse pregnancy outcome compared to removal of the IUD. Future randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the outcome of pregnancies with retained or removed IUD. In this study, we have evaluated the IUD location and its effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a retained or removed IUD. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between IUD location and pregnancy outcome in women who conceived with an IUD. We need evidence from a collaborative multicenter randomized trial to answer the question of whether the IUD should be removed in case of

  6. Deletions and rearrangements of the H19/IGF2 enhancer region in patients with Silver-Russell syndrome and growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Poole, Rebecca L; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

    2011-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, and body asymmetry. In 35-60% of SRS cases the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of the H19 gene (H19-ICR) is hypomethylated, leading to downregula...

  7. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels and pubarche in short children born small for gestational age before and during growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.H. Boonstra (Venje); F.H. de Jong (Frank); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIt has been suggested that the programming of the endocrine axes occurs during critical phases of fetal development and will be affected by intrauterine growth retardation. As a result, children born small for gestational age (SGA) might have several hormonal

  8. Growth retardants and nutrition characteristics of the Thompson seedless and Italia grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ?Thompson Seedless? and ?Italia? grapevines. The treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg L-1; daminozide - 3,000mg L-1; uniconazole - 30mg L-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .L-1 and control. The cuttings were grafted on the ?Tropical? rootstock and were rooted in sand. After 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35L pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 volume of sand, soil and organic matter. Grapevines were pruned each 150 days, leaving two canes with six buds each for the ?Italia? cultivar and with fifteen buds for the ?Thompson Seedless? cultivar. Water was supplied through drip irrigation (1L/plant/day. Grapevines were fertilized with 1L of manure and micronutrient solution at each pruning. Macronutrients (MAP-1.45g, Ca2NO3-3.42g, urea-1.61g de , KCl-3.53g and MgSO4-1.94g were suplied each 15 days during the plant growth. The petioles and the shoots were sampled each growth season (150 days and dry matter was evaluated for yield and macronutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results show that the spray of growth regulators induced alteration in the macronutrient patterns due to the decrease of shoot rate growth and increase in fruitfull shoots.

  9. Decreased activation of placental mTOR family members is associated with the induction of intrauterine growth restriction by secondhand smoke in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Camilo; Lewis, Josh; Jordan, Clinton; Mejia, Juan; Ogden, Connor; Monson, Troy; Winden, Duane; Watson, Marc; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is known to be a risk for the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Our objective was to assess the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and to what extent it regulates the activation of mTOR family members and murine trophoblast invasion. Mice were treated to SHS for 4 days. Placental and fetal weights were recorded at the time of necropsy. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of placental trophoblast invasion. Western blots were utilized to assess the activation of caspase 3, XIAP, mTOR, p70 and 4EBP1 in treated and control placental lysates. As compared to controls, treated animals showed: (1) decreased placental (1.4-fold) and fetal (2.3-fold) weights (p smoke extract (CSE). Similar to primary smoking, SHS may induce IUGR via decreased activation of the mTOR family of proteins in the placenta. Increased activation of the placental XIAP protein could be a survival mechanism for abnormal trophoblast cells during SHS exposure. Further, CSE reduced trophoblast invasion, suggesting a direct causative effect of smoke on susceptible trophoblast cells involved in IUGR progression. These results provide important insight into the physiological consequences of SHS exposure and smoke-mediated placental disease.

  10. Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhixiong; Zhang, Hao; Su, Weipeng; Zhou, Le; Wang, Fei; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-10-01

    Background: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in individuals with normal birth weight (NBW). Objective: This study investigated the effects of MR on plasma glucose concentration and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in pigs with IUGR. Methods: Thirty female NBW and 60 same-sex spontaneous IUGR piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected. After weaning (day 21), the piglets were fed diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON) or 30% less methionine (IUGR-MR) ( n = 6). At day 180, 1 pig with a body weight near the mean of each replication was selected for biochemical analysis. Results: The IUGR-CON group showed 41.6%, 68.6%, and 67.1% higher plasma glucose concentration, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively, than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were 36.9% and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the IUGR-CON than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity of the IUGR-MR pigs were 62.9% and 50.8% higher than those of the IUGR-CON pigs ( P glycogen synthesis, implying a potential nutritional strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in IUGR offspring. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Paraoxonase-2 and paraoxonase-3: comparison of mRNA expressions in the placentae of unexplained intrauterine growth restricted and noncomplicated pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikbas, Levent; Yapca, Omer Erkan; Dikbas, Neslihan; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the depletion of placental antioxidant systems has been suggested as a key factor in this disease. Our aims were to explore the possible role of antioxidant paraoxonase-2 (PON2) and paraoxonase-3 (PON3) in the pathophysiology of unexplained IUGR. We have studied the expression of mRNA for PON2, PON3 in placental tissues by using RT-qPCR. Two groups, consisting of normal (n = 18) and unexplained IUGR pregnancies (n = 20) were compared. Our results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the mRNA expressions of PON2, PON3 between the two groups (p = 0.28, p = 0.90, respectively). PON2 and PON3 were down-regulated in IUGR. Antenatal steroid therapy had no effect on the expression mRNA in placentae of unexplained IUGR pregnancies compared to non-treated group. These results suggest that PON2, PON3 mRNA levels were not changed significantly in placentae of IUGR when compared to normal pregnant women.

  12. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Achievement in Children Aged 6-8 Years, Born at Term After Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Fetal Cerebral Redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-González, Mercedes; Díaz-López, Miguel Ángel; López-Criado, Setefilla; Maldonado-Lozano, José

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether cerebroplacental ratio, an indicator of fetal cerebral redistribution (FCR), predicts adverse results for neurodevelopment in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants. In a cohort of 5,702 infants, 64 were IUGR born at term with FCR. Five were excluded. Of the remainder, 32 presented an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (IUGR-A) and 27 a normal one (IUGR-B). The controls were 61 appropriate-for-gestational-age children. Cognitive and academic outcomes and the odds ratio of lower academic scores were assessed by multivariate analysis of covariance and logistic regression. IUGR-A children presented deficits in cognitive functioning and academic achievement in all domains. IUGR-B children presented slight deficits. Suboptimal cognitive functioning in IUGR-A was more marked in working memory. Abnormal cerebroplacental ratio predicted low academic scores in IUGR-A. FCR is a risk factor for IUGR infants, and cerebroplacental ratio identifies those most severely affected. Intervention programs may produce benefits in early-middle childhood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Second trimester serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a significant positive predictor for intrauterine growth restriction in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Enis; Çakır, Evrim; Çınar, Mehmet; Altay, Metin; Gelişen, Orhan; Kara, Fadıl

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the association between three parameters of second trimester serum secreening and preterm labor and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Material and Methods A prospective study on 429 pregnancies with HG was designed to determine the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and pregnancy prognosis in terms of preterm labor, IUGR and birth weight. Results In our study group the mean age of patients was 25.4±3.8 years. Mean birth weight was 3180±555 g. Mean AFP, uE3, hCG levels in the study group were 1.44±0.65 MoM, 0.91±0.38 MoM, 1.09±0.64 MoM, respectively. Twenty nine (6.8%) patients delivered before 37 weeks of gestation and 52 (12.1%) patients developed IUGR. Mean MoM values of AFP among patients with preterm labor, IUGR and normal delivery were 1.35±0.45, 1.97±0.81, 1.34±0.58 MoM, respectively (p1.55 was 3.73 (95% CI, 1.99–6.98, phyperemesis gravidarum. The second trimester screening test can predict poor outcome in HG. PMID:24591998

  14. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a prior history - an open-label randomised trial (the EPPI trial): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, K M; McCowan, L M; Stone, P R; Chamley, L C; McLintock, C

    2016-11-22

    Preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) are two of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Current methods of predicting those at most risk of these conditions remain relatively poor, and in clinical practice past obstetric history remains the most commonly used tool. Aspirin and, in women at risk of preeclampsia only, calcium have been demonstrated to have a modest effect on risk reduction. Several observational studies and randomised trials suggest that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) therapy may confer some benefit. This is a multicentre open label randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the LMWH, enoxaparin, on the prevention of recurrence of preeclampsia and/or IUGR in women at high risk due to their past obstetric history in addition to standard high risk care for all participants. A singleton pregnancy >6 +0 and 12 weeks having; (1) preeclampsia delivered preeclampsia). The primary outcome is preeclampsia and/or SGA prevention of placental mediated conditions. ACTRN12609000699268 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Date registered 13/Aug/2009 (prospective registration).

  15. A novel lineage transcription factor based analysis reveals differences in T helper cell subpopulation development in infected and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Rausch, S; Scharek-Tedin, L; Pieper, R; Burwinkel, M; Zentek, J; Hartmann, S

    2014-10-01

    Research in mouse and human clearly identified subsets of T helper (Th) cells based on nuclear expression of specific lineage transcription factors. In swine, however, transcription factor based detection of functional subpopulations of porcine Th cells by flow cytometry is so far limited to regulatory T cells via Foxp3. T-bet and GATA-3 are the transcription factors that regulate commitment to Th1 or Th2 cells, respectively. In this study we prove GATA-3 and T-bet expression in porcine CD4(+) cells polarized in vitro. Importantly, GATA-3 and T-bet expressing cells were detectable in pigs infected with pathogens associated with Th2 and Th1 immune responses. Increased frequencies of GATA-3 positive CD4(+) cells are found in vivo in pigs experimentally infected with the nematode Trichuris suis, whereas porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection elicited T-bet positive CD4(+) T cells. Analysing the immune status of pre-weaning piglets with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) we found an increased expression of Foxp3, T-bet and GATA-3 in CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells in systemic and intestinal compartments of IUGR piglets. Hence, we established the detection of porcine Th1 and Th2 cells via T-bet and GATA-3 and show that the porcine lineage transcription factors are differentially regulated very early in life depending on the developmental status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 17p (17p13.3-->pter) associated with polyhydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction, ventriculomegaly, and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome in a fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chih-Ping; Liau, Chiung-Ling; Su, Pen-Hua; Tsao, Teng-Fu; Chang, Tung-Yao; Wang, Wayseen

    2009-12-01

    To present the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound findings of Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDLS) associated with chromosome 17p13.3 deletion in a fetus. A 30-year-old, primigravid woman was referred to the hospital at 31 weeks' gestation because of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and polyhydramnios detected by ultrasound. The pregnancy was uneventful until 31 weeks of gestation when IUGR and polyhydramnios were first noted. Level II ultrasound at 31 weeks' gestation showed fetal biometry equivalent to 27 weeks' gestation, an amniotic fluid index of 33.4 cm, ventriculomegaly, and abnormal sulcal development with absence of gyri and sulci, and a shallow Sylvian fissure. Other organs were unremarkable. Subsequent amniocentesis revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p13.3) karyotype. Ultrafast fetal MRI performed at 34 weeks of gestation revealed agyria/pachygyria, a figure-eight appearance of the brain, a wide and shallow Sylvian fissure, enlarged subarachnoid space, ventriculomegaly, and polyhydramnios. At 35 weeks' gestation, a 1,346-g male baby was delivered with facial dysmorphism, characteristic of MDLS. Postnatal MRI confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios, IUGR and ventriculomegaly are important prenatal ultrasound markers of MDLS. Prenatal diagnosis of these markers should include a detailed investigation of cerebral sulci and fissures, and genetic analysis for MDLS. Fetal MRI is helpful for the diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  17. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  18. Anemia and growth retardation associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte W; Sacko, Moussa; Madsen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces a....... Lower height for age z-scores were also associated with anemia. ConclusionsS. haematobium infection is likely to impact on child growth and possibly also anemia in all age groups and advocates for inclusion of whole populations into future control programes.......BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces...

  19. Growth retardants and nutrition characteristics of the Thompson seedless and Italia grape cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de; Dechen Antonio Roque; Castro Paulo Roberto de Camargo e

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Italia’ grapevines. The treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg L-1; daminozide - 3,000mg L-1; uniconazole - 30mg L-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .L-1 and control. The cuttings were grafted on the ‘Tropical’ rootstock and were rooted in sand. After 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35L pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 vo...

  20. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained.

  1. Combined screening for early and late pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction by maternal history, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińska, Ewelina; Litwińska, Magdalena; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Szaflik, Krzysztof; Kaczmarek, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a systemic disease connected with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite significant progress achieved in perinatal medicine, pre-eclampsia is still one of the most significant current problems in obstetrics. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic algorithms for early and late pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A total of 320 pregnant women between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks of gestation were recruited for a case-control study. The study group consisted of 22 patients with early PE, 29 patients with late PE and 269 unaffected controls. The following parameters were recorded: maternal history, mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI), and the concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG). A multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that the best screening model for the prediction of early PE is based on a combined analysis of maternal risk factors, UtA-PI and PlGF levels (sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 84%). The best screening model for the prediction of late PE is based on a combined analysis of maternal risk factors, UtA-PI and MAP (sensitivity: 85%; specificity: 83%). The most effective screening model for the prediction of IUGR is based on a combined analysis of maternal risk factors, UtA-PI and PlGF concentrations (sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 83%). The integrated model of screening established in this study can be a valuable method to identify patients at increased risk of developing pre-eclampsia and related complications. The ability to predict the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in early pregnancy would enable maternal and fetal morbidity to be reduced through the introduction of strict obstetric surveillance as well as planned delivery in a reference center.

