WorldWideScience

Sample records for intrauterine growth restricted

  1. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  2. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  4. Parental factors associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hăşmăşanu Monica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Linear growth failure is caused by multiple factors including parental factors. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR on a population of Romanian newborn infants in a tertiary level maternity facility for a period of 2.5 years. Methods. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in the Emergency County Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, a university hospital in North-Western Romania. The sample was selected from 4,790 infants admitted to the Neonatal Ward at 1st Gynecology Clinic between January 2012 and June 2014. Results. The age of mothers was significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls (p=0.041. A significantly higher percentage of mothers had hypertension in the IUGR group compared to those in the control group (p0.13. The age of fathers of infants with IUGR proved significantly lower compared to controls (p=0.0278. The analysis of infants’ comorbidities revealed no significant difference between groups for respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcaemia, and heart failure (p>0.27. Intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and hypoglycemia were significantly higher in the IUGR group compared to controls. The logistic regression identified hypertension as a significant risk factor for IUGR (OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3-4.5]. Conclusion. Although the age of the mothers and fathers proved significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls, only hypertension in the mothers proved significant risk factors for IUGR.

  5. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMAGe syndrome intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies Enable Javascript to view ... combination of intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies is commonly known by ...

  7. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Delisle, Marie-France; Hudon, Lynda; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Ouellet, Annie; Pressey, Tracy; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Contexte : Le retard de croissance intra-utérin (RCIU) est une complication obstétricale qui, par définition, serait constatée par dépistage chez 10 % des fœtus au sein de la population générale. Le défi consiste à identifier le sous-ensemble des grossesses qui sont affectées par un retard de croissance pathologique, de façon à permettre la mise en œuvre d’une intervention qui atténuerait les taux de morbidité et de mortalité. Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour objectif de fournir des déclarations sommaires et des recommandations, ainsi que d’établir un cadre pour le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge des grossesses affectées par un RCIU. Méthodes : Des grossesses affectées sont comparées à des grossesses dans le cadre desquelles le fœtus présente un poids convenant à son âge gestationnel. Les antécédents, l’examen physique et les analyses de laboratoire (y compris les marqueurs biochimiques et les caractéristiques échographiques du RCIU) sont analysées, et une stratégie de prise en charge est suggérée. Résultats : La littérature publiée en anglais a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en janvier 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé faisant appel à des termes MeSH (« fetal growth restriction » et « small for gestational age ») et à des mots clés (« fetal growth », « restriction », « growth retardation », « IUGR », « low birth weight », « small for gestational age ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d

  8. Cytosine methylation dysregulation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Einstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and control subjects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4A gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.

  9. Heart Morphometry in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Joffre Fríaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that cardiovascular disease in adulthood is influenced by prenatal or early postnatal events, regardless of lifestyle-related risk factors. Objective: to characterize the heart morphometry in Wistar rats with intrauterine growth restriction and to determine the differences between adolescents and adults of both sexes as well as the association with some morphometric variables at birth. Methods: a total of 80 rats in the control group and 80 in the experimental group were studied. The following morphometric variables were analyzed in the newborns: weight, height in addition to size, weight and volume of the heart, all in millimeters. Results: low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth restriction caused changes in heart morphometry, especially in heart weight and thickness of the left ventricle. These changes were observed in both sexes during adolescence and showed a slight predominance in adult males. Conclusions: these results led to an increased knowledge of the events involved in heart development in response to nutrient restriction in utero, which could contribute to the design of health strategies to reduce morbidity and perinatal mortality from heart diseases.

  10. Non-placental causes of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Nancy; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    Placental insufficiency, in some form or fashion, is associated with the majority of cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). There are numerous causes of IUGR which are not caused primarily by placental insufficiency, but indirectly lead to it. The causes of IUGR can be subdivided into fetal and maternal etiologies. The fetal etiologies consist of genetic diseases, congenital malformations, infections, multiple gestations, and placental/cord abnormalities. The maternal etiologies are categorized as follows: (1) decreased uteroplacental blood flow, (2) reduced blood volume, (3) decreased oxygen carrying capacity, (4) nutrition status, (5) teratogens, and (6) miscellaneous causes such as short interpregnancy intervals, race, maternal age, and low socioeconomic status. Knowledge of the etiologies of fetal growth restriction is essential, so that future care can be targeted at prevention. There are several primary and secondary prevention strategies that can be adopted.

  11. Serum cholesterol acceptor capacity in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecks, Ulrich; Rath, Werner; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Maass, Nicolai; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-02-14

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms whereby slowed intrauterine growth confers vascular risk are not clearly established. In general, a disturbed cholesterol efflux has been linked to atherosclerosis. The capacity of serum to accept cholesterol has been repeatedly evaluated in clinical studies by the use of macrophage-based cholesterol efflux assays and, if disturbed, precedes atherosclerotic diseases years before the clinical diagnosis. We now hypothesized that circulating cholesterol acceptors in IUGR sera specifically interfere with cholesterol transport mechanisms leading to diminished cholesterol efflux. RAW264.7 cells were used to determine efflux of [3H]-cholesterol in response to [umbilical cord serum (IUGR), n=20; controls (CTRL), n=20]. Cholesterol efflux was lower in IUGR as compared to controls [controls: mean 7.7% fractional [3H]-cholesterol efflux, standard deviation (SD)=0.98; IUGR: mean 6.3%, SD=0.79; P<0.0001]. Values strongly correlated to HDL (ρ=0.655, P<0.0001) and apoE (ρ=0.510, P=0.0008), and mildly to apoA1 (ρ=0.3926, P=0.0122) concentrations. Reduced cholesterol efflux in IUGR could account for the enhanced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life.

  12. Thrombocytopenia in Preterm Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda,Miwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sick preterm infants often have thrombocytopenia at birth, and this is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, or birth weights less than the 10th percentile. The pathogenesis of the thrombocytopenia and its importance in IUGR are still unclear. We studied the characteristics of preterm IUGR infants with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven singleton Japanese preterm IUGR infants were born between January 2002 and June 2007 at Okayama University Hospital. Infants with malformation, chromosomal abnormalities, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and maternal aspirin ingestion were excluded. The infants were divided into group A (n=8, which had thrombocytopenia within 72h after birth, and group B (n=19, which did not. There were significant differences in birth weight, head circumference, umbilical artery (UA-pulsatility index (PI, middle cerebral artery-PI, UA-pH, UA-pO2, and UA-pCO2. The infants in group A were smaller, had abnormal blood flow patterns, and were hypoxic at birth. We speculate that the infants with thrombocytopenia were more severely growth-restricted by chronic hypoxia. Thrombocytopenia is an important parameter for chronic hypoxia in the uterine.

  13. Expectant management of intrauterine growth restriction pregnancy: perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Andzane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is the reason for increased morbidity and mortality in all periods of human life. The development of this pathology defines a variety of factors many of which are preventable. There is still no developed effective tactics for pregnancy and delivery, which would protect both mother and child from undesirable consequences. Methods: The research was made in Riga Maternity hospital in Latvia. In the research were included 96 neonates with the weight below 10th percentile (IUGR group as well there was compiled the control group. We evaluated the condition of neonate by 13 criteria and studied its frequency depending on the gestational period. The weight of neonates was estimated using the percentile scales - intrauterine growth curves based on U.S. data. Results: In the subgroup of 37-39th week in the IUGR group in comparison with 40-42nd week subgroup, statistically more often was noticed hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia, acidosis, poor feeding, neurological abnormalities, transportation to an intensive care unit, transportation to another hospital for the further treatment and there was a higher number of days spent in the hospital. In the subgroup of 37-39th week in the control group were just 2 criteria that were statistically more frequent. Conclusions: Recognizing the IUGR to the fetus, there is justified the temporizing tactics with regard to resolution of pregnancy if only the health status of mother allows that and preeclampsia is excluded. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 312-315

  14. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  15. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  16. Induction versus expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction at term : randomised equivalence trial (DIGITAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, K. E.; Vijgen, S. M. C.; Bijlenga, D.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Bekedam, D. J.; Kwee, A.; van der Salm, P. C. M.; van Pampus, M. G.; Spaanderman, M. E. A.; de Boer, K.; Duvekot, J. J.; Bremer, H. A.; Hasaart, T. H. M.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; van Meir, C. A.; Willekes, C.; Wijnen, E. J.; Rijken, M.; le Cessie, S.; Roumen, F. J. M. E.; Thornton, J. G.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Design Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Setting Eight academic and 44 n

  17. Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria; Rakhorst, G.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon p

  18. New Approaches to Treatment of Severe Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Kurmangali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality due to placental insufficiency. Currently, one of the new approaches to treating this disease is the injection of nutrients to the fetus through intravascular port-systems (catheters.Objective. To assess the impact of nutrient injections as treatment to fetuses with severe growth retardation.Materials and methods. Pregnant women with IUGR (abdominal circumference (AC < 5th percentile with the absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and a fetal gestational age of less than 30 weeks were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group included six pregnant women who had an intravascular port-system for the infusion of nutrients (amino acids and glucose in the umbilical vein of the fetus for 14 ± 3 days. The control group consisted of eight patients who received only traditional dynamic monitoring and delivery at the optimum time of pregnancy. Fetal status was assessed using ultrasound equipment Accuvix V20 (Medison, South Korea by examining indicators of biometry and Doppler study of blood flow in utero, umbilical arteries, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus with fetal vascular resistance index calculation - pulsatility index (PI. Criteria for blood flow disturbances in the vessels were considered PI values above normal values for their gestational age, which were defined as absence or reverse blood flow in a diastole in the umbilical artery.Results. In a comparative analysis of the two groups, the treatment led to a 44.7% increase in AC of the fetus (121.0 ± 11.5 mm and 219.3 ± 18.3 mm, respectively, p ˂ 0.001. In all cases, the profile of blood flow in the umbilical artery had a positive diastolic component. As a result, there was a 45.3% decrease in PI in the umbilical artery (2.14 ± 0.54 and 1.17 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.05. Average fetal weight in the study group was not significantly higher than the

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  20. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  1. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic a

  2. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  3. [Maternal cannabis use and intra-uterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitian, C; Uzan, M; Tigaizin, A; Ducarme, G; Dauphin, H; Poncelet, C

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these studies have suffered from several methodological biases. The maternal marijuana use should be first and foremost detected in pregnant women for a specific addiction management and pregnancy follow-up.

  4. Influence of intrauterine growth restriction on renal function in the adult rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M. F.; Van Wijk, J. A. E.; Fodor, M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.

    2007-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been shown to influence renal development and lead to fewer nephrons. Data on long term renal function after IUGR are limited. We studied the effect on renal function of IUGR in aging rats. IUGR was induced using a model of bilateral uterine artery ligation

  5. Reduced placental telomere length during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Toutain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study. METHODS: In our center, late chorionic villus samplings were performed between 18 and 37 weeks of amenorrhea in 24 subjects with severe intrauterine growth restriction (cases and in 28 subjects with other indications for prenatal diagnosis (controls. Placental insufficiency was assessed by histo-pathological examination. Relative measurement of telomere length was carried out prospectively by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using fluorescent Peptide Nucleic Acid probes on interphase nuclei obtained from long-term cultured villi and with an automated epifluorescent microscope. A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was performed to confirm the quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization results. The number of copies of gene loci encoding the RNA template (hTERC and the catalytic subunit (hTERT of the enzyme complex telomerase were also estimated in these placentas by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Mean fluorescence intensity of telomere probes estimated by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization was significantly less for cases compared to controls (p<0.001. This result indicated that mean telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Reduced telomere length was confirmed by the quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. No copy number variation of the hTERC and hTERT loci was noticed for cases, or for controls. CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates a reduction of placental telomere length in ongoing pregnancies

  6. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Corvino; Volpato,G.T.; M.V.C. Rudge; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IU...

  7. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta : the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J.A.; Pemberton, H. N.; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T.J.; McCabe, C. J.; Kilby, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for T3 in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hyp...

  8. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Shiao Y Chan; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N.M.; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; Christopher J. McCabe; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and de...

  9. Inflammatory Markers in the Second Trimester Prior to Clinical Onset of Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Sofie; Salvig, Jannie Dalby; Aabye, Martine;

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C-reactive prot......Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C...

  10. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  11. Postnatal growth after intrauterine growth restriction alters central leptin signal and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Coupé

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by affecting central homeostatic circuitry. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin resistance was programmed by perinatal nutritional environment and to decipher potential cellular mechanisms underneath.We clearly demonstrated that 5 months old IUGR rats develop a decrease of leptin sentivity, characterized by no significant reduction of food intake following an intraperitoneal injection of leptin. Apart from the resistance to leptin injection, results obtained from IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up growth differed from those of IUGR rats with no catch-up since we observed, for the first group only, fat accumulation, increased appetite for food rich in fat and increased leptin synthesis. Centrally, the leptin resistant state of both groups was associated with a complex and not always similar changes in leptin receptor signalling steps. Leptin resistance in IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up was associated with alteration in AKT and mTOR pathways. Alternatively, in IUGR rats with no catch-up, leptin resistance was associated with low hypothalamic expression of LepRa and LepRb. This study reveals leptin resistance as an early marker of metabolic disorders that appears before any evidence of body weight increase in IUGR rats but whose mechanisms could depend of nutritional environment of the perinatal period.

  12. Genetic, metabolic and endocrine aspect of intrauterine growth restriction: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Pradeep; Shastri, Sweta

    2017-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as growth of fetus below its in-utero growth potential. Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined as newborn with birth weight less than 10th centile as per the gestational age, sex and race. There exists major difference between IUGR and SGA. IUGR infants have multiple short-term and long-term complications and IUGR is a silent cause of various morbidities and mortalities in these infants. IUGR/SGA is usually end results of maternal, placental, fetal and genetic causes. With the advance of molecular biology, the list genetic cause of IUGR is increasing and these genetic causes include maternal, placental and fetal genes. Several metabolic and endocrinal causes are also responsible to cause IUGR. In this review, we will try to cover genetic, metabolic and endocrinal factors that are responsible for IUGR.

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C.; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals. PMID:22851979

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  15. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (Pdevelopment. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  16. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  17. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  18. Perinatal Changes of Cardiac Troponin-I in Normal and Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Iacovidou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR implies fetal hypoxia, resulting in blood flow redistribution and sparing of vital organs (brain, heart. Serum cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI, a well-established marker of myocardial ischaemia, was measured in 40 mothers prior to delivery, the doubly clamped umbilical cords (representing fetal state, and their 20 IUGR and 20 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA neonates on day 1 and 4 postpartum. At all time points, no differences in cTnI levels were observed between the AGA and IUGR groups. Strong positive correlations were documented between maternal and fetal/neonatal values (r≥.498, P≤.025 in all cases in the AGA and r≥.615, P≤.009 in all cases in the IUGR group. These results may indicate (a normal heart function, due to heart sparing, in the IUGR group (b potential crossing of the placental barrier by cTnI in both groups

  19. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  20. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  1. Ultrasound predictors of mortality in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K; Murakoshi, T; Hayashi, S; Saito, M; Sago, H; Takahashi, Y; Sumie, M; Nakata, M; Matsushita, M; Shinno, T; Naruse, H; Torii, Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ultrasound assessment to predict risk of mortality in expectantly managed monochorionic twin fetuses with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). This was a retrospective study of 101 monochorionic twin pregnancies diagnosed with sIUGR before 26 weeks of gestation. All patients were under expectant management during the observation period. At the initial evaluation, the presence or absence of each of the following abnormalities was documented: oligohydramnios; stuck twin phenomenon; severe IUGR fetuses were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 101 sIUGR twins, 22 (21.8%) fetuses suffered intrauterine demise and nine (8.9%) suffered neonatal death; 70 (69.3%) survived the neonatal period. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the stuck twin phenomenon (odds ratio (OR): 14.5; 95% CI: 2.2-93.2; P = 0.006) and constantly absent diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (OR: 29.4; 95% CI: 3.3-264.0; P = 0.003) were significant risk factors for mortality. Not only abnormal Doppler flow in the umbilical artery but also severe oligohydramnios should be recognized as important indicators for mortality in monochorionic twins with sIUGR.

  2. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the IUGR rats that had restricted milk intake during the suckling period (SM/SP; n = 4, p < 0.05 as compared to the normal growth controls (CM/CP; n=4, and access to ad lib milk intake during the sucking period partially corrected the hepatic TLR4 expression (SM/CP; n = 4. IUGR had no effect on the splenic (n = 4 or intestinal (n = 4 TLR4 mRNA levels. In the liver, IUGR led to a 20% increase in baseline tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA expression ( p < 0.03 and a 70% increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA expression ( p < 0.008 as compared to the control rats (CM/CP; n = 7. LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α release was significantly higher in SM/SP as compared to CM/CP. We propose that IUGR dysregulates TLR4 expression and function in the offspring, which may help explain the increased risk of Gram-negative sepsis and inflammatory diseases in this population.

  3. Relationship between in utero sonographic evaluation and subcutaneous plicometry after birth in infants with intrauterine growth restriction: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannì Maria L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with several medical complications before and after delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between the fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses and the skinfold thicknesses assessment in intrauterine growth restricted newborns. Methods We designed an exploratory study. Fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses, according to Bernstein's and Galan's method, and neonatal skinfold thicknesses were evaluated in 13 intrauterine growth restricted newborns within 4 hours before delivery and on the first day of life, respectively. Concordance between fetal and neonatal measurements was assessed using the Lin's correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. Results The data obtained by the measurements of neonatal skinfold thicknesses was significantly correlated with the prenatal measurements (Lin's coefficients, arm: 0.60; subscapular: 0.72; abdomen: 0.51. Bland-Altman analysis showed moderate agreement between the fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses and the neonatal skinfold thicknesses assessment. Conclusions The present study provides preliminary evidence that fetal sonographic measurements may represent additional indices of intrauterine growth restriction.

  4. Is abnormal vaginal microflora a risk factor for intrauterine fetal growth restriction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NatalijaVedmedovska; Dace Rezeberga; GilbertG G Donders

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a literature review in search of possible preventable causes for fetal growth restriction.Methods:We performed a systematic literature search regarding abnormal vaginal microflora and fetal growth encompassing the last 27-year (starting from 1986) in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central to study the evidence that abnormal vaginal microflora is may be related to diminished fetal growth or small for date birth.Results:Most of the 14 studies suggested a significant role of vaginal organisms in impaired fetal growth, unrelated to preterm birth. The neonatal outcome has shown to be largely linked to the preventable or foreseeable fetal factors, such as genetic abnormalities, but also ascending intrauterine infections. Our previous work suggested a role of vaginal organisms in adverse pregnancy outcome, not only preterm birth, but also impaired fetal growth.Conclusions:There is a need for cohort studies designed to unravel this link between abnormal microflora and FGR, in order to enable preventive actions to protect these small babies from severe damage and death by early screening and treatment.

  5. New computerized fetal heart rate analysis for surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, E A; Lobmaier, S; Fischer, T; Schneider, R; Bauer, A; Schneider, K T; Schmidt, G

    2011-05-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability is associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study used a new method [phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA)] to calculate acceleration- and deceleration-related fluctuations of the fetal heart rate. Cardiotocograms from 74 growth-restricted and 161 normal fetuses were included. Both groups were matched for gestational age. The transformed PRSA signal was quantified by the acceleration-related parameter-averaged acceleration capacity (AAC) and compared to the standard short-term variation (STV). Mann-Whitney test and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. For AAC, the median values of the IUGR group and control group were 1.97 bpm [interquartile range (IQR): 1.66-2.23] and 2.49 bpm (IQR: 2.24-2.72), respectively. For STV, these values were 5.44 ms (IQR: 4.49-7.38) and 7.79 ms (IQR: 6.35-9.66), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 81.4% for AAC and 70.5% for STV. The results of AAC are in both groups comparable to STV. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the association of AAC with the clinical outcome of the newborn. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Stahl, Andreas; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young female adult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [(3)H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[(14)C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adult female offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against

  7. Intrauterine growth restriction: distribution, risk factors, management of labour and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Andzane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR determines maternal, fetal and placental factors. Many of these factors are preventable. There is still no enough developed effective pregnancy and labour management tactics that could protect both mother and child from the unintended consequences. Methods: The research was made in Riga Maternity Hospital. In the research there were included pregnant women who gave birth neonates with weight under 10th percentile (IUGR group as well there was compiled the control group. The weight of neonates was evaluated using the percentile scales - Intrauterine Growth Curves based on US data. Results: According to the criteria, in the IUGR group were included 209 pregnant women and in the control group was the same number of patients. In the IUGR group mothers discharged from the hospital one day later than it was in the control group both after vaginal delivery (4.0 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.0, p and #706;0.0001 and after caesarean (5.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 4.5 +/- 1.0, p=0.0001. Comparing the evaluations after Apgar scale after spontaneous birth, induced labour and caesarean it was discovered that there is no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: IUGR negatively affect not just the fetus but also the mother and this is the reason why she should stay in the hospital for a longer period due to the child or experience the caesarean. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1117-1121

  8. Fibrocyte-like cells from intrauterine growth restriction placentas have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Meghan R; Winkler-Lowen, Bonnie; Jiang, Yanyan; Guilbert, Larry J; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy whereby the fetus fails to achieve its genetic growth potential. Malformation of the placental vasculature is observed in IUGR and may be due to the development of the placenta in a chronically hypoxic environment. Recently, we identified that the predominant stromal cells in the angiogenic zones of the placenta are fibrocyte-like cells. The conditioned medium from fibrocyte-like cells (FcCM) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that FcCM from IUGR cells would have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis and that chronic hypoxia would decrease the ability of both normal and IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis. IUGR FcCM had a reduced ability to stimulate endothelial tubule-like structure formation and an increased ability to stimulate endothelial migration compared with normal FcCM. However, normal and IUGR FcCM produced in chronic hypoxia did not alter endothelial proliferation, migration, or tubule-like structure formation. IUGR FcCM was found to have reduced levels of the pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-8 and increased levels of the anti-angiogenic factors activin-A and pigment epithelium-derived growth factor. Thus, alterations in the ability of IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis may contribute to the development of vascular malformation in IUGR, but in vitro these changes cannot be attributed to a chronically hypoxic environment.

  9. Temporal proteomic analysis reveals continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lin, Gang; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2010-02-01

    Efficiency of nutrient utilization is reduced in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those with a normal birth weight (NBW). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we applied temporal proteomic approach, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes of the proteome in the small intestinal mucosa of IUGR piglets during the nursing period (Days 1, 7 and 21). We identified 56 differentially expressed protein spots between IUGR and NBW piglets. These proteins participate in key biological processes, including (1) absorption, digestion and transport of nutrients; (2) cell structure and motility; (3) glucose and energy metabolism; (4) lipid metabolism; (5) amino acid metabolism; (6) mineral and vitamin metabolism; (7) cellular redox homeostasis; (8) stress response; and (9) apoptosis. The results of our temporal proteomics analysis reveal continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with IUGR. The findings have important implications for understanding metabolic defects in the small intestine of IUGR neonates and are expected to provide new strategies to improve their survival and growth.

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Developmental programming in response to intrauterine growth restriction impairs myoblast function and skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D T; Macko, A R; Nearing, M; Chen, X; Rhoads, R P; Limesand, S W

    2012-01-01

    Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  12. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  13. Puerarin affects bone biomarkers in the serum of rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juncao; Chen, Pingyang; Qi, Huaxue; Huang, Danhong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate serum bone biomarkers in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in order to determine the effects of puerarin on bone metabolism. A rat model of IUGR was induced using a low protein diet during pregnancy. The offspring were given puerarin or an identical volume of saline via subcutaneous abdominal injection. All rats were studied at 1, 3, and 8 weeks of age. Serum biomarkers of bone formation, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB Iigand (RANKL), as well as blood levels of calcium and phosphorus were measured. Serum BALP, OPG, IGF-1, and OC levels, as well as the OPG/RANKL ratio, were lower in the IUGR group compared with the control group at 1 week of age (P = 0.024, 0.011, 0.014, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively). At 3 weeks of age, the serum BALP and OC levels were higher in the protein-restricted group compared with the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). A comparison between the IUGR plus puerarin intervention group and the IUGR group revealed differences in the levels of BALP and IGF-1 at 3 weeks of age (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, serum OPG and OC levels and the OPG/RANKL ratio were higher at 8 weeks of age (P = 0.044, 0.007, and 0.016, respectively). No differences in serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed among the three groups. Our study demonstrates that the bone microenvironment of the fetus can be altered by a low protein maternal diet and that puerarin can reverse these effects. These results indicate that the nutritional environment plays an important role in early skeletal development and that the bone turnover of IUGR rats can be altered by puerarin treatment.

  14. Placental mitochondrial content and function in intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandò, C; De Palma, C; Stampalija, T; Anelli, G M; Figus, M; Novielli, C; Parisi, F; Clementi, E; Ferrazzi, E; Cetin, I

    2014-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pregnancy hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) associated with IUGR share a common placental phenotype called "placental insufficiency", originating in early gestation when high availability of energy is required. Here, we assess mitochondrial content and the expression and activity of respiratory chain complexes (RCC) in placental cells of these pathologies. We measured mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) expression in placental tissue and cytotrophoblast cells, gene and protein expressions of RCC (real-time PCR and Western blotting) and their oxygen consumption, using the innovative technique of high-resolution respirometry. We analyzed eight IUGR, six PE, and eight uncomplicated human pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section. We found lower mRNA levels of complex II, III, and IV in IUGR cytotrophoblast cells but no differences at the protein level, suggesting a posttranscriptional compensatory regulation. mtDNA was increased in IUGR placentas. Both mtDNA and NRF1 expression were instead significantly lower in their isolated cytotrophoblast cells. Finally, cytotrophoblast RCC activity was significantly increased in placentas of IUGR fetuses. No significant differences were found in PE placentas. This study provides genuine new data into the complex physiology of placental oxygenation in IUGR fetuses. The higher mitochondrial content in IUGR placental tissue is reversed in cytotrophoblast cells, which instead present higher mitochondrial functionality. This suggests different mitochondrial content and activity depending on the placental cell lineage. Increased placental oxygen consumption might represent a limiting step in fetal growth restriction, preventing adequate oxygen delivery to the fetus.