  2. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  4. A Novel Variant in CDKN1C Is Associated With Intrauterine Growth Restriction, Short Stature, and Early-Adulthood-Onset Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Andrew, Shayne; Geng, Juan; Guevara, Carolina; Guevara-Aguirre, Marco; Guo, Michael; Oddoux, Carole; Shen, Yiping; Zurita, Andres; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Ostrer, Harry; Hwa, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Context: CDKN1C, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and negative regulator of cellular proliferation, is paternally imprinted and has been shown to regulate β-cell proliferation. CDKN1C mutations are associated with growth disorders, including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and IMAGe syndrome. Objective: To investigate the genetic basis for a familial disorder characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, and early-adulthood-onset diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genomic DNA samples (15 affected and 26 unaffected from a six-generation pedigree) were analyzed by genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whole exome and Sanger sequencing, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Main Outcome Measure(s): Subjects were assessed for height, weight, adrenal gland size, ACTH, diabetes status, and testis volume. Linkage and sequence analyses were performed, and the identified genetic variant was functionally evaluated in reconstitution studies. Results: The pedigree followed a paternally imprinted pattern of inheritance, and genetic linkage analysis identified a single significant 2.6-megabase locus on chromosome 11p15, within the imprinting center region 2. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification did not detect copy number variants or methylation abnormalities. Whole exome sequencing revealed a single novel variant in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding region of CDKN1C (c.842G>T, p.R281I) that co-segregated with affected status and, unlike variants found in IMAGe, did not entirely abrogate proliferating cell nuclear antigen binding. Clinical assessments revealed that affected individuals had low testicular volume but normal adrenal function. Conclusions: We report a novel CDKN1C mutation associated with features of IMAGe syndrome, but without adrenal insufficiency or metaphyseal dysplasia, and characterized by early-adulthood-onset diabetes. Our data expand the range of phenotypes observed with CDKN1

  5. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient-intake-level-dependent regulation of intestinal development in newborn intrauterine growth-restricted piglets via glucagon-like peptide-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI. Lactase activity was increased in piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI. Absorptive function, represented by active glucose transport by the Ussing chamber method and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of two main intestinal glucose transporters, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI regimen. The apoptotic process, characterized by caspase-3 activity (a sign of activated apoptotic cells) and mRNA expressions of p53 (pro-apoptotic), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) (pro-apoptotic) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (anti-apoptotic), were improved in IUGR piglets fed the NNI regimen. To test the hypothesis that improvements in intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed NNI might be mediated through circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), GLP-2 was injected subcutaneously to IUGR piglets fed the RNI from day 8 to day 15 postnatal. Although the intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed the RNI regimen was suppressed compared with those fed the NNI regimen, an exogenous injection of GLP-2 was able to bring intestinal development to similar levels as NNI-fed IUGR piglets. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IUGR neonates that have NNI levels could improve intestinal function via the regulation of GLP-2.

  7. Gallium Maltolate Disrupts Tumor Iron Metabolism and Retards the Growth of Glioblastoma by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R; Al-Gizawiy, Mona M; Alhajala, Hisham S; Pechman, Kimberly R; Wereley, Janine P; Wujek, Robert; Clark, Paul A; Kuo, John S; Antholine, William E; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2018-03-28

    Gallium, a metal with antineoplastic activity, binds transferrin (Tf) and enters tumor cells via Tf receptor1 (TfR1); it disrupts iron homeostasis leading to cell death. We hypothesized that TfR1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) would facilitate Tf-Ga transport into the brain enabling it to target TfR-bearing glioblastoma. We show that U-87 MG and D54 glioblastoma cell lines and multiple glioblastoma stem cell (GSCs) lines express TfRs and that their growth is inhibited by gallium maltolate (GaM) in vitro. After 24-h of incubation with GaM, cells displayed a loss of mitochondrial reserve capacity followed by a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and a decrease in the activity of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2). Immunohistochemical staining of rat and human tumor-bearing brains showed that glioblastoma, but not normal glial cells, expressed TfR1 and RRM2 and that glioblastoma expressed greater levels of H- and L-ferritin than normal brain. In an orthotopic U-87 MG glioblastoma xenograft rat model, GaM retarded the growth of brain tumors relative to untreated control (p=0.0159) and reduced tumor mitotic figures (p=0.045). Tumors in GaM-treated animals displayed an upregulation of TfR1 expression relative to control animals thus indicating that gallium produced tumor iron deprivation. GaM also inhibited iron uptake and upregulated TfR1 expression in U-87 MG and D54 cells in vitro. We conclude that GaM enters the brain via TfR1 on BMECs and targets iron metabolism in glioblastoma in vivo, thus inhibiting tumor growth. Further development of novel gallium compounds for brain tumor treatment is warranted. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here...... for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis....

  9. Understanding the pathophysiology of intra-uterine growth retardation: the role of the 'lower limb reflex' in redistribution of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin-Sel, T; Campbell, S

    1992-09-23

    Doppler ultrasound was used to investigate the circulatory redistribution and underlying reflex responses of fetal cardiovascular compensation in 30 small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses. The utero-placental bed, umbilical artery and vein, thoracic and abdominal aorta, internal and external cerebral arteries were evaluated. The values were compared to reference ranges constructed from 135 normal pregnancies, correlated to fetal blood gases obtained by cordocentesis and compared to the outcomes. In Group I (mortality and morbidity), all fetuses had loss of end-diastolic frequencies (L-EDF) in the abdominal aorta (100%), but only 20 (87%) and 13 (56%) had L-EDF in the thoracic aorta and umbilical artery respectively. High vascular resistance in the placental bed and low impedance in the middle cerebral and common carotid arteries was found in 14 (61%), 12 (52%) and 20 (87%) fetuses, respectively. In Group II (Healthy infants) two fetuses had high utero-placental vascular resistance and one had brain-sparing. Doppler indices did not always reflect fetal hypoxaemia demonstrating that redistribution in SGA fetuses may not be triggered by a fall in pO2, and that hypoxaemia is an associated pathology but may not be the underlying cause. It is postulated that redistribution in SGA fetuses is regulated by reflex mechanisms (the 'lower limb reflex') which result in severe vasoconstriction in the abdominal aorta, mesentery and carcass, favouring the brain and cardiac muscles. This mechanism explains the good predictive value of L-EDF in the abdominal aorta for poor neonatal outcome (sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, all 100%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Amelia M; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J; Gusella, James F; Liao, Eric C; Morton, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities.

  11. Deletion of SHP-2 in mesenchymal stem cells causes growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Lapinski

    2013-11-01

    In mice, induced global disruption of the Ptpn11 gene, which encodes the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, results in severe skeletal abnormalities. To understand the extent to which skeletal abnormalities can be attributed to perturbation of SHP-2 function in bone-forming osteoblasts and chondrocytes, we generated mice in which disruption of Ptpn11 is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their progeny, which include both cell types. MSC-lineage-specific SHP-2 knockout (MSC SHP-2 KO mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects. These skeletal abnormalities were associated with an absence of mature osteoblasts and massive chondrodysplasia with a vast increase in the number of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes in affected bones. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as AKT was impaired in bone-forming cells of MSC SHP-2 KO mice, which provides an explanation for the skeletal defects that developed. These findings reveal a cell-autonomous role for SHP-2 in bone-forming cells in mice in the regulation of skeletal development. The results add to our understanding of the pathophysiology of skeletal abnormalities observed in humans with germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene (e.g. Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome.

  12. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Al-Younes, Banan; Goljan, Ewa; Jaroudi, Dyala; BinHumaid, Faisal; Meyer, Brian F; Arold, Stefan T; Monies, Dorota

    2017-11-14

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency. A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic. These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  13. Genetic markers for inherited thrombophilia are associated with fetal growth retardation in the population of Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny; Zarudskaya, Oksana; Polonikov, Alexey; Bushueva, Olga; Orlova, Valentina; Krikun, Evgeny; Dvornyk, Volodymyr; Churnosov, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of hereditary thrombophilia in the development of fetal growth retardation (FGR) in the population of Central Russia. The case-control study sample included 497 women in the third trimester of pregnancy recruited during 2009-2013. The participants were enrolled into two groups: patients with FGR (n = 250) and controls without FGR (n = 247). The participants were genotyped for four genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia: factor V Leiden (G > A FV, rs6025), prothrombin (G > A FII, rs1799963), factor VII (G > A FVII, rs6046), and fibrinogen (G > A FI, rs1800790). The genetic factors for an increased risk of FGR were allele G of rs6046 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34) and genotype GG of rs6046 (OR = 2.64), whereas genotype GA of rs6046 had the protective value (OR = 0.42). A combination of alleles G of rs1799963, A of rs6046, and G of rs1800790 (OR = 0.31) reduces the risk of FGR. Polymorphism rs6046 of the FVII gene is associated with the development of FGR. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism

    KAUST Repository

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz

    2017-11-14

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  15. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  17. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IUI) Overview Intrauterine insemination ( IUI ) — a type of artificial insemination — is a procedure for treating infertility. Sperm that ... more eggs to be fertilized. Older types of artificial insemination placed the sperm in the vagina. While this ...

  18. Metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood plasma from early and late intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR neonates with and without signs of brain vasodilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sanz-Cortés

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize via NMR spectroscopy the full spectrum of metabolic changes in umbilical vein blood plasma of newborns diagnosed with different clinical forms of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. METHODS: 23 early IUGR cases and matched 23 adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA controls and 56 late IUGR cases with 56 matched AGAs were included in this study. Early IUGR was defined as a birth weight 35 weeks. This group was subdivided in 18 vasodilated (VD and 38 non-VD late IUGR fetuses. All AGA patients had a birth weight >10(th centile. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics of the blood samples collected from the umbilical vein at delivery was obtained. Multivariate statistical analysis identified several metabolites that allowed the discrimination between the different IUGR subgroups, and their comparative levels were quantified from the NMR data. RESULTS: The NMR-based analysis showed increased unsaturated lipids and VLDL levels in both early and late IUGR samples, decreased glucose and increased acetone levels in early IUGR. Non-significant trends for decreased glucose and increased acetone levels were present in late IUGR, which followed a severity gradient when the VD and non-VD subgroups were considered. Regarding amino acids and derivatives, early IUGR showed significantly increased glutamine and creatine levels, whereas the amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine were decreased in early and late-VD IUGR samples. Valine and leucine were decreased in late IUGR samples. Choline levels were decreased in all clinical subforms of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR is not associated with a unique metabolic profile, but important changes are present in different clinical subsets used in research and clinical practice. These results may help in characterizing comprehensively specific alterations underlying different IUGR subsets.

  19. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Illa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI parameters and connectivity. METHODOLOGY: At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their

  20. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  1.  Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis, Hypokalemic Paralysis, Nephrocalcinosis, Primary Hypothyroidism, Growth Retardation, Osteomalacia and Osteoporosis Leading to Pathological Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Mohammad Swar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a constellation of syndromes arising from different derangements of tubular acid transport. Recent advances in the biology of urinary acidification have allowed us to discern various molecular mechanisms responsible for these syndromes. RTA often presents as renal stone disease with nephrocalcinosis, ricket/osteomalacia and growth retardation in children with ultimate short stature in adulthood. The case reported here has features of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA, hypokalemic paralysis, primary hypothyroidism, growth retardation, osteomalacia and osteopenia leading to stress fracture. All these features presenting in a single case (as in our case is a rare occurrence, so far other cases of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA have been reported.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4 g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: “the first programming” is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and “the second programming” is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces adrenal developmental abnormality in offspring rats. • Prenatal ethanol exposure induces intrauterine programming of adrenal steroidogenesis. • Intrauterine GC-IGF1 axis programming might mediate adrenal developmental abnormality.

  3. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  4. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. → We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. → VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. → VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  5. High fat diet induced developmental defects in the mouse: oocyte meiotic aneuploidy and fetal growth retardation/brain defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri M Luzzo

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment.We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage.Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes.

  6. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  8. Intrauterin graviditet efter Cavatermbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh-Amiri, Ali; Kjaergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A case of intrauterine pregnancy occurring after successful balloon thermal endometrial ablation is described. Although rare, pregnancy after endometrial ablation is possible, and use of a supplemental contraceptive method should be planned. In case of pregnancy after endometrial ablation......, the woman should be informed of the high risk of pregnancy complications, and termination of the pregnancy should be discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-16...

  9. Heterologous expression of a ketohexokinase in potato plants leads to inhibited rates of photosynthesis, severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geigenberger, P.; Regierer, B.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    of ketohexokinase but did not accumulate fructose 1-phosphate. They were, however, characterised by a severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development. Studies of (14)CO(2) assimilation and metabolism, and of the levels of photosynthetic pigments, revealed that these lines exhibited restricted photosynthesis......-phosphoglycerate, and these lines were also characterised by an accumulation of glyceraldehyde. The transformants neither displayed consistent changes in the activities of Calvin cycle enzymes nor in enzymes of sucrose synthesis but displayed a metabolic profile partially reminiscent of that brought about by end...

  10. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  11. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, we reported that preferential maternal-fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowledge...... of vitC's impact on intrauterine development is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of maternal vitC status on fetal and placental development in guinea pigs. METHODS: Twenty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups to receive diets either sufficient (918...... mg/kg CTRL) or deficient (100 mg/kg DEF) in vitC. Cesarean sections at gestational day (GD) 45 or 56 allowed for fetal and placental measurements. RESULTS: At GD45, body, brain and placental weights were significantly reduced in DEF pups compared with CTRL (p

  12. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF...

  13. Mandibulofacial syndrome with growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, ear anomalies with skin tags, and cleft palate in a mother and her son: autosomal dominant or X-linked syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2009-12-01

    We report on a Brazilian mother and her son affected with mandibulofacial dysostosis, growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, first branchial arch anomalies, and cleft palate. To date only three males and one female, all sporadic cases, with a similar condition have been reported. This article describes the first familial case with this rare condition indicating autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance.

  14. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... longitudinal study of 89 normal pregnant women was conducted. The women had, on the average, seven blood samples taken and three ultrasound examinations performed. All had normal umbilical artery pulsatility indexes during pregnancy and gave birth to singletons between 37 and 42 wk gestation with birth weights...... above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...

  15. Intravesical migration of an intrauterine device

    OpenAIRE

    Gyasi-Sarpong, Christian Kofi; Maison, Patrick Opoku Manu; Morhe, Emmanuel; Aboah, Ken; Appiah, Kwaku Addai-Arhin; Azorliade, Roland; Baah-Nyamekye, Kofi; Otu-Boateng, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Antwi, Isaac; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Arthur, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device mi...