  15. Neonatal Outcomes of Late-Preterm Birth Associated or Not with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ortigosa Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare neonatal morbidity and mortality between late-preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA infants of the comparable gestational ages (GAs. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal morbidity and mortality of 50 singleton pregnancies involving fetuses with IUGR delivered between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks of GA due to maternal and/or fetal indication. The control group consisted of 36 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous preterm delivery at the same GA, in which the infant was AGA. Categorical data were compared between IUGR and AGA pregnancies by 2 analysis and Fisher's exact test. Ordinal measures were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. The length of stay of newborns in the nursery, as well as the need for and duration of hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, was longer in the group with IUGR. Transient tachypnea of the newborn or apnea rates did not differ significantly between the IUGR and AGA groups. IUGR infants were found to be at a higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage. No respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia was observed in either group. The frequency of sepsis, thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia was similar in the two groups. Hypoglycemia was more frequent in the IUGR group. No neonatal death was observed. Conclusion. Our study showed that late-preterm IUGR infants present a significantly higher risk of neonatal complications when compared to late-preterm AGA infants.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment.

  17. Intrauterine growth restriction is a direct consequence of localized maternal uropathogenic Escherichia coli cystitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bolton

    Full Text Available Despite the continually increasing rates of adverse perinatal outcomes across the globe, the molecular mechanisms that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes are not completely understood. Clinical studies report that 10% of pregnant women will experience a urinary tract infection (UTI and there is an association of UTIs with adverse perinatal outcomes. We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological responses to determine the mechanisms that underlie UTI-mediated adverse outcomes. Outbred fetuses from mothers experiencing localized cystitis displayed intrauterine growth restriction (20-80% as early as 48 hours post-infection and throughout the remainder of normal gestation. Robust infiltration of cellular innate immune effectors was observed in the uteroplacental tissue following introduction of UTI despite absence of viable bacteria. The magnitude of serum proinflammatory cytokines is elevated in the maternal serum during UTI. This study demonstrates that a localized infection can dramatically impact the immunological status as well as the function of non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs.

  18. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Corvino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C and small (IUGR for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C, exercised control (Cex, nonexercised IUGR (IUGR, and exercised IUGR (IUGRex. IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats.

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S. B.; Volpato, G. T.; Rudge, M. V. C.; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IUGR), and exercised IUGR (IUGRex). IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats. PMID:26345406

  20. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  1. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-10-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, and tissue proteomic analyses have identified unknown pathways and new prognostic disease markers. Intestinal HSPs, iron metabolism proteins and proteins related to amino acid (e.g. arginine) and glucose metabolism are consistently affected by NEC progression and some of these proteins are also affected by SBS and IUGR. Parallel changes in some plasma and urinary proteins (e.g. haptoglobin, globulins, complement proteins, fatty acid binding proteins) may mirror the intestinal responses and pave the way to biomarker discovery. Explorative non-targeted proteomics provides ideas about the cellular pathways involved in intestinal adaptation during the critical neonatal period. Proteomics, combined with other -omic techniques, helps to get a more holistic picture of intestinal adaptation during NEC, SBS and IUGR. Explorative -omic research methods also have limitations and cannot replace, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints.

  2. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep, produced by placental insufficiency, have lower oxygen concentrations, higher lactate concentrations, and increased hepatic glucose production that is resistant to suppression by insulin. We hypothesized that increased lactate production in the IUGR fetus results from reduced glucose oxidation, during basal and maximal insulin-stimulated conditions, and is used to support glucose production. To test this, studies were performed in late-gestation control (CON) and IUGR fetal sheep under basal and hyperinsulinemic-clamp conditions. The basal glucose oxidation rate was similar and increased by 30–40% during insulin clamp in CON and IUGR fetuses (P fetal muscle and liver, mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), an inhibitor of glucose oxidation, was increased over fourfold. In IUGR fetal liver, but not skeletal muscle, mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was increased nearly fivefold. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)1, and PCK2, was correlated with expression of PDK4 and LDHA. Collectively, these in vivo and tissue data support limited capacity for glucose oxidation in the IUGR fetus via increased PDK4 in skeletal muscle and liver. We speculate that lactate production also is increased, which may supply carbon for glucose production in the IUGR fetal liver. PMID:26224688

  3. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  4. Epigenetic characterization of CDKN1C in placenta samples from non-syndromic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMonk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ~58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression.

  5. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intra-uterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, a......, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n = 35) and IUGR (n = 12) cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Results. The ...

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Effects of Physiological Fetal Growth Determinants on Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW or estimated fetal weight (EFW to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual’s birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  8. Intrauterine growth restriction: effects of physiological fetal growth determinants on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, Kjell; Søfteland, Eirik; Bukowski, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual's birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  9. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Fetal Rabbit Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; González-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Lutyńska, A

    2014-12-01

    A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients.

  11. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  12. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  13. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  14. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin van Vliet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino

  15. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (PMCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a compensatory mechanism attempting to increase T3 uptake by trophoblast cells.

  16. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P M; Stieger, B; Verrey, F; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S-Y

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR n = 22). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that all the mRNAs encoding TH transporters are expressed in human placenta from 6 weeks gestation and throughout pregnancy. MCT8, MCT10, OATP1A2 and LAT1 mRNA expression increased with gestation. OATP4A1 and CD98 (LATs obligatory associated protein) mRNA expression reached a nadir in mid-gestation before increasing towards term. LAT2 mRNA expression did not alter throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry localised MCT10 and OATP1A2 to villous cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, and extravillous trophoblasts while OATP4A1 was preferentially expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblasts. Whilst MCT8 protein expression was increased, MCT10 mRNA expression was decreased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies delivered in the early 3rd trimester compared to age matched appropriately grown for gestational age controls. No significant change was found in the mRNA expression of the other transporters with IUGR. In conclusion, several TH transporters are present in the human placenta from early 1st trimester with varying patterns of expression throughout gestation. Their coordinated effects may regulate both transplacental TH passage and TH supply to trophoblasts, which are critical for the normal development of the fetus and placenta. Increased MCT8 and decreased MCT10 expression within placentae of pregnancies complicated by IUGR may contribute to aberrant development of the fetoplacental unit.

  17. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiao Y; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N M; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and decreased cerebral thyroid hormone receptor expression. We postulate that altered MCT8 expression is implicated in this pathophysiology; therefore, in this study, we sought to quantify changes in cortical MCT8 expression with IUGR. First, MCT8 immunohistochemistry was performed on occipital and parietal cerebral cortex sections obtained from appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) human fetuses between 19 weeks of gestation and term. Secondly, MCT8 immunostaining in the occipital cortex of stillborn IUGR human fetuses at 24-28 weeks of gestation was objectively compared with that in the occipital cortex of gestationally matched AGA fetuses. Fetuses demonstrated widespread MCT8 expression in neurons within the cortical plate and subplate, in the ventricular and subventricular zones, in the epithelium of the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in microvessel wall. When complicated by IUGR, fetuses showed a significant fivefold reduction in the percentage area of cortical plate immunostained for MCT8 compared with AGA fetuses (PMCT8 expression was negatively correlated with the severity of IUGR indicated by the brain:liver weight ratios (r(2)=0.28; PMCT8 expression in the IUGR fetal brain could further compromise TH-dependent brain development.

  18. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  19. Features of newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (according to the data of perinatal center of the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify risk factors that adversely affect the development of fetus and child small for gestational age; to assess the incidence of the intrauterine development of fetus and newborn; to analyze the health indicators of these children. Material and Methods. Cases of 226 children (6.6% with diagnosed intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus were examined, including 134 of prematurity (59%. Results. The most common risk factors for the intrauterine development of the fetus were: violation of the utero-placental circulation — 196 cases, the uterine scar — 78 women, urinary tract infection — 94. Extragenital pathology was found in all women, the threat of termination of pregnancy in 109 cases, medical history of abortions in 106 women and 83 anaemia in women. Birth asphyxia was observed in 102 children (45%, prematurity in 71 cases (31.4%. Asphyxia of severe degree accounted 1 (0.5% premature and 1 (0.45% full-term baby. Asphyxia of moderate severity (4-6 points accounted 70 (30.9% preterm and 31 (13.7% full-term infants. The most common form of the intrauterine development of the fetus asymmetrical revealed 178 cases (79.1%. Conclusion: Perinatal factors such as medical abortion, urinary tract infection, extragenital pathology are preventable. The predominant form of the intrauterine development of the fetus is asymmetric form, symmetric and dysplastic revealed to a greater degree in premature infants. Children with low weight for gestational age should be adequately provided with the necessary nutrients, fortifiers, vitamins and in the process of rehabilitation — cerebropro-tective therapy.

  20. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  1. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction perturbs nucleosome depletion at a growth hormone-responsive element in the mouse IGF-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Robert A; Yost, Christian C; Yu, Xing; Wiedmeier, Julia E; Callaway, Christopher W; Brown, Ashley S; Lane, Robert H; Fung, Camille M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common human pregnancy complication. IUGR offspring carry significant postnatal risk for early-onset metabolic syndrome, which is associated with persistent reduction in IGF-1 protein expression. We have previously shown that preadolescent IUGR male mice have decreased hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and circulating IGF-1 protein at postnatal day 21, the age when growth hormone (GH) normally upregulates hepatic IGF-1 expression. Here we studied nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation at a putative growth hormone-responsive element in intron 2 (in2GHRE) of the hepatic IGF-1 gene in normal, sham-operated, and IUGR mice. Nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation were determined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in liver at postnatal days 14, 21, and 42. For CpG methylation, additional time points out to 2 yr were analyzed. We confirmed the putative mouse in2GHRE was GH-responsive, and in normal mice, a single nucleosome was displaced from the hepatic in2GHRE by postnatal day 21, which exposed two STAT5b DNA binding sites. Nucleosome displacement correlated with developmentally programmed CpG demethylation. Finally, IUGR significantly altered the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the in2GHRE of IGF-1 on postnatal day 21, with either complete absence of the NDR or with a shifted NDR exposing only one of two STAT5b DNA binding sites. An NDR shift was also seen in offspring of sham-operated mothers. We conclude that prenatal insult such as IUGR or anesthesia/surgery could perturb the proper formation of a well-positioned NDR at the mouse hepatic IGF-1 in2GHRE necessary for transitioning to an open chromatin state.

  3. The effects of sildenafil citrate on feto?placental development and haemodynamics in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tello, Jorge; Arias-Álvarez, María; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria-Ángeles; Barbero-Fernández, Alicia; García-García, Rosa María; Rodríguez, María; Lorenzo, Pedro L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Astiz, Susana; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Rebollar, Pilar G

    2016-05-23

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of sildenafil citrate (SC) to improve placental and fetal growth in a diet-induced rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Pregnant rabbits were fed either ad libitum (Group C) or restricted to 50% of dietary requirements (Group R) or restricted and treated with SC (Group SC). The treatment with SC improved placental development by increasing vascularity and vessel hypertrophy in the decidua. The assessment of feto-placental haemodynamics showed higher resistance and pulsatility indices at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in fetuses treated with SC when compared with Group R, which had increased systolic peak and time-averaged mean velocities at the MCA. Furthermore, fetuses in the SC group had significantly higher biparietal and thoracic diameters and longer crown-rump lengths than fetuses in Group R. Hence, the SC group had a reduced IUGR rate and a higher kit size at birth compared with Group R. In conclusion, SC may provide potential benefits in pregnancies with placental insufficiency and IUGR, partially counteracting the negative effects of food restriction on placental development and fetal growth. However, the present study also found evidence of a possible blood overflow in the brain that warrants further investigation.

  4. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  5. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, H L; Bloemen, M C T; Mulder, E J H; Nikkels, P G J; Derks, J B; de Vries, L S; Visser, G H A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years was predicted by low birth weight (malnutrition and fetal acidosis affect long-term outcome.

  6. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  7. Sotos syndrome: An unusual presentation with intrauterine growth restriction, generalized lymphedema, and intention tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessie; Burgess, Bronwyn; Crock, Patricia; Goel, Himanshu

    2016-04-01

    Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth syndrome characterized clinically by a distinctive facial gestalt, advanced bone age, childhood overgrowth, and non-progressive developmental delay; and genetically by haploinsufficiency of the Nuclear receptor binding SET Domain 1 (NSD1) gene. Generalized lymphedema has not previously been associated with Sotos syndrome. Generalized lymphedema has been associated with mutations in several genes including FLT4. This gene is involved in the regulation of VEGFR3, a key governor of lymphatic-endothelial cell development and function. We report on a 28-year-old Caucasian female with a de novo NSD1 intragenic mutation, c.5841_5848dup: p.Leu1950Serfs*22, who presented with characteristic clinical features of Sotos syndrome. Unusually this case includes atypical features of intrauterine growth retardation and post-pubertal onset of primary lymphedema. To our knowledge, no link between Sotos syndrome and generalized lymphedema has previously been described in the literature. We propose a mechanism by which disruptions in NSD1 gene may lead to generalized lymphedema. Aberrations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-signaling pathway has been identified in both Sotos syndrome and lymphedema. This finding extends the known phenotype of Sotos syndrome through the inclusion of lymphedema. This case also indicates that presence of low birth weight does not exclude the possibility of Sotos syndrome.

  8. N-Acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, reverts vascular dysfunction and endothelial epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restricted guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Francisca; Figueroa, Esteban; Villanueva, Cristian; Hernández, Cherie; Alegría, René; Arroyo-Jousse, Viviana; Peñaloza, Estefania; Farías, Marcelo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial epigenetic programming of the umbilical vessels. There is no evidence that this epigenetic programming is occurring on systemic fetal arteries. In IUGR guinea pigs we studied the functional and epigenetic programming of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Nos3 gene) in umbilical and systemic fetal arteries, addressing the role of oxidative stress in this process by maternal treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the second half of gestation. The present study suggests that IUGR endothelial cells have common molecular markers of programming in umbilical and systemic arteries. Notably, maternal treatment with NAC restores fetal growth by increasing placental efficiency and reverting the functional and epigenetic programming of eNOS in arterial endothelium in IUGR guinea pigs. In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, half of the sows receiving NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term). Fetal biometry and placental vascular resistance were followed by ultrasound throughout gestation. At term, umbilical arteries and fetal aortae were isolated to assess endothelial function by wire-myography. Primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) from fetal aorta, femoral and umbilical arteries were used to determine eNOS mRNA levels by quantitative PCR and analyse DNA methylation in the Nos3 promoter by pyrosequencing. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed that NAC reduced placental vascular resistance

  9. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Is blood pressure increased 19 years after intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth? A prospective follow-up study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Finken, M.J.J.; Nauta, J.; Dekker, F.W.; Hille, E.T.M.; Frölich, M.; Wit, J.M.; Heijden, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a predisposing factor for high blood pressure (BP) in 19-year-olds who were born (very) preterm. Methods. A prospective follow-up study was conducted at age 19 in individuals who born preterm in the Netherlands in 1983. Systol

  11. Ouabain rescues rat nephrogenesis during intrauterine growth restriction by regulating the complement and coagulation cascades and calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Yue, J; Han, X; Li, J; Hu, Y

    2016-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a reduction in the numbers of nephrons in neonates, which increases the risk of hypertension. Our previous study showed that ouabain protects the development of the embryonic kidney during IUGR. To explore this molecular mechanism, IUGR rats were induced by protein and calorie restriction throughout pregnancy, and ouabain was delivered using a mini osmotic pump. RNA sequencing technology was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the embryonic kidneys. DEGs were submitted to the Database for Annotation and Visualization and Integrated Discovery, and gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were conducted. Maternal malnutrition significantly reduced fetal weight, but ouabain treatment had no significant effect on body weight. A total of 322 (177 upregulated and 145 downregulated) DEGs were detected between control and the IUGR group. Meanwhile, 318 DEGs were found to be differentially expressed (180 increased and 138 decreased) between the IUGR group and the ouabain-treated group. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that maternal undernutrition mainly disrupts the complement and coagulation cascades and the calcium signaling pathway, which could be protected by ouabain treatment. Taken together, these two biological pathways may play an important role in nephrogenesis, indicating potential novel therapeutic targets against the unfavorable effects of IUGR.

  12. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E.; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P. M.; Stieger, B.; Verrey, F.; McCabe, C. J.; Franklyn, J.A.; Kilby, M. D.; Chan, S-Y

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine ...

  13. Intrauterine growth restriction, visceral blood flow velocity and exocrine pancreatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deenmamode Jean M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal models and observations in human neonates suggest fetal exocrine pancreas vulnerability to reduced maternofetal blood flow. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity (sma bfv and exocrine pancreatic function, in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW babies. Group 1: 9 babies Group2: 18 babies > 10th percentile for birth weight. Findings All had Doppler ultrasound scan of the superior mesenteric artery (sma, by same operator (RMN, on day 1 of life before commencement of enteral feeding. Stool samples assayed for faecal chymotrypsin and weekly serum samples assayed for amylase and lipase (kinetic colorimetric assay from days 1 to 14 of life. Growth restricted babies had significantly lower sma bfv values compared with appropriately grown preterm babies. Faecal chymotrypsin levels were also lower but this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Both groups had serum lipase levels detectable in adult concentrations. Serum amylase was undetectable in either group. Conclusion Babies with previous in-utero blood flow redistribution may exhibit altered gut ontogeny with re-setting of mesenteric blood flow velocities and altered exocrine pancreatic function.

  14. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  15. Quantitative 3D micro-CT imaging of the human feto-placental vasculature in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheinrich, A C; Vorman, S; Seidenstücker, J; Kampschulte, M; Bohle, R M; Wienhard, J; Zygmunt, M

    2008-11-01

    Placental vascular development matches fetal growth and development. Quantification of the feto-placental vasculature in placentas from pregnancies is complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) revealed confounding results. Therefore, the feto-placental vascular volume in IUGR placentas was assessed by 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Placental probes from IUGR (n=24) and healthy control placentas (n=40) were perfused in situ with Microfil or BaSO(4) and randomly chosen samples were scanned by micro-CT. Using 3D images, we quantitated the feto-placental vascular volume fraction (VVF). A subanalysis was performed at three different levels, reaching from the chorionic plate artery (level A), to intermediate arteries (level B) and capillary system (level C). Results were complemented by histology. The significance of differences in vascular volume measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Microfil perfused placentas showed a total vascular volume fraction of 20.5+/-0.9% in healthy controls. In contrast, the VVF decreased to 7.9+/-0.9% (pfeto-placental vascular tree in healthy controls and pregnancies complicated by IUGR.

  16. Verbal short-term memory span in children: long-term modality dependent effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R; Eshel, R; Leitner, Y; Fattal-Valevski, A; Harel, S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.

  17. Inhibition of PPARγ during Rat Pregnancy Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Attenuation of Uterine Vasodilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Gokina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11/group were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries. PPARγ was expressed in uterine vascular tissue of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats with ~2-fold greater expression in radial vs. main uterine arteries. PPARγ mRNA levels were significantly higher in uterine compared to mesenteric arteries. GW9662 treatment during pregnancy did not affect maternal physiology (body weight, glucose, blood pressure, mesenteric artery vasodilation or structural remodeling of uterine and mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of PPARγ for the last 10 days of gestation caused decreased fetal weights on both day 20 and 21 of gestation that was associated with impaired vasodilation of radial uterine arteries in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. These results define an essential role of PPARγ in the control of uteroplacental vasodilatory function during pregnancy, an important determinant of blood flow to the placenta and fetus. Strategies that target PPARγ activation in the uterine circulation could have important therapeutic potential in treatment of pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diabetes or preeclampsia.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction leads to changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism, but not global DNA methylation, in Yucatan miniature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Dylan S; Brophy, Julie D; McBreairty, Laura E; McGowan, Ross A; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), in both animals and humans, has been linked to metabolic syndrome later in life. There has been recent evidence that perturbations in sulfur amino acid metabolism may be involved in this early programming phenomenon. Methionine is the precursor for cellular methylation reactions and for the synthesis of cysteine. It has been suggested that the mechanism behind the "fetal origins" of adult diseases may be epigenetic, involving DNA methylation. Because we have recently demonstrated the fetal origins phenomenon in Yucatan miniature swine, we hypothesized that sulfur amino acid metabolism is altered in IUGR piglets. In this study, metabolites and the activities of sulfur amino acid cycle enzymes were analyzed in liver samples of 3- to 5-day-old runt (IUGR: 0.85±0.13 kg) and large (1.36±0.21 kg) Yucatan miniature pig littermates (n=6 pairs). The IUGR piglets had significantly lower specific and total activities of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) than larger littermates (PYucatan miniature piglets impairs their remethylation capacity as well as their ability to remove cystathionine and synthesize cysteine and taurine, which could have important implications on long-term health outcomes of IUGR neonates.

  19. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hutter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins (gal are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases.

  20. Does the measure of economic disadvantage matter? Exploring the effect of individual and relative deprivation on intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Olsen, Randall J

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the relation between health, individual income, and relative deprivation. Three alternative measures of relative deprivation are described, Yitzhaik relative deprivation, Deaton relative deprivation, and log income difference relative deprivation, with attention to problems in measuring permanent disadvantage when the underlying income distribution is changing over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, a US-based longitudinal survey, to examine the associations between disadvantage, measured cross-sectionally and aggregated over the life course, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We reject the hypotheses that any of the economic measures, whether permanent/contemporaneous or individual/relative, have different associations with IUGR in terms of sign and significance. There was some evidence that permanent economic disadvantage was associated with greater risk of IUGR than those on the corresponding contemporaneous measures. The fitted values from logistic regressions on each measure of disadvantage were compared with the two-way plots of the observed IUGR-income pattern. Deaton relative deprivation and log income difference tracked the observed probability of IUGR as a function of income more closely than the other two measures of relative deprivation. Finally, we examined the determinants of each measure of disadvantage. Observed characteristics in childhood and adulthood explained more of the variance in log income difference and Deaton relative deprivation than in the other two measures of disadvantage. They also explained more of the variance in permanent disadvantage than in the contemporaneous counterpart.

  1. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies.

  2. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  3. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : IUGR is one of the most serious challenges in both developed and developing contraries . I t is the single most important factor that determines in chances of child survival. In our country PGRF remain one of the commonest cause of neonates morbidity and mortality 30% of neonatal death are done to IUGR . D espite of all efforts by government 10 0% antenatal care is poor but women are seeking health facility for delivery at time ever more important to identify such high risk pregnancy and manage for better met and fetal examination (one step in 3 rd trimester can be used as a screening procedure f or detection of IUGR babies. MATERIAL AND METHODS : all pregnant women coming to the facility diagnosed to have IUGR by clinical method ( SFH, AG , clinical assessment of liquor were included in the study for duration of one year. M aternal and fetal outcome was noted in terms of mode of delivery and neonatal death, still birth, SGA, AGA. Apgar score of all the babies was noted to assess morbidity. OBSERVATION : O f the total antenatal women 200 were identify as IUGR by clinical method out of which most of were from age group 21 - 25 years comprising 72.4% of total cases. Maternal weight and height influence weight of the babies 75% IUGR babies were noted in height less than 145 cm. 78.5% were unbooked and 64 belong to rural population. various risk maternal factor s like hypertensive disorder 26%, anemia 16.5%, previous history of IUGR 9%, antepartum haemorrhage 6%, diabetes 1%, rh negative 4.5%, heart disease 1%, recurrent abortion 5% in 17% no identified risk factors were found, 80% were delivered vaginal, 67.5% b abies were SGA after birth as asses sed by clinical method, 68%, had A pgar score less than 7. Perinatal mortality constituted 27.3% of the babies. DISCUSSION : I ntrauterine growth restriction is one of the common abnormality encountered by the obstetrician, when present it increases perinatal morbidity and mortality. it is a

  4. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pregnancy and reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, M; Kilby, M D; Somerset, D A; Howie, A J; Gupta, A; Wood, P J; Afnan, M; Stewart, P M

    1998-04-01

    The type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), has been suggested to play a role in the ontogeny of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and also protect the developing fetus from the deleterious effects of circulating maternal glucocorticoids. The abundance of 11beta-HSD2 in the placenta and other fetal tissues was inferred from the F/E ratio in 17 term deliveries in both umbilical arterial (1.73 +/- 0.24, mean +/- SE) and umbilical venous blood (1.16 +/- 0.14) compared with adult peripheral venous blood (7.76 +/- 0.57, n = 70). Using sensitive assays for 11beta-HSD2 and an in-house human 11beta-HSD2 antibody, the expression and activity of this enzyme in fresh frozen human placenta increased progressively from first (8-12 weeks, n = 16) and second (13-20 weeks, n = 9) to third trimester (term) pregnancies (39-40 weeks, n = 50). Placental 11beta-HSD2 activity was significantly reduced in deliveries complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [25-36 weeks, n = 12, activity 380 pmol/mg/h median (225-671; 95% confidence interval)], compared with the term deliveries [888 (725-1362)] and with appropriately grown pre-term deliveries [27-36 weeks, n = 14, activity 810 (585-1269)], P < 0.05. In human pregnancy placental 11beta-HSD2 activity increases markedly in the third trimester of pregnancy at a time when maternal circulating levels of glucocorticoid are rising. The finding of attenuated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity in IUGR suggests that glucocorticoids may, in part, contribute to impaired fetal growth and that this is closely controlled in normal gestation through placental 11beta-HSD2 expression.

  5. Adipose tissue proteomes of intrauterine growth-restricted piglets artificially reared on a high-protein neonatal formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Ousseynou; Louveau, Isabelle; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Gondret, Florence

    2012-11-01

    The eventuality that adipose tissues adapt to neonatal nutrition in a way that may program later adiposity or obesity in adulthood is receiving increasing attention in neonatology. This study assessed the immediate effects of a high-protein neonatal formula on proteome profiles of adipose tissues in newborn piglets with intrauterine growth restriction. Piglets (10th percentile) were fed milk replacers formulated to provide an adequate (AP) or a high (HP) protein supply from day 2 to the day prior weaning (day 28, n=5 per group). Adipocytes with small diameters were present in greater proportions in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues from HP piglets compared with AP ones at this age. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of adipose tissue depots revealed a total of 32 protein spots being up- or down-regulated (P<.10) for HP piglets compared with AP piglets; 18 of them were unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry. These proteins were notably related to signal transduction (annexin 2), redox status (peroxiredoxin 6, glutathione S-transferase omega 1, cyclophilin-A), carbohydrate metabolism (ribose-5-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), amino acid metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and cell cytoskeleton dynamics (dynactin and cofilin-1). Proteomic changes occurred mainly in dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue, with the notable exception of annexin 1 involved in lipid metabolic process having a lower abundance in HP piglets for perirenal adipose tissue only. Together, modulation in those proteins could represent a novel starting point for elucidating catch-up fat growth observed in later life in growing animals having been fed HP formula.

  6. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  7. Effect of two models of intrauterine growth restriction on alveolarization in rat lungs: morphometric and gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Zana-Taieb

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in preterm infants increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by arrested alveolarization. We evaluated the impact of two different rat models (nitric oxide synthase inhibition or protein deprivation of IUGR on alveolarization, before, during, and at the end of this postnatal process. We studied IUGR rat pups of dams fed either a low protein (LPD or a normal diet throughout gestation and pups of dams treated by continuous infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters, alveolar surface (Svap, mean linear intercept (MLI and radial alveolar count (RAC and transcriptomic analysis were determined with special focus on genes involved in alveolarization. IUGR pups regained normal weight at day 21 in the two treated groups. In the LPD group, Svap, MLI and RAC were not different from those of controls at day 4, but were significantly decreased at day 21, indicating alveolarization arrest. In the L-NAME group, Svap and RAC were significantly decreased and MLI was increased at day 4 with complete correction at day 21. In the L-NAME model, several factors involved in alveolarization, VEGF, VEGF-R1 and -R2, MMP14, MMP16, FGFR3 and 4, FGF18 and 7, were significantly decreased at day 4 and/or day 10, while the various factors studied were not modified in the LPD group. These results demonstrate that only maternal protein deprivation leads to sustained impairment of alveolarization in rat pups, whereas L-NAME impairs lung development before alveolarization. Known growth factors involved in lung development do not seem to be involved in LPD-induced alveolarization disorders, raising the question of a possible programming of altered alveolarization.

  8. In Vivo Detection of Perinatal Brain Metabolite Changes in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui V Simões

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. We studied a rabbit model of IUGR by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and spectroscopy (MRS, to assess in vivo brain structural and metabolic consequences, and identify potential metabolic biomarkers for clinical translation.IUGR was induced in 3 pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25, by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn; the contralateral horn was used as control. Fetuses were delivered at day 30 and weighted. A total of 6 controls and 5 IUGR pups underwent T2-w MRI and localized proton MRS within the first 8 hours of life, at 7T. Changes in brain tissue volumes and respective contributions to each MRS voxel were estimated by semi-automated registration of MRI images with a digital atlas of the rabbit brain. MRS data were used for: (i absolute metabolite quantifications, using linear fitting; (ii local temperature estimations, based on the water chemical shift; and (iii classification, using spectral pattern analysis.Lower birth weight was associated with (i smaller brain sizes, (ii slightly lower brain temperatures, and (iii differential metabolite profile changes in specific regions of the brain parenchyma. Specifically, we found estimated lower levels of aspartate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (suggesting neuronal impairment, and higher glycine levels in the striatum (possible marker of brain injury. Our results also suggest that the metabolic changes in cortical regions are more prevalent than those detected in hippocampus and striatum.IUGR was associated with brain metabolic changes in vivo, which correlate well with the neurostructural changes and neurodevelopment problems described in IUGR. Metabolic parameters could constitute non invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and abnormal neurodevelopment of perinatal origin.

  9. Neonatal Neurobehavior and Diffusion MRI Changes in Brain Reorganization Due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Illa, Miriam; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. The timing and patterns of brain reorganization underlying IUGR are poorly documented. We developed a rabbit model of IUGR allowing neonatal neurobehavioral assessment and high resolution brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the study was to describe the pattern and functional correlates of fetal brain reorganization induced by IUGR. Methodology/Principal Findings IUGR was induced in 10 New Zealand fetal rabbits by ligation of 40–50% of uteroplacental vessels in one horn at 25 days of gestation. Ten contralateral horn fetuses were used as controls. Cesarean section was performed at 30 days (term 31 days). At postnatal day +1, neonates were assessed by validated neurobehavioral tests including evaluation of tone, spontaneous locomotion, reflex motor activity, motor responses to olfactory stimuli, and coordination of suck and swallow. Subsequently, brains were collected and fixed and MRI was performed using a high resolution acquisition scheme. Global and regional (manual delineation and voxel based analysis) diffusion tensor imaging parameters were analyzed. IUGR was associated with significantly poorer neurobehavioral performance in most domains. Voxel based analysis revealed fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in multiple brain regions of gray and white matter, including frontal, insular, occipital and temporal cortex, hippocampus, putamen, thalamus, claustrum, medial septal nucleus, anterior commissure, internal capsule, fimbria of hippocampus, medial lemniscus and olfactory tract. Regional FA changes were correlated with poorer outcome in neurobehavioral tests. Conclusions IUGR is associated with a complex pattern of brain reorganization already at birth, which may open opportunities for early intervention. Diffusion MRI can offer suitable imaging biomarkers to characterize and monitor

  10. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo

    2007-09-01

    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  11. Glucose replacement to euglycemia causes hypoxia, acidosis, and decreased insulin secretion in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Limesand, Sean W; Barry, James S; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional interventions for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have raised concerns for fetal toxicity, the mechanisms of which are unknown. Most of these attempts did not aim to normalize fetal metabolic conditions. Therefore, we used a model of IUGR to determine whether normalization of fetal hypoglycemia for 2 wks would be tolerated and increase insulin concentrations and pancreatic beta-cell mass. IUGR fetuses received either a direct saline infusion (Sal, the control group) or a 30% dextrose infusion (Glu) to normalize glucose concentrations. Neither insulin concentrations (0.11 +/- 0.01 Glu vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 ng/mL Sal) nor beta-cell mass (65.2 +/- 10.3 Glu vs. 74.7 +/- 18.4 mg Sal) changed. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was lower in the Glu group. Glu fetuses became progressively more hypoxic: O2 content 1.4 +/- 0.5 Glu vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4 mM Sal, p < 0.05. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2) (53.6 +/- 0.8 Glu vs. 51.6 +/- 0.8 Sal, p < 0.05) and lactate (7.74 +/- 3.82 Glu vs. 2.47 +/- 0.55 mM Sal, p < 0.0001) were greater and pH lower (7.275 +/- 0.071 Glu vs. 7.354 +/- 0.003 Sal, p < 0.01) in the Glu group. We conclude that correction of fetal hypoglycemia is not well tolerated and fails to increase insulin concentrations or beta-cell mass in IUGR fetuses.

  12. Preliminary report of altered insulin secretion pattern in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Lung; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Abufraijeh, Seham M; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Chao, An-Shine; Hsieh, Peter C C

    2017-02-01

    Fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have adaptive hormonal changes including changes in insulin, which may increase their future risks for developing diabetes mellitus. This study compared cord blood insulin concentrations in IUGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model. Ten pairs were classified as selective IUGR (sIUGR) based on having one twin weight below the 10th percentile and with an intertwin birth weight discordance>20%. Fourteen pairs without IUGR were included as a comparison group. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, congenital structural malformations, and genetic abnormalities were excluded. Insulin and glucose concentrations were measured in cord venous blood at the time of delivery. Cord blood insulin concentrations of sIUGR fetuses were significantly lower than those of AGA counterpart fetuses in MC twins affected by sIUGR (5.1±4.1 mU/L, range: 0.7-9.9 mU/L for sIUGR fetuses and 12.2±7.6 mU/L, range: 3.5-23.7 mU/L for AGA fetuses, p=0.019). No significant difference in insulin concentrations between larger and smaller fetuses in MC twins without IUGR was observed. Insulin concentration was inversely correlated with gestational age of delivery in all fetuses except in those with sIUGR. We did not find any difference in cord blood glucose concentrations between the two fetuses in both groups. Our data show reduced insulin secretion and loss of the physiological decline in concentration over time as gestational age increases in fetuses with sIUGR compared to AGA counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR (n = 7) were compared with control lambs (n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less (P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... How to Care for Your Child’s TeethRead Article >>Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Child’s TeethSeptember ...

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need C-section delivery . When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider right away if you are pregnant and notice ... regular prenatal care. If you have a chronic medical condition or you ... see your health care provider before you get pregnant. This can help reduce ...

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a technician coats the woman's belly with a gel and then moves a probe (wand-like instrument) ... a healthy diet ; getting enough sleep ; and avoiding alcohol, drugs, and tobacco./p> Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, ...

  17. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  18. What can we do to reduce the associated costs in induction of labour of intrauterine growth restriction foetuses at term? A cost-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro-Gómez, Jorge; Garrido-Oyarzún, María Fernanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Ana Belén; de la Torre González, Antonio Jesús; Arjona-Berral, José Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2017-07-11

    To evaluate the costs associated with induction of labour in intrauterine growth restriction fetuses comparing different procedures. 150 pregnancies at term diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction and indication for induction of labour were included. 24 were ripened with misoprostol 25 μg tablets, 24 with dinoprostone 10 mg vaginal insert, and 77 with Cook(®) cervical ripening balloon. To determine the costs of induction of labour, method of induction, intrapartum medication, epidural analgesia, type of delivery, and maternal and neonatal admissions were considered. Statistical analysis was performed using the G-Stat 2.0 free statistical software. ANOVA test was used for comparisons between quantitative parametric variables. Chi-squared test or Fisher test was used for qualitative variables. A value of p Costs related to maternal admissions were higher in CG (475.13 ± 146.95$) than dinoprostone group (475.13 ± 146.95$) or MG (427.97 ± 112.65$) (p = 0.03). Total costs in misoprostol group (2765.18 ± 495.38$) were lower than in the dinoprostone group (3075.774 ± 896.14$) or Cook(®) balloon group (3228.02 ± 902.06$) groups. Misoprostol for induction of labour had lower related costs than dinoprostone or Cook(®) balloon, with similar obstetrical and perinatal outcomes.

  19. Increased palatable food intake and response to food cues in intrauterine growth-restricted rats are related to tyrosine hydroxylase content in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with altered food preferences, which may contribute to increased risk of obesity. We evaluated the effects of IUGR on attention to a palatable food cue, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to sweet food intake. From day 10 of gestation and through lactation, Sprague-Dawley rats received either an ad libitum (Adlib) or a 50% food-restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, generating four groups (gestation/lactation): Adlib/Adlib (control), FR/Adlib (intrauterine growth-restricted), Adlib/FR, and FR/FR. Adult attention to palatable food cues was measured using the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST), which uses a sweet pellet as reward. TH content in the OFC and NAcc was measured at baseline and in response to palatable food intake. At 90 days of age, FR/Adlib males ate more sweet food than controls, without differences in females. However, when compared to Controls, FR/Adlib females needed fewer trials to reach criterion in the ASST (p=0.04) and exhibited increased TH content in the OFC in response to sweet food (p=0.03). In the NAcc, there was a differential response of TH content after sweet food intake in both FR/Adlib males and females (pfood preferences involves the central response to palatable food cues and intake, affecting dopamine release in select structures of the brain reward system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying placental epigenetic alterations in an intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rat model induced by gestational protein deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamon-Buettner, Stella Marie; Buschmann, Jochen; Lewin, Geertje

    2014-06-01

    Poor maternal nutrition during gestation can lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a main cause of low birth weight associated with high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Such early uterine environmental exposures can impact the neonatal epigenome to render later-in-life disease susceptibility. We established in Wistar Han rats a mild IUGR model induced by gestational protein deficiency (i.e. 9% crude protein in low protein diet vs. 21% in control, from GD 0 to 21) to identify alterations in gene expression and methylation patterns in certain genes implicated in human IUGR or in placental development. We found differential gene expression of Wnt2 and Dlk1 between IUGR and control. Notably, Wnt2 exhibited significant decrease while Dlk1 increase in IUGR placentas, correlating to decrease in fetal and placental weight. Methylation patterns encompassing 30 CpGs in the Wnt2 promoter region revealed variability in both IUGR and control placentas, but a site-specific hypomethylation was evident in IUGR placentas. Our present findings further support a key role of maternal gestational nutrition in defining the neonatal epigenome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  2. Up-regulation of the fetal baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in intrauterine growth restriction: coincidence with hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor insensitivity and leptin receptor down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun; Ramahi, Emma; Nijland, Mark J; Choi, Jaeyhek; Myers, Dean A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important fetal developmental problem resulting from 2 broad causes: maternal undernutrition and/or decreased fetal nutrient delivery to the fetus via placental insufficiency. IUGR is often accompanied by up-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Sheep studies show fetal HPAA autonomy in late gestation. We hypothesized that IUGR, resulting from poor fetal nutrient delivery, up-regulates the fetal baboon HPAA in late gestation, driven by hypothalamo-pituitary glucocorticoid receptor (GR) insensitivity and decreased fetal leptin in peripheral plasma. Maternal baboons were fed as ad libitum controls or nutrient restricted to produce IUGR (fed 70% of the control diet) from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation. Peripheral ACTH, cortisol, and leptin were measured by immunoassays. CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), GR, leptin receptor (ObRb), and pro-opiomelanocortin peptide expression were determined immunohistochemically. IUGR fetal peripheral cortisol and ACTH, but not leptin, were increased (P HPAA activation was aided by GR insensitivity and decreased ObRb expression in the PVN, and (3) the anterior pituitary is not a site for ObRb effects on the HPAA.

  3. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the preference for palatable foods and affects sensitivity to food rewards in male and female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-08-27

    Clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can cause persistent changes in the preference for palatable foods. In this study, we compared food preferences, the response to food rewards, and the role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in feeding behavior, between IUGR and control rats. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a control group (standard chow ad libitum) or a 50% food restriction (FR) group, which received 50% of the control dams׳ habitual intake. These diets were provided from gestation day 10 to the 21st day of lactation. Within 24h of birth, pups were cross-fostered and divided into four groups: Adlib/Adlib, FR/Adlib, FR/FR, Adlib/FR. Standard chow consumption was compared between all groups. Food preferences, conditioned place preference to a palatable diet, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens were analyzed and compared between the two groups of interest: Adlib/Adlib (control) and FR/Adlib (exposed to growth restriction during the fetal period only). IUGR adult rats had a stronger preference for palatable foods, but showed less conditioned place preference to a palatable diet than controls. D2 receptors levels were lower in IUGR rats. At baseline, TH and pTH levels were higher in FR/Adlib than control males. Measurements taken after exposure to sweet foods revealed higher levels of TH and pTH in FR/Adlib than control females. These data showed that IUGR rats exhibited a preference for palatable foods, potentially due to alterations in their mesolimbic reward pathway. Additionally, the changes observed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of IUGR rats proved to be sex-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Preterm Intrauterine Growth Restricted Neonates with Antenatal Doppler Abnormalities: An Open-Label Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Vishal Vishnu; Dubey, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Reema; Vardhan, Shakti; Sreedhar, C M; Gupta, Girish

    2017-03-24

    Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI). Open-label randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit and fetal-maternal medicine unit in India. Preterm intrauterine growth restricted neonates' ≤32 weeks with AREDF on UA Doppler enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. Randomized to receive early or late feeding using mothers own or donor breast milk as per a feed initiation and advancement protocol. Time in days required to attain sufficient feed volume allowing discontinuation of PN and incidence of NEC in neonates fed early versus late. There were 77 eligible neonates. Sixty-two neonates were included and stratified as extreme preterm (27-29 weeks) ( n  = 20) and very preterm (30-32 weeks) ( n  = 42). Ten extreme preterm and 21 very preterm neonates were randomized to each early feeding and late feeding arm. There was a significantly faster attainment of sufficient feeds in the early feeding arm of both the stratified groups [extreme preterm: median 14 days (Interquartile range IQR: 12-15) compared with 18 days (IQR: 18-20), hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% CI: 0.626-4.078; very preterm: 12 days (IQR: 10-14) as compared with 16 days (IQR 15-17), HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.011-3.555]. There was no difference in the incidence of NEC, FI and combined outcome of NEC and FI. Early feeding in preterm IUGR neonates with AREDF on antenatal UA Doppler allowed earlier discontinuation of PN, allowing birth weight to be regained earlier and did not increase the incidence of NEC and

  5. A novel lineage transcription factor based analysis reveals differences in T helper cell subpopulation development in infected and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Rausch, S; Scharek-Tedin, L; Pieper, R; Burwinkel, M; Zentek, J; Hartmann, S

    2014-10-01

    Research in mouse and human clearly identified subsets of T helper (Th) cells based on nuclear expression of specific lineage transcription factors. In swine, however, transcription factor based detection of functional subpopulations of porcine Th cells by flow cytometry is so far limited to regulatory T cells via Foxp3. T-bet and GATA-3 are the transcription factors that regulate commitment to Th1 or Th2 cells, respectively. In this study we prove GATA-3 and T-bet expression in porcine CD4(+) cells polarized in vitro. Importantly, GATA-3 and T-bet expressing cells were detectable in pigs infected with pathogens associated with Th2 and Th1 immune responses. Increased frequencies of GATA-3 positive CD4(+) cells are found in vivo in pigs experimentally infected with the nematode Trichuris suis, whereas porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection elicited T-bet positive CD4(+) T cells. Analysing the immune status of pre-weaning piglets with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) we found an increased expression of Foxp3, T-bet and GATA-3 in CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells in systemic and intestinal compartments of IUGR piglets. Hence, we established the detection of porcine Th1 and Th2 cells via T-bet and GATA-3 and show that the porcine lineage transcription factors are differentially regulated very early in life depending on the developmental status.

  6. Impaired intestinal mucosal immunity is associated with the imbalance of T lymphocyte sub-populations in intrauterine growth-restricted neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Kong, Lingrui; Kong, Yili; Kou, Tao; Wang, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs the immunity of both piglets and humans. We hypothesized that the poor cytokine secreting ability of the small intestines of IUGR neonatal piglets might be associated with lower CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Therefore, we used neonatal piglets as IUGR models to investigate the effects of IUGR on the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte cell populations. Six normal-birth-weight (NBW) and six IUGR neonatal piglets were chosen and divided into NBW and IUGR groups, respectively. The cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in the blood; the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte contents in the thymus, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, jejunum and ileum; and the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the ileum were measured. We further compared the gene expression and protein distribution of MHC-II in the jejunum and ileum of the NBW and IUGR neonatal piglets. The results showed that the IUGR piglets exhibited lower (Pmucosal immunity is associated with an imbalance in the T lymphocyte sub-populations in IUGR neonatal piglets.

  7. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  8. Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Spera, Anna Maria; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Capasso, Letizia

    2012-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates may develop severe intolerance to standard preterm formula especially if they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that these infants may tolerate an elemental, amino acid-based formula as a rescue feeding strategy. In a prospective, case-control pilot study, we enrolled VLBW IUGR infants enterally fed with standard preterm formula (SPF) at daily increments of 16 mL/kg. If gastric residuals accounted for >70% of milk feed in the previous 24 hours, then feedings were temporarily withheld and then resumed with amino acid formula (AAF) increased at the same speed. Cases on AAF were compared to controls on SPF and with cases themselves while on SPF. Primary outcome was the time to reach full enteral feedings. Secondary outcomes were time on parenteral nutrition, time on central venous catheter, and formula tolerability based on the amount of gastric residual volume. Sixty-four infants (22 cases) were enrolled. Although during the total duration of nutrition, cases had worse primary and secondary outcomes, when on AAF, cases were comparable to controls in time to full enteral feeding (14.4 vs 14 days), time on parenteral nutrition, and time on central venous catheter. Cases on AAF and controls had similar gastric residual volumes. At day 3 after AAF introduction, cases had a significantly reduced number (%) of gastric residual volume >5 mL/kg over total number of feedings (5.6 vs 1.5%; P Growth at 12 months of corrected age was also comparable. In our population of VLBW IUGR newborns with severe feeding intolerance, a short course on AAF was a safe and effective means of nutritional rescue.

  9. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  10. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  11. Altered small-world topology of structural brain networks in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its association with later neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Eixarch, Elisenda; Figueras, Francesc; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Illa, Miriam; Acosta-Rojas, Ruthy; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-04-02

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and it is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in IUGR is among the clinical challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. In recent years several studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate differences in brain structure in IUGR subjects, but the ability to use MRI for individual predictive purposes in IUGR is limited. Recent research suggests that MRI in vivo access to brain connectivity might have the potential to help understanding cognitive and neurodevelopment processes. Specifically, MRI based connectomics is an emerging approach to extract information from MRI data that exhaustively maps inter-regional connectivity within the brain to build a graph model of its neural circuitry known as brain network. In the present study we used diffusion MRI based connectomics to obtain structural brain networks of a prospective cohort of one year old infants (32 controls and 24 IUGR) and analyze the existence of quantifiable brain reorganization of white matter circuitry in IUGR group by means of global and regional graph theory features of brain networks. Based on global and regional analyses of the brain network topology we demonstrated brain reorganization in IUGR infants at one year of age. Specifically, IUGR infants presented decreased global and local weighted efficiency, and a pattern of altered regional graph theory features. By means of binomial logistic regression, we also demonstrated that connectivity measures were associated with abnormal performance in later neurodevelopmental outcome as measured by Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (BSID-III) at two years of age. These findings show the potential of diffusion MRI based connectomics and graph theory based network characteristics for estimating differences in the

  12. Long-Term Functional Outcomes and Correlation with Regional Brain Connectivity by MRI Diffusion Tractography Metrics in a Near-Term Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. Methodology At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. Principal Findings The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. Conclusions The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural

  13. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Illa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI parameters and connectivity. METHODOLOGY: At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their

  14. Maternal History and Uterine Artery Doppler in the Assessment of Risk for Development of Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Llurba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the value of one-step uterine artery Doppler at 20 weeks of gestation in the prediction pre-eclampsia (PE and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Methods. A prospective multicentre study that included all women with singleton pregnancies at 19–22 weeks of gestation (w. The mean pulsatility index (mPI of both uterine arteries was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics curves (ROC were drawn to compare uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors for the prediction of early-onset PE and/or IUGR (before 32 w and late-onset PE and/or IUGR. Results. 6,586 women were included in the study. Complete outcome data was recorded for 6,035 of these women (91.6%. PE developed in 75 (1.2% and IUGR in 69 (1.1% cases. Uterine Doppler mPI was 0.99 and the 90th centile was 1.40. For 10% false-positive rate, uterine Doppler mPI identified 70.6% of pregnancies that subsequently developed early-onset PE and 73.3% of pregnancies that developed early-onset IUGR. The test had a lower detection rate for the late-onset forms of the disease (23.5% for PE and 30% for IUGR. Maternal history has a low sensitivity in the detection of early-onset cases, although it is better at detecting late-onset PE. Conclusion. Uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors seem to select two different populations - early and late-onset PE which might suggest a different pathogenesis.

  15. Folic acid protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction through its anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates that maternal folic acid (FA supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects, but whether FA prevents preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR remains obscure. Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure induces preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in rodent animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FA on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in mice. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with FA (0.6, 3 or 15 mg/kg 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, a high dose of LPS (300 μg/kg, i.p. on gestational day 15 (GD15 caused 100% of dams to deliver before GD18 and 89.3% of fetuses dead. A low dose of LPS (75 μg/kg, i.p. daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in IUGR. Interestingly, pretreatment with FA prevented LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced IUGR. Further experiments showed that FA inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in mouse placentas. Moreover, FA suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation in human trophoblast cell line JEG-3. Correspondingly, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in mouse placentas. In addition, FA significantly reduced the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC in amniotic fluid of LPS-treated mice. Collectively, maternal FA supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR through its anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood plasma from early and late intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR neonates with and without signs of brain vasodilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sanz-Cortés

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize via NMR spectroscopy the full spectrum of metabolic changes in umbilical vein blood plasma of newborns diagnosed with different clinical forms of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. METHODS: 23 early IUGR cases and matched 23 adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA controls and 56 late IUGR cases with 56 matched AGAs were included in this study. Early IUGR was defined as a birth weight 35 weeks. This group was subdivided in 18 vasodilated (VD and 38 non-VD late IUGR fetuses. All AGA patients had a birth weight >10(th centile. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics of the blood samples collected from the umbilical vein at delivery was obtained. Multivariate statistical analysis identified several metabolites that allowed the discrimination between the different IUGR subgroups, and their comparative levels were quantified from the NMR data. RESULTS: The NMR-based analysis showed increased unsaturated lipids and VLDL levels in both early and late IUGR samples, decreased glucose and increased acetone levels in early IUGR. Non-significant trends for decreased glucose and increased acetone levels were present in late IUGR, which followed a severity gradient when the VD and non-VD subgroups were considered. Regarding amino acids and derivatives, early IUGR showed significantly increased glutamine and creatine levels, whereas the amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine were decreased in early and late-VD IUGR samples. Valine and leucine were decreased in late IUGR samples. Choline levels were decreased in all clinical subforms of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR is not associated with a unique metabolic profile, but important changes are present in different clinical subsets used in research and clinical practice. These results may help in characterizing comprehensively specific alterations underlying different IUGR subsets.