  16. Impact of prenatal hypoxia on fetal bone growth and osteoporosis in ovariectomized offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxian; Fan, Xiaorong; Tao, Jianying; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Wenna; Li, Lingjun; Li, Xiang; Ding, Hongmei; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qinqin; Xu, Zhice

    2018-03-07

    Prenatal hypoxia causes intrauterine growth retardation. It is unclear whether/how hypoxia affects the bone in fetal and offspring life. This study showed that prenatal hypoxia retarded fetal skeletal growth in rats, inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and down-regulated of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. In addition, ovariectomized (OVX) was used for study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compared with the control, OVX offspring in prenatal hypoxic group showed an enhanced osteoporosis in the femurs, associated with reduced proteoglycan and IGF1 signaling. The results indicated prenatal hypoxia not only delayed fetal skeletal growth, but also increased OVX-induced osteoporosis in the elder offspring probably through down-regulated IGF1 signaling and inhibition of ECM synthesis, providing important information of prenatal hypoxia on functional and molecular bone growth and metabolism in fetal and offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Margaret L.; Williams, Tony D.; Elliott, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

  18. ANTENATAL PROGNOSIS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Владимировна Ренге

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion. Taking into account the clinical and immunological predictors the integrated approach allows us to estimate the risk of intrauterine infection and the risk of complications during the neonatal period with a probability of 90 %.

  19. Ocular disorder in children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.

  20. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  1. Retardation of Listeria monocytogenes growth in mozzarella cheese using antimicrobial sachets containing rosemary oil and thyme oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung H; Patel, Dhaval; Kim, Jung Eun; Min, Sea C

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial sachet containing microcellular foam starch (MFS) with embedded rosemary oil and thyme oil was developed to reduce bacterial growth in shredded mozzarella cheese. The efficacy of the volatiles of oils at various concentrations in reducing Listeria monocytogenes as well as the release of the oils from the MFS have been also determined in this study. The cheese, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/g), was packaged in a Nylon/EVOH/PE bag. A paper sachet containing MFS embedded with rosemary oil and thyme oil, separately or together, was inserted into the bag. Rosemary and thyme oil volatiles released from the sachet restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes, resulting in a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on day 9 at 10 °C. The volatile oils also showed inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total aerobic bacteria (TAB). After 15 d at 10 °C, the numbers of LAB and TAB in the samples containing the sachet with both oils experienced a 1.2 and 1.4 log CFU/g reduction, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Nonetheless, the sachet treatment produced a distinct odor, unfavorably received by the panelists. The results suggest the potential for application of the sachet system for the reduction of growth of L. monocytogenes, LAB, and TAB in food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Factors Associated with Growth Retardation in Children Suffering from Sickle Cell Anemia: First Report from Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Lukusa Kazadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate and determine the risk factors associated with poor growth among SCA children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, the capital’s country. The nutritional status was assessed using the Z scores of the anthropometric indices. Results. We gathered data on the 256 patients, 138 females (53.9%, who entered the study. The mean age at presentation was 8.4 ± 4.9 years of age. Underweight, stunting, and wasting were found, respectively, in 47.7%, 10.5%, and 50.3% of SCA children. A history of hand-foot syndrome, more than 3 blood transfusions, being less than 12 months of age when receiving the first transfusion, more than two severe sickle crises per year, a medical history of severe infections, and the presence of hepatomegaly were associated with poor growth. When comparing sickle cell patients under 12 years of age (n=159 to a group of 296 age-matched children with normal Hb-AA, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with stunting and underweight were found among SCA. Conclusion. Nutritional status encountered in Congolese sickle cell children has been described for the first time in this study. A high prevalence of poor growth in SCA children was found in our study.

  3. Whole Body Vibration Retards Progression of Atherosclerosis via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole body vibration (WBV has a marked impact on lipid metabolism and the endocrine system, which is related to the progression of atherosclerosis (AS. To investigate the effects of WBV, we measured the atherosclerotic plaque area of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/− AS mice, which were trained by WBV (15 Hz, 30 min for 12 weeks. Simultaneously, serum levels of lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and the mRNA and protein levels of the same in the aorta were compared between the control and WBV groups. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area with lower very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in the blood. Moreover, the levels of IGF-1 in serum and expression of IL-6, IGF-1R, and p-IGF-1R protein in the mice aorta decreased significantly in the WBV group. In addition, we found that serum IGF-1 in mice increased to the highest concentration in 30 min after WBV for 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These results suggested that appropriate WBV may delay the progression of AS, which was associated with acutely elevated serum IGF-1 and lower levels of IGF-1 and IL-6 in the aorta for long-term treatment.

  4. Whole Body Vibration Retards Progression of Atherosclerosis via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Zhang, Yibo; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xian; Shao, Zhenya; Zhou, Zipeng; Li, Yuanlong; Pan, Shuwen; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has a marked impact on lipid metabolism and the endocrine system, which is related to the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). To investigate the effects of WBV, we measured the atherosclerotic plaque area of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE -/- ) AS mice, which were trained by WBV (15 Hz, 30 min) for 12 weeks. Simultaneously, serum levels of lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the mRNA and protein levels of the same in the aorta were compared between the control and WBV groups. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area with lower very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in the blood. Moreover, the levels of IGF-1 in serum and expression of IL-6, IGF-1R, and p-IGF-1R protein in the mice aorta decreased significantly in the WBV group. In addition, we found that serum IGF-1 in mice increased to the highest concentration in 30 min after WBV for 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These results suggested that appropriate WBV may delay the progression of AS, which was associated with acutely elevated serum IGF-1 and lower levels of IGF-1 and IL-6 in the aorta for long-term treatment.

  5. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: "the first programming" is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and "the second programming" is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  7. [Risk factors associated to growth retardation in children 12 to 120 months of age in Arandas, Jalisco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Garibay, Edgar M; Ortiz Ortega, Miguel Angel; Romero Velarde, Enrique; Nápoles Rodríguez, Francisco

    2008-12-01

    The purpose was to identify risk factors associated to deficit on linear growth in children from a semi-rural population in Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross sectional study 432 children, 12 to 120 months old were included. Social, demographic, economical, dietetic and pathological characteristics and deficit in the height/age index ( 3 children in the family [OR 1.71 (1.01, 2.87)], soft drinks consumption > 4 times a week [OR 2.36 (1.19-4.73)], family's monthly income salary (100 USA dollars a month) [OR 1.81 (1.06, 3.09)]; age < 24 months [OR 2.02 (1.09, 3.75)], adding sweeteners to the bottle [OR 8.56 (1.84, 54.9)], diet modification during diarrhea [OR 2.40 (1.02, 5.77)], milk intake < 4 times a week [OR 2.71 (1.55, 4.73)] and nearly significant, bean consumption [1.75 (0.98, 3.13). Protection factors: nuclear family [OR 0.28 (0.09, 0.85)] and an adequate infant formula dilution [OR 0.71 (0.60, 0.85)]. In multivariate models associated factors to deficit of height were higher consumption of soft drinks, beans and the addition of sweeteners to the bottle. In addition to socioeconomic variables, lower consumption of high quality food and proteins and higher intake of legumes were important risk factors for mild and moderate deficit height/age.

  8. Adjuvanted vaccines in pregnancy : no evidence for effect of the adjuvanted H1N1/09 vaccination on occurrence of preeclampsia or intra-uterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Alies; Koopmans, Nienke K.; Broekhuijsen, Kim; Groen, Henk; Karstenberg-Kramer, Janna M. A.; van Goor, Kim; Groenewout, Mariette; van Loon, Arjen; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    OBJECTIVE: During the H1N1/09 pandemic, pregnant women in the Netherlands were vaccinated with an adjuvanted vaccine. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system changes to enable placental development and growth and acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. As an adjuvant is a pro-inflammatory

  9. [Antibody induction after intrauterine interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Giers, G; Bald, R; Hansmann, M; Hanfland, P

    1993-06-01

    Immunohematologic and clinical data, i.e., antibody profile, location of the placenta, mode of cordocentesis, obtained from 48 pregnant patients with irregular erythrocyte antibodies during the last 2 years have been retrospectively evaluated. All fetuses of the patients received intrauterine transfusions for the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis. In 16 (33%) patients (group I) a secondarily induced antibody was detected after the onset of intrauterine transfusion therapy. 32 (67%) patients (group II) did not further develop new antibody specificities. Group I exhibited a significantly different distribution in the location of the placenta (p pregnant women. In group I a 5-fold higher rate of anterior than posterior placenta location was found. The mode of cordocentesis differed significantly (p antibodies by invasive intrauterine interventions in our patients depended indirectly on the location of the placenta and directly on the mode of the puncture (trans- vs. paraplacental access).

  10. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  11. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  12. Morpholine or methylpiperazine and salicylaldimine based heteroleptic square planner platinum (II) complexes: In vitro anticancer study and growth retardation effect on E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faiz-Ur; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Inam Ullah; Duong, Hong-Quan; Yu, Shang-Bo; Lin, Yue-Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhan-Ting; Zhang, Dan-Wei

    2017-05-05

    Morpholine and methylpiperazine are among the most important structural parts of different drugs including organic chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study we incorporated these entities as co-ligand and a series of structurally related mono- and di-metallic square planner Pt(II) complexes (Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(morpholine)Cl C1a-C3a, Pt(II)(salicylaldimine) (methylpiperazine)Cl C1b-C3b, di-metallic Pt(II) 2 (bis-salicylaldimine)(morpholine) 2 Cl 2 C4a and Pt(II) 2 (bis-salicylaldimine)(methylpiperazine) 2 Cl 2 C4b were prepared. These complexes were characterized by 1 H, 13 C, 19 F, 2D NOESY NMR, HR ESI-MS and elemental analyses, while structures of C2a, C3a and C4b were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. All these complexes were studied for their in vitro cytotoxic effect on breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. All these complexes showed considerable cytotoxic effect on these tested cancer cell lines comparable to cisplatin. Moreover three complexes C1a, C4a and C1b were studied in details. Time- and dose-dependent study was performed for C1a, C4a and C1b. These complexes induced the expression of p53 that suppresses cancer cell growth. Induction of PUMA gene and repression of MYC oncogene suggested that these complexes targeted different genes to suppress cancer progression. TUNEL assay showed induction of apoptosis and invasion analysis showed reduction in invasion ability of breast cancer cells treated with C1a, C4a or C1b. Importantly, these novel complexes suppressed the expression of EMT and metastasis promoter genes. Similarly these complexes induced autophagy by enhancing the expression of autophagy related genes such as beclin, atg-5 and atg-7. The E. coli growth retardation study showed stronger growth inhibitory effects and subsequently resulted in filamentous morphology of bacterial cells. Gel electrophoresis study proved the interaction of these complexes with DNA. All these analysis revealed anticancer

  13. Normal sex differences in prenatal growth and abnormal prenatal growth retardation associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development are absent in newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Laura J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to investigate prenatal growth in the latter group. Additionally, because girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to increased levels of androgens in the absence of a male sex-chromosome complement, the presence or absence of typical sex differences in growth of newborns would support or refute a hormonal explanation for these differences. Methods In total, 105 newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were identified in our database. Gestational age (weeks, birth weight (kg, birth length (cm and parental heights (cm were obtained. Mid-parental height was considered in the analyses. Results Mean birth weight percentile for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was 49.26%, indicating no evidence of a difference in birth weight from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P > 0.05. The expected sex difference in favor of heavier males was not seen (P > 0.05. Of the 105 subjects, 44 (27%; 34 females, 10 males had birth length and gestational age recorded in their medical chart. Mean birth length for this subgroup was 50.90 cm (63rd percentile, which differed from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P = 0.0082. The expected sex difference in favor of longer males was also not seen (P > 0.05. Conclusion The prenatal growth retardation patterns reported in cases of 46,XY disorders of sex development do not generalize to people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Sex differences in body weight and length typically seen in young infants were not seen in the subjects who

  14. Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-27

    Apr 27, 2011 ... Clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin stimulation (hCG), and intrauterine insemination using donor sperm. The resulting pregnancy was later diagnosed as heterotopic pregnancy ... Presence of corpus luteum cyst of pregnancy in early ultrasound should be an index of suspicious of a possible heterotopic ...

  15. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  16. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a history: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Katie M; McCowan, Lesley M; Mackay, Laura K; Lee, Arier C; Said, Joanne M; Kane, Stefan C; Walker, Susan P; van Mens, Thijs E; Hannan, Natalie J; Tong, Stephen; Chamley, Larry W; Stone, Peter R; McLintock, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy are major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with a previous pregnancy affected by these conditions are at an increased risk of recurrence in a future pregnancy. Past trials evaluating the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of recurrence of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy have shown conflicting results with high levels of heterogeneity displayed when trials were compared. We sought to assess the effectiveness of enoxaparin in addition to high-risk care for the prevention of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy in women with a history of these conditions. This was an open-label randomized controlled trial in 5 tertiary care centers in 3 countries. Women with a viable singleton pregnancy were invited to participate between >6 +0 and preeclampsia and/or small for gestational age based on their obstetric history. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1-to-1 ratio to standard high-risk care or standard high-risk care plus enoxaparin 40 mg (4000 IU) by subcutaneous injection daily from recruitment until 36 +0 weeks or delivery, whichever occurred sooner. Standard high-risk care was defined as care coordinated by a high-risk antenatal clinic service, aspirin 100 mg daily until 36 +0 weeks, and-for women with prior preeclampsia-calcium 1000-1500 mg daily until 36 +0 weeks. In a subgroup of participants serum samples were taken at recruitment and at 20 and 30 weeks' gestation and later analyzed for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, endothelin-1, placental growth factor, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. The primary outcome was a composite of preeclampsia and/or small-for-gestational-age preeclampsia and/or small-for-gestational-age preeclampsia, but there was no difference in levels of these antiangiogenic factors (nor any of the other serum analytes measured) among those treated with

  17. Untreated growth hormone deficiency with extremely short stature, bone dysplasia, cleft lip--palate and severe mental retardation in a 26-year-old man with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(1;12)(q24;q24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, P; Faivre, L; Marle, N; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Mosca, A L; Masurel-Paulet, A; Borgnon, J; Falcon-Eicher, S; Danino, A; Malka, G; Le Merrer, M; Huet, F; Mugneret, F

    2007-01-01

    We report on a 26-year-old patient presenting with extremely short stature (height 72cm, weight 6.5kg, OFC 42.5cm), facial dysmorphism, cleft lip--palate, severe mental retardation and de novo 1q24.2--q25.2 and 12q24.31 interstitial deletion. He was the only child of non-consanguineous parents and his birth length was 43cm. He had severe feeding difficulties and required enteral nutrition until the age of 3 years. Standard cytogenetic analysis showed an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(1;12)(q24;q24). Endocrine studies at 11 years of age for severe growth retardation revealed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency with severe growth hormone deficiency, but the child was untreated because of associated mental retardation. At 26 years of age, he could not walk or speak and had no signs of puberty. Investigations revealed spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with severe osteoporosis, enlarged aorta when compared to the patient's size and apparently normal pituitary development. High resolution karyotype showed a 1q24-q25 deletion, and comparative genomic hybridization studies confirmed the 1q interstitial deletion. FISH studies of both breakpoints using PACs and BACs enabled us to further characterize the 1q interstitial deletion (1q24.2-1q25.2) and also revealed a 12q24.31 interstitial microdeletion. This case is compared with previously reported patients with similar deletions, but the untreated pituitary deficiency could also be responsible in part for the severity of the growth deficiency. This observation is of interest for two reasons. First, these deletions could be a clue in the search for a gene responsible for growth hormone deficiency/midline defects. Second, it shows the importance of molecular cytogenetics in the study of de novo apparently balanced translocation with abnormal phenotype.

  18. Rates of nitrogen and growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat Doses de nitrogênio e do redutor de crescimento trinexapac-etil na cultura do trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates in association with rates of the growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG and arranged in a 5×4 factorial, randomized block design, with four repetitions. A combination of five nitrogen rates (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150kg ha-1 with four rates of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1 were tested. Trinexapac-ethyl promotes reduction of soot dry mass and grain yield at the lowest N rates, but at the highest N rates there is increase in these characteristics. The combination between N and trinexapac-ethyl rates that promotes higher shoot dry mass is 150kg ha-1 and 187g ha-1 but that promotes higher grain yield is 100kg ha-1 and 120g ha-1, respectively.O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio associadas às doses do redutor de crescimento trinexapac-etil na cultura do trigo. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG, seguiu um esquema fatorial 5×4, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150kg ha-1 de N, combinados com 0, 62,5, 125 e 187,5g ha-1 de trinexapac-etil. Trinexapac-etil promove redução da massa seca da parte aérea e do rendimento de grãos nas menores doses de N, mas sob doses elevadas de N o trinexapac-etil promove aumento dessas características. A combinação entre doses de N e trinexapac-etil que promove maior massa seca da parte aérea é de 150kg ha-1 e 187g ha-1, mas a que promove maior produção de grãos é de 100kg ha-1 e 120g ha-1, respectivamente.

  19. Dual inhibition of Wnt and Yes-associated protein signaling retards the growth of triple-negative breast cancer in both mesenchymal and epithelial states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Andrew; McGarry, Sarah; Li, Li; Jia, Deyong; Ooi, Sarah; Addison, Christina; Dimitroulakos, Jim; Arnaout, Angel; Nessim, Carolyn; Yao, Zemin; Ji, Guang; Song, Haiyan; Gadde, Suresh; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Lisheng

    2018-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most refractory subtype of breast cancer to current treatments, accounts disproportionately for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. This is largely due to cancer plasticity and the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently, distinct yet interconvertible mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like states have been revealed in breast CSCs. Thus, strategies capable of simultaneously inhibiting bulk and CSC populations in both mesenchymal and epithelial states have yet to be developed. Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways are crucial in tumorigenesis, but importantly also possess tumor suppressor functions in certain contexts. One possibility is that TNBC cells in epithelial or mesenchymal state may differently affect Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP signaling and CSC phenotypes. In this report, we found that YAP signaling and CD44 high /CD24 -/low CSCs were upregulated while Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ALDH+ CSCs were downregulated in mesenchymal-like TNBC cells, and vice versa in their epithelial-like counterparts. Dual knockdown of YAP and Wnt/β-catenin, but neither alone, was required for effective suppression of both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC populations in mesenchymal and epithelial TNBC cells. These observations were confirmed with cultured tumor fragments prepared from patients with TNBC after treatment with Wnt inhibitor ICG-001 and YAP inhibitor simvastatin. In addition, a clinical database showed that decreased gene expression of Wnt and YAP was positively correlated with decreased ALDH and CD44 expression in patients' samples while increased patient survival. Furthermore, tumor growth of TNBC cells in either epithelial or mesenchymal state was retarded, and both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC subpopulations were diminished in a human xenograft model after dual administration of ICG-001 and simvastatin. Tumorigenicity was also hampered after secondary transplantation. These data suggest a new

  20. Complete biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region position results in fetal growth retardation and perinatal lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI(2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI(2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI(2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI(2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line.We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI(2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI(2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI(2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission.In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development.

  1. Ovarian transmigration of intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovati, Marco; Raveglia, Federico; Baisi, Alessandro; De Simone, Matilde; Cioffi, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Extrauterine translocation of intrauterine device (IUD) to peritoneal cavity is an uncommon event, moreover the ovarian embedding of a transmigrated IUD is very rare, and only two previous cases have been reported in the literature. We present a single case treated with laparoscopy. The aims of this study were to focus attention on the utility of preoperative computed tomography in planning the best surgical approach and to describe the two-port technique. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Growth retardants in wheat and its effect in physiological quality of seeds Redutores de crescimento em plantas de trigo e seus efeitos na qualidade fisiológica de sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Torres de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant lodging in wheat has been controlled through growth retardants. However, there is lack of information on the effect of these products on the physiological quality of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of wheat seeds obtained under different rates and application times of three growth retardants. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1000 and 1500g ha-1 of chlormequat; 40, 80 and 120g ha-1 of paclobutrazol and 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl applied at the 6 or 8 growth stage based on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Leaf application of growth retardants as chlormequat, paclobutrazol and trinexapac-ethyl did not affect the germination and vigor of wheat seeds.O acamamento de plantas na cultura do trigo tem sido controlado com o uso de redutores de crescimento. No entanto, há carência de informações sobre o efeito desses produtos na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de trigo obtidas sob efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, entre maio e setembro de 2005, foi instalado com tratamentos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 500, 1000 e 1500g ha-1 de clormequat; 40, 80 e 120g ha-1 de paclobutrazol e 62,5, 125 e 187,5g ha-1 de trinexapac-etil aplicados no estádio 6 ou 8 da escala Feeks e Large, mais uma testemunha sem aplicação de redutor. A aplicação foliar dos redutores de crescimento clormequat, paclobutrazol e trinexapac-etil não afeta a germinação e o vigor das sementes de trigo.

  3. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  4. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  5. Deletion of 4.4 Mb at 2q33.2q33.3 May Cause Growth Deficiency in a Patient with Mental Retardation, Facial Dysmorphic Features and Speech Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulidis, Ioannis; Paspaliaris, Vassilis; Papageorgiou, Elena; Siomou, Elissavet; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Sotiriou, Sotirios; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    A patient with a rare interstitial deletion of chromosomal band 2q33.2q33.3 is described. The clinical features resembled the 2q33.1 microdeletion syndrome (Glass syndrome), including mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, high-arched narrow palate, growth deficiency, and speech delay. The chromosomal aberration was characterized by whole genome BAC aCGH. A comparison of the current patient and Glass syndrome features revealed that this case displayed a relatively mild phenotype. Overall, it is suggested that the deleted region of 2q33 causative for Glass syndrome may be larger than initially suggested. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Intravesical migration of an intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Sarpong, Christian Kofi; Maison, Patrick Opoku Manu; Morhe, Emmanuel; Aboah, Ken; Appiah, Kwaku Addai-Arhin; Azorliade, Roland; Baah-Nyamekye, Kofi; Otu-Boateng, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Antwi, Isaac; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Arthur, Douglas

    2016-01-02

    Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device migration into the urinary bladder of a 33 year old African woman at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. A 33 year old African woman presented with persistent urinary tract infection of 7 months duration despite appropriate antibiotic treatments. An abdominal ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder calculus which was found to be an intrauterine contraceptive device on removal at cystoscopy. She got pregnant whilst having the intrauterine contraceptive device in place and delivered at term. The presence of recurrent or persistent urinary tract infection in any woman with an intrauterine contraceptive device should raise the suspicion of intravesical migration of the intrauterine contraceptive device.

  7. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  8. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

  9. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Salma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs. All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA.

  10. Laparoscopic Retrieval Of Perforated Intrauterine Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of successful laparoscopic retrieval of a perforated intrauterine device (Lippes loop). The Lippes loop was inserted after manual intrauterine adhesiolysis as a treatment of uterine synaechia presenting as secondary amenorrhoea of 20 months duration. The uterine perforation in this patient did not occur at ...

  11. Successful Intrauterine Pregnancy following salpingostomy; Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by salpingostomy, after which she had spontaneous abortion of the associated intrauterine pregnancy. Result: Initial marital disharmony, followed by an uneventful intrauterine pregnancy carried to term with caesarean delivery of a live female baby. Conclusion: In well-selected cases, conservative tubal surgeries should be ...

  12. Intrauterine growth restriction and differential patterns of hepatic growth and expression of IGF1, PCK2, and HSDL1 mRNA in the sheep fetus in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Sheridan; Morrison, Janna L; McMillen, I Caroline

    2009-06-01

    Fetal adaptations to periods of substrate deprivation can result in the programming of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction in later life. Placental insufficiency can be associated with either sparing or sacrifice of fetal liver growth, and these different responses may have different metabolic consequences. It is unclear what intrahepatic mechanisms determine the differential responses of the fetal liver to substrate restriction. We investigated the effects of placental restriction (PR) on liver growth and the hepatic expression of SLC2A1, IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, PPARGC1A, PPARA, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PCK2, and HSDL1 mRNA in fetal sheep at 140-145 days of gestation. A mean gestational arterial partial pressure of oxygen less than 17 mmHg was defined as hypoxic, and a relative liver of weight more than 2 SD below the mean liver weight of controls was defined as reduced liver growth. Fetuses therefore were defined as control-normoxic (C-N; n = 9), PR-normoxic (PR-N; n = 7), PR-hypoxic (PR-H; n = 8), or PR-hypoxic reduced liver growth (PR-H RLG; n = 4). Hepatic SLC2A1 mRNA expression was highest (P fetal substrate restriction may exist that protect the liver from decreased growth and, potentially, from a decreased responsiveness to the actions of insulin in postnatal life.

  13. Triplets with growth failure, microcephaly, mental retardation, nail hypoplasia and corpus callosum agenesis: is it a variant of Coffin-Siris or a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirel, B; Kural, N; Yakut, A; Adapinar, B

    2000-01-01

    We report eight-year-old triplet girls whose clinical features included microcephaly, severe mental retardation, hypoplasia of distal phalanges of both fifth and second fingers and nail hypoplasia on second fingers, dysmorphic facial features, and partial corpus callosum agenesis. During infancy, a Pavlik harness was used for congenital hip dislocation, and they had difficulty in feeding. One had been operated for patent ductus arteriosus. To our knowledge, this rare combination has not been previously reported in triplets whose clinical features closely resemble those of Coffin-Siris syndrome. The other diagnostic possibilities are also reviewed.

  14. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  15. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  16. Insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and fetal growth and skeletal development (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Sifakis, Stavros; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E

    2014-08-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II have a predominant role in fetal growth and development. IGFs are involved in the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of fetal cells in vitro and the IGF serum concentration has been shown to be closely correlated with fetal growth and length. IGF transcripts and peptides have been detected in almost every fetal tissue from as early in development as pre‑implantation to the final maturation stage. Furthermore, IGFs have been demonstrated to be involved in limb morphogenesis. However, although ablation of Igf genes in mice resulted in growth retardation and delay in skeletal maturation, no impact on outgrowth and patterning of embryonic limbs was observed. Additionally, various molecular defects in the Igf1 and Igf1r genes in humans have been associated with severe intrauterine growth retardation and impaired skeletal maturation, but not with truncated limbs or severe skeletal dysplasia. The conflicting data between in vitro and in vivo observations with regard to bone morphogenesis suggests that IGFs may not be the sole trophic factors involved in fetal skeletal growth and that redundant mechanisms may exist in chondro- and osteogenesis. Further investigation is required in order to elucidate the functions of IGFs in skeletal development.

  17. Diagnóstico precoce da restrição do crescimento fetal pela estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal Early diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction by ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Martins

    2005-02-01

    disease, no history of addictions, gemellarity or malformed fetuses. All mothers performed ultrasonographic exams at the 25th and 27th weeks for estimation of the fetal weight. Results: The exams were able to detect the inadequate development of those fetuses small-for-gestational-age group. The cut-off values for echographic fetal weight were established as 775 grams and 1015 grams for the 25th and 27th weeks, respectively A mathematical model was developed, capable of quantifying the probability of newborns exhibiting insufficient intra-uterine growth, being small-for-gestational-age.

  18. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  19. Do intrauterine device/intrauterine system users check their threads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda; Fleming, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    Expulsion of an intrauterine device (IUD) occurs in about 1 in 20 women and expulsion may not be noticed by the user. Current guidance recommends that users are instructed to check regularly for their threads. This is the first study to explore the reality of how women feel about checking their threads and the details surrounding how frequently checks are done. One hundred consecutive IUD users were interviewed regarding their type of device, duration of use, frequency of thread checking, prompts for checking and reasons for not checking. Only 23% checked their threads regularly and 51% had never done so. The most common reason for not checking was forgetting about it. Despite being advised to do so, the majority of users do not check their threads at all and fewer than one-quarter of them check regularly. We propose that advice offered about thread checking should be given less emphasis and suggested more for user reassurance.