  17. Spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction modulates the endocrine status and the developmental expression of genes in porcine fetal and neonatal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Père, Marie-Christine; Tacher, Sandrine; Daré, Sophie; Trefeu, Christine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Louveau, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Low birth weight is correlated with low adiposity at birth, a phenotype that influences neonatal survival and later adiposity. A better understanding of events affecting the fetal adipose tissue development and its functionality around birth is thus needed. This study was undertaken to examine the impact of spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) on circulating concentrations of hormones and nutrients together with the developmental expression patterns of various genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pig fetus during the last third of pregnancy and just after birth. At 71 and 112 days post-conception and 2 days postnatal, pairs of same-sex piglets were chosen within litters to have either a medium (MBW) or a low (LBW) weight (n=6 pairs at each stage). The results indicate that IUGR counteracts the temporal fall of DLK1 gene expression in developing adipose tissue across gestation. It also attenuates the time-dependent increase in expression levels of many genes promoting adipocyte differentiation (PPARG, CEBPA) and lipogenesis (LPL, SREBF1, FASN, FABP4). Opposite responses to IUGR were observed for the IGF system, so that IGF1 mRNA levels were lower (Padipose tissue of LBW piglets compared with MBW piglets. The plasma insulin concentration and the mRNA levels of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in adipose tissue were also greater in LBW piglets at day 2 postnatal. The data indicate that IUGR delays the normal ontogeny of adipose tissue across gestation and affects the insulin and IGF axes around birth.

  18. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  19. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early...... signs of vascular aging and whether telomere length could be a biomarker of this pathway. Methods: One hundred and fourteen healthy young men born SGA or after normal pregnancy [appropriate for gestational age (AGA)] were enrolled. Patient data were gathered from questionnaires and clinical exams...

  20. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  1. Protein or energy restriction during late gestation alters fetal growth and visceral organ mass: an evidence of intrauterine programming in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wu, D Q; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Qiao, J Y; Ran, T; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on postnatal fetal growth and visceral organ mass of goats. Eighty pregnant goats with similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and body weight (BW, 20.0 ± 1.0 kg before pregnancy) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (CON), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER) diets until parturition, after which offspring received normal diets for nutritional recovery. Kids were killed and visceral tissues were harvested at birth and week 6. Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P nutritional recovery, there was no difference (P = 0.91) in BW among groups; the kids from nutritional restriction groups showed a greater (P goats, particularly the proportional responses of fetal organs relative to BW, including thymus, small intestine, kidney and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human placental lactogen and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1976-04-01

    Serum human placental lactogen levels were measured after 36 weeks' gestation in 264 serum samples from 109 women with normal pregnancies and in 137 serum samples from 70 women with pregnancies complicated by fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IGR). The fetal and placental weights were significantly lower in the IGR groups while the maternal ages were not different. There was a significantly lower hPL value at each week from 36 to 41 (except for the 39th) in the IGR group. Sixty percent of the women with IGR had hPL values less than 6 mug/ml, and 18.6% were less than 4 mug/ml. It is suggested that a low serum hPL value obtained during the last month of pregnancy should alert the physician to the possibility of intrauterine problems, including IGR.

  3. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  4. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  5. Metabonomic study of newborn infants with intrauterine growth restriction%宫内生长受限新生儿代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔文; 李芳; 刘敬; 张万巧; 王燕; 付薇

    2016-01-01

    谷氨酸(t=2.469,P=0.018)、组氨酸(t=2.718,P=0.009)、亮氨酸异亮氨酸(t=3.938,P=0.000)、鸟氨酸(t=4.264,P=0.000)、丝氨酸(t=2.647,P=0.011)、苏氨酸(=2.311,P=0.026)、色氨酸(=4.040,P=0.000)、缬氨酸(=2.700,P=0.01)、庚酰肉碱(k-2.441,P=0.019)、十八碳二烯肉碱(t =2.449,P=0.018)水平明显低于IUGR足月儿.3.不同性别AGA新生儿之间未发现差异性代谢物(P>0.05),但不同性别IUGR患儿间存在差异性代谢产物,其中男性IUGR患儿天冬氨酸(=2.521,P=0.016)、谷氨酸(t=-2.175,P=0.035)水平均低于女性IUGR患儿;而男性IUGR患儿二十六碳烯酸水平高于女性IUGR患儿(t=2.231,P=0.031).4.出生体质量对新生儿体内游离肉碱的水平以及游离肉碱和酰基肉碱与总肉碱的比值无明显影响(P均>0.05).结论 IUGR对胎儿-新生儿血浆氨基酸和酰基肉碱代谢有明显影响,对出生体质量<第3百分位者影响最明显;随着出生体质量增加,氨基酸和酰基肉碱呈代偿性增加或减低,至体质量达第10百分位时,上述变化可达到或接近AGA新生水平.%Objective To compare the differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR,with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention.Methods A total of 45 newborns with IUGR and 56 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Bayi Children's Hospital,the General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army between July 2009 and June 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study.The differences in of 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood,as well as the changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine,were compared.Results (1)According to

  6. Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about

  7. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  8. Screening and triage of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in general population and high risk pregnancies: a systematic review with a focus on reduction of IUGR related stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Saad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Early detection and management of IUGR can lead to reduce related morbidity and mortality. In this paper we have reviewed effectiveness of fetal movement monitoring and Doppler velocimetry for the detection and surveillance of high risk pregnancies and the effect of this on prevention of stillbirths. We have also reviewed effect of maternal body mass index (BMI screening, symphysial-fundal height measurement and targeted ultrasound in detection and triage of IUGR in the community. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies related to our interventions. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and all World Health Organization Regional Databases and included publications in any language. Quality of available evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Group. Given the paucity of evidence related to the effect of detection and management of IUGR on stillbirths, we undertook Delphi based evaluation from experts in the field. Results There was insufficient evidence to recommend against or in favor of routine use of fetal movement monitoring for fetal well being. (1 Detection and triage of IUGR with the help of (1a maternal BMI screening, (1b symphysial-fundal height measurement and (1c targeted ultrasound can be an effective method of reducing IUGR related perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pooled results from sixteen studies shows that Doppler velocimetry of umbilical and fetal arteries in ‘high risk’ pregnancies, coupled with the appropriate intervention, can reduce perinatal mortality by 29 % [RR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52-0.98]. Pooled results for impact on stillbirth showed a reduction of 35 % [RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.41-1.04]; however, the results did not reach the conventional limits of statistical

  9. Influence of aerobic training on the reduced vasoconstriction to angiotensin II in rats exposed to intrauterine growth restriction: possible role of oxidative stress and AT2 receptor of angiotensin II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with impaired vascular function, which contributes to the increased incidence of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic training improves AngII-induced vasoconstriction in IUGR rats. Moreover, we assess the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions in this improvement. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups on day 1 of pregnancy. A control group was fed standard chow ad libitum, and a restricted group was fed 50% of the ad libitum intake throughout gestation. At 8 weeks of age, male offspring from both groups were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: sedentary control (SC, trained control (TC, sedentary restricted (SRT, and trained restricted (TRT. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill and consisted of a continuous 60-min session 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Following aerobic training, concentration-response curves to AngII were obtained in endothelium-intact aortic rings. Protein expression of SOD isoforms, AngII receptors and the NADPH oxidase component p47phox was assessed by Western blot analysis. The dihydroethidium was used to evaluate the in situ superoxide levels under basal conditions or in the presence of apocynin, losartan or PD 123,319. Our results indicate that aerobic training can prevent IUGR-associated increases in AngII-dependent vasoconstriction and can restore basal superoxide levels in the aortic rings of TRT rats. Moreover, we observed that aerobic training normalized the increased p47phox protein expression and increased MnSOD and AT2 receptor protein expression in thoracic aortas of SRT rats. In summary, aerobic training can result in an upregulation of antioxidant defense by improved of MnSOD expression and attenuation of NADPH oxidase component p47phox. These effects are accompanied by increased expression of AT2 receptor, which provide positive effects

  10. Care-Related and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Antenatal Nondetection of Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Case-Control Study from Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinja Alexandra Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify care-related and maternal risk factors for the antenatal nondetection of IUGR. Methods. In this hospital-based case-control study we compared antenatally undetected IUGR neonates (cases to detected IUGR neonates (controls. Data were collected using newborn documentation sheets and standardized personal interviews with the mothers. We calculated antenatal detection rates and used uni- and multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of antenatal nondetection of IUGR and maternal and care-related factors. Results. A total of 161 neonates from three hospitals were included in the study. Suboptimal fetal growth was identified antenatally in n=77 pregnancies while in n=84 it was not detected antenatally (antenatal detection rate: 47.8%. Severity of IUGR, maternal complications, and a Doppler examination during the course of pregnancy were associated with IUGR detection. We did not find statistically significant differences regarding parental socioeconomic status and maternal migration background. Conclusions. In our study, about half of all pregnancies affected by suboptimal growth remained undetected. Future in-depth studies with larger study populations should further examine factors that could increase antenatal detection rates for IUGR.

  11. Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term: DIGITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisjes Anjoke JM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 80% of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR infants are born at term. They have an increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity including behavioral problems, minor developmental delay and spastic cerebral palsy. Management is controversial, in particular the decision whether to induce labour or await spontaneous delivery with strict fetal and maternal surveillance. We propose a randomised trial to compare effectiveness, costs and maternal quality of life for induction of labour versus expectant management in women with a suspected IUGR fetus at term. Methods/design The proposed trial is a multi-centre randomised study in pregnant women who are suspected on clinical grounds of having an IUGR child at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks. After informed consent women will be randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant management with maternal and fetal monitoring. Randomisation will be web-based. The primary outcome measure will be a composite neonatal morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes will be severe maternal morbidity, maternal quality of life and costs. Moreover, we aim to assess neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral outcome at two years as assessed by a postal enquiry (Child Behavioral Check List-CBCL and Ages and Stages Questionnaire-ASQ. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Quality of life analysis and a preference study will also be performed in the same study population. Health technology assessment with an economic analysis is part of this so called Digitat trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term. The study aims to include 325 patients per arm. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for which strategy is superior in terms of neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, costs and maternal quality of life aspects. This will be the first randomised trial for IUGR at term. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register and ISRCTN

  12. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth.

  13. 宫内生长受限对胎猪肝脏microRNA表达谱的影响%Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters the Hepatic MicroRNA Expression in Fetal Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘闯; 曹中明; 林刚; 朱玉华; 王军军

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to reveal the affect of IUGR on hepatic microRNA (miRNA) expression in 110-days-pregnant-fetal pig by using miRNA microarray analysis, in order to advance our knowledge about metabolic programming of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) piglet. In this study, six primiparous Dalland sows fed corn and soybean meal-based diet were used. At 110 days of gestation, sows were killed and the whole uterus was removed. For each sow, one IUGR fetus (with a body weight that is two standard deviations less than the average litter body weight) and one normal-weight fetus were obtained and the left lobe of liver was rapidly sampled and stored at -80℃. Two color miRNA array technology was used to detect the differentially expressed miRNA in the liver between I-UGR and normal fetal pig. Our results indicated that, IUGR has significant affect on hepatic miRNA expression in fetal pig. There are totally 41 differentially expressed miRNA (27 up regulated and 14 down regulated). These miRNAs' targeted genes are involved in the absorption and metabolism of nutrient, hepatic detoxification, hepatic cell growth and proliferation. The disturbed effects of the absorption and metabolism of glucose, the metabolism of lipid, protein synthesis; the decreased ability of hepatic detoxification; and the inhibition of hepatocyte's proliferation may be an important reason responsible for postnatal inefficient nutrient utilization, higher morbidity and mortality, as well as retarded growth in IUGR piglet.%本试验旨在分析宫内生长受限(IUGR)和正常胎猪肝脏microRNA (miRNA)表达的差异,以揭示IUGR对胎猪肝脏miRNA表达谱的影响.试验选用6头达兰(Dalland)母猪,在孕110 d左右致死,剖腹并取出整个子宫.在每窝中选取1头IUGR胎猪和1头正常胎猪,分别取出肝脏备用.利用双荧光标记miRNA芯片技术对IUGR和正常胎猪肝脏进行分析.结果表明:IUGR对胎猪肝脏miRNA的表达产生显著

  14. Ruminant models of prenatal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R V; Scheaffer, A N; Wright, C D; Regnault, T R H

    2003-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a significant health issue that not only affects infant mortality and morbidity, but may also predispose individuals to coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and stroke as adults. The majority of IUGR pregnancies in humans are characterized by asymmetric fetal growth, resulting from inadequate nutrient transfer to the fetus. Furthermore, most of these pregnancies involve functional placental insufficiency, and may also show altered umbilical velocimetry. As the severity of IUGR increases, the fetus becomes increasingly hypoxic, hypoglycaemic and acidotic. In addition, placental transfer or utilization of some amino acids is known to be altered in IUGR pregnancies. Although a great deal has been learned from clinical studies of human IUGR, appropriate animal models are required to define completely the mechanisms involved in the development of IUGR. The pregnant sheep is a long-standing model for placental-fetal interactions, and fetal growth restriction can be induced in pregnant sheep by maternal nutrient restriction, maternal nutrient excess, administration of glucocorticoid, utero-placental embolization, carunclectomy and maternal hyperthermia. Although all of these sheep models are capable of inducing fetal growth restriction, the degree of restriction is variable. This review compares these sheep models of IUGR with the characteristics of human IUGR.

  15. Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Reolon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been indications that intrauterine and early extrauterine growth can influence childhood mental and motor function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and early extrauterine head growth on the neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins. Thirty-six monozygous twin pairs were evaluated at the corrected age of 12 to 42 months. Intrauterine growth restriction was quantified using the fetal growth ratio. The effects of birth weight ratio, head circumference at birth and current head circumference on mental and motor outcomes were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression models. Separate estimates of the between (interpair and within (intrapair effects of each measure on development were thus obtained. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, by a psychologist blind to the exposure. A standardized neurological examination was performed by a neuropediatrician who was unaware of the exposures under investigation. After adjustment, birth weight ratio and head circumference at birth were not associated with motor or mental outcomes. Current head circumference was associated with mental but not with motor outcomes. Only the intrapair twin effect was significant. An increase of 1 cm in current head circumference of one twin compared with the other was associated with 3.2 points higher in Mental Developmental Index (95%CI = 1.06-5.32; P < 0.03. Thus, no effect of intrauterine growth was found on cognition and only postnatal head growth was associated with cognition. This effect was not shared by the co-twin.

  16. Increased arterial stiffness and extracellular matrix reorganization in intrauterine growth–restricted fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Reuben Blair; Rozance, Paul J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Petrash, Carson C.; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Hunter, Kendall S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in increased placental resistance to blood flow, fetal hypertension, and increased pulsatility stresses shown to lead to vascular remodeling. We tested our hypothesis that IUGR causes decreased compliance in the carotid and umbilical arteries due to altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and structure. METHODS A sheep model of placental insufficiency–induced IUGR (PI-IUGR) was created by exposure of the pregnant ewe to elevated ambient temperatures. Umbilical and carotid arteries from near-term fetuses were tested with pressure–diameter measurements to compare passive compliance in control and PI-IUGR tissues. ECM composition was measured via biochemical assay, and the organization was determined by using histology and second-harmonic generation imaging. RESULTS We found that PI-IUGR increased arterial stiffness with increased collagen engagement, or transition stretch. PI-IUGR carotid arteries exhibited increased collagen and elastin quantity, and PI-IUGR umbilical arteries exhibited increased sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Histomorphology showed altered collagen-to-elastin ratios with altered cellular proliferation. Increased stiffness indicates altered collagen-to-elastin ratios with less elastin contribution leading to increased collagen engagement. CONCLUSION Because vessel stiffness is a significant predictor in the development of hypertension, disrupted ECM deposition in IUGR provides a potential link between IUGR and adult hypertension. PMID:23154756

  17. Modeling intrauterine growth retardation in rodents: Impact on pancreas development and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, V M; Somm, E; Klee, P

    2009-05-25

    Fetal adverse environment, such as insufficient maternal nutrition, placental insufficiency and stress, alters organ development and leads to poor fetal growth, also called intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). IUGR is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity as well as late-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. In the rodent model, IUGR can be induced by fetal caloric restriction, fetal protein restriction, by exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids or by restricted placental blood supply. Such experimental IUGR models show a decreased beta cell mass and lower pancreatic insulin content. Recent research has provided an insight into the mechanisms responsible for the loss of beta cells. Here we review models that give further details about the molecular determinants of fetal and postnatal pancreatic islet development that are required to understand the consequences of fetal insults.

  18. 宫内生长受限新生儿多系统器官损害与临床管理%Multiple organ system damage in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付薇; 刘敬

    2016-01-01

    胎儿时期是各系统器官发育形成的关键时期,宫内生长环境的改变可导致胎儿-新生儿多系统器官损害,并与成人期疾病密切相关,包括神经系统损害(如脑发育障碍、功能异常及脑瘫等)、心血管系统损害(如冠心病、高血压等)、生长障碍与代谢性疾病(如胰岛素抵抗、2型糖尿病、肥胖症、生长发育障碍等)、泌尿系统损害(如肾间质性疾病、肾性高血压等)、呼吸系统损害(如呼吸窘迫综合征、支气管肺发育不良等)等,本文对此予以介绍,以助于临床医师对胎儿生长受限的认识及加强相关干预措施,提高其生存质量.%The fetal period is the critical time in the development of various organs.The changes in the intrauterine growth environment can cause fetal and neonatal multiple organ system underdevelopment and damage,which is also closely related to the adult diseases,including nervous system damage (such as brain development disorders,functional abnormalities and cerebral palsy,etc.),cardiovascular system damage(such as coronary heart disease,high blood pressure,etc.),growth disorders and metabolic disorders(such as insulin resistance,type Ⅱ diabetes,obesity,growth and development disorders),urinary system damage (such as interstitial renal disease,renal hypertension,etc.),respiratory system damage(such as respiratory distress syndrome,bronchial dysplasia,etc.),etc.In this paper,we introduced this to help clinicians to understand and strengthen the intervention measures to improve the quality of life.

  19. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cuartas Calle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  20. Paternally Inherited IGF2 Mutation and Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, Matthias; Zirn, Birgit; Santen, Gijs; Wirthgen, Elisa; Soellner, Lukas; Büttel, Hans-Martin; Schweizer, Roland; van Workum, Wilbert; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2015-07-23

    In humans, mutations in IGF1 or IGF1R cause intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction; however, data on mutations in IGF2, encoding insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II, are lacking. We report an IGF2 variant (c.191C→A, p.Ser64Ter) with evidence of pathogenicity in a multigenerational family with four members who have growth restriction. The phenotype affects only family members who have inherited the variant through paternal transmission, a finding that is consistent with the maternal imprinting status of IGF2. The severe growth restriction in affected family members suggests that IGF-II affects postnatal growth in addition to prenatal growth. Furthermore, the dysmorphic features of affected family members are consistent with a role of deficient IGF-II levels in the cause of the Silver-Russell syndrome. (Funded by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the European Union.).

  1. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  2. Diagnóstico precoce da restrição do crescimento fetal pela estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal Early diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction by ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Martins

    2005-02-01

    disease, no history of addictions, gemellarity or malformed fetuses. All mothers performed ultrasonographic exams at the 25th and 27th weeks for estimation of the fetal weight. Results: The exams were able to detect the inadequate development of those fetuses small-for-gestational-age group. The cut-off values for echographic fetal weight were established as 775 grams and 1015 grams for the 25th and 27th weeks, respectively A mathematical model was developed, capable of quantifying the probability of newborns exhibiting insufficient intra-uterine growth, being small-for-gestational-age.

  3. Legal restrictions and Investment Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary. Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  4. Legal restrictions and investment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary, Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  5. 单绒毛膜双胎胎儿生长受限合并脐带帆状附着一例%Intrauterine growth restriction in monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous placen-ta:report of one case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫦娥

    2016-01-01

    单绒毛膜双胎妊娠合并脐带帆状附着在临床较为少见。该文报道了一例单绒毛膜双胎胎儿生长受限合并脐带帆状附着的病例。该例孕妇停经35周、下腹疼痛5 h,在外院及入院 B 超均显示为双胎妊娠、胎儿生长受限,未报告脐带异常;经积极保胎、营养治疗2周后,B 超检查仍显示胎儿生长受限,胎儿2羊水过少、脐动脉舒张期血流消失,不排除双胎脐带受压及胎盘血流异常,即予急诊剖宫产术,先后娩出2活女婴及胎盘,胎盘为一脐带帆状附着,2条脐带并列一处,呈 V 型附着胎膜。2女婴分别为低体重儿及极低体重儿,其中极低体重儿经无创呼吸机辅助通气无效,于住院第3日因 MODS 死亡,低体重儿及产妇分别于住院10 d、20 d 好转出院。该例提示,产前超声应密切监测双胎的生长发育及羊水量差异,仔细观察脐带插入点、脐动脉血流等指标,为产前咨询和临床决策提供更多依据,以改善单绒毛膜双胎妊娠的围生期结局。%Monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous insertion of umbilical cord is rarely reported in clinical practice.In this article,we reported one case of fetal growth restriction in monochori-onic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous insertion of umbilical cord.The pregnant woman experienced menolipsis for 35 weeks and inferior abdominal pain for 5 h.She was diagnosed with fetal growth restriction in twin pregnancy by repeated B-ultrasound in another hospital and upon admission to our hospital.No abnormality of umbilical cord was reported.After active fetal protection therapy and nutrition enrichment for 2 weeks,B-ul-trasound revealed the signs of fetal growth restriction,oligohydramnios of the second fetus and absent end-dias-tolic flow of umbilical artery.The possibility of umbilical cord compression of the twins and placental flow ab-normality was not excluded.She delivered

  6. Methylation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction%胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3在宫内生长受限儿中的甲基化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱玲; 蒋犁; 葛芹玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the role of promoter methylation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (ICFBP3) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods Fifty neonates with IUCR and 30 healthy neonates were enrolled. The promoter methylation status of 1GFBP3 in peripheral blood was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and high resolution melting (HRM) techniques. Results The complete methylation rate, partial methylation rate and non-methylation rate of IGFBP3 promoter in the IUGR group was 4% (2/50) , 40% (20/50) and 56% (28/50) , respectively. The partial methylation rate and non-methylation rate of IGFBP3 promoter in the control group were 13% (4/30) and 87% (26/30) , respectively. There were significant differences in the promoter methylation rate of IGFBP3 between the two groups ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions The promoter methylation of IGFBP3 gene is associated with the pathogenesis of IUGR.%目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3(IGFBP3)启动子区甲基化状态在胎儿宫内生长受限(IUGR)中的作用.方法 选取IUGR新生儿50例及正常新生儿30例,应用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)及高分辨率溶解(HRM)技术检测外周血中IGFBP3基因的甲基化状态.结果 IUGR组中IGFBP3启动子区完全甲基化比例为4%(2/50),部分甲基化比例为40%(20/50),未甲基化比例为56%(28/50);对照组中部分甲基化比例为13%(4/30),未甲基化比例为87%(26/30),两组甲基化率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 IGFBP3基因启动子区的甲基化程度与IUGR的发生有关.

  7. Influência do crescimento intrauterino restrito sobre a evolução nutricional e crescimento de recém-nascidos pré-termo até a alta hospitalar Intrauterine growth restriction influence on the nutritional evolution and growth of preterm newborns from birth until discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tadeu da Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o crescimento de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT com crescimento intrauterino restrito (CIUR do nascimento até a alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Coorte de RNPT provenientes de gestação única, com idade gestacional (IG de 30 a 34 semanas, Apgar de cinco minutos >6, sem risco infeccioso perinatal e sem malformações. Grupos de estudo: I: CIUR (índice de Kramer=peso ao nascer/peso P50OBJECTIVE: Analyze the growth of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR preterm newborns infants (PTNB from birth until hospital discharge. METHODS: Cohort study of PTNB from single gestations with gestational age of 30 to 34 weeks, Apgar score at five minutes >6, without perinatal infectious risk and/or malformations. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I: PTNB with IUGR (Kramer index: birth weight/weight at 50th percentile <0,85; Group II: PTNB without IUGR. Weight (W, length (L, head circumference (HC and body mass index (BMI were evaluated at birth and at 40 weeks corrected GA or discharge. Statistical analysis included Student t test paired t test, chi-square test, Pearson's correlation and linear regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: At birth, anthropometric significant differences (p<0.0001 were seen between the 24 Group I PTNB (W=1192g, L=37.7cm, HC=26.9cm and the 27 Group II infants (W=2081g, L=43.2cm, HC=30.9cm. At discharge, Group II PTNB were heavier (p=0.03, but L, HC and BMI were similar between groups. From birth until discharge, the W, L and HC increased in both groups. BMI increased from birth to discharge only in Group I (p<0.0001, with a negative correlation between BMI at birth and the BMI difference between birth and discharge (r=-0.79; p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: IUGR at birth was associated to significant BMI increase until discharge, which was inversely correlated to birth BMI, suggesting a higher risk of future obesity in these infants if this trend persists throughout infancy and childhood.

  8. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  9. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  10. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  11. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  13. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AT FULL TERM PREGNANCIES WITH ENDOCRINE FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and en docrine parameters so as to assess the effects of the main endocrine factors on IUGR. The concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin, T3, T4 and TSH were measured in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Methods The samples were collected from 23 pregnant women who were diagnosed as the full term IUGR, 42 normal full term pregnant women with normal infants' weight were taken as control. Growth hormone and insulin were mea sured by radioimmunoassay. T3, T4 and TSH were investigated by micro-radioimmunoassay. Results The concentra tions of growth hormone, insulin and T4 in umbilical cord blood were lower in IUGR than that in control group(GH 4. 63μg/L vs 7.01μg/L, insulin 10. 68μIU/ml vs 31.44μIU/ml, T4 87. 39nmol/L vs 138. 10nmol/L. P <0. 05, 0. 05 and 0. 05, respectively). The TSH concentration in umbilical cord blood was higher in IUGR than in control group (10. 84μmIU/L vs 5. 75μmIU/L, P <0. 01). The concentration of growth hormone in maternal serum and the concen tration of insulin in amniotic fluid were also lower in IUGR group than in control group(GH 1.77μg/L vs 2.74μg/L, P <0. 01, insulin 5. 84μIU/mi vs 15. 64μIU/ml, P <0. 01). Conclusion This study confirms that full term neonates with IUGR are abnormal in endocrine factors. The inadequacy of growth hormone may be one of the causes of IUGR. The relative scarcity of growth hormone and insulin seems to be a factor to compromise the fetus' metabolism. Be sides, the early hypothyrosis of infants with IUGR might protect them from unfavorable environment in the uterine.