  20. Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Cardiac miRNA Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell C. Lock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in the fetal heart include; Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF activation, dysregulation of angiogenesis, mitochondrial abnormalities and altered glucose and fatty acid transport/metabolism. It is important to understand how miRNAs are altered in these adverse environments to identify key pathways that can be targeted using miRNA mimics or inhibitors to condition an improved developmental response.

  1. Chinese experience with intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilian, Xiao

    2007-06-01

    Changes in the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception in China in the past 10 years are reviewed. Replacement of the inert stainless steel ring with copper-bearing IUDs was an essential decision to improve the efficacy of the IUDs. The most commonly used, TCu380A, TCu220C and MLCu375, and those developed in China, such as the uterine-shaped UCu300 IUD and gamma Cu380 IUD, are reviewed. Studies of MLCu375 and TCu380A for emergency contraception revealed a highly effective method, which could prevent over 96% of unwanted pregnancies. Use of levonorgestrel-releasing system provides both contraceptive and therapeutic effects in the treatment of menorrhagia.

  2. Chronic Cervical Perforation by an Intrauterine Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Oruç Koltan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine device (IUD is a widely used, highly effective method of birth control. Uterine perforation is a rare yet serious complication and is usually seen during insertion of the IUD. A regular examination is necessary for follow-up. We present a patient with an IUD that had perforated the cervix. The diagnosis was made during routine gynecological examination, and the patient was treated in a timely manner before any complications such as ectopic pregnancy, intrauterine pregnancy, infection or irreversible harm to the cervix arose. This case stresses the importance of regular visits to maintain health and diagnose possible adverse effects of intrauterine contraceptive methods.

  3. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  4. Intrauterine nutritional programming of adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Siemelink M; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The intrauterine programming hypothesis states that the risk of acquiring diseases in adult life is determined in part by environmental factors during embryofetal development. Especially maternal nutrition has been related to the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and infectious

  5. Pregnancy outcome in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganer, Hadas; Levy, Amalia; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal

    2009-10-01

    To investigate pregnancy outcome in patients who conceived with an intrauterine contraceptive device. A retrospective study comparing the pregnancy outcome of women with retained intrauterine device (n = 98), patients after intrauterine device removal in early pregnancy (n = 194), and pregnancies without an intrauterine device (n = 141,191) was performed. A significant linear association was documented among the 3 groups and adverse outcomes such as preterm delivery (18.4% in the retained intrauterine device, 14.4 % in removed intrauterine device, and 7.3% in the no-intrauterine device group; P intrauterine device, 4.1% in removed intrauterine device and 0.7% in the no-intrauterine device group; P intrauterine device was found as an independent risk factor for both preterm delivery and chorioamnionitis in multivariable models. Women conceiving with an intrauterine device are at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, whereas the risk is higher for pregnancies with retained intrauterine device compared with early intrauterine device removal.

  6. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  7. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  8. Immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, Inge M.; Flierman, Paul A.; Maas, Pettie; Cox, Tessa; van Dessel, Thierry J. H. M.; Gerards, Mariette H.; Mochtar, Monique H.; Janssen, Catharina A. H.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of 15 minutes of immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting One academic teaching hospital and six non-academic teaching hospitals. Participants Women having intrauterine

  9. Complications of the intrauterine device in nulliparous and parous women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H.M.; Vos, A.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The intrauterine device (IUD) is still related to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pregnancy, expulsion, perforation and menstrual problems, particularly in nulliparous women. We aimed to study the complications and symptoms of the intrauterine device in general practice, particularly

  10. Retardadores de crescimento na produção de plantas floridas envasadas de açafrão-da-cochinchina Growth retardants on production of flowering potted thai tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novos produtos na floricultura brasileira é importante para o crescimento do setor. O açafrão-da-cochinchina (Curcuma alismatifolia possui inflorescência e folhagem altamente decorativas e grande potencial para produção como florífera envasada, com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento, usados na produção de plantas compactas e atrativas. Avaliou-se o efeito de retardadores de crescimento na produção de açafrão-da-cochinchina `Pink', de 3/12/2004 a 28/4/2005, sob ambiente protegido, em Holambra (SP. Instalou-se experimento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e onze tratamentos: controle, paclobutrazol (20; 25; 30 e 35 mg i.a./vaso, via substrato, duas, três e cinco pulverizações de daminozide na concentração de 2,125 g L-1 e duas, três e cinco pulverizações de solução de daminozide (1,275 g L-1 mais chlormequat (0,2 g L-1. O propágulo foi plantado em vaso plástico (1,0 L com substrato comercial e fertirrigado diariamente. Paclobutrazol (35 mg i.a./vaso reduziu significativamente a altura da parte aérea e da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral, sem alterar o comprimento da inflorescência e atrasar o ciclo de produção. Entretanto, as plantas não ficaram suficientemente compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Os demais retardadores estudados não afetaram significativamente a altura da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral comparado ao controle.The introduction of new products is important for the growth of Brazilian floriculture industry. The thai tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia has a highly attractive inflorescence and foliage, and great prospect as a flowering potted plant with the aid of growth retardants, which are used to produce compact plants. The effect of growth retardants on `Pink' thai tulip production was evaluated under controlled growing conditions at Holambra, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications and

  11. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  12. Ectopic Intrauterine Device in the Bladder of a Pregnant Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Ceylan, Kadir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Guler, Ayse; Sahin, Hanim Guler

    2010-01-01

    Background. Uterine perforation and transvesical migration of an intrauterine device are rare complications. Case. A 28-year-old woman who had an intrauterine device was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of amenorrhea lasting 5 weeks and pelvic pain lasting a year. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed embedding of the intrauterine device in the bladder. The misplaced device was removed by laparotomy. Conclusion. The followup of intrauterine device localization with transvaginal ultrasonography is essential for early detection of possible serious complications. PMID:20811600

  13. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  14. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  15. [Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppen, T; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Schild, R L; Enders, G; Hansmann, M; Rister, M; Bartmann, P

    2001-01-01

    Early fetal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely documented. Only the minority of affected fetuses survive this condition. At 19 weeks of gestation the first episode of a genital HSV-infection of a pregnant woman was treated with local interferon beta. At 34 weeks of gestation hydrocephalus with secondary microcephaly and microphthalmia of both eyes was detected by ultrasonography. In the amniotic fluid HSV type 2 (HSV-2) was isolated and HSV-2-DNA was detected by PCR. The serum of the mother proved positive for HSV-2 (glycoprotein G2)-specific IgG-antibodies. No other infectious causes were apparent on further testing. At 35 + 4 weeks gestation a small-for-gestational-age neonate (2130 g) with microcephaly (29 cm head circumference) was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Scarce ulcerative skin lesions and vesicles, hepatosplenomegaly and microphthalmia were diagnosed. Furthermore, encephalomalacia with parenchymal destruction, cataract of both eyes and aplasia of the maculae and papillae were found. HSV-2-PCR was tested positive in chorionic cells and an umbilical segment of the placenta as well as in swabs from both eyes, throat, and a herpetic skin lesion collected during the first 5 days of life. HSV-IgM-antibodies were found in the umbilical cord blood. Local and intravenous treatment with aciclovir was started. The infant exhibited signs of a severely malfunctioning central nervous system. At the age of 4 months the boy suffered from generalised cerebral seizures. He died at the age of 9 months as a consequence of respiratory insufficiency with consecutive circulation failure. The case of an intrauterine HSV-2-infection is presented. The time of onset of fetal infection was most probably at the time of the maternal disease (19 weeks of gestation). Inspite of the very early infection the fetus did not die in utero. Especially, if a primary genital HSV-2-infection of a pregnant woman is suspected, which can be proven by serological means only

  16. Successful Growth Hormone Therapy in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Michael; Kant, Sarina G; Wit, Jan Maarten; Willem Redeker, Egbert Johan; Eduard Santen, Gijs Willem; Henriëtta Verkerk, Annemieke Johanna Maria; Uitterlinden, André Gerardus; Losekoot, Monique; Oostdijk, Wilma

    2017-12-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a both clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome. In its classical form, it is characterised by distinctive facial features, intra-uterine growth retardation, short stature, developmental delay, and anomalies in multiple organ systems. NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 and HDAC8, all involved in the cohesin pathway, have been identified to cause CdLS. Growth hormone (GH) secretion has been reported as normal, and to our knowledge, there are no reports on the effect of recombinant human GH treatment in CdLS patients. We present a patient born small for gestational age with persistent severe growth retardation [height -3.4 standard deviation score (SDS)] and mild dysmorphic features, who was treated with GH from 4.3 years of age onward and was diagnosed 6 years later with CdLS using whole-exome sequencing. Treatment led to a height gain of 1.6 SDS over 8 years. Treatment was interrupted shortly due to high serum insulin-like growth factor-1 serum values. In conclusion, GH therapy may be effective and safe for short children with CdLS.

  17. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  18. Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine insemination program with the use of royal jelly. ... estrus in ewes treated with 100 IU eCG plus 500 mg RJ when compared with the other treatment groups. Keywords: Royal jelly, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), natural progesterone, artificial insemination, ewe ...

  19. Attitudes towards and knowledge about intrauterine contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. One of the strategies to reduce maternal mortality includes accessible and appropriate contraceptive services to all women. The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) has been identified as a cheap and effective means of contraception by the South African National Department of Health. Objective.

  20. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a recent resurgence in the use of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in Nigeria. However, there is a need for a rational use of the procedure so that couples do not waste time and money on ineffective therapy if it is not indicated. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the possible prognostic ...

  1. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H

    1991-01-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week...

  2. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Discontinuation Among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, more effort should be directed to counseling for adherence to the IUD use to ensure longer duration of use. Provision of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system which reduces bleeding and dysmenorrhoea, in our clinic may increase the continuation rate of IUD. Key words; IUD, duration of use, discontinuation, ...

  3. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy Coexisting with Intrauterine Pregnancy | Ifenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pelvic ultrasonography showed a singleton intrauterine pregnancy, a right adnexa mass and fluid in the rectouterine pouch. At laparotomy, a ruptured right ampulary gestation sac and 8 week size uterus were found and a right total salpingectomy done. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient delivered a live, ...

  5. Case Report - Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had induction of ovulation with Clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin stimulation (hCG), and intrauterine insemination using donor sperm. The resulting pregnancy ... Presence of corpus luteum cyst of pregnancy in early ultrasound should be an index of suspicious of a possible heterotopic pregnancy. Early diagnosis and ...

  6. Distinguishing intrauterine foetal demise versus abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus ...

  7. Complications associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is one of the reversible methods of contraception. Its use has increased steadily worldwide. However, some women reject it based on presumed complications associated with its use. Aim: To determine the complications reported by women, action taken on the ...

  8. Comparison of genital microbial isolates between intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the past, the use of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), in particular, Dalkon Shield was found to be associated with increased risk of pelvic infection. Recent literature illustrates that the risk of pelvic infection after insertion of an IUCD is low and that the risk peaks in the 1st month after insertion. We set ...

  9. Overexpression of a natural chloroplast-encoded antisense RNA in tobacco destabilizes 5S rRNA and retards plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern David B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of non-coding RNAs in regulating gene expression have been extensively studied in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, however few reports exist as to their roles in organellar gene regulation. Evidence for accumulation of natural antisense RNAs (asRNAs in chloroplasts comes from the expressed sequence tag database and cDNA libraries, while functional data have been largely obtained from artificial asRNAs. In this study, we used Nicotiana tabacum to investigate the effect on sense strand transcripts of overexpressing a natural chloroplast asRNA, AS5, which is complementary to the region which encodes the 5S rRNA and tRNAArg. Results AS5-overexpressing (AS5ox plants obtained by chloroplast transformation exhibited slower growth and slightly pale green leaves. Analysis of AS5 transcripts revealed four distinct species in wild-type (WT and AS5ox plants, and additional AS5ox-specific products. Of the corresponding sense strand transcripts, tRNAArg overaccumulated several-fold in transgenic plants whereas 5S rRNA was unaffected. However, run-on transcription showed that the 5S-trnR region was transcribed four-fold more in the AS5ox plants compared to WT, indicating that overexpression of AS5 was associated with decreased stability of 5S rRNA. In addition, polysome analysis of the transformants showed less 5S rRNA and rbcL mRNA associated with ribosomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that AS5 can modulate 5S rRNA levels, giving it the potential to affect Chloroplast translation and plant growth. More globally, overexpression of asRNAs via chloroplast transformation may be a useful strategy for defining their functions.

  10. Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers from captive American kestrel eggs to feathers and their association with thyroid hormones and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-01-01

    Feathers are useful for monitoring contaminants in wild birds and are increasingly used to determine persistent organic pollutants. However, few studies have been conducted on birds with known exposure levels. We aimed to determine how well nestling feather concentrations reflect in ovo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β- and γ-HBCDD), and to determine if feather concentrations are related to physiological biomarkers. Captive kestrels (n = 11) were exposed in ovo to maternally transferred HBCDD-isomers at concentrations of 127, 12 and 2 ng/g wet weight of α-, β- and γ-HBCDD (measured in sibling eggs), respectively, and compared to controls (n = 6). Nestling growth was monitored at 5 d intervals and circulating thyroid hormone concentrations assessed at d 20. Tail feathers were collected prior to the first molt and analyzed for HBCDD isomers. The mean ΣHBCDD concentration in feathers was 2405 pg/g dry weight (in exposed birds) and α-, β- and γ-HBCDD made up 32%, 13%, and 55%, respectively of the ΣHBCDD concentrations. This isomer distribution deviated from the typical dominance of α-HBCDD reported in vertebrate samples. Exposed chicks had significantly higher feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD compared with controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively), while α-HBCDD concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Feather concentrations of α-HBCDD were best explained by egg concentrations of β- or γ-HBCDD concentrations (w i  = 0.50, 0.30 respectively), while feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD were influenced by growth parameters (rectrix length: w i  = 0.61; tibiotarsus length: w i  = 0.28). These results suggest that feather α-HBCDD concentrations may reflect internal body burdens, whereas β- and γ-HBCDD may be subject to selective uptake. The α-HBCDD concentrations in the feathers were negatively associated with the ratio of plasma free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine (T 3 :T 4 ; p = 0

  11. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro.

  12. X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, H.H.; Hamel, B.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to

  13. Sulfated hyaluronic acid hydrogels with retarded degradation and enhanced growth factor retention promote hMSC chondrogenesis and articular cartilage integrity with reduced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Lin, Sien; Zhang, Kunyu; Dong, Chaoqun; Wu, Tianyi; Huang, Heqin; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Li; Li, Gang; Bian, Liming

    2017-04-15

    Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have been extensively researched for delivering cells and drugs to repair damaged tissues, particularly articular cartilage. However, the in vivo degradation of HA is fast, thus limiting the clinical translation of HA hydrogels. Furthermore, HA cannot bind proteins with high affinity because of the lack of negatively charged sulfate groups. In this study, we conjugated tunable amount of sulfate groups to HA. The sulfated HA exhibits significantly slower degradation by hyaluronidase compared to the wild type HA. We hypothesize that the sulfation reduces the available HA octasaccharide substrate needed for the effective catalytic action of hyaluronidase. Moreover, the sulfated HA hydrogels significantly improve the protein sequestration, thereby effectively extending the availability of the proteinaceous drugs in the hydrogels. In the following in vitro study, we demonstrate that the HA hydrogel sulfation exerts no negative effect on the viability of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Furthermore, the sulfated HA hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis and suppresses the hypertrophy of encapsulated hMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, intra-articular injections of the sulfated HA hydrogels avert the cartilage abrasion and hypertrophy in the animal osteoarthritic joints. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the sulfated HA is a promising biomaterial for the delivery of therapeutic agents to aid the regeneration of injured or diseased tissues and organs. In this paper, we conjugated sulfate groups to hyaluronic acid (HA) and demonstrated the slow degradation and growth factor delivery of sulfated HA. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo culture of hMSCs laden HA hydrogels proved that the sulfation of HA hydrogels not only promotes the chondrogenesis of hMSCs but also suppresses hypertrophic differentiation of the chondrogenically induced hMSCs. The animal OA model study showed that the injected

  14. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  15. Retardo do crescimento e condições sociais em escolares de Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil Linear growth retardation and social factors among schoolchildren from the city of Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a associação existente entre classe social e retardo do crescimento físico, ocorrido nos primeiros anos de vida. Com base em um censo de estatura, envolvendo alunos ingressantes em todas as escolas (públicas e particulares do Município de Osasco, região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, realizado no início do ano letivo de 1989, foram selecionados casos e controles para a investigação retrospectiva dos determinantes sociais do retardo do crescimento. Os casos, totalizando 125 ingressantes de sete a oito anos de idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade inferior a -2 escores Z da população de referência do NHCS/OMS. Os controles, totalizando 139 ingressantes da mesma idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade superior a -1 escore Z. Escolaridade do chefe da casa e da mãe, renda familiar per capita, condições de habitação e saneamento, ou seja, variáveis que devem mediar a relação entre classe social e déficit de estatura, foram fatores que se associaram significativamente com o risco de retardo do cresimento. Quanto à inserção da família no processo social de produção, avaliada através da classe social do chefe, as crianças do subproletariado apresentaram uma chance sete vezes maior de retardo do crescimento quando comparadas com as dos grupos da pequena burguesia, refletindo os efeitos biológicos da recessão econômica dos anos 80.Cases and controls were selected for this retrospective investigation of the social determinants of growth retardation, from a Height Census carried out in the 1989 school year,involving children attending the first grade of all public and private schools in Osasco (in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil. The cases, totalling 125 children entering school aged 7-8 years old, were characterized by a height-for-age index below -2 z score of the NCHS/WHO reference. The controls, totalling 139 children

  16. Misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device: an enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Ratna Biswas; Archana Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana MishraDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) migration subsequent to uterine wall perforation is an uncommon but serious complication. Three cases of misplaced IUCD at three different sites, ie, posterior fornix, rectal wall, and mesoappendix, are reported. An IUCD thread coming through the posterior fornix is reported in the literature for the first time.Key...

  17. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-01-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equal...

  18. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  20. STRIDER: Sildenafil Therapy In Dismal prognosis Early-onset intrauterine growth Restriction--a protocol for a systematic review with individual participant data and aggregate data meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevoort, Wessel; Alfirevic, Zarko; von Dadelszen, Peter; Kenny, Louise; Papageorghiou, Aris; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Gluud, Christian; Mol, Ben Willem; Baker, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by early-onset extreme fetal growth restriction, there is a high risk of preterm birth and an overall dismal fetal prognosis. Sildenafil has been suggested to improve this prognosis. The first aim of this review is to assess whether sildenafil benefits or harms these

  1. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  2. The Effects of Intrauterine Malnutrition on Maternal-Fetal Cholesterol Transport and Fetal Lipid Synthesis in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, Hester; van Straten, Esther M. E.; Baller, Julius F. W.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Kuipers, Folkert; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Plosch, Torsten

    Intrauterine malnutrition is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic diseases in adulthood. Growth-restricted infants display a less favorable lipid profile already shortly postnatal. Maternal low protein diet (LPD) during gestation is a well-defined model of fetal programming in rodents

  3. A suspicious reason for Raynaud's phenomenon: Intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Adem I; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Aksoy, Eray; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Çağlı, Kerim

    2015-06-01

    Primary Raynaud's phenomenon may be insistent in patients under medical therapy, and intrauterine devices may be an unnoticed reason in these patients. Fluctuations in female sex hormone status were reported to be associated with the emergence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms. The use of intrauterine devices was not reported to be associated with Raynaud's phenomenon previously. Intrauterine device may stimulate vascular hyperactivity regarding hormonal or unknown mechanisms that result in Raynaud's phenomenon. We present a postmenopausal patient who complained of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and had recovery after the removal of her copper intrauterine device. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Ectopic Intrauterine Device in the Bladder of a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kurdoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine perforation and transvesical migration of an intrauterine device are rare complications. Case. A 28-year-old woman who had an intrauterine device was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of amenorrhea lasting 5 weeks and pelvic pain lasting a year. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed embedding of the intrauterine device in the bladder. The misplaced device was removed by laparotomy. Conclusion. The followup of intrauterine device localization with transvaginal ultrasonography is essential for early detection of possible serious complications.

  5. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  6. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  7. Autosomal recessive intestinal lymphangiectasia and lymphedema, with facial anomalies and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Geerdink, R. A.; Hamel, B. C.; Hennekam, F. A.; Kraus, P.; Rammeloo, J. A.; Tillemans, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    We report on two male and two female relatives with intestinal lymphangiectasia; severe lymphedema of limbs, genitalia, and face; facial anomalies; seizures; mild growth retardation; and moderate mental retardation. Main facial anomalies are a flat face, flat nasal bridge, hypertelorism, small

  8. An assessment of sex chromosome copy number in a phenotypic female patient with hypergonadtropic hypogonadism, primary amenorrhea and growth retardation by GTG-banding and FISH in peripheral blood and skin tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, I.M.D.; DeMoranville, B.; Grollino, M.G. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The present report describes studies performed on an 18-year-old phenotypic female referred because of primary amenorrhea, hypergonadotropic hypoganadism and growth retardation. The clinical features raised the possibility of a gonadal dysgenesis. The ovaries were not identified on either side. Her testosterone was significantly elevated, with serum level at 48 ng/dl, and her free testosterone at 7 pg/ml. A GTG-banding analysis of 33 peripheral blood leukocytes revealed the modal number of chromosomes to be 46 per cell with a male sex constitution and normal appearing banding patterns (46,XY). In view of the clinical findings, additional cells were scored to rule out low percentage mosaicism. Out of 35 additional GTG-banded cells scored for the sex chromosomes, 4 cells (11.5%) were found to contain only one copy of the X chromosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual color biotinylated X and Y probes (Imagenetics) was subsequently performed. Out of approximately 500 cells scored, 87% were found to be XY and 9% were found to be positive for the X signal only, versus 7% and 3% X signal only for 2 XY controls, aged 61 and 46, respectively. As loss of the Y chromosome has been reported in elderly males as well as certain males with leukemia, the age of the controls was important to note. To unequivocally establish the presence of mosaicism, a skin biopsy was obtained for fibroblast culture. Out of 388 total cells scored, 286 (74%) were found to be XY and 46 (12%) were found to be X, versus 99% XY and <1% X in controls. GTG-banding analysis of the same fibroblast culture is currently in progress. Preliminary data on this specimen thus far corroborate results of the FISH study. The presence of XY cells, along with an increased testosterone level, raises the distinct possibility of a gonadoblastoma. In view of this increased risk, arrangements are being made for the patient to have a laparoscopy and surgical removal of her presumptive streak gonads.

  9. Glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2015-12-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the role of the glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine development. It examines the functional significance of these hormones as maturational, environmental and programming signals in determining offspring phenotype. What advances does it highlight? It focuses on the extensive nature of the regulatory actions of these hormones. It highlights the emerging data that these actions are mediated, in part, by the placenta, other endocrine systems and epigenetic modifications of the genome. Glucocorticoids are important regulatory signals during intrauterine development. They act as maturational, environmental and programming signals that modify the developing phenotype to optimize offspring viability and fitness. They affect development of a wide range of fetal tissues by inducing changes in cellular expression of structural, transport and signalling proteins, which have widespread functional consequences at the whole organ and systems levels. Glucocorticoids, therefore, activate many of the physiological systems that have little function in utero but are vital at birth to replace the respiratory, nutritive and excretory functions previously carried out by the placenta. However, by switching tissues from accretion to differentiation, early glucocorticoid overexposure in response to adverse conditions can programme fetal development with longer term physiological consequences for the adult offspring, which can extend to the next generation. The developmental effects of the glucocorticoids can be direct on fetal tissues with glucocorticoid receptors or mediated by changes in placental function or other endocrine systems. At the molecular level, glucocorticoids can act directly on gene transcription via their receptors or indirectly by epigenetic modifications of the genome. In this review, we examine the role and functional significance of glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine

  10. [The laboratory evaluation of pathogenic factors under retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, V M; Kireeva, E A; Karasev, A G

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to comparatively analyze metabolic profile and content of growth factors in blood serum of patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities. The evaluation was applied to concentration of metabolites, growth factors and enzyme activity of blood serum in 13 patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of thigh and shank bones (main group). The comparative group included 14 patients with solid fractures of thigh and shank bones. The analysis established that as compared to patients with solid fractures of bones, in patients with retarded consolidation of fractures blood serum contained reliably higher concentration of triglycerides, products of glycolysis, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors TGF-α and TGF-β2. The content of vitamin E and insullin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was decreased The given markers can be labeled as potential markers of diagnostic and prognosis of development of retarded consolidation of fractures.

  11. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  12. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intussusception is a known complication of Meckel's diverticulum. However, intrauterine intussusception secondary to Meckel's diverticulum has unknown incidence. Our case describes the medical and surgical management of a newborn with intrauterine intussusception of a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of the vascular ...

  14. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.1044a Section 529.1044a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution...

  15. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50 Section 529.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution...

  16. Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, Petronella Al; Mochtar, Monique H.; O'Brien, Paul A.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-01-01

    The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start

  17. Immediate postpartum versus 6-week postpartum intrauterine device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of postpartum intrauterine device insertion and to demonstrate that the postpartum intrauterine device is acceptable to women. Women attending prenatal care at a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi were recruited into a trial ...

  18. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine. Contraceptive Device. Abdullahi Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi Ogunleye. INTRODUCTION. Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are acceptable means of contraception world over.[1-4] There have been reports of its migration to other adjourning sites ...

  19. Intrauterine fetal death and risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Dobbin, Joanna; McCallion, Oliver; Eskild, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Vaginal delivery is recommended after intrauterine fetal death. However, little is known about the risk of shoulder dystocia in these deliveries. We studied whether intrauterine fetal death increases the risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery. In this population-based register study using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, we included all singleton pregnancies with vaginal delivery of offspring in cephalic presentation in Norway during the period 1967-2012 (n = 2 266 118). Risk of shoulder dystocia was estimated as absolute risk (%) and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Adjustment was made for offspring birthweight (in grams). We performed sub-analyses within categories of birthweight (Shoulder dystocia occurred in 1.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 0.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia occurred in 14.6% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 2.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia occurred in 57.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and 9.6% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p shoulder dystocia at delivery, and the absolute risk of shoulder dystocia was particularly high if offspring birthweight was high and the mother had diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Sterilization of mentally retarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, J V; Roux, J P

    1987-08-01

    South Africa's Abortion and Sterilization Act No 2 (1975) authorizes sterilization for severely retarded women provided the procedure is performed in a state hospital, certified by 2 medical practitioners (1 a psychiatrist), and the parent or guardian gives informed consent. Since 1975, 152 sterilizations (140 female, 12 male) have been performed under the provisions of this Act at Pretoria's H F Verwoerd Hospital. 92% of the patients were under 20 years of age. The majority were classified as profoundly or severely retarded (74) or moderately severely retarded (68). There were 20 patients with Down's syndrome and 22 with cerebral palsy. Hysterectomy was the method of choice in the 109 women in whom menstrual hygiene was a pertinent factor; the remaining 31 women were sterilized by tubal ligation. 98% of the parents or guardians of hysterectomy acceptors surveyed were satisfied with their decision and its outcome. Several indicated their daughter was more calm, cooperative, productive, and less irritable once relieved of her menstrual periods. A multidisciplinary team approach to the decision making process and the individualization of each case are essential to protect the rights of the mentally retarded. Factors such as the psychological trauma likely to result from pregnancy and childbirth, an inability to use contraception, and unsuitability to rear a child must be demonstrated. To ensure that legislation pertaining to the sterilization of the mentally retarded does not lead to abuse, inputs from the mental health professions are required.