  14. Fetal growth restriction is associated with malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briand, Valérie; Saal, Jessica; Ghafari, Caline

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effect of malaria on intrauterine growth restriction on the basis of the fetal growth rate, rather than just the small-for-gestational age z score. Here, we assessed the impact of malaria on IUGR, using data from a longitudinal, ultrasonography-based fol...... and late pregnancy on fetal growth. This stresses the importance of starting preventive measures against malaria as early as possible during pregnancy....... infections tended to have lower z scores than uninfected women. Malaria both in early and late pregnancy was associated with a reduction in fetal growth velocity, which occurred either immediately or with a delay after infection. DISCUSSIONS: We confirmed the deleterious effect of malaria during both early...

  15. Cellular localization of AT1 receptor mRNA and protein in normal placenta and its reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of vasorelaxants.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; M Shams; Zhu, J; Khalig, A; Wilkes, M; Whittle, M; Barnes, N; Ahmed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a potent vasoconstrictor and growth promoter. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using the nonselective radioligand [125I]ANG II and subtype-selective competing compounds demonstrated the presence of both ANG II receptor (AT)1 and AT2 receptor recognition sites. In addition, a relatively small population of apparently non-AT1/non-AT2 sites was identified that may represent a novel high affinity ANG II recognition site in human placenta. Using placental membrane p...

  16. [Intrauterine growth and biochemical levels in cord blood samples in infants less than 31 weeks gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Nannig, Patricia; Cubillos Celis, M Paz; Toro Jara, Claudia; Zuñiga Vergara, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The use of greater amounts of protein and energy during the first week of life is associated with hypophosphataemia in extreme preterm babies. The lowest phosphorus levels are described in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies. To describe biochemistry levels in cord blood plasma in extreme premature, adequate and small for gestational age babies (AGA/SGA) and their relationship with plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week of life. A descriptive clinical study was performed in the Neonatology Service at Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río during 2013 and 2014. A biochemical analysis of cord blood was performed on 43 premature babies, as well as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week. The adequacy for gestational age was obtained using Alarcón- Pittaluga growth curves. Statistical significance was P<.05. Cholesterol, transaminases, albumin and creatinine levels were similar for both AGA and SGA babies. Levels of pH, phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in SGA babies. Urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides levels were higher in SGA. The analysis during the first week showed a strong reduction in phosphorus levels, as well as an increase in calcium levels in proportion to the decrease in phosphorus in the SGA sub- group. Intrauterine malnutrition in preterm babies is expressed in the modulation of plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides. During post-natal life, when nutritional intake begins, a decrease in phosphorus and an increase in calcium levels appear, consistent with insufficient phosphorus intake during this period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of isolated short fetal femur with intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, N.; Bekker, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the outcomes of fetuses referred because of short femur length. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all singleton pregnancies referred to a tertiary care referral hospital with a femur length below the 5(th) percentile. All ultrasound scan reports, including Doppler,

  18. Histomorphometry of umbilical vessels of intrauterine growth restricted neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S. Kotrannavar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IUGR is associated with significant structural changes in umbilical vessels of full term neonates. These changes are more obvious in HUV than human umbilical artery (HUA. It can be detected prenatally and used as an indicator of impending IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 129-134

  19. Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in twin pregnancy: monitoring of fetal development in intrauterine growth retardation and single intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, M; Kato, K; Bohnet, H G; Gerhard, I; Weise, H C; Leidenberger, F

    1986-11-01

    Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in maternal serum were evaluated in 100 uneventful twin pregnancies, and these values were compared with those observed in 16 twin pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation or single intrauterine fetal death. In pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation (n = 8), human placental lactogen levels were at the lower limit of normal range for singleton pregnancies, whereas estriol levels were normal in most cases. When one of the fetuses had died before week 33 of pregnancy (n = 5), both human placental lactogen and estriol levels were low and they were almost at the levels in singleton pregnancy. When intrauterine fetal death occurred after week 36 of pregnancy (n = 3), both hormone levels remained normal until term. Thus human placental lactogen rather than estriol is a good indicator of intrauterine growth retardation in twin pregnancy. Both human placental lactogen and estriol are useful for the monitoring of the surviving fetus in the case of single intrauterine fetal death.

  20. IGF-2和CDKN1C基因在单合子双胎选择性宫内生长受限胎盘中的表达%The expression of IGF-2 and CDKN1C in placenta of monozygotic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴涵婧; 方群; 石晓梅; 黄轩; 勾晨雨; 罗艳敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the imprinted gene IGF-2 and CDKN1 C expression in placenta of monozygotic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR),and investigate the correlation between this disease and IGF -2 or CDKN1C.Methods Placental tissues and clinical data were collected from 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins,in which 10 cases of sIUGR as the study group,10 cases of normal twins as the control group.The zygotic characteristics were identified by STR assay.Real-time quantitative PCR method was used to measure the IGF-2 and CDKN1C mRNA expression in placental tissues.Results The 20 pairs of twins were all monozygotic twins.Significantly earlier delivery was observed in study group than that in control group (P < 0.05).Significantly larger birth weigbt was revealed in large twins than that in small twins in the both groups,which was significantly more prominent in study group (P <0.01).In the group of sIUGR,significantly lower IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed in small twins than that in large twins (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in CDKNIC transcription level between the large and small twins in either study group or control group (P > O.05).Conclusion IGF-2 mRNA is down-regulated in the placenta of small twins in sIUGR,thus may interfere with normal fetal growth by affecting placental growth and reduced placental nutrient transport function,leading to the selective intrauterine growth restriction.There is no correlation between the CDKN1C gene and MCDA monozygotic twins with sIUGR.%目的 探讨印迹基因IGF-2、CDKN1C在单绒毛膜双羊膜囊(MCDA)单合子双胎选择性宫内生长受限两胎胎盘中的表达,进而探讨IGF-2、CDKN1C基因与该疾病间的关系.方法 收集20对MCDA双胎的临床资料及胎盘组织,其中双胎选择性宫内生长受限10例(sIUGR组),正常双胎10例作为对照组,用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测胎盘组织中的IGF-2、CDKN1C mRNA表达情况,且

  1. The role of gut-liver axis in the restriction of intrauterine growth in a model of experimental gastroschisis O papel do eixo intestino-fígado na restrição de crescimento intra-uterino em um modelo de gastrosquise experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR by the expression of IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ and Ikappaβ in experimental model of gastroschisis. METHODS: Pregnant rats at 18.5 days of gestation were submitted to surgery to create experimental fetal gastroschisis (term = 22 days were divided in three groups: gastroschisis (G, control (C and sham (S. Fetuses were evaluated for body weight (BW, intestinal (IW, liver (LW and their relations IW/BW and LW/BW. IR-β and IGF-IRβ receptors, IRS-1 and IRS-2 substrates and Ikappaβ protein were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS: BW was lower in G, the IW and IW / BW were greater than C and S (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a restrição de crescimento intra-uterino (RCIU pela expressão de IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ e a via inflamatória do Ikappaβ no modelo de gastrosquise experimental. MÉTODOS: Ratas grávidas com 18,5 dias de gestação foram submetidas a cirurgia experimental para criar gastrosquise fetal (termo = 22 dias e os fetos foram divididos em três grupos: gastrosquise (G, controle (C e sham (S. Os fetos foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal (BW, intestinal (IW, fígado (LW e suas relações IW/BW e LW/BW. Os receptores IR-β e IGF-IRβ, os substratos IRS-1 e IRS-2 e a proteína Ikappaβ foram analisados por western blotting. RESULTADOS: O BW de G foi menor, o IW e IW/BW foram superiores a C e S (p < 0.05. O fígado não apresentou diferenças entre os grupos. Nos fetos com gastrosquise, quando comparados com fetos controles, a expressão de IGF-IRβ (p<0.001 e Ikappaβ (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e intestino, assim como IR-β (p<0.001 que diminuiu em ambos. Inversamente ao intestino, IRS-1 (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e IRS-2 diminuiu (p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: O eixo do intestino fígado tem um papel importante na inflamação, com consequentes alterações na via metabólica de glicose que pode contribuir para a RCIU em fetos com gastrosquise.

  2. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  3. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  4. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  5. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  6. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESRICTION ON THE REGIONAL NEUROCHEMICAL PROFILE OF THE DEVELOPING RAT BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M.; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Objective Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4T. Methods IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N=12) and NG (N=13) rats. Results In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P<0.01) and [glutamate]/[glutamine] ratio (P <0.05). Lower taurine concentrations were observed in the hippocampus (P<0.01) and striatum (P <0.05). Conclusion IUGR differentially affects the neurochemical profile of the P7 rat brain regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants. PMID:25972040

  7. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of suspected intra-uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    outlines the diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction and describes how to differentiate this group ... prevalence of syndrome X, a condition associating ... low fetal hemoglobin concentration (anemic ..... such an approach remain, however.

  8. Rh System and Intrauterine Growth. Interaction with Season of Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gloria-Bottini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that maternal-fetal genetic differences in membrane transport and signal transduction may influence intrauterine development, the recent acquisition on transport function of Rh protein prompted us to study the relationship between joint maternal-fetal Rh phenotype and birth weight. Considering that metabolic effect of maternal-fetal competition could be amplified by environmental conditions, we have investigated possible seasonal effects on such relationship. We have studied 5291 infants born in Sardinia in the period January 1993–December 1996 and 984 infants born in Rome during 1996. In Rh(– mothers there is a significant association between season of birth and birth weight that shows the highest mean value in infants born in autumn (i.e. conceived in winter. The association is much more evident in male than in female infants. In male infants from Rh(– mothers, the association between birth weight and season is significant in Rh(+ male newborns only. Recent observations by our group in NIDDM suggest that glucose transport in RBC may be related to D protein, thus we propose an interpretation of the present observation in terms of transport function. When the density of D protein in the infant is greater than in the mother, the balance is in favour of the infant who may attain a significant developmental advantage when conceived in the cold season.

  9. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Intrauterine growth retardation in Peru: stressors and perinatal outcomes Hospital Ministry of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticona-Rendón, Manuel; Pacora-Portella, Percy; Huanco-Apaza, Diana; Ticona-Vildoso, Maricarmen

    2014-11-01

    To determine the incidence, stressors and perinatal outcomes of intrauterine growth retardation in the hospitals of the Ministry of Health of Peru. Cross-sectional, analytical, case-control study of 9777 infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in 29 hospitals of the Ministry of Health of Peru in 2010. The Peruvian intrauterine growth curve was used for the diagnosis of IUGR. IUGR newborns (cases) and newborns appropriate for gestational age (controls) were compared using the odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. The incidence of IUGR was 10.1%. The incidence by region was: 8.1% Coast, 11.8% Selva and Sierra 14.6%. The frequency of stress factors of IUGR were: nutrition (92%), psychological (84.8%), social (53%), anatomical (63.6%), toxic/environmental (52.9%), vascular (29,8%), infection (14.1%) and metabolic (0.3%). The newborn with IUGR had higher perinatal morbidity (OR=2,1) and mortality (OR=3.5). The healthy fetus is the result of a balance between stress factors and the adaptive response of the mother and fetus. When the response of physiological adaptation is overcome by stress factors, IUGR occurs.The political, psychological, nutritional and medical intervention before 12 weeks of gestation has the potential to change the harmful effects of all human stress factors that affect fetal growth.

  11. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the total number of cells in the cortical part of the cerebral wall is the same in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses, compared with normally grown fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The total cell number in the cerebral wall...... with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  12. 孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进生长受限胎鼠神经元与神经干细胞增殖的最佳时机%Optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation for improvement of neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽芳; 李芳; 刘敬; 王华伟

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation to improve neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.Methods Twenty-five pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (five rats in each group): group A was the control group, group B to E were the fetal growth restriction (FGR) model groups with low-protein diet during the experiment, group C, D, and E were supplemented with taurine [300 mg/(kg·d)] at day 9, 11 and 15, respectively. The birth weight of newborn rats was measured after natural delivery. The rats with body weight two standard deviations lower than the average weight in group A were diagnosed as FGR. There were five litters of newborn rats in each group, and two were randomly selected from each litter, resulting in ten newborn rats in each group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) positive cell expression in newborn rat brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Single factor analysis of variance, LSD tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe average birth weight of newborn rats in group A, B, C, D and E were (6.61±0.45), (4.65±0.23), (5.37±0.17), (5.74±0.21), and (5.00±0.24) g, respectively. Average birth weight was lower in group B than in group A (t=2.447), higher in group D and E than in group B (t=2.306 and 2.306), higher in group D than in group C and E (t=2.306 and 2.306), and the differences were statistically significant (allP0.05). The IOD in group D was higher than that in group E, and the difference was statistically significant (t=4.182,P<0.05).ConclusionsAntenatal taurine supplementation can promote neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in rats with FGR. The effect is most obvious on the 11th day of pregnancy, and may lead to the promotion of brain development.%目的:探讨孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进胎儿生长受限(fetal growth restriction,FGR)胎鼠神经元

  13. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during......SUMMARY: Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest...... that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...

  14. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24...

  15. Some medico-socio-demographic factors and intra-uterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Bhandari, V

    1996-04-01

    In the present prospective pilot study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation between some maternopaternal factors (demographic, socio-economic and medical) that suggest a high risk for intra-uterine growth retardation. The mean height and booking weight of women in study group were significantly less than the height and weight of women in control group (p instrumental vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section for foetal distress, incidence of intrapartum foetal distress, and number of babies with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly more in the study group (p < .05 and p < 0.001 respectively for operative delivery and Apgar scores).

  16. Serum human placental lactogen levels in intra-uterine fetal growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zail, S S; Safro, I L

    1975-11-12

    Serum human placental lactogen (HPL) levels were measured in the last trimester of pregnancy in 16 mothers who delivered small-for-gestational-age babies. Only 3 patients had levels which were below the normal range, while 4 others had levels close to the lower limit of the normal range. The finding of a normal serum HPL level therefore does not exclude the possibility of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation. No correlation was found between serum HPL levels at 37-39 weeks and infant or placental weights in full-term normal deliveries.

  17. Blood lipid level, liver fat content and expression changes of fat-specific protein 27 in aged intrauterine growth restriction rats%宫内发育迟缓大鼠老年期血脂水平、肝脂肪含量及脂肪特异性蛋白27表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷小平; 邹礼乐; 董文斌; 康兰; 赵帅; 罗梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)大鼠老年期血脂水平、肝脂肪含量及脂肪特异性蛋白27(Fsp27)表达变化。方法取IUGR和适于胎龄( AGA)大鼠各8只,分别设为IUGR组和AGA组。两组大鼠予标准配方饲料喂养至12月龄时处死,心腔穿刺采血,用酶法检测血浆LDL-C、TC、游离脂肪酸( FFA)、HDL-C及TG;取肝组织行HE染色,光镜下观察两组大鼠肝脏形态学改变;采用酶法测定肝脏TG和TC;采用逆转录聚合酶链反应法检测肝组织Fsp27 mRNA,采用Western blotting法检测肝组织Fsp27蛋白。结果 IUGR组、AGA组血浆TC分别为(0.57±0.14)、(0.32±0.15) mmol/gprot,LDL-C分别为(7.16±1.08)、(5.32±0.88) mmol/L,HDL-C 分别为(3.33±0.54)、(4.47±0.71)mmol/L,TG分别为(2.21±0.23)、(1.66±0.15)mmol/L,FFA分别为(1.46±0.25)、(1.17±0.21)mmol/L,两组比较,P均<0.01。 AGA组大鼠肝细胞形态、大小正常,胞质呈均匀红染,细胞内少见脂滴及空泡,而IUGR组大鼠肝细胞胞质内出现大量大小不等的脂滴及空泡。 IUGR组、AGA组大鼠肝组织TC分别为(1.41±0.37)、(1.03±0.30)mmol/gprot,TG分别为(2.38±0.39)、(1.81±0.54)mmol/L,两组比较,P均<0.05。 IUGR组、AGA组肝组织Fsp27 mRNA相对表达量分别为4.35±1.12、2.37±0.75,Fsp27蛋白相对表达量分别为1.19±0.23、0.69±0.16,两组比较,P均<0.01。结论与AGA大鼠相比,IUGR大鼠老年期血浆TC、LDL-C、TG、FFA水平高,血浆HDL-C水平低,肝组织脂肪含量高,这可能与肝组织Fsp27表达升高有关。%Objective To observe the blood lipid level, liver fat content and the expression changes of fat-specific protein 27 ( Fsp27) in the aged intrauterine growth restriction ( IUGR) rats.Methods A total of 8 newborn IUGR rats ( IUGR

  18. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  19. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, pair (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  20. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis; Naoel Hassan Feres; Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza; Roberto Vilela Veloso; Vanessa Cristina Arantes; Nair Honda Kawashita; Edson Moleta Colodel; Bárbara Laet Botosso; Marise Auxiliadora de Barros Reis; Márcia Queiroz Latorraca

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and ...

  1. [Ultrasonic and biochemical detection and prenatal treatments of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, T; Aso, M; Nobori, M; Aonuma, M; Shimizu, H; Shirakawa, K

    1980-01-01

    Efficacy of three ultrasonographic and six biochemical methods for the detection of intrauterine growth retardation were assessed in prospective studies of 40 cases associated with short uterine fundal height less than -1.5 SD and/or small ultrasonographically determined total intrauterine volume (TIUV) less than -1 SD of normal populations. Prenatal treatments, consisting of bed rest, high protein diet, intravenous drip infusion of 10% maltose, 500 ml per day, for more than 12 days, etc., were administered on them. Fifteen cases (37.5%) delivered small-for-date infants, 9 of which complicated by toxemia of pregnancy. At the final determinations, small TIUV were found in all small-for-date cases (100%), short biparietal diameter 80.0%, and short longitudinal intracavital uterine length 53.3% of 15 small-for-date cases. In biochemical parameters, low maternal plasma estriol levels were found in 73.3%, low plasma human placental lactogen levels 66.7%, low urinary estriol excretion 53.3%, abnormal plasma alpha-fetoprotein levels 33.3%, and low plasma progesterone levels 20.0% of 15 small-for-date cases. Nineteen cases (47.5%) demonstrated remarkable increases in TIUV following prenatal treatments, and delivered appropriate-for-date infants. Despite of marked growth in biophysical parameters, abnormal biochemical values were mostly not improved by these treatments.

  2. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Role of Doppler Velocimetry in growth restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khushali Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR is an important and particularly challenging problem for obstetricians and pediatricians. IUGR is a leading contributor in perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 23.8% newborns around the world and 75% are born in Asia alone. In India the incidence of low birth weight varies from 15 to 25% and more than 50% of them are IUGR. Methods The present article consists of a study of 100 cases of intrauterine growth restriction with periodic color Doppler during the period of 1st July 2011 to 30 th August, 2013 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a tertiary care center. Detail history taken. General and obstetrical examination was done along with routine hematological and urine investigations. Ultrasound examination was done for growth, liquor and placental localization. Fetal well- being was assessed with Doppler studies and daily fetal movement count. Results In present study moderate to severe pregnancy induced hypertension (53.9% and lack of proper weight gain (23% are found to be the commonest causes of IUGR. Out of 69 IUGR cases having abnormal Doppler, about 63.8% had abnormality in uterine artery flow, 85.5% had abnormality in umbilical artery flow, 88.4% had abnormality in middle cerebral artery flow, 55% had abnormality in uterine and umbilical artery and 75.4% had abnormality in umbilical artery and MCA. Incidence of fetal demise (13% was higher in patients with abnormal Doppler flow compared to normal flow (3.2%. Surgical intervention in form of caesarean was required in 69.6% of patients with abnormal Doppler flow. Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR 1 where fetal demise is 2.6%. Incidence of AEDF/REDF ( Absent End Diastolic flow/Reversed End diastolic flow in IUGR was 8% that resulted in 50% loss of fetus. Conclusions Color Doppler is a useful mode to predict fetal outcome in IUGR. Color Doppler allows better understandings of hemodynamic changes in feto- placental and utero

  4. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi Juliana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  5. Impact of Perinatal Different Intrauterine Environments on Child Growth and Development in the First Six Months of Life--IVAPSA Birth Cohort: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Nunes, Marina; da Silva, Clécio Homrich; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran

    2012-04-02

    In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor and fibroblast growth factor expression profiles in growth-restricted fetal sheep pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochuan; Rozance, Paul J; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2012-05-01

    Placental insufficiency results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired fetal insulin secretion and less fetal pancreatic β-cell mass, partly due to lower β-cell proliferation rates. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate fetal β-cell proliferation and pancreas development, along with transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1). We determined expression levels for these growth factors, their receptors and IGF binding proteins in ovine fetal pancreas and isolated islets. In the IUGR pancreas, relative mRNA expression levels of IGF-I, PDX-1, FGF7 and FGFR2IIIb were 64% (P pancreas compared with controls. In isolated islets from IUGR fetuses, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 mRNA concentrations were 1.5- and 3.7-fold greater (P < 0.05), and insulin mRNA was 56% less (P < 0.05) than control islets. The growth factor expression profiles for IGF and FGF signaling pathways indicate that declines in β-cell mass are due to decreased growth factor signals for both pancreatic progenitor epithelial cell and mature β-cell replication.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Algorithms as a systems biology approach to a data-base on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maria E; Buscema, Massimo; Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Grossi, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    One of the specific aims of systems biology is to model and discover properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning. A systems biology approach was undertaken to investigate possibly the entire system of intra-uterine growth we had available, to assess the variables of interest, discriminate those which were effectively related with appropriate or restricted intrauterine growth, and achieve an understanding of the systems in these two conditions. The Artificial Adaptive Systems, which include Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Algorithms lead us to the first analyses. These analyses identified the importance of the biochemical variables IL-6, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 protein concentrations in placental lysates, and offered a new insight into placental markers of fetal growth within the IGF and cytokine systems, confirmed they had relationships and offered a critical assessment of studies previously performed.

  8. Fetal Parotid Gland Structural Remodeling In Case Of Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Morozov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The important biological role of saliva in maintaining of the homeostasis of the oral cavity environment, preventing infection and tooth decay is widely accepted. Salivary glands insufficiency may violate the balance between health and disease. Clinical data indicated that the destruction, agenesis and aplasia of salivary gland commonly followed with hypo salivation, low salivary flow, which resulted in severe caries and periodontal disease. Salivary gland dysfunction also frequently found in preterm and low birth weight newborns. But the information about structural background of abnormal salivation in early childhood is still limited. A presence of any correlation between salivary glands’ structural development and intrauterine restrictions of fetal growth (IUGR is unclear. The aim of present study was to determine morphological and morphometric peculiarities of human parotid gland in case of IUGR at late gestation.  Material and methods Parotid glands of twenty human fetuses 20-22 weeks of gestation with diagnosed IUGR from late abortions material were compared with ten fetal glands in cases of induced abortions due to psychological reasons (control group. Tissue samples were immersion-fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution, embedded in paraffin wax.  Histological slides were stained routinely with hematoxylin & eosin, with Van Gieson's Stain.  Microscopical examination was performed on magnification x 40 and x 100. Stereometric study by point count method at magnification x 40 allowed finding out volume fractions (VF of gland’s parenchyma and stroma. VF of lobule’s components (gland’s wall, gland’s lumen, duct’s wall, duct’s lumen, vessels, intralobular connective tissue were registered at magnification x100. Morphometry of the secretory portion of the parotid gland was conducted on the Zeiss microscope with the help of the AxioVision Rel.4.8 program. The mature (differentiated end pieces were measured, including their area

  9. Can anomalies of fetal brain circulation be useful in the management of growth restricted fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Serralde, Jesus Andres Benavides; Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of the fetal cerebral circulation provides important information on the hemodynamic changes associated with chronic hypoxia and intrauterine growth restriction. Despite the incorporation of new US parameters, the landmark for the fetal brain hemodynamic evaluation is still the middle cerebral artery. However, new vascular territories, such as the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, might provide additional information on the onset of the brain sparing effect. The fractional moving blood volume estimation and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound indices are new techniques that seem to be promising in identifying cases at earlier stages of vascular deterioration; still, they are not available for clinical application and more information is needed on the reproducibility and advantages of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound blood flow indices. In the past, the brain sparing effect was considered as a protective mechanism; however, recent information challenges this concept. There is growing evidence of an association between brain sparing effect and increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopment after birth. Even in mild late-onset intrauterine growth restriction affected fetuses with normal umbilical artery blood flow, increased cerebral blood perfusion can be associated with a substantial risk of abnormal neuroadaptation and neurodevelopment during childhood.

  10. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  11. Trophoblast differentiation, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    The number of hypotheses trying to decipher the etiologies of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR) is still increasing. However, for preeclampsia the actual knowledge we have is that the placenta is a prerequisite for the development of the syndrome. The recent years have seen a shift in understanding of the causes of preeclampsia from mostly focusing on the extravillous trophoblast towards the dysregulation of villous trophoblast development and maintenance. It seems as if a failure of the villous syncytiotrophoblast differentiation results in abnormal release of non-apoptotic fragments into maternal blood. In preeclampsia such necrotic or aponecrotic fragments can be found in maternal blood systemically and seem to be causative in the development of the inflammatory response of the mother. In cases with fetal growth restriction (FGR) extravillous trophoblast fails to adequately transform uterine spiral arteries. However, in FGR cases abnormal development of villous cytotrophoblast may have an impact on fetal nutrition without the induction of an inflammatory response of the mother. It is still unclear why the villous trophoblast fails to achieve an adequate turnover both in preeclampsia and in FGR. However, the detection of new biomarkers for preeclampsia such as placental protein 13 (PP13) has helped in clarifying the issue of when the syndrome starts to develop. PP13 levels in maternal serum are significantly altered already at six to seven weeks of gestation in women subsequently developing preeclampsia. Thus, there needs to be a very early alteration of villous development in such placentas. Herein the changes in villous trophoblast in preeclampsia and FGR are compared and differences between both scenarios are presented.