  1. Twins and neurodevelopmental outcomes: the effect of IVF, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briana, Despina D; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2018-01-16

    This invited review aimed at presenting the evidence concerning neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly cerebral palsy (CP), motor disability, cognitive impairment, mental retardation, any major disability, blindness and deafness in cases of twins, conceived after in vitro fertilization, presenting fetal/intrauterine growth restriction (FGR/IUGR) or being prematurely born. FGR/IUGR, prematurity and zygosity affect neurodevelopmental outcome; CP is higher in term infants, those presenting with FGR/IUGR, as well as in survivors of intrauterine co-twin death; cognitive ability of twins versus singletons mainly relates to confounding factors, as FGR/IUGR and prematurity, while evidence for differences in behavioral and psychiatric disorders between twins and singletons is limited. The impact of IVF per se has not been documented. Nevertheless, available literature, usually of heterogeneous and retrospective nature, diverges in the criteria for neurodevelopmental delay. Furthermore, differences in selection/exclusion criteria and small mixed cohorts, including the full range of complications, make comparison of the existing studies difficult. Future studies should focus in confirming the lack of IVF impact on twins' neurodevelopment and general health, in comparing long-term outcome of naturally conceived twins with those conceived following assisted reproduction techniques and in including evaluation of individual, longitudinal trajectories of growth, and development. In this respect, worldwide population-based registries will enable more precise description of neurodevelopmental outcomes among twins.

  2. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane K Tilley

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age.Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age.Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development.Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  3. Comparison of copper intrauterine device with levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system for post-abortion contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgehan, Fatma; Dilbaz, Berna; Karadag, Burak; Deveci, Canan Dura

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, bleeding pattern, effects, side-effects, complications and 6-month continuity rates of levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conventional copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) inserted immediately after voluntary termination of pregnancy up to 10 weeks of gestation. One hundred women who underwent voluntary pregnancy termination and preferred IUD insertion as a contraceptive method after counseling were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated to Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS and followed up at 10 days, and at 1, 3 and 6 months. The expulsion rates, continuation rates, side-effects, and bleeding patterns were compared. Fifty women in the Cu-IUD group and 44 women in the LNG-IUS group were followed up. The continuity and expulsion rate for Cu-IUD and LNG-IUS at the end of 6 months was 74%, 12%, and 75%, 11.3%, respectively. In LNG-IUS users, the incidence of amenorrhea and the number of spotting days were higher and hemoglobin increased throughout the follow-up period. The side-effects related to both methods were not different from interval insertions. Immediate post-abortion intrauterine contraception with Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS is a safe, reliable method. The incidence of side-effects is similar, and there is only a slightly higher rate of expulsion but an acceptable rate of method continuation. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have. :olour preferences, preferring, for example, to pick red and yellow sweets from a multicoloured supply. Among normal nursery-school children the same 2 colours feature in tests for preference, and it has been suggested' that it might be useful to utilize these ...

  5. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  6. Non-constant retardation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen

    2004-12-01

    Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)

  7. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  8. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. Vesical transmigration of an intrauterine contraceptive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wei; Zhang, Wenlei; Jia, Guifeng; Cui, Miao; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Displacement of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a rare and serious complication of IUD insertion. Theoretically, it can migrate to anywhere in the pelvic and abdominal cavity. However, it is not usual for an IUD to migrate to the bladder. Patient concerns: In this case report, we reported a patient with chronic urinary symptoms caused by the migration of an IUD into the bladder. The displacement of the IUD led to contraception failure and IUD retention in the bladder for 5 years. Diagnoses: Pelvic ultrasonography (US), radiography, and cystoscopy examinations confirmed the migration of IUD in bladder. Interventions: The patient underwent cystoscopy. Outcomes: The MCu IUD was successfully removed without any complications. Lessons: Our study demonstrated that a missing IUD should be followed up and removed early to avoid possible serious complications. PMID:28984781

  10. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population.

  11. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  12. De novo partial duplication 7(q11.2{r_arrow}q21.2) in a dysmorphic, developmentally retarded boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.; Pinsky, L.; Teebi, A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving chromosome 7q are rare; we report a case of partial duplication 7q. The propositus was born at 34 weeks by cesarian section, decided because of oligohydramnios, severe intrauterine growth retardation and fetal immobility. At birth, the baby was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference and had dysmorphic features, including slight asymmetry of the face, bilateral epicanthus, hypoplastic nasal bridge, short globular nose, asymmetrical dysplastic ears, fifth finger clinodactyly, short second and fifth toe. Ultrasound examination showed atrial and ventricular septal defects. At 18 months, the child had a fracture of the femur, secondary to a minor trauma; skeletal X-rays showed generalized osteoporosis and normal healing. The karyotype with GTG-banding showed a de novo partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 7 (46,XX,dup(7)(q11.23{r_arrow}q21.2)). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a painting probe specific for chromosome 7 confirmed the intra-chromosomal rearrangement. The patient`s phenotype and his chromosomal abnormality do not match the previously reported cases of partial trisomy 7q. This case confirms the importance of FISH for the delineation of the chromosomal inbalance in structural chromosomal aberrations.

  13. Investigation of knowledge level about intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Dagdeviren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate a level of knowledge about intrauterine device between females who were examined in our gynecology department. Metods: The study was conducted at Gynecology and Obstetric Department of Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital between August 2012-November 2012. The study were included 189 patients who accepted to participate. For collecting data; a form of questionnaire was used which has gived information about the intrauterine device (IUD and status of socio-demographic characteristics of the patients. The questionnaire were administered by the researchers in a separate room as a face-to-face interviews. SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA program was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the women in the study was 31.1 ± 9.9. 44.7% of women were not using any modern contraceptive method. IUD utilization rate was 3.2%. 1.6% of women had never heard IUD, %76.1 women heard copper IUD. 42% of respondents gave the wrong answer to IUD inserted into ovaries. Conclusion: The IUD which is a cheap, does not require patient compliance, and has high efficacy. In this study, we were not found a statisfically significant difference for answers to questions in patients with different socio-demographic characteristics. The main result of the study was; among all parcipitians ,even health care workers there was an important disability about level of knowledge for IUD. It is great importance the whole society, including health professionals must train about family planning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 440-445

  14. Effects of Growth Hormone on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Describe the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the skeleton. The GH and IGF-1 axis has pleiotropic effects on the skeleton throughout the lifespan by influencing bone formation and resorption. GH deficiency leads to decreased bone turnover, delayed statural growth in children, low bone mass, and increased fracture risk in adults. GH replacement improves adult stature in GH deficient children, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in adults, and helps to optimize peak bone acquisition in patients, during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, who have persistent GH deficiency. Observational studies suggest that GH replacement may mitigate the excessive fracture risk associated with GH deficiency. Acromegaly, a state of GH and IGF-1 excess, is associated with increased bone turnover and decreased BMD in the lumbar spine observed in some studies, particularly in patients with hypogonadism. In addition, patients with acromegaly appear to be at an increased risk of morphometric-vertebral fractures, especially in the presence of active disease or concurrent hypogonadism. GH therapy also has beneficial effects on statural growth in several conditions characterized by GH insensitivity, including chronic renal failure, Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, postnatal growth delay in patients with intrauterine growth retardation who do not demonstrate catchup growth, idiopathic short stature, short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene mutations, and Noonan syndrome. GH and IGF-1 have important roles in skeletal physiology, and GH has an important therapeutic role in both GH deficiency and insensitivity states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  16. Intrauterine low-functional programming of IGF1 by prenatal nicotine exposure mediates the susceptibility to osteoarthritis in female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Zhang, Xianrong; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether female adult offspring born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) are susceptible to osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the underlying programming mechanisms. Pregnant rats were treated with nicotine or saline at 2.0 mg/kg/d from gestational d 11 to 20. The female adult offspring with or without PNE were forced with a strenuous treadmill running for 6 wk to induce OA. Nicotine's effects on fetal articular chondrocytes were studied by exposing chondrocytes to nicotine for 10 d, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitor, was used to identify the change of nicotine's effect. For adult offspring, increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression were observed in the PNE group with running; the expression of α1 chain of type II collagen (Col2A1), aggrecan, SRY-type high mobility group box 9 (Sox9), and IGF1 signaling molecules in the cartilage of PNE offspring were decreased. For fetuses, elevated serum corticosteroid and nicotine levels and suppressed IGF1 levels were observed; expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, Sox9, and IGF1 were reduced. The result of chondrocytes revealed that nicotine impeded the expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, and IGF1; blocking α4β2-nAChR rescued nicotine's suppression. In conclusion, PNE increases the susceptibility of adult offspring to OA; the potential mechanism involves IGF1 low-functional programming in articular cartilage caused directly by the action of nicotine on α4β2-nAChR. © FASEB.

  17. Intrauterine bacterial findings in postpartum cows with retained fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, M; Jonsson, P; Ekman, T; Kindahl, H

    1994-11-01

    Eleven Swedish postpartum cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were studied to determine the intrauterine bacterial flora. Bacteriological examination was performed from twice weekly uterine biopsies. A total of 161 biopsies were collected during the first 8 weeks postpartum of which 82 (50.9%) were found with bacterial growth. Seventy-one of the 82 bacteria-positive biopsies (86.6%) showed mixed infections whereas the remaining 11 (13.4%) were pure cultures. Generally, a total of 322 isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacteria, 6 facultative and 6 obligate anaerobic pathogens were identified. Mixed infections were most frequent for Actinomyces pyogenes together with obligate anaerobic bacteria, especially Bacteroides levii/spp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum. All of the studied cows had an infection that involved the first two genera of bacteria, whereas F. necrophorum was found in 8 of the 11 animals. The present work suggests that a possible pathogenic synergism between A. pyogenes and the two main Gram-negative anaerobes might have caused early endometritis and/or persistent infection.

  18. A comparison of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of adhesion reformation following hysteroscopic surgery for Asherman syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaona; Wei, Minling; Li, T C; Huang, Qiongxiao; Huang, Dong; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Songying

    2013-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of the adhesion reformation after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman's syndrome. Retrospective cohort study of 107 women with Asherman's syndrome who were treated with hysteroscopic division of intrauterine adhesions. After hysteroscopic adhesiolysis, 20 patients had intrauterine balloon inserted, 28 patients had intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) fitted, 18 patients had hyaluronic acid gel instilled into the uterine cavity, and 41 control subjects did not have any of the three additional treatment measures. A second-look hysteroscopy was performed in all cases, and the effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis was scored by the American Fertility Society classification system. Both the intrauterine balloon group and the IUD group achieved significantly (Pintrauterine balloon or intrauterine device is more effective than the use of hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of intra-uterine adhesion reformation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meckel's diverticulum: the lead point of intrauterine intussusception with subsequent intestinal atresia in a newborn. Viet H. Le, Paul A. Perry, Allyson L. Hale, Robert L. Gates, John C. Chandler ...

  20. Postplacental intrauterine device expulsion by 12 weeks: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthwaite, Lisa M; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Hyer, Jennifer; Tocce, Kristina; Teal, Stephanie B

    2017-12-01

    An intrauterine device placed immediately following a delivery can serve as an effective and safe contraceptive strategy in the postpartum period. There is limited evidence that the levonorgestrel intrauterine system may have a higher rate of expulsion compared to the copper intrauterine device; however, rates of expulsion for these 2 intrauterine device types have not been compared directly. We sought to compare expulsion rates by 12 weeks' postpartum for the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and copper intrauterine device. We enrolled women who received postplacental intrauterine devices at 2 urban hospitals. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, with singleton vaginal delivery at ≥35 weeks' gestation. Intrauterine devices were inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery by trained providers using ring forceps or the operator's hand. Intrauterine device location was evaluated via abdominal ultrasound at 24-48 hours' postpartum, and via transvaginal ultrasound 6 and 12 weeks later, categorizing position of the intrauterine device at the fundus, below the fundus but above the internal os, any part of the intrauterine device below the internal os (partial expulsion), or no intrauterine device visualized. Outcomes included intrauterine device expulsion and method continuation. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with expulsion. We enrolled 123 women ages 18-40 years. Of these, 68 (55%) initiated levonorgestrel intrauterine system and 55 (45%) initiated copper intrauterine device. Groups were similar except more copper intrauterine device users were Hispanic (66% vs 38%) and fewer were primiparous (16% vs 31%). Among the 96 (78%) with 12-week follow-up, expulsion was higher for levonorgestrel intrauterine system users (21/55 or 38%) than for copper intrauterine device users (8/41 or 20%) (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-6.55; P = .05). At 24 hours' postpartum, there was no

  1. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  2. Continuation of copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Hofler, Lisa G; Modest, Anna M; Harvey, Lara F B; Wu, Lily H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-07-01

    Studies conflict on whether the duration of use of the copper intrauterine device is longer than that of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and whether women who continue using intrauterine devices differ from those who discontinue. We sought to assess continuation rates and performance of levonorgestrel intrauterine devices compared with copper intrauterine devices over a 5-year period. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1164 individuals who underwent intrauterine device placement at an urban academic medical center. The analysis focused on a comparison of continuation rates between those using levonorgestrel intrauterine device and copper intrauterine device, factors associated with discontinuation, and intrauterine device performance. We assessed the differences in continuation at discrete time points, pregnancy, and expulsion rates using χ 2 tests and calculated hazard ratios using a multivariable Cox model. Of 1164 women who underwent contraceptive intrauterine device insertion, 956 had follow-up data available. At 2 years, 64.9% of levonorgestrel intrauterine device users continued their device, compared with 57.7% of copper intrauterine device users (P = .11). At 4 years, continuation rates were 45.1% for levonorgestrel intrauterine device and 32.6% for copper intrauterine device (P intrauterine device and 23.8% for copper intrauterine device (P = .33). Black race, primiparity, and age were positively associated with discontinuation; education was not. The hazard ratio for discontinuation of levonorgestrel intrauterine device compared with copper intrauterine device >4 years was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.93) and >5 years was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) after adjusting for race, age, parity, and education. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely to experience expulsion (10.2% copper intrauterine device vs 4.9% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P intrauterine device vs 0.1% levonorgestrel intrauterine

  3. [Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

    2014-06-01

    Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous womeneffected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of action of intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M E; Croxatto, H B; Bardin, C W

    1996-12-01

    The major effect of all intrauterine devices (IUD) is to induce a local inflammatory reaction in the endometrium whose cellular and humoral components are released into the uterine cavity. This inflammatory reaction has a variable effect on the reproductive strategy of the species studied. For example, this foreign body reaction can be localized within the uterus of rodents; and in farm animals it can have striking extrauterine effects. Thus, the action of IUDs in humans cannot be discerned from animals. In humans, copper ions released from Cu-IUDs enhance the inflammatory response and reach concentrations in the luminal fluids of the genital tract that are toxic for spermatozoa and embryos. In women using the IUD, the entire genital tract seems affected, at least in part, because of luminal transmission of the fluids that accumulates in the uterine lumen. This affects the function or viability of gametes, decreasing the rate of fertilization and lowering the chances of survival of any embryo that may be formed, even before it reaches the uterus. Studies on the recovery of eggs from women using IUDs and from women not using contraception show that embryos are formed in the tubes of IUD users at a much lower rate compared with nonusers. This is believed to be the major action of IUDs. Therefore, the common belief that the major mechanism of action of IUDs in women is through destruction of embryos in the uterus (i.e., abortion) is not supported by the available evidence. In Cu-IUD users, it is likely that few spermatozoa reach the distal segment of the fallopian tube, those that encounter an egg may be in poor condition. Thus, the few eggs that are fertilized have little chance for development and their possibility for survival in the altered tubal milieu become worse as they approach the uterine cavity.

  5. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K; Rinaudo, Paolo F

    2014-01-01

    The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves. Because growth kinetics in early life are

  6. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth: pregnancy in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Geilswijk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient’s first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident. During the second pregnancy with a viable fetus, blood glucose levels were managed through dietary intervention alone. Thus, the patient was advised to take small but frequent meals high in fiber and low in carbohydrates. Throughout pregnancy, no incidences of severe hypoglycemia occurred and fetal growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during pregnancy.

  7. A Lower-Cost Option for Intrauterine Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Liletta (Actavis, Dublin, Ireland), a new intrauterine device for contraception. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as first-line pregnancy prevention. LARC efficacy rates are similar to those of sterilization, with the possibility for quick return of fertility upon removal of the device. Despite benefits and recommendations for this form of contraception, access and high cost remain barriers to use. Liletta is the first lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Available to qualified clinics and health centers at a reduced rate, this device may increase availability and decrease the overall cost to women who desire intrauterine contraception. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Familial mental retardation: a continuing dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, E

    1967-01-20

    The heterogeneous nature of mental retardation, as well as certain common practices of workers in the area, has resulted in a variety of conceptual am biguities. Considerable order could be brought to the area if, instead of viewing all retardates as a homogeneous group arbitrarily defined by some I.Q. score, workers would clearly distinguish between the group of retardates known to suffer from some organic defect and the larger group of retardates referred to as familial retardates. It is the etiology of familial retardation that currently constitutes the greatest mystery. A number of authorities have emphasized the need for employing recent polygenic models of inheritance in an effort to understand the familial retardate. While appreciating the importance of environment in affecting the distribution determined by genetic inheritance, these workers have argued that familial retardates are not essentially different from individuals of greater intellect, but represent, rather, the lower portion of the intellectual curve which reflects normal intellectual variability. As emphasized by the two-group approach, retardates with known physiological or organic defect are viewed as presenting a quite different etiological problem. The familial retardate, on the other hand, is seen as a perfectly normal expression of the population gene pool, of slower and more limited intellectual development than the individual of average intellect. This view generates the proposition that retardates and normals at the same general cognitive level-that is, of the same mental age-are similar in respect to their cognitive functioning. However, such a proposition runs headlong into findings that retardates and normals of the same mental age often differ in performance. Such findings have bolstered what is currently the most popular theoretical approach to retarded functioning-namely, the view that all retardates suffer from some specific defect which inheres in mental retardation and thus

  9. Anticipated pain as a predictor of discomfort with intrauterine device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Blair; Peipert, Leah J; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine devices have been gaining popularity for the past 2 decades. Current data report that >10% of women who use contraception are using an intrauterine device. With intrauterine device is one of the most effective forms of long-acting reversible contraception, yet evidence shows that fear of pain during intrauterine device placement deters women from choosing an intrauterine device as their contraceptive method. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the association between anticipated pain with intrauterine device placement and experienced pain. We also assessed other factors associated with increased discomfort during intrauterine device placement. We hypothesized that patients with higher levels of anticipated pain would report a higher level of discomfort during placement. We performed a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. There were 9256 patients enrolled in Contraceptive CHOICE Project from the St. Louis region from 2007-2011; data for 1149 subjects who came for their first placement of either the original 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine system or the copper intrauterine device were analyzed in this study. Patients were asked to report their anticipated pain before intrauterine device placement and experienced pain during placement on a 10-point visual analog scale. We assessed the association of anticipated pain, patient demographics, reproductive characteristics, and intrauterine device type with experienced pain with intrauterine device placement. The mean age of Contraceptive CHOICE Project participants in this subanalysis was 26 years. Of these 1149 study subjects, 44% were black, and 53% were of low socioeconomic status. The median expected pain score was 5 for both the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and the copper intrauterine device; the median experienced pain score was 5 for the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and 4 for the copper intrauterine device. After we controlled for parity, history of

  10. Eye size in threshold retinopathy of prematurity, based on a Danish preterm infant series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans Callø; Fledelius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation.......To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation....

  11. Fetal programming of blood pressure in a transgenic mouse model of altered intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Costantine, Maged M; Tamayo, Esther; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Longo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide is essential in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy, as knockout mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have abnormal utero-placental perfusion, hypertension and growth restriction. We previously showed with ex vivo studies on transgenic animals lacking NOS3 that adverse intrauterine environment alters fetal programming of vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The current research shows that altered vascular reactivity correlates with higher blood pressure in vivo. Our data suggest that higher blood pressure depends on both genetic background (NOS3 deficiency) and uterine environment, becomes more evident with age (> 7 postnatal weeks), activity and stress, is gender specific (preponderant among males), and can be affected by the sleep-awake cycle. In utero or early postnatal life (programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3 +/+ ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3 -/- (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu) and NOS3 +/+ (WT) litters. BP was measured in vivo at 7, 14 and 21 weeks of age. After univariate analysis, multivariate population-averaged linear regression models were used to identify factors affecting BP. When compared to WT offspring, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) BP progressively increased from KOP, to KOM, and peaked among KO (P 7 postnatal weeks), higher locomotor activity, daytime recordings, and recent blood pressure transducer insertion (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that KOM had higher SBP than KOP (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that adverse intrauterine environment contributes, along with multiple other factors, to account for hypertension; moreover, in utero or early postnatal life may represent

  12. Intrauterine devices and risk of uterine perforation: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam; Oloto, Emeka; Horwell, David H

    2016-01-01

    Uterine perforation is an uncommon complication of intrauterine device insertion, with an incidence of one in 1,000 insertions. Perforation may be complete, with the device totally in the abdominal cavity, or partial, with the device to varying degrees within the uterine wall. Some studies show a positive association between lactation and perforation, but a causal relationship has not been established. Very rarely, a device may perforate into bowel or the urinary tract. Perforated intrauterine devices can generally be removed successfully at laparoscopy. PMID:29386934

  13. Removal of an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, David; Latta, Richard

    2013-06-01

    A woman with a viable intrauterine 12-week pregnancy and an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device had the device successfully removed under local anesthesia. The pregnancy continued without complication. The decision to remove an intraabdominal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device during pregnancy remains controversial. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5360 - Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and introducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and... Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5360 Contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) and introducer. (a) Identification. A contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) is a device used to prevent pregnancy. The device is...

  15. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  16. The Mentally Retarded Defendant-Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Cary L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Three conclusions were drawn regarding the majority of the states: they have not adopted a definition of mental retardation; they have litte information on the prevalence of mentally retarded imprisoned persons; and they are not providing training for judges or lawyers on this topic. (CL)

  17. Defining Mental Retardation from an Instructional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)

  18. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  19. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  20. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  1. MHC class I cross-talk with CD2 and CD28 induces specific intracellular signalling and leads to growth retardation and apoptosis via a p56(lck)-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, M; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Claesson, M H

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) on human T lymphoma cells (Jurkat) initiates p56(lck)-dependent intracellular signalling events (phosphotyrosine kinase activity; [Ca(2+)](i)) and leads to augmented growth inhibition and apoptosis. MHC-I ligation in concert...... of apoptosis. In parallel experiments with the p56(lck)-negative Jurkat mutant cell, JCaM1.6, cross-linking neither influenced cell signalling nor cellular growth functions, indicating a cardinal role of the src kinases in signal transduction via MHC-I, CD2 and CD28 molecules. The results presented here...... with ligation of CD2 or CD28 augments, changes or modifies the pattern of activation. Ligation of MHC-I and CD2 alone resulted in growth inhibition, whereas CD28 ligation alone had no effect on cell proliferation. Ligation of MHC-I together with CD2 augmented growth inhibition and enhanced the level...

  2. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  3. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Allersma, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the treatment of first choice for a subfertile couple when the infertility work up reveals an ovulatory cycle, at least one open Fallopian tube and sufficient spermatozoa. The final goal of this treatment is to achieve a pregnancy and

  4. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagen, E.C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the

  5. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifnan, F.; Jameel, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and to find out the place of fetal destructive procedures and cesarean section. All women were included in the present study who presented before the onset of labour pains, after intrauterine fetal death at 26 weeks or onward with singleton pregnancy. Assessment of maternal demographic characteristics, gestational age at fetal demise, delivery-IUFD interval, mode of delivery; vaginal with or without fetal destructive procedures/cesarean section and maternal complications were the main outcome measures. There were 1834 live birth and 63 deliveries with intrauterine fetal death. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 87.4% and cesarean section in 12.6% of the cases. Twelve (21%) of the vaginal deliveries were complicated by lower urogenital tract injuries in certain cases, whereas 75% (6/8) of patients delivered by cesarean section developed major postoperative complications like postpartum haemorrhage, shock, endometritis, peritonitis and wound dehiscence. No maternal death was identified. Rate of delivery with intrauterine fetal death was 34.3/1000 live-birth deliveries. (author)

  6. Intrauterine adhesions at the University of Maiduguri Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context; Menstrual abnormalities and infertility are leading gynaecological complaints which can be caused by intrauterine adhesion, a preventable condition. Hence, the need to know the common aetiological factors in our environment. Objective; To determine the mode of presentation, aetiological factors and outcome of ...

  7. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  8. Major complication after intrauterine vesico-amniotic shunting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major complication after intrauterine vesico-amniotic shunting. A Springer, R Fartacek, CA Reck, E Horcher, D Bettelheim. Abstract. Bilateral foetal uropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal failure in childhood. Vesico-amniotic shunting (VAS) is a simple, feasible, and widely used procedure for decompressing the foetal ...

  9. Reasons for Intrauterine Device Use, Discontinuation and Non-Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC1; UNC Project,. Lilongwe, Malawi2 ... Keywords: Intrauterine Device, IUD, Africa, Malawi, Sub-Saharan Africa, Qualitative Research. Résumé ... factors affecting method choice include individuals' knowledge and beliefs as.

  10. Indications for removal of intrauterine contraceptive devices in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are commonly used reversible methods of contraception. The CuT 380A is recommended for use for 10 years but common observation has shown that they are removed much earlier than the recommended duration of use. Methodology: A retrospective study of all clients ...

  11. Pelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device use: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfuhaid, T. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Centre and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reinhold, C. [Radiology, Gastroenterology and Gynecology, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disease that may complicate longstanding intrauterine device (IUD) use. Its timely recognition is crucial to minimize morbidity and avoid the erroneous diagnosis of malignancy with subsequent, unnecessary surgery. We describe a case of pelvic actinomycosis. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recognizing this infectious disease process is stressed. (author)

  12. Rectal perforation with an intrauterine device: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichengreen, Courtney; Landwehr, Haley; Goldthwaite, Lisa; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented for routine examination 1 year after intrauterine device (IUD) placement; strings were not visualized. The device was found to be penetrating through the rectal mucosa. It was removed easily through the rectum during an examination under anesthesia. Perforated IUDs with rectal involvement require thoughtful surgical planning to optimize outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device amongst Clients in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Missing intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a known complication of IUCD use. Objective To examine the methods of diagnosis and Management modalities of missing IUCD at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Materials and Method This was a retrospective review of the records of all ...

  14. Profile Of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Acceptors At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of modern contraceptive methods has been shown to reduce unwanted pregnancy, high parity and maternal mortality. Intrauterine contraceptive devices which are among the safest and most effective reversible contraceptives available, are particularly suitable for women in developing countries as they ...

  15. Reasons for Intrauterine Device Use, Discontinuation and Non-Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, long-acting, and effective method of contraception that is under-utilized in many countries, including Malawi. A unique cohort of women who had enrolled in a trial of postpartum IUD use one year earlier gave insights into reasons for using, discontinuing, or not using the IUD.

  16. Bladder stone formation over a partially migrated intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a 42-year-old woman with a forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) presenting with irritative bladder symptoms and cyclical haematuria is reported. The threads of the IUCD were seen in the vagina during speculum examination. Partial migration of the IUCD into the bladder and formation of a large ...

  17. Intrauterine retained fetal bones as a cause of secondary infertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that bones re-tained freely in the endometrial cavity behave as an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). Be-cause of the many complications associated with mid-trimester dilatation and evacuation of the uterus, its role in modern gynaecology should be limited. It is suggested that retained fetal bones should ...

  18. Bladder stone formation over a partially migrated intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the past 3 years and cyclical haematuria for the past 6 months. Menstrual cycles were regular. She had undergone puerperal sterilisation 20 years ago. Vaginal speculum examination revealed threads of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The threads snapped during attempts to remove the device. The patient ...

  19. Good reasons to reconsider the copper intrauterine device for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Copper Intrauterine Devices [Cu IUDs] are extremely safe, highly effective, long acting yet rapidly reversible contraceptives. They are also very cost effective and suitable for use by a wide range of women, including nulliparous as well as HIV infected women. Despite a large body of scientific evidence attesting to its ...

  20. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non‑specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years ...