  12. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF 3G EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID DAILY ON RECURRENCE OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION AND PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRARAMAKERS, MTEW; HUISJES, HJ; VISSER, GHA

    1995-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or plac

  14. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Gr

  15. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Gr

  16. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine

  17. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrauterine growth curve in a low-income population in the outskirts of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schlesinger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design an intrauterine growth curve of an Institutionthat serves the needy population of the city of Sao Paulo andcompare it to the intrauterine growth curves of the city of Denverand of the State of California which are considered classic in theliterature, and to verify whether the small-for-gestational-ageinfants classified by the different intrauterine growth curves presenta higher prevalence of birth asphyxia. Methods: Retrospectivestudy including data relative to weight, gestational age calculatedby the Capurro method, and 1 and 5-minute Apgar score, fromJune 2003 to December 2003, in a total of 1012 newborn infantsbetween 35 and 42 weeks of gestational age. The intrauterinegrowth curves were designed with data imported from the EPI-Info6.0™ software. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of birth weight foreach gestational age as from the 35th week were calculated, andthe asphyxiated newborns among the small for gestational agewere compared with the group formed by the appropriate and thelarge for gestational age classified by the different curves. The chisquare test was used and p values < 0.05 were consideredsignificant. Results: The intrauterine growth curve of the Institutionwas narrower than that of Denver. When compared to the Californiacurve, we verified that the infants were classified as small-forgestational-age and large-for-gestational-age with lower values.Using Denver, the Institution, and California curves 2.9%, 9.5%, and19.9% of the infants were classified as small-for-gestational-age,respectively. Conclusions: The values obtained for the Institutioncurves were different from those of Denver and California curves. Alarger number of asphyxiated infants was found among the smallfor gestational age classified by the Denver intrauterine growthcurve than among those classified by the other two curves.

  19. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  20. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ... animal whose growth has been slowed by nutritional deprivation may exhibit ...

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN FETAL RENAL VOLUME AND FETAL RENAL DOPPLER IN NORMAL AND GROWTH RESTRICTED FETUSES : AN INITIAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetana R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors affecting nephrogenesis in utero is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Few studies showed reduced weight of the fetal kidney in IUGR fetuses as compared to normally grown fetuses. Reduced blood flow to the kidneys due to fetal hypoxemia in IUGR f o etus leads to increased pulsatility index which is likely to be responsible for impaired nephrogenesis and decreased kidney volume. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE : To estimate if fetal renal artery Doppler could affect fetal renal volume in healthy and growth restricted fetuses after 26 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING : Cross sectional study carried out in the De partment radio diagnosis, Lata M angeshkar hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. MATERIAL AND METHOD S : Total 336 patients, which consisted of 309 norma lly grown fetuses and 27 intrauterine growth restricted fetuses were included in the study. Fetal renal volume of individual kidney, combined renal volume and relative renal volumes were calculated using 2 dimensional ultrasound for normal and IUGR fetuses . Fetal renal artery parameters particularly renal arterial pulsatility index were calculated for both the groups. Correlation of fetal renal Doppler parameters with renal volume was estimated for respective groups. RESULTS: Combined kidney volume was sign ificantly reduced in growth restricted fetuses than normal fetuses i.e. mean combined kidney volume for growth restricted fetuses was 12.6cc and for normal fetuses was 19.29cc. Most of the fetal biometric indices were positively correlated with the combine d kidney volume. Increased pulsatility index was seen in growth restricted fetuses i.e. on right side 1.37+/ - 0.35 and on left 1.40+/ - 0.35 i.e. >1 while for normal fetuses was 0.88 +/ - 0.08 on either side i.e. <1. Considerable negative correlation was found between fetal renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume. CONCLUSION: Increased fetal renal artery pulsatility index in intrauterine growth

  2. Predictiveness of sonographic fetal weight estimation as a function of prior probability of intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N V; Levisky, J S; Shearer, D M; Morris, K C; Hansberry, P A

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the predictiveness of sonographically estimated fetal weight as a function of the estimation of probability of having intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before obtaining an ultrasound scan (prior probability). The value of the estimated fetal weight resided more in its high specificity than in its sensitivity, hence in its ability to confirm that the fetus is normal. The predictiveness of the method was further enhanced when the fetal weight estimation was placed in the context of the prior probability of IUGR. In particular, the positive predictive value of the test as well as the likelihood of having a growth-retarded infant in spite of an estimated fetal weight within the normal range were considerably higher as the prior probability of IUGR increased. Since the obstetrician using all available evidence is likely to form a rather good estimate of the possibility of IUGR before ordering a scan, this improvement in the predictiveness of estimated fetal weight through a Bayesian approach can be advantageously applied to ultrasound analysis and can effectively support clinical decision making.

  3. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  4. An evaluation of fetal glucogenesis in intrauterine growth-retarded pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A M; Cetin, I; Davoli, E; Baggiani, A M; Fanelli, R; Fennessey, P V; Battaglia, F C; Pardi, G

    1993-07-01

    The presence of fetal glucogenesis was evaluated in nine patients with pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) at the time of fetal blood sampling (FBS) between 29 and 35 weeks of pregnancy. Eight were singleton pregnancies and one was a twin pregnancy in which blood samples were obtained from both twins. A maternal primed-constant infusion of D(U-13C]glucose was performed, and the presence of fetal glucogenesis was assessed by a comparison of steady-state maternal and fetal glucose enrichments. No significant difference was present between maternal and fetal molar percent excess ([MPE] P = .97), and the mean fetal to maternal (F/M) MPE ratio (0.99 +/- 0.01) was not significantly different from 1 (P = .76). F/M MPE ratio was independent of the time of FBS and umbilical venous glucose and lactate concentrations. Thus fetal glucogenesis is not demonstrable in a group of fairly severe growth-retarded fetuses after an overnight fast with this relatively noninvasive approach.

  5. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth: pregnancy in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Geilswijk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient’s first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident. During the second pregnancy with a viable fetus, blood glucose levels were managed through dietary intervention alone. Thus, the patient was advised to take small but frequent meals high in fiber and low in carbohydrates. Throughout pregnancy, no incidences of severe hypoglycemia occurred and fetal growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during pregnancy.

  6. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  7. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN'S HEALTH IN LATER LIFE. THE POSSIBILITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Belousova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of development, homeostasis and metabolism habits, long-term effects on the health of infants delivered with intrauterine growth retardation are considered. Principals and aspects of nutrition choice for these particular infants as well as some controversial aspects on this topic are discussed. Research data represents nutrition of newborns and up to 3 months infants, including those with the IGR and moderate postnatal inanition, fed with goat milk based formula, containing pre- and probiotics. 

  8. Structure and Function of Enterocyte in Intrauterine Growth Retarded Pig Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestine of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR neonates showed different morphology compared to neonates born with normal body weight (NBW. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the gut epithelium in IUGR pig neonates with special attention to the digestive and absorptive function. Intestine tissue samples were investigated in 7-day-old IUGR and NBW littermate piglets using histometry, immunofluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and mass spectrometry analysis. IUGR piglets have shown reduced mucosa and muscularis thickness and an enhanced number of foetal type enterocytes (FTE. SEM studies have shown the lack of the characteristic large-size vacuole in IUGR’s enterocytes. Delayed removal of FTE in IUGR neonates was probably due to the inhibited apoptosis in the apical part of villi and increased apoptosis and reduced mitosis in the crypt region. In the expression of proteins in the intestinal mucosa such as hexokinase I, histones, and prelamin A/C, carbamoyl phosphate was reduced in IUGR neonates. Finally, IUGR intestines showed higher expression of HSPA9 and HSPA5 as apoptosis markers. The data indicate modifications of gut mucosa in IUGRs that may result in slower gut mucosa maturation and reduced utilisation of nutrient as compared to NBW pig neonates.

  9. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  10. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Choline on Meat Quality and Intramuscular Fat in Intrauterine Growth Retardation Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on intramuscular fat (IMF) and lipid oxidation in IUGR pigs. Twelve normal body weight (NBW) and twelve intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) newborn piglets were collected and distributed into 4 treatments (Normal: N, Normal+Choline: N+C, IUGR: I, and IUGR+Choline: I+C) with 6 piglets in each treatment. At 23 d of age, NBW and IUGR pigs were fed basal or choline supplemented diets. The results showed that the IUGR pigs had significantly lower (Pdecreased (P>0.05) in BW of IUGR pigs than the NBW pigs at 200 d. Compared with the NBW pigs, pH of meat longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly lower (Pdecreased (Pincreased (Pdecreased (Pincreased (Pmuscle-carnitine palmityl transferase (M-CPT) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) mRNA (Pdecreased in the muscles of the IUGR pigs by choline supplementation. Furthermore, choline supplementation significantly increased (Pincreased fat deposition and oxidative stress in muscles. However, dietary supplementation of choline improved the fat deposition via enhancing the lipogenesis and reducing the lipolysis.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Normal versus Fetal Growth Restriction in Pregnancy: The Significance of Maternal Body Mass Index, Nutritional Status, Anemia, and Ultrasonography Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmichaya D. Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction or intrauterine growth restriction is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity in newborns. Fetal growth restriction is a complex multifactorial condition resulting from several fetal and maternal disorders. The objective of this study was twofold: first to examine the correlation between maternal parameters such as body mass index (BMI, nutritional status, anemia, and placental weight and diameter, and their effects on fetal growth and then to evaluate the effect of early screening by ultrasonography (USG on the outcome of growth restricted pregnancies. In this study, 53 cases of fetal growth restriction were compared to 53 normal fetuses delivered in consecutive sequence. Growth restricted fetuses were delivered earlier in gestation, when compared with normal growth fetuses. Maternal anemia and malnutrition have significant association with the fetal growth restriction. Maternal anthropometry, such as low BMI, had effects on placental diameter and weight, which, in turn, adversely affected fetal weight. Thus, early USG screening along with robust screening for maternal BMI, nutritional status, and anemia can assist the obstetric team in providing early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and better outcome in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction.

  13. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Buscema

    Full Text Available Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a "Fetal Origin of Adult Disease" has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where 'closeness' among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target.Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta.This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth factor and cytokine systems. Our previous

  14. Enamel defect of primary dentition in SGA children in relation to onset time of intrauterine growth disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti Soewondo Sjarif

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal disturbances disturb the development of organs resulting in small for gestational age (SGA babies and also causes enamel defects in primary teeth. There are disturbances occur in the beginning of pregnancy causing symmetrical SGA, and asymmetrical type of SGA, where the disturbances occur late in pregnancy. Purpose: This research was to determined differences in severity of enamel defect of primary dentition in small for gestational age children based on the time of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This was a clinical epidemiological cohort study. The Ponderal index was used to determine SGA type. The subjects were 129 SGA children aged 9-42 months, 82 with asymmetrical SGA and 47 with symmetrical SGA. Two hundred normal birth weight children were the control group. Intra-oral examinations to determine enamel defect used the FDI modification of the Developmental Defect of Enamel score at 3 months intervals. Statistical t-tests were used to test the difference in severity of enamel defect, and chisquare to find out the difference of Relative Risk Ratio (RRR. Results: The results showed that the enamel defect scores of symmetrical SGA were significantly higher than those with asymmetrical SGA. RRR for severe defect was also significantly higher in symmetrical type for anterior and canines. Conclusion: The study suggested that the severity of enamel defect for infants with symmetrical SGA was higher than those with asymmetrical SGA, indicating that the severity of the defect occurs in the beginning of pregnancy is more severe than in the late pregnancy.Latar belakang: Adanya gangguan prenatal mengganggu perkembangan organ, mengakibatkan terjadinya bayi lahir dengan kecil masa kehamilan (KMK dan defek email pada gigi sulung. Terdapat 2 tipe KMK yaitu tipe simetri; gangguan terjadi pada awal kehamilan; dimana lingkar kepala, berat dan panjang lahir lebih rendah dari normal. Tipe asimetri dimana gangguan terjadi saat

  15. Aortic isthmus Doppler velocimetry: role in assessment of preterm fetal growth restriction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is an important pregnancy complication associated with significant adverse clinical outcome, stillbirth, perinatal morbidity and cerebral palsy. To date, no uniformly accepted management protocol of Doppler surveillance that reduces mortality and cognitive morbidity has emerged. Aortic isthmus (AoI) evaluation has been proposed as a potential monitoring tool for IUGR fetuses. In this review, the current knowledge of the relationship between AoI Doppler velocimetry and preterm fetal growth restriction is reviewed. Relevant technical aspects and reproducibility data are reviewed as we discuss AoI Doppler and its place within the existing repertoire of Doppler assessments in placental insufficiency. The AoI is a link between the right and left ventricles which perfuse the lower and upper body, respectively. The clinical use of AoI waveforms for monitoring fetal deterioration in IUGR has been limited, but preliminary work suggests that abnormal AoI impedance indices are an intermediate step between placental insufficiency-hypoxemia and cardiac decompensation. Further prospective studies correlating AoI indices with arterial and venous Doppler indices and perinatal outcome are required before encorporating this index into clinical practice.

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF-I and Insulin in Normal and Growth-Restricted Mother/Infant Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and insulin are essential for fetal growth. We investigated perinatal changes of both factors in 40 mothers and their 20 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA and 20 intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses and neonates on day 1 (N1 and day 4 (N4 postpartum. Fetal and N1, but not N4, IGF-I levels were increased in AGA (P<.001 and P=.037, resp.. N1 insulin levels were lower in IUGR (P=.048. Maternal, fetal, and N1 IGF-I, and fetal insulin levels positively correlated with customized centiles (r=.374, P=.035, r=.608, P<.001, r=.485, P=.006, and r=.654, P=.021, resp.. Female infants presented elevated fetal and N4 IGF-I levels (P=.023 and P=.016, resp.. Positive correlations of maternal, fetal, and neonatal IGF-I levels, and fetal insulin levels with customized centiles underline implication of both hormones in fetal growth. IUGR infants present gradually increasing IGF-I levels. Higher IGF-I levels are documented in females.

  17. Infertility, infertility treatment, and fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hammer Bech, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between infertility, with or without treatment, and fetal growth, as well as perinatal and infant mortality. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51,041 singletons born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy 12 months or less......), 5,787 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (time to pregnancy more than 12 months), and 4,317 born after treatment. We defined small for gestational age (SGA) as the lowest 5% of birth weight by sex and gestational age. RESULTS: Crude estimates suggested an increased risk of perinatal...... effect on fetal growth. A small-to-moderate increased risk of perinatal mortality in infertile couples cannot be ruled out due to the small number of cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  18. ROLE OF DOPPLER STUDY IN THE EVALUATION OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a fetal growth disorder defined on the basis of a fetal weight below 10 th percentile for the corresponding gestational age. Our study was an effort at establishing the role of Umbilical artery (UA and Middle cere bral artery (MCA Doppler indices in predicting the adverse perinatal out come in clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies, and to determine the role of Doppler velocimetry in clinical management of such pregnancies. Elevation of the umbilical artery systolic /diastolic ratio or of the pulsatility index (PI; absent or reversed end - diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and decreased systolic/diastolic ratio or pulsatility index in the fetal internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries are the predictors of ab normal perinatal outcome. Our study was to evaluate the role of ratio of pulsatility index (PI which is called as Cerebroplacental Ratio i.e. MCAPI/UAPI Doppler ratio as the most accurate predictor of adverse perinatal outcome among women with clinical sus picion of IUGR attending our (SVRR Govt. hospital. METHODOLOGY : 50 Antenatal women attending the antenatal O.P.D who were clinically suspected as having growth retardation based on clinical history of previous child with growth retardation , signs of pallor ( anaemia and high documented Blood pressures – s/o PIH, reduced abdominal height for gestational age , were evaluated using screening ultrasound. Doppler velocity wave forms were obtained from umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery fro m all the 50 cases. 16 cases were followed up with repeat Doppler. Pulsatility index ratio of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery, also called as Cerebroplacental ratio was evaluated in each case. Abnormal ratio is defined as Cerebroplacental ratio < 1.08 was considered as a cut off value. Ratio was calculated and correlated clinically with the perinatal outcomes – in the form of IUD’s, low APGAR

  19. The Causes of Intrauterine Growth Retardation%胎儿宫内发育迟缓的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 李纯锦; 孙艳玲; 周虚

    2008-01-01

    胎儿宫内发育迟缓(intrauterine growth retardation,IUGR)在畜牧生产中发生率较高,导致新生儿死亡率增加,影响日后生长发育及健康.了解IUCR发生原因对降低其发生,提高畜牧业生产水平具有重要意义.作者综述了引起IUGR的主要因素.

  20. The effect of antenatal administration of solcoseryl on hepatic glycogen synthesis in rat fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Cheng, K M; Araki, T

    1993-06-01

    The effect of antenatal solcoseryl administration on hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage was studied in normal developing and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rat fetuses using biochemical analyses. The maximal effect of solcoseryl occurred 2 hours after administration. The glycogen content of the liver showed a significant increase in normal and IUGR fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration compared to their non-solcoseryl counterparts (p solcoseryl administration. Active synthase also increased in normal fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration (p solcoseryl administration stimulates hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage in IUGR rat fetuses, and thus might favorably influence the development of neonatal hypoglycemia.

  1. Effect of early nutrition on intestine development of intrauterine growth retardation in rats and its correlation to leptin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Shan Qiu; Ting-Ting Huang; Zhen-Yu Shen; Hui-Ying Deng; Zhi-Yong Ke

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the intestine and body development of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats under early different protein diet and to analyze the correlation between leptin and intestine and body development.METHODS: An IUGR rat model was established by food restriction of pregnant female rats. Fifty-six neonatal IUGR rats and 24 neonatal normal rats were randomly divided into normal control group (C group), IUGR model group (SC group), low protein diet IUGR group (SL group), and high protein diet IUGR group (SH group). Eight rats were killed per group at wk 0, 4, and 12. Serum leptin, body weight (BW), body length (BL), intestinal weight (IW),intestinal length (IL), and intestinal disaccharidase (including lactase, maltase, and saccharase) were detected.RESULTS: BW (4.50±0.41 g), BL (5.96±0.40 cm), IW (0.05±0.01 g), and IL (15.9±2.8 cm) in neonatal IUGR rats were much lower than those in C group (6.01±0.55 g,6.26±0.44 cm, 0.10±0.02 g, 21.8±2.7 cm, P<0.05), while intestinal lactase and maltase activities were higher than those in C group. SH group showed the fastest catch up growth and their BW, BL, IW, and IL reached the C group level at wk 4. SC group showed relatively slower catch up growth than SH group, and their BW, BL, IW did not reach the C group level at wk 4. SL group did not show intestine and body catch up growth. Intestinal maltase [344±33 μmol/(min.g)] and saccharase activities [138±32μmol/(min.g)] in SL group were both markedly lower than those in C group [751±102, 258±27 μmol/(min.g), P<0.05].There were no significant differences in lactase activities at wk 4 and disaccharidase activities at wk 12 among all groups (P>0.05). The leptin level in SL group (0.58±0.12ng/mL) was the highest in all groups, and much lower in SH group (0.21±0.03 ng/mL) than that in any other IUGR groups at wk 4 (P<0.05). Leptin was negatively related to BW (r= -0.556, P = 0.001), IW (r= -0.692, P= 0.001)and IL (r = -0.738, P = 0.000) at wk

  2. Childhood cognitive development after fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llurba, E; Baschat, A A; Turan, O M; Harding, J; McCowan, L M

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal umbilical artery (UA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) Doppler findings and cognitive development at 3 and 6 years in low-birth-weight children. This was a study of 209 low-birth-weight (Cognitive ability at 3 and 6 years' corrected age was assessed using the fourth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS) and compared between SGA and FGR groups. An SBIS score development. The median gestational age at diagnosis of abnormal fetal growth was 36.6 (range, 28-41) weeks. There were 87 (41.6%) children classified as having FGR and 122 (58.4%) as SGA. The mean global SBIS score at 3 years was 109.4 (SD, 22.8) and at 6 years it was 110.5 (SD, 13.9). Overall, 22 (10.5%) children had delayed development at 3 years. Total SBIS scores and individual domain scores did not differ between FGR and SGA groups at 3 or 6 years and similar proportions in each group had delayed development. Abnormal prenatal UA and ICA Doppler findings are not associated with lower developmental scores in low-birth-weight children delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  4. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  5. Consensus definition of fetal growth restriction : a Delphi procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, S. J.; Beune, I. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Papageorghiou, A.; Baschat, A. A.; Baker, P. N.; Silver, R. M.; Wynia, K.; Ganzevoort, W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine, by expert consensus, a definition for early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) through a Delphi procedure. Method A Delphi survey was conducted among an international panel of experts on FGR. Panel members were provided with 18 literature-based parameters for defining FG

  6. Abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry in the growth restricted foetus as a predictor for necrotising enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric decision- making for the growth restricted foetus has to take into consideration the benefits and risks of waiting for pulmonary maturity and continued exposure to hostile intra-uterine environment. Necrotising Enterocolitis (NEC results from continued exposure to hostile environment and is an important cause of poor neonatal outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry of the foetal umbilical artery for NEC and neonatal mortality. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care centre for obstetric and neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Seventy-seven neonates with birth weight less than 2000 gm, born over a period of 18 months were studied. These pregnancies were identified as having growth abnormalities of the foetus. Besides other tests of foetal well-being, they were also subjected to Doppler flow velocimetry of the foeto-placental vasculature. Obstetric outcome was evaluated with reference to period of gestation and route of delivery. The neonatal outcome was reviewed with reference to birth weight, Apgar scores and evidence of NEC. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi square test. RESULTS: In the group of patients with Absent or Reverse End Diastolic Frequencies (A/R EDF in the umbilical arteries, positive predictive value for NEC was 52.6%, (RR 30.2; OR 264. The mortality from NEC was 50%. When umbilical artery velocimetry did not show A/REDF, there were no cases of NEC or mortality. Abnormal umbilical or uterine artery flow increased the rate of caesarean section to 62.5% as compared to 17.6% in cases where umbilical artery flow was normal. CONCLUSION: In antenatally identified pregnancies at risk for foetal growth restriction, abnormal Doppler velocimetry in the form of A/REDF in the umbilical arteries is a useful guide to predict NEC and mortality in the early neonatal period.

  7. Role of maternal serum ferritin as a predictive marker in intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Bindal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In our study negative correlation was found between the value of serum ferritin and neonatal birth weight. In future large randomized control trial is needed to found association between maternal serum ferritin and IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 804-808

  8. Ring Chromosome 7 Presenting with Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Multiple Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yin Tsai

    2005-09-01

    Conclusion: Ring chromosome 7 is extremely rare and our case might be the 15th and youngest case in the medical literature. Our case had multicystic kidney and imperforate anus, which have not been reported previously. Prenatal diagnosis of ring chromosome 7 is very difficult. When fetuses present with severe IUGR, oligohydramnios and multicystic kidney, chromosomal aberrations should be kept in mind, and perinatal cytogenetic workup is warranted.

  9. [Intrauterine programming of reproductive function--a valid concept?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Early intrauterine fetal (mis)programming determines not only cardiovascular and metabolic regulation in later life, but also reproductive function. Intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with precocious maturation of gonadal function and an earlier onset of puberty and menarche. Especially prenatal androgen excess has negative effects on the development of the ovaries and female genital phenotype itself as well as on the neuroendocrine feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis followed by a polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenism and anovulation in later life. These associations, which can be clearly demonstrated in animal experiments, need further confirmation by epidemiological and clinical trials in humans.

  10. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  11. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein in a percentage of 17% (control, C or 6% (low, L during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp. or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp. after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  12. The effect of embryo and maternal genotypes on prolificacy, intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development of Nos3-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Pilar; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Mice deficient for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3(-/-)) may represent a good model for studying embryo loss and intrauterine growth retardation caused by vascular deficiencies. We determined the effects of embryo genotype (homozygous vs. heterozygous descendants with paternal or maternal source of the non-functional NOS3 allele) and maternal environment (NOS3(-/-) vs. wild-type NOS3(+/+) females) on the appearance of estrus, fertility and prolificacy rates and live weight in the first week of life as well as phenotypic characteristics of offspring during the postnatal period. The results indicated that pregnancy outcomes and postnatal development of NOS3(-/-) mice seem to be related to deficiencies in fetal programming mainly determined by maternal genotype.

  13. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Pgrowth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Pmuscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  14. Third trimester growth restriction patterns: individualized assessment using a fetal growth pathology score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deter, Russell L; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kingdom, John; Romero, Roberto

    2017-07-06

    To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize third trimester growth patterns in fetuses/neonates with growth restriction using Individualized Growth Assessment. Serial fetal size measurements from 73 fetuses with proven growth restriction were evaluated using a novel composite parameter, the Fetal Growth Pathology Score (FGPS1). Third trimester FGPS1 measurements plotted against fetal age were examined for patterns. Identified patterns were characterized using the four components of the FGP1 [head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur diaphysis length (FDL), estimated weight (EWT)]. A secondary characterization using age of onset, duration and magnitude of the growth abnormality process was also performed. Frequencies and magnitudes of abnormal values in different FGPS1 patterns were compared. Five growth restriction patterns were found in 70/73 (95.9%) of the cases, with progressive worsening [Pattern 1 (37.0%)] and abnormal growth identified only at last scan [Pattern 2 (27.4%)] being the most common. These two patterns were usually statistically different from each other and the other three with respect to size parameter abnormalities and abnormal growth process characteristics (MANOVA). Growth abnormalities in all parameters of the FGPS1 contributed to the five abnormality patterns although AC and EWT were most important. The age of onset, duration and magnitude were similar between patterns except for Pattern 2, which had a late onset and a short duration (GLM + contrasts). Our study represents the first detailed evaluation of third trimester growth restriction using methods that consider the growth potential of each fetus. Five distinctive and repetitive patterns were found, suggesting that fetal growth restriction evolves in different ways. Further research is needed to determine the relationships of these patterns to physiological/biochemical changes and adverse outcomes associated with growth restriction.

  15. Phase-rectified signal averaging as a new method for surveillance of growth restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, S M; Huhn, E A; Pildner von Steinburg, S; Müller, A; Schuster, T; Ortiz, J U; Schmidt, G; Schneider, K T

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to compare average acceleration capacity (AAC), a new parameter to assess the dynamic capacity of the fetal autonomous nervous system, and short term variation (STV) in fetuses affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and healthy fetuses. A prospective observational study was performed, including 39 women with IUGR singleton pregnancies (estimated fetal weight 95th percentile) and 43 healthy control pregnancies matched according to gestational age at recording. Ultrasound biometries and Doppler examination were performed for identification of IUGR and control fetuses, with subsequent analysis of fetal heart rate, resulting in STV and AAC. Follow-up for IUGR and control pregnancies was done, with perinatal outcome variables recorded. AAC [IUGR mean value 2.0 bpm (interquartile range = 1.6-2.1), control 2.7 bpm (2.6-3.0)] differentiates better than STV [IUGR 7.4 ms (5.3-8.9), control 10.9 ms (9.2-12.7)] between IUGR and control. The area under the curve for AAC is 97 % [95% CI = (0.95-1.0)], for STV 85 % (CI = 0.76-0.93; p < 0.01). Positive predictive value for STV is 77% and negative predictive value is 81%. For AAC both positive and negative predictive values are 90%. AAC shows an improvement to discriminate between normal and compromised fetuses at a single moment in time, in comparison with STV.

  16. NLRP3 Deficiency Improves Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension But Not Fetal Growth Restriction During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Usui, Fumitake; Kobayashi, Motoi; Komada, Tadanori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Takahashi, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Although sterile inflammation appears to be involved, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that sterile inflammation is mediated through the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes, composed of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1. Here we investigated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia using Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) (Nlrp3 and Asc deficient) pregnant mice. During pregnancy in mice, continuous infusion of high-dose angiotensin II (AngII) induced hypertension, proteinuria, and IUGR, whereas infusion of low-dose AngII caused hypertension alone. AngII-induced hypertension was prevented in Nlrp3(-/-) mice but not in Asc(-/-), indicating that NLRP3 contributes to gestational hypertension independently of ASC-mediated inflammasomes. Although NLRP3 deficiency had no effect on IUGR, it restored the IL-6 up-regulation in the placenta and kidney of AngII-infused mice. Furthermore, treatment with hydralazine prevented the development of gestational hypertension but not IUGR or IL-6 expression in the placenta and kidney. These findings demonstrate that NLRP3 contributes to the development of gestational hypertension independently of the inflammasomes and that IUGR and kidney injury can occur independent of blood pressure elevation during pregnancy.

  17. Developmental changes in polyamines and autophagic marker levels in normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Lin, G; Dai, Z L; Zhou, T J; Yuan, T L; Feng, C P; Chen, F; Wu, G Y; Wang, J J

    2015-07-01

    Polyamines are essential for embryonic and fetal survival, growth, and development. Additionally, polyamines may induce autophagy in mammalian cells. However, little is known about the availability of polyamines or autophagy in the porcine conceptus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study was performed to evaluate the developmental changes of polyamine concentrations in IUGR and normal porcine fetuses as well as autophagic marker levels in the fetal intestinal mucosa during the second half of gestation when most fetal growth occurs. Allantoic fluid (ALF), amniotic fluid (AMF), umbilical vein, and the small-intestinal mucosa were obtained from both IUGR and normal fetal pigs at d 60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in fetal fluids as well as protein abundances of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagic marker, in the fetal small-intestinal mucosa were determined. Concentrations of polyamines varied greatly in different fetal compartments and changed substantially with advancing gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in IUGR fetal fluids and the small-intestinal mucosa were markedly different from those in their normal counterparts at d 60 and 90 of gestation, whereas most of the differences were not detected by late (d 110) gestation. Specifically, polyamine levels were lower in the umbilical vein plasma but higher in ALF and AMF from IUGR fetuses. Furthermore, enhanced levels of an autophagic marker were observed in the small-intestinal mucosa of IUGR fetuses throughout mid and late gestation in association with abnormal spermidine levels in fetal plasma. These findings support the notion that enhanced autophagy may be an important survival mechanism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings provide a new framework for future studies to define the roles for polyamines in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in both human medicine and animal production.

  18. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Smads Signaling Pathway in Intrauterine Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Salma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in intrauterine adhesion (IUA patients and experimental rabbit models. 60 IUA patients, 30 control participants, and 18 female rabbits were enrolled in this study. We found that the plasma concentrations and protein expressions of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients and experimental rabbits compared to those in controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3 were significantly elevated, while Smad7 level was markedly decreased in the patients and experimental rabbits compared with controls (P<0.05. This altered ratio recommended that IUA was positively correlated to the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in blood and uterine tissue. Moreover, we used the specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3 in experimental rabbit. SIS3 obviously reduced the mRNA and protein expression of smad3 and TGF-β1, while it increased Smad7 expression in the treatment groups as compared with IUA rabbits (P<0.05. Our study suggested that TGF-β1/Smad3/smad7 is a major pathway which plays an important role in the regulation of the IUA and specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for IUA.

  19. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe;

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease....

  20. Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Davis, Melissa; Wai, Sandra; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with reduced supply of amino acids to the fetus and leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR fetuses are characterized by lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, smaller pancreatic islets with less β-cells, and impaired pancreatic vascularity. To test whether supplemental amino acids infused into the IUGR fetus could improve these complications of IUGR we used acute (hours) and chronic (11 d) direct fetal amino acid infusions into a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR near the end of gestation. IUGR fetuses had attenuated acute amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion compared with control fetuses. These results were confirmed in isolated IUGR pancreatic islets. After the chronic fetal amino acid infusion, fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet size were restored to control values. These changes were associated with normalization of fetal pancreatic vascularity and higher fetal pancreatic vascular endothelial growth factor A protein concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreased fetal amino acid supply contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet defects in IUGR. Moreover, the results show that pancreatic islets in IUGR fetuses retain their ability to respond to increased amino acids near the end of gestation after chronic fetal growth restriction.

  1. [Intrauterine insemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, Philippe; Cabry, Rosalie; Lourdel, Emmanuelle; Barbier, Frédéric; Scheffler, Florence; Mansouri, Naïma; Devaux, Aviva; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm is an assisted reproductive technologie, as proposed in the case of cervical infertility, moderate male infertility, dysovulation, mild or moderate endometriosis or unexplained infertility. In the last three indications the ovarian stimulation is necessary. The couple demographic criteria (age of both partners, lifestyle, duration of infertility) and the results of the infertility evaluation (ovarian reserve, uterus, spermogram-spermocytogram) increase the chances of pregnancy by intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm and reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies. Pregnancy rates observed ranged from 8 to 20% per cycle according to indications.

  2. Intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboulghar, M.; Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Somigliana, E.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovarian stimulation is a common treatment for infertility. Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of IUI treatment is not consistent, and the role of IUI and in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in practice protocols has not been clarified. Medlin

  3. Serum insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the human fetus. Relationships with growth in normal subjects and in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, C; Hardouin, S; Daffos, F; Forestier, F; Frankenne, F; Binoux, M

    1991-03-01

    IGF-I, IGF-II, and their binding proteins (BP) were studied in sera obtained by direct puncture of umbilical cords in utero between 20 and 37 wk of gestation in 103 normal fetuses and in 16 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation, as well as in the cord blood of 37 normal newborns of 38- to 42-wk pregnancies. In normal fetuses, IGF-I levels were approximately 50 ng/mL and IGF-II levels approximately 350 ng/mL up to the 33rd wk of pregnancy. Thereafter, both increased to reach values two to three times higher at term. Correlations were found between fetal placental lactogen levels and those of IGF-I and IGF-II, which is consistent with the hypothesis that placental lactogen is involved in the regulation of IGF synthesis in the fetus. With weight (either measured at birth or deduced from echographical data) as index of fetal size, IGF-I levels were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in fetuses with weights above the mean for gestational age than in fetuses with weights below the mean, whereas IGF-II levels were similar in the two groups. Similarly, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) levels in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were significantly lower than those in normal fetuses of the same age (p less than 0.01). These findings suggest that, during the latter months of intrauterine life, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) is involved in the control of fetal size. Total fetal BP concentrations were approximately 1/3 those of adults. The fetal electrophoretic profile obtained by Western-ligand blotting bore a strong resemblance to that of subjects with growth hormone deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Flow in Maize Plants Affected by Root Growth Restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-zheng Xu; Jun-fang Niu; Chun-jian Li; Fu-suo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of a reduced maize root-system size on root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and flow within plants. Restriction of shoot-borne root growth caused a strong decrease in the absorption of root: shoot dry weight ratio and a reduction in shoot growth. On the other hand, compensatory growth and an increased N uptake rate in the remaining roots were observed. Despite the limited long-distance transport pathway in the mesocotyl with restriction of shoot-borne root growth, N cycling within these plants was higher than those in control plants, implying that xylem and phloem flow velocities via the mesocotyl were considerably higher than in plants with an intact root system. The removal of the seminal roots in addition to restricting shoot-borne root development did not affect whole plant growth and N uptake, except for the stronger compensatory growth of the primary roots. Our results suggest that an adequate N supply to maize plant is maintained by compensatory growth of the remaining roots, increased N uptake rate and flow velocities within the xylem and phloem via the mesocotyl, and reduction in the shoot growth rate.

  5. Aortic intima-media thickness and aortic diameter in small for gestational age and growth restricted fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dolores Gomez-Roig

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT and aortic diameter (AD in appropriate for gestational age (AGA fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR fetuses.Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks.Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm], than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447-0.485 mm], and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm] (p = 0.023. Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258-4.655 mm], than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm] (p = 0.028.Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease.

  6. Postnatal changes of leptin levels in full-term and preterm neonates: their relation to intrauterine growth, gender and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, T; Funke, S; Sárkány, I; Szabó, I; Rascher, W; Blum, W F; Sulyok, E

    1999-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate leptin levels in arterial and venous cord serum and in amniotic fluid in full-term infants at birth and on the 5th postnatal day to define the relationship of leptin to intrauterine growth rate, gender and early postnatal life. The relation of weight gain to serum leptin levels in male preterm infants was determined measuring leptin concentration weekly in the first 5 postnatal weeks. Testosterone levels were determined simultaneously to explore a possible relationship between leptin and testosterone concentrations. Fifty-three term newborn infants with mean birth weight and gestational age of 3,419 g (range 2,150-4,480) and 38.9 weeks (range 36-41) and 19 preterm male infants (mean birth weight and gestational age were 1,416 g (770-1,800) and 30.2 weeks (26-35) were enrolled into the study. Leptin and testosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. It was demonstrated that serum leptin levels were markedly elevated in the cord blood without discernible arteriovenous differences. Cord blood leptin was found to correlate with birth weight (r = 0.40, p fall by the 5th postnatal day (p preterm infants at 1 week of age was significantly lower compared with term infants (p preterm male infants serum leptin concentration increases with postnatal weight and testosterone may suppress leptin synthesis.

  7. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  8. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  9. The efficacy of surfactant replacement therapy in the growth restricted preterm infant: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul eMalhotra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT is an integral part of management of preterm surfactant deficiency (respiratory distress syndrome, RDS. Its role in the management of RDS has been extensively studied. However its efficacy in the management of lung disease in preterm infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR has not been systematically studied.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in the management of preterm IUGR lung disease. Methods: A systematic search of all available randomised clinical trials (RCT of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants was done according to the standard Cochrane collaboration search strategy. Neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared between the preterm IUGR and appropriately-grown for gestational age (AGA preterm infant populations in eligible studies. Results: No study was identified which evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants as compared to preterm AGA infants. The only study identified through the search strategy used small for gestational age (SGA; defined as less than 10th centile for birth weight as a proxy for IUGR. The RCT evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of SRT in preterm SGA group as compared to AGA infants. The rate of intubation, severity of RDS, rate of surfactant administration, pulmonary air leaks and days on the ventilator did not differ between both groups. However, the requirement for prolonged nasal CPAP (p< 0.001, supplemental oxygen therapy (p <0.01 and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days and 36 weeks (both p<0.01 was greater in SGA infants. Discussion: There is currently insufficient data available to evaluate the efficacy of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. A variety of research strategies will be needed to enhance our understanding of the role and rationale for use of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm

  10. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  11. Intrauterine hypoxia: clinical consequences and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson LP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Loren P Thompson,1 Sarah Crimmins,1 Bhanu P Telugu,2 Shifa Turan1 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Abstract: Intrauterine hypoxia is a significant clinical challenge in obstetrics that affects both the pregnant mother and fetus. Intrauterine hypoxia can occur in pregnant women living at high altitude and/or with cardiovascular disease. In addition, placental hypoxia can be generated by altered placental development and spiral artery remodeling leading to placental insufficiency and dysfunction. Both conditions can impact normal maternal cardiovascular homeostasis leading to preeclampsia and/or impair transfer of O2/nutrient supply resulting in fetal growth restriction. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying altered placental vessel remodeling, maternal and fetal consequences, patient management, and potential future therapies for improving these conditions. Keywords: fetal growth restriction, oxidative stress, extravillous trophoblast invasion, Doppler ultrasound, pulsatility index, preeclampsia 

  12. Correlation between human placental lactogen levels and glucose metabolism in pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, R; Vasishta, K; Majumdar, S; Garg, S K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty pregnant women with fetal growth retardation and 20 pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age fetuses (controls) were recruited after the 28th week of gestation. Samples were collected for estimation of serum insulin and human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in the fasting state and a glucose tolerance test was carried out on all the subjects. The results showed the glucose and HPL levels to be significantly lower in the fetal growth retardation group compared to controls. There were no differences in the fasting serum insulin levels in the 2 groups. Fetal growth retardation appears to be linked with the absence of development of the physiological 'diabetogenic' state in the second half of pregnancy. This maternal hypoglycaemic state is associated with low HPL levels and not with raised maternal insulin levels as measured in the fasting state.

  13. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  14. Volumetric analysis of the normal infant brain and in intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Ring, P B

    1995-01-01

    and the volumes were determined by encircling each structure of interest on every slice. Segmentation into grey matter, white matter and CSF was done by semi-automatic discriminant analysis. Growth charts for the cerebrum, cerebellum, corpora striata, thalami, ventricles, and grey and white matter are provided...

  15. EFFECTS OF EARLY NUTRITION INTERVENTION ON IGF1, IGFBP3, INTESTINAL DEVELOPMENT, AND CATCH-UP GROWTH OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-shan Qiu; Ting-ting Huang; Hui-ying Deng; Zhen-yu Shen; Zhi-yong Ke; Kai-yong Mei; Feng Lai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of early nutritional intervention on the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1),insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats by giving the IUGR new born rats different protein level diet.Methods IUGR rat model was built by starvation of pregnant female rats. Twenty-four IUGR pups and 8 normal pups were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control group (C group); IUGR control group(S group), IUGR low-protein diet group (SL group), and IUGR high-protein diet group (SH group). Detected the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, body weight,body length, intestinal weight length, intestinal villi height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villi absorbing area (VSA), mucous thickness (MT), and disaccharidase at the 4th week.Results (1) The SH group showed the fastest catch-up growth, serum IGF1, IGFBP3, VH, and VSA were significantly higher than those of normal control group and IUGR control group. The intestinal weight and length, and the activities of lactase and saccharase of the SH group also reached the normal control group level. (2) The SL group kept on small size, the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, and most of intestinal histological indexes were all significantly lower than other groups. (3) IGF-1, IGFBP3 were positively correlated to intestinal VH, VSA, saccharase, body weight and length.Conclusions The serum IGF1 was a sensitive index to the catch-up growth. The early nutritional intervention of highprotein diet after birth is helpful for the catch-up growth of IUGR through promoting the intestinal development and the absorption of nutrition.

  16. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Skyla) is used to prevent pregnancy. The manufacturer states that Mirena brand intrauterine ... to use an intrauterine system to prevent pregnancy. Levonorgestrel is in a class of medications called hormonal ...

  17. Effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This retrospective cohort study includes 12,034 delivered pregnant women who were recruited for the study between 2004 and 2010 in Ege University Hospital. Data were collected by browsing the clinic's archives. The association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes was determined via Chi-square tests and Student's t test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors in evaluating the association between placenta previa and the adverse perinatal outcomes. There was no significant relationship between placenta previa and FGR or stillbirth. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly higher in the placenta previa group. According to logistic regression analysis, low birth weight was associated with an OR of 3.01 (95 % CI 2.05-4.52) and preterm delivery was associated with an OR of 8.14 (95 % CI 5.60-11.83); while, placenta previa did not affect FGR and stillbirth significantly. Although there is no consensus on the association between placenta previa and FGR in previous studies, we suggest that placenta previa is not a reason for placental insufficiency. Management of placenta previa especially depends on maternal hemodynamic parameters such as heavy hemorrhage and hypotensive shock rather than fetal well-being protocols based on serial growth ultrasound and fetal Doppler investigation.

  18. Metabolomic analysis reveals differences in umbilical vein plasma metabolites between normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gang; Liu, Chuang; Feng, Cuiping; Fan, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhaolai; Lai, Changhua; Li, Zhen; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2012-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem for both human health and animal production due to its association with high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, low efficiency of food utilization, permanent adverse effects on postnatal growth and development, and long-term health and productivity of the offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms for IUGR are largely unknown. In this study, one IUGR fetus and one normal body weight (NBW) fetus were obtained from each of 9 gilts at each of 2 gestational ages (d 90 and 110). Metabolomes of umbilical vein plasma in IUGR and NBW fetuses were determined by MS, while hormones, amino acids, and related metabolites in maternal and fetal plasma were measured using assay kits and chromatographic methods. Metabolites (including glucose, urea, ammonia, amino acids, and lipids) in umbilical vein plasma exhibited a cluster of differences between IUGR and NBW fetuses on d 90 and 110 of gestation. These changes in the IUGR group are associated with disorders of nutrient and energy metabolism as well as endocrine imbalances, which may contribute to the retardation of fetal growth and development. The findings help provide information regarding potential mechanisms responsible for IUGR in swine and also have important implications for the design of effective strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat IUGR in other mammalian species, including humans.

  19. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW breeding, body weight (BW at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON group and a high-energy diet (HED group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012, while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities.

  20. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  1. [Color Doppler monitoring the utero-placental-fetal circulation variety of normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T

    1998-04-01

    To study the utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) cases. Color doppler ultrasound was used to detect UPFC in 150 second and third trimester pregnant women, of which 89 cases were normal pregnancy and 58 cases were IUGR. 3 cases were IUGR with chronic renal failure. Hemodynamical value of the umbilical artery (UmA), umbilical vein (UmV) and uterine artery (UtA) were examined directly. The indices included time average velocity (TAV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio, blood flow volume (Q). The maternal serum estriol (E3), human placental lactogen (HPL) and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2)/6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6-KP) were measured simultaneously. The result shows that in normal pregnancy group UPFC is abundant gradually with increasing gestational age. In IUGR group 92.53% of cases showed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV markedly decreased and PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA elevated at 20 weeks of gestation. There were significant difference between the two groups, maternal serum E3, HPL level in IUGR group were significantly lower than that of the normal pregnancy group, 6-KP level reduced, and TXB2/6-KP ratio significantly increased. Using color doppler ultrasound examining hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could observe UPFC function directly. It is one of the best method to early diagnose and predict the prognosis of IUGR.

  2. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH were applied to early (11 weeks human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR. Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5, which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically

  3. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  4. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  5. Intra-uterine growth retardation affects birthweight and postnatal development in pigs, impairing muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, A L N; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Cardeal, P C; Moreira, L P; Foxcroft, G R; Fontes, D O; Almeida, F R C L

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) in newborn (n=40) and 150-day-old (n=240) pigs of different birthweight ranges (high, HW: 1.8-2.2kg; low, LW: 0.8-1.2kg) from higher-parity commercial sows and its impact on their subsequent development and carcass traits in a Brazilian commercial production system. HW newborn pigs had heavier organs than LW pigs (Pmuscle fibres and a higher percentage of connective tissue in the semitendinosus muscle, greater fibre number per mm(2) and a lower height of the duodenal mucosa (Pgrowth performance, muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits.

  6. 孕鼠补充牛磺酸对宫内生长受限胎鼠脑组织Ras同源基因-Rho相关卷曲螺旋蛋白激酶通路关键信号分子表达的影响%Influence of antenatal taurine on expression of key signaling molecule of Ras homolog gene-Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase-proliferating cell nuclear antigen pathway in fetal rat brain with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 刘颖; 刘敬; 韩涛; 任晓暾; 马秀伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on the expression of key signaling molecule of Ras homolog gene-Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase-proliferating cell nuclear antigen(Rho-ROCK-PCNAR) pathway in fetal rat brain with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR),and to understand whether or not taurine can improve neuron regeneration in IUGR fetal rats by this signaling pathway.Methods Thirty pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:control group,IUGR model(IUGR group) and IUGR + antenatal taufine supplements group(IUGR + taurine group).Taurine was added to the diet of IUGR + taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from 12 days after conception until natural delivery.The level of mRNA expressions of Ras homolog gene A(RhoA),Rho-associated coiled coil-forming protein kinase 2 gene (ROCK2 gene) and PCNA gene were detected by Real time-PCR.The PCNA positive cell counts were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results 1.The level of RhoA,ROCK2 and PCNA mRNA in the IUGR group,IUGR + taurine group and control group were respectively:RhoA mRNA 1.757±0.041,1.498 ±0.011 and 1.000 ±0.000(P<0.05);ROCK2 mRNA 1.548 ±0.231,1.094 ±0.049 and 1.000 ± 0.000 (P < 0.05) ; PCNA mRNA 2.007 ± 0.800,3.034 ± 0.670 and 1.000 ± 0.000 (P < 0.05).2.The PCNA positive cell counts in control group,IUGR group and IUGR + taurine group were respectively 11.30 ± 3.18,22.24 ± 6.17 and 77.80 ± 14.60 (P < 0.05).Conclusions Antenatal supplementation of taurine can inhibit the expression of key signaling molecule of Rho-ROCK pathway and improve the expression of PCNA in IUGR fetal brain,which provides a further theoretical basis for the application of antenatal taurine to improve IUGR fetal brain development.%目的 观察孕鼠补充牛磺酸对宫内生长受限(IUGR)胎鼠脑组织Ras同源基因-Rho相关卷曲螺旋蛋白激酶(Rho-ROCK)通路中关键信号分子及增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)表达的影响,以探讨牛磺

  7. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  8. Prenatal growth restriction, retinal dystrophy, diabetes insipidus and white matter disease: expanding the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Dupuis, Lucie; Blaser, Susan; Heon, Elise; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Marshall, Christian R; Paton, Tara; Scherer, Stephen W; Roelofsen, Jeroen; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    PRPS1 codes for the enzyme phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRS-1). The spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders associated with reduced activity includes Arts syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5) and X-linked non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2). We describe a novel phenotype associated with decreased PRS-1 function in two affected male siblings. Using whole exome and Sanger sequencing techniques, we identified a novel missense mutation in PRPS1. The clinical phenotype in our patients is characterized by high prenatal maternal α-fetoprotein, intrauterine growth restriction, dysmorphic facial features, severe intellectual disability and spastic quadraparesis. Additional phenotypic features include macular coloboma-like lesions with retinal dystrophy, severe short stature and diabetes insipidus. Exome sequencing of the two affected male siblings identified a shared putative pathogenic mutation c.586C>T p.(Arg196Trp) in the PRPS1 gene that was maternally inherited. Follow-up testing showed normal levels of hypoxanthine in urine samples and uric acid levels in blood serum. The PRS activity was significantly reduced in erythrocytes of the two patients. Nucleotide analysis in erythrocytes revealed abnormally low guanosine triphosphate and guanosine diphosphate. This presentation is the most severe form of PRPS1-deficiency syndrome described to date and expands the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders.

  9. Weekly intra-amniotic IGF-1 treatment increases growth of growth-restricted ovine fetuses and up-regulates placental amino acid transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibran A Wali

    Full Text Available Frequent treatment of the growth-restricted (IUGR ovine fetus with intra-amniotic IGF-1 increases fetal growth. We aimed to determine whether increased growth was maintained with an extended dosing interval and to examine possible mechanisms. Pregnant ewes were allocated to three groups: Control, and two IUGR groups (induced by placental embolization treated with weekly intra-amniotic injections of either saline (IUGR or 360 µg IGF-1 (IGF1. IUGR fetuses were hypoxic, hyperuremic, hypoglycemic, and grew more slowly than controls. Placental glucose uptake and SLC2A1 (GLUT2 mRNA levels decreased in IUGR fetuses, but SLC2A3 (GLUT3 and SLC2A4 (GLUT4 levels were unaffected. IGF-1 treatment increased fetal growth rate, did not alter uterine blood flow or placental glucose uptake, and increased placental SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 (but not SLC2A3 mRNA levels compared with saline-treated IUGR animals. Following IGF-1 treatment, placental mRNA levels of isoforms of the system A, y(+, and L amino acid transporters increased 1.3 to 5.0 fold, while the ratio of phosphorylated-mTOR to total mTOR also tended to increase. Weekly intra-amniotic IGF-1 treatment provides a promising avenue for intra-uterine treatment of IUGR babies, and may act via increased fetal substrate supply, up-regulating placental transporters for neutral, cationic, and branched-chain amino acids, possibly via increased activation of the mTOR pathway.

  10. Placental Isoferritin Action in Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia and/or Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Its Earlier Predictive Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 王泽华; 熊桂荣

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of placental isoferritin (PLF) in pathogenesis of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and its earlier predictive value, a prospective double-blinded study was performed. In 120 initial normal pregnant women at earlier third trimester (from 24 to 34 weeks), plasma placental isoferritin and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite/nitrate) (NO2-/NO3-) were examined by using ELISA and Criess assay respectively. The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. The receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and predictive values of PLF predicting the outcome of pregnancy with IUGR, pre-eclampsia were analyzed. Results showed that in 120 initial normal pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 15 pregnant women (IUGR group) and pre-eclampsia in 19 (pre-eclampsia group), and the remaining 86 had normal pregnancy (normal group). The levels of plasma placental isoferritin were significantly decreased in IUGR group (260. 01± 58. 95) μg/ml and pre-eclampsia group (285.31± 53.73) μg/ml as compared with those in normal group (775.62± 89.32) μg/ml at earlier third trimester (both P<0. 01). The levels of plasma NO were significantly increased in IUGR group (61.57±46.22) μmol/L and pre-eclampsia group (58. 37± 30. 52) μmol/L as compared with those in the normal group (35. 29±24.46) μmol/L (both P<0. 01). There was no significant difference in plasma placental isoferritin and NO levels between IUGR group and pre-eclampsic group (both P> 0. 05). The plasma placental isoferritin was negatively correlated with NO levels (r= 0. 329,P<0. 01). The areas under ROC of PLF predicting IUGR and pre-eclampsia were 0. 977 and 0. 905 respectively. At the cut point of 400 μg/ml PLF level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index of PLF levels predicting the outcome of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia were 100 %, 85.15 %, 55.88 %, 100 % and 0

  11. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  12. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Lauretta A; Hurtado, Romulo; Hinds, Samantha; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction. The placentas also showed abnormal fetal vessel patterning and over 50% reduction in fetal blood space. In vitro, placental endothelial cells were deficient in migration, cord formation and sprouting. Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally dysregulated in the placentas. Egfl7 knockout did not affect expression of the microRNA embedded within intron 7. Collectively, these data reveal that Egfl7 is crucial for placental vascularization and embryonic growth, and may provide insight into etiological factors underlying placental pathologies associated with intrauterine growth restriction, which is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Maternal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Alters Fetal and Placental Growth and Fetal-Placental Vascular Resistance in the Growth-Restricted Ovine Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Charlotte; Stanley, Joanna L; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H; Baker, Philip N

    2016-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) causes short- and long-term morbidity. Reduced placental perfusion is an important pathogenic component of IUGR; substances that enhance vasodilation in the uterine circulation, such as sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), may improve placental blood flow and fetal growth. This study aimed to examine the effects of sildenafil in the growth-restricted ovine fetus. Ewes carrying singleton pregnancies underwent insertion of vascular catheters, and then, they were randomized to receive uterine artery embolization (IUGR) or to a control group. Ewes in the IUGR group received a daily infusion of sildenafil (IUGR+SC; n=10) or vehicle (IUGR+V; n=8) for 21 days. The control group received no treatment (n=9). Umbilical artery blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound and the resistive index (RI) calculated. Fetal weight, biometry, and placental weight were obtained at postmortem after treatment completion. Umbilical artery RI in IUGR+V fell less than in controls; the RI of IUGR+SC was intermediate to that of the other 2 groups (mean±SEM for control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: ∆RI, 0.09±0.03 versus -0.01±0.02 versus 0.03±0.02; F(2, 22)=4.21; P=0.03). Compared with controls, lamb and placental weights were reduced in IUGR+V but not in IUGR+SC (control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: fetal weight, 4381±247 versus 3447±235 versus 3687±129 g; F(2, 24)=5.49; P=0.01 and placental weight: 559.7±35.0 versus 376.2±32.5 versus 475.2±42.5 g; F(2, 24)=4.64; P=0.01). Sildenafil may be a useful adjunct in the management of IUGR. An increase in placental weight and fall in fetal-placental resistance suggests that changes to growth are at least partly mediated by changes to placental growth rather than alterations in placental efficiency.

  14. Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2004-05-01

    Epidemiological findings and experimental studies in animals have shown that individual tissues and whole organ systems can be programmed in utero during critical periods of development with adverse consequences for their function in later life. Detailed morphometric analyses of the data have shown that certain patterns of intrauterine growth, particularly growth retardation, can be related to specific postnatal outcomes. Since hormones regulate fetal growth and the development of individual fetal tissues, they have a central role in intrauterine programming. Hormones such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, thyroxine and the glucocorticoids act as nutritional and maturational signals and adapt fetal development to prevailing intrauterine conditions, thereby maximizing the chances of survival both in utero and at birth. However, these adaptations may have long-term sequelae. Of the hormones known to control fetal development, it is the glucocorticoids that are most likely to cause tissue programming in utero. They are growth inhibitory and affect the development of all the tissues and organ systems most at risk of postnatal pathophysiology when fetal growth is impaired. Their concentrations in utero are also elevated by all the nutritional and other challenges known to have programming effects. Glucocorticoids act at cellular and molecular levels to alter cell function by changing the expression of receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters. They also alter various growth factors, cytoarchitectural proteins, binding proteins and components of the intracellular signalling pathways. Glucocorticoids act, directly, on genes and, indirectly, through changes in the bioavailability of other hormones. These glucocorticoid-induced endocrine changes may be transient or persist into postnatal life with consequences for tissue growth and development both before and after birth. In the long term, prenatal glucocorticoid exposure can permanently reset endocrine

  15. Restrictive Factors for Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucur Ion; Bucur Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Economic growth reflects the ability of an economy to produce more goods, in the structure and quality demanded by consumers. Growth influence decisive the existing living standard in a country. Developing countries are characterized in a greater extent than developed countries by insufficient financial resources designed both to increase the volume of investment resources and their efficient use. Increasing economic resources requires investments and lead to increased production.

  16. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses: Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article that appeared on pages 69-73 of the January-February 2016 issue of the Serbian Archives of Medicine (“Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo”; Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2016 Jan-Feb; 144(1-2:69-73; doi: 10.2298/SARH1602069B, there is an inaccuracy regarding the stated authors of the article (Saloni Bansal, Deepika Deka, Vatsla Dhadwal, Rajiv Mahendru; the authors should be in fact listed in the following manner: Saloni Bansal, Dipika Deka, Vatsla Dadhwal, Neeta Singh, Smriti Hari. The authors, as well as the publisher, regret this error. Link to the corrected article 10.2298/SARH1602069B

  17. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-12-15

    Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47Factor V Leiden for placental abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  18. Prenatal origin of obesity and their complications: Gestational diabetes, maternal overweight and the paradoxical effects of fetal growth restriction and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher

    2011-09-01

    Pregestational (PGDM) and gestational (GDM) diabetes may be associated with a variety of fetal effects including increased rate of spontaneous abortions, intrauterine fetal death, congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental problems and increased risk of perinatal complications. Additional problems of concern are fetal growth disturbances causing increased or decreased birth weight. Optimal control of maternal blood glucose is known to reduce these changes. Among the long lasting effects of these phenomena are a high rate of overweight and obesity at childhood and a high tendency to develop the "metabolic syndrome" characterized by hypertension, cardio-vascular complications and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy or excessive weight gain are also associated with increased obesity and complications in the offspring. Although there are different causes for fetal growth restriction (FGR) or for fetal excessive growth (macrosomis), paradoxically both are associated with the "metabolic syndrome" and its long term consequences. The exact mechanism(s) underlying these long term effects on growth are not fully elucidated, but they involve insulin resistance, fetal hyperleptinemia, hypothalamic changes and most probably epigenetic changes. Preventive measures to avoid the metabolic syndrome and its complications seem to be a tight dietary control and physical activity in the children born to obese or diabetic mothers or who had antenatal growth disturbances for other known or unknown reasons.

  19. Multilevel Analysis Applied to Fetal Growth Data with Missing Values.

    OpenAIRE

    Bråthen, Eystein Widar

    2006-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation means that the growth of a fetus is restricted as compared with its biological growth potential. This contributes to an increased risk for illnesses or death of the newborn. Therefore it is important to characterize, detect and to follow up clinically any suspected or confirmed growth restriction of the fetus. In this master thesis we aim to describe the course of growth during the pregnancy based on repeated ultrasound measurements and study how the growth d...

  20. Elastic force restricts growth of the murine utricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Jacobo, Adrian; Salvi, Joshua D; Petelski, Aleksandra A; Hudspeth, A J

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctions of hearing and balance are often irreversible in mammals owing to the inability of cells in the inner ear to proliferate and replace lost sensory receptors. To determine the molecular basis of this deficiency we have investigated the dynamics of growth and cellular proliferation in a murine vestibular organ, the utricle. Based on this analysis, we have created a theoretical model that captures the key features of the organ’s morphogenesis. Our experimental data and model demonstrate that an elastic force opposes growth of the utricular sensory epithelium during development, confines cellular proliferation to the organ’s periphery, and eventually arrests its growth. We find that an increase in cellular density and the subsequent degradation of the transcriptional cofactor Yap underlie this process. A reduction in mechanical constraints results in accumulation and nuclear translocation of Yap, which triggers proliferation and restores the utricle’s growth; interfering with Yap’s activity reverses this effect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25681.001 PMID:28742024

  1. Gold-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Swiecicka, Izabela; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Misztalewska, Iwona; Kalska-Szostko, Beata; Bienias, Kamil; Bucki, Robert; Car, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and their derivatives (aminosilane and gold-coated) have been widely investigated in numerous medical applications, including their potential to act as antibacterial drug carriers that may penetrate into bacteria cells and biofilm mass. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent cause of infection in hospitalized patients, and significant numbers of currently isolated clinical strains are resistant to standard antibiotic therapy. Here we describe the impact of three types of SPIONs on the growth of P. aeruginosa during long-term bacterial culture. Their size, structure, and physicochemical properties were determined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We observed significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth in bacterial cultures continued over 96 hours in the presence of gold-functionalized nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au). At the 48-hour time point, growth of P. aeruginosa, as assessed by the number of colonies grown from treated samples, showed the highest inhibition (decreased by 40%). These data provide strong evidence that Fe3O4@Au can dramatically reduce growth of P. aeruginosa and provide a platform for further study of the antibacterial activity of this nanomaterial. PMID:24855358

  2. The intrauterine device and the intrauterine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Searle, E

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine contraception is used by about 100 million women worldwide, making it the most popular form of fertility regulation. In UK community contraception clinics, however, long-acting reversible contraception has increased to 28% of users, and intrauterine contraception accounts for only 8% of methods used by women accessing these services. Potential exists to increase uptake of these more effective methods. In this chapter, we review the clinical advantages, disadvantages and cost-effectiveness of intrauterine contraception. We discuss the management of complications along with advice for trainers, and briefly consider issues in developing countries.

  3. Sex Differences in Placental Mitochondrial Function Associated with Ozone-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal growth restriction is a major underlying cause of infant mortality worldwide. Unfortunately little is known about the mechanisms that drive compromised growth and the role of placental maladaptation on fetal development. In the current study placentas from male and female r...

  4. Folic acid supplementation prevents the changes in hepatic promoter methylation status and gene expression in intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Bo, L; Ying, Y; Bing, Y; Xiang-Bing, M; Zhi-Qing, H; Guo-Quan, H; Hong, C; Dai-Wen, C

    2013-10-01

    During intrauterine life, genome interacts with maternal signals to influence the mRNA expression levels of specific genes persistently by regulating DNA methylation status. The objective of this study was to examine the responses of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ) promoter methylation, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and metabolite concentrations of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets to dietary folic acid supplementation. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg of folic acid from weaning (day 14) to day 35 of age. Triglycerides in hepatic tissue and plasma were significantly elevated in control diets-fed IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of GR, PPARα, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in IUGR piglets fed a control diet were significantly higher than that in NBW piglets, and promoter methylation status of GR, PPARα and PPARγ in IUGR piglets was reduced significantly compared with NBW piglets. However, the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR piglets were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic DNA methyltransferase activity was greater with dietary folic acid supplementation regardless of birth weight. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could prevent the changes of promoter methylation status and gene expressions in the liver of IUGR piglets.

  5. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  6. Nutritional practices and postnatal growth restriction in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: to assess the nutritional practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICU associated with growth retardation in premature (preterm infants. Methods: retrospective study of preterm infants weighing between 500 and 1,499g admitted to NICU. Evolution of growth and parenteral (PN and enteral (EN nutrition practices were analyzed. Results: among 184 preterm infants divided into G1 (500 to 990g; n=63 and G2 (1000 to 1499g; n=121, 169 received PN (G1=63, G2=106. Compared with the recommendations, PN was started late, its progress was slow and the maximum glucose, amino acid, lipid and energy supplies were low in both groups. The initial supply of amino acid and lipid and initial and maximum glucose and energy were lower in G1. The onset of EN was early (1-2 days, the time to reach exclusive EN was appropriate (11-15 days and the use of human milk was possible in a reasonable amount of time (7-13 days. The multivariate analysis showed that respiratory distress syndrome and obtaining a supply of 120 kcal/kg/day too late increased the chance of weight loss greater than 10%. Sepsis, maximum energy supply for PN <60 kcal/kg/day and obtaining a supply of 120 kcal/kg/day too late increased the chance of regaining birth weight after 14 days, while small for gestational age (SGA at birth reduced this chance. SGA at birth, sepsis and achieving exclusive enteral nutrition after 14 days increased the chance of being SGA at post-conceptual age of term. Conclusion: improving nutritional practices in the NICU can reduce the growth deficit in premature infants of very low birth weight.

  7. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  8. The association between low 50 g glucose challenge test result and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Peled, Yoav; Hod, Moshe; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether a low-GCT result is predictive of low birthweight and to identify the lower GCT threshold for prediction of fetal growth restriction. A retrospective cohort study of 12,899 women who underwent a GCT (24-28 weeks). Women with a low-GCT result (result (70-140 mg/dL). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal lower GCT threshold for the prediction of growth restriction. Women in the low GCT had significant lower rates of cesarean delivery (18.7% versus 22.5%), shoulder dystocia (0.0% versus 0.3%), mean birthweight (3096 ± 576 versus 3163 ± 545) and birthweight percentile (49.1 ± 27.0 versus 53.1 ± 26.7) and significant higher rates of birthweight result is independently associated with low birthweight and can be used in combination with additional factors for the prediction of fetal growth restriction.

  9. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets...... from sows fed a control (C, 12.1% protein), a high protein (HP, 30% protein), or a low protein (LP, 6.5% protein) diet during pregnancy. Newborns were classified as IUGR (birth weight =1.18 kg) and non-IUGR (birth weight >1.18 kg). The piglets were euthanized on postnatal day (PD)1, PD28 and PD188....... The LP diet in non-IUGR neonates resulted in decreased body weight on PD1. The LP and HP diets resulted in both decreased body weight and delayed catch-up growth in the IUGR piglets. The HP and LP-diets increased the length of villi on PD1 in non-IUGRs but not in IUGRs. At birth, the expressions of Ki67...

  10. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  11. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p  0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism.

  12. Effect of acute food restriction on pulmonary growth and protein turnover in preterm guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, F J; Fussell, J C; Postle, T D

    1992-02-01

    The effects of food restriction on the growth and protein turnover of the immature lung were investigated. Preterm guinea pigs, delivered by cesarean section at 65 days gestation (term = 68 days), were given free access to a lactating dam or restricted from feeding for 48 h. Food restriction resulted in significantly reduced body and lung (P less than 0.05) weight compared with fed controls. The rate of pulmonary protein synthesis determined in vivo was reduced by 33% in the food-restricted pups (28.9 +/- 10.2 vs. 19.4 +/- 4.5%, P less than 0.05 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively), whereas the calculated rate of protein breakdown remained unchanged. The inhibition of protein synthesis was accounted for by a 36% decrease in ribosomal efficiency (11.03 +/- 2.61 vs. 7.04 +/- 1.26%, P less than 0.01 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively), whereas ribosomal capacity was unaltered. Polyribosomal analysis indicated an increase in the proportion of RNA present in polysomes and a fall in the free monomer pool (26%), suggesting that food restriction blocked translation by reducing the rate of peptide chain elongation. This finding was confirmed by the analysis of ribosome transit times, which indicated a significant increase in the elongation rate in the lungs from food-restricted pups (0.51 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.19 min, P less than 0.05 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively). These results imply that nutrient supply plays an important role in protein deposition and hence growth and repair capacity of the immature lung.

  13. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. Intrauterine Growth of Infants Exposed to Prenatal Methamphetamine: Results from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diana; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure inhibits fetal growth. We examined neonatal growth effects of prenatal MA exposure in a prospective cohort study. After adjusting for covariates, exposed neonates had a higher incidence of being small for gestational age (SGA) than unexposed neonates. PMID:20570284

  14. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  15. Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, M.G.; Synowiec, S.; Khan, S.; Thaete, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the rat. Methods. Timed-pregnant rats received L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg/h) with or without endothelin (ET-1) receptor A (ETA) antagonist from day 14 to 21 of gestation. In

  16. Fetal growth restriction : Prenatal predictors of neonatal and late functional outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozijntje Christina

    2015-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis provide insight into the course of fetal growth restriction (FGR) from the prenatal period until school age. In part I we report on fetal cardiac function and found that left, right, and septal longitudinal annular displacement is reduced in FGR compared to age-ma

  17. Placental Vitamin D-Binding Protein Expression in Human Idiopathic Fetal Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Wookey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D-binding protein is a multifunctional serum protein with multiple actions related to normal health. Vitamin D-binding protein transports vitamin D and influences the metabolism of this key hormone but it also has additional immunomodulatory and actin-clearing properties. We investigated whether vitamin D-binding protein expression is altered in fetal growth restriction-associated placental dysfunction. Protein was extracted from 35 placentae derived from 17 healthy control subjects and 18 gestation-matched subjects with fetal growth restriction (FGR. FGR subjects were further subdivided as idiopathic (n=9 and nonidiopathic (n=9. Vitamin D-binding protein and 25(OH vitamin D were measured by ELISA and normalized to protein concentration. The results showed significantly reduced levels of placental vitamin D-binding protein (control versus FGR, p<0.05, Student’s t-test that were strongly associated with idiopathic fetal growth restriction (p<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis, whereas levels of vitamin D-binding protein were not associated with placental 25(OH vitamin D stores (p=0.295, Pearson’s correlation. As such, vitamin D-binding protein may be a factor in unexplained placental dysfunction associated with idiopathic fetal growth restriction and may potentially serve as a biomarker of this disease.

  18. Prenatal Doppler flow patterns and neonatal circulation in fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; Boelen, Maaike R; Schmitz, Danique M; Casarella, Lucia; van der Laan, Michelle E; Bos, Arend F; Bilardo, Caterina M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in growth-restricted fetuses, whether prenatal Doppler parameters are correlated with neonatal circulatory changes. METHODS: In 43 cases of suspected FGR, serial Doppler measurements of the umbilical artery (UA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were performed (last me

  19. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P; Best, Diana; Read, David; Ollinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1(-/-) mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1(-/-) placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease.

  1. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Bachnas, Muhammad Adrianes; Anggraini, Nuri Dyah; Yuliantara, Eric Edwin; Prabowo, Wisnu; Anggraini, Nutria Widya Purna; Pramono, Mochammad Besari Adi; Adityawarman; Dachlan, Erry Gumilar; Andonotopo, Wiku

    2017-02-01

    To discover the potential role of recombinant VEGF121 (rVEGF121) injection for the prevention of fetal growth restriction in a preeclampsia (PE) mouse model (Mus musculus). This is an experimental study of 30 pregnant mice that were randomly divided into three groups: normal, PE, and PE with rVEGF121 injection. The PE mouse model was created by injecting anti Qa-2 10 ng iv, which is deleterious to Qa-2 expression (homologous to HLA-G), from the first to the fourth day of gestation. PE was validated by measuring serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor(PIGF) and also by kidney histopathology. Recombinant VEGF121 was given on the ninth day until the 11th day of pregnancy; mice were terminated on the 16th day. Fetal weights were acquired with a Denver analytical balance. Serum levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data were statistically analyzed via analysis of variance (ANOVA). On average, fetal birth weight was 0.7150 g in the normal group, 0.4936 g in the PE group, and 0.6768 g in the PE with rVEGF121 injection group. ANOVA showed significant growth restriction in the PE group (P=0.006), confirming the use of anti Qa-2 as a suitable PE model. Kidney histopathology results, sFlt-1 levels, and PlGF levels also demonstrated that anti Qa-2 consistently conferred hallmarks of PE in mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection prevented fetal growth restriction; comparable fetal weights were observed between the PE model with VEGF treatment and the normal group (P=0.610) but differed from the untreated PE group (P=0.021). Injection of rVEGF121 has the potential to prevent fetal growth restriction in a newly proposed PE mouse model.

  2. Response of Streptococcus suis to iron-restricted growth conditions at high and low oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff, Nora; Goethe, Ralph; Gruening, Petra; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important pathogen in pigs and has to overcome strict iron limitations in its host environment. Here, we studied iron-restricted growth of a highly virulent S. suis strain in vitro at aerobic and CO2-enriched growth conditions. At both conditions, depleting of iron in the culture medium with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) resulted in decreased growth rates and down regulation of several proteins. Sensitivity to NTA was significantly higher at aerobic versus CO2-enriched conditions. Growth could not be restored by addition of host iron sources such as ferritin, hemin, hemoglobin, lactoferrin or transferrin. Accordingly, S. suis was not able to produce detectable amounts of siderophores. On the other hand, growth at iron-restricted conditions was fully restored by addition of Mn2+ (at aerobic and CO2-enriched conditions) or Mg2+ (only at CO2-enriched conditions). In conclusion our results suggest that, unlike many other bacteria, S. suis adapts to iron restricted conditions by a change in its metabolism in order to replace Fe2+ by Mn2+ or Mg2+ rather than by expressing specific iron uptake systems.

  3. Perlecan antagonizes collagen IV and ADAMTS9/GON-1 in restricting the growth of presynaptic boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianzhen; Liang, Jingjing; Ding, Mei

    2014-07-30

    In the mature nervous system, a significant fraction of synapses are structurally stable over a long time scale. However, the mechanisms that restrict synaptic growth within a confined region are poorly understood. Here, we identified that in the C. elegans neuromuscular junction, collagens Type IV and XVIII, and the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS/GON-1 are critical for growth restriction of presynaptic boutons. Without these components, ectopic boutons progressively invade into the nonsynaptic region. Perlecan/UNC-52 promotes the growth of ectopic boutons and functions antagonistically to collagen Type IV and GON-1 but not to collagen XVIII. The growth constraint of presynaptic boutons correlates with the integrity of the extracellular matrix basal lamina or basement membrane (BM), which surrounds chemical synapses. Fragmented BM appears in the region where ectopic boutons emerge. Further removal of UNC-52 improves the BM integrity and the tight association between BM and presynaptic boutons. Together, our results unravel the complex role of the BM in restricting the growth of presynaptic boutons and reveal the antagonistic function of perlecan on Type IV collagen and ADAMTS protein.

  4. Effects of nutrient intake in the gestation on fetus intrauterine growth retardance%孕期营养素摄入量对胎儿宫内发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷卫兵

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究不同孕期营养素摄入量对宫内胎儿发育的影响.方法 239例妊娠妇女分为10~20周、21~30周及31周以上三组,根据营养素摄人量,用常规方法确定不同孕期胎儿宫内发育迟缓.比较不同孕期及不同营养素供给量(RDA)间胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率.结果 第一、二、三组:与110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);第二组:与110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异有统计学意义(P110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 合理的营养素摄入量对于降低胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率具有重要意义.%Objective To study the effect of nutrient intake in different periods of gestation on fetus in-trauterine growth. Methods 239 cases of pregnant women were divided into three groups:(1)10~2 weeks; (2)21~30 weeks; (3)over 31 weeks. Nutrient intake was calculated by computer nutrition system. Fetus intrauterine growth retardance in different periods of gestation was estimated by routine methods. The incidence rate of fetus in-trauterine growth retardance between different periods of gestation and different nutrient intake was compared. Re-suits Group 1, group 2 and group 3 : comparison to cases with 110 % RDA, the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance was higher than that in pregnant women with 110 % - 90 % RDA(P < 0.05).Conclusion Optimal nutrient intake was important to reduce the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retar-dance.

  5. Intrauterine growth retardation and disorder of glucolipid metabolism%宫内发育迟缓与糖脂代谢异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙如琼; 林少达

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)is a risk factor of metabolic diseases including impaired glucose tolerance,obesity and type 2 diabetes.Up-regulation of hypothalamic neturopetide Y (NPY),changed distribution of leptin receptor,abnormal effect of ghrelin,dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,improperly level of peripheric hormones such as leptin,adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1,changed insulin signal pathway,abnormal levels of metabolism related genes and enzymes are important factors.Clarificating the mechanisms of disorder of glucolipid metabolism will supply a new direction for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases in individuals with IUGR.%流行病学研究显示,宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)是糖耐量异常、肥胖、2型糖尿病等代谢性疾病的危险因素.下丘脑神经肽Y表达上调、瘦素中枢受体分布异常、ghrelin作用异常及下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴功能紊乱;外周内分泌激素如瘦素、脂联素、胰岛素样生长因子-1的水平异常,胰岛素信号通路的改变以及代谢相关基因、酶的改变均为重要的影响因素.对糖、脂代谢异常机制的探讨可为防治IUGR个体出现代谢性疾病提供新的方向.

  6. Phenotypic characterization by high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging evidences differential effects of embryo genotype on intrauterine growth retardation in NOS3-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Pilar; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The Nos3-knockout mouse, deficient for endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), is affected by a reduction in the number and weight of the embryos and constitutes a good model for some features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Deficiencies in conceptus growth and survival may result from factors inherent in the embryo itself or from deficiencies in uterine function. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of embryonic genotype independently of maternal genotype, which can affect uterine environment. Therefore, by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we characterized the phenotypes of NOS3-defective (Nos3(-/-); n = 6), normal wild-type (Nos3(+/+); n = 5), and heterozygous (Nos3(+/-); n = 16) mouse fetuses. All of them were littermates obtained by breeding heterozygous mice (Nos3(+/-)); therefore, the maternal genotype was the same for all the fetuses. At Day 13.5 (i.e., Theiler stage TS 21-22), females were anesthetized and scanned with three-dimensional MRI. Analysis of the different measurements of the embryos and the gestational annexes showed no significant differences between Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-); however, there was a trend toward larger sizes in Nos3(+/+), and values in Nos3(-/-) were significantly smaller than in Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-). The reduction in the crown-rump length of Nos3(-/-) reached 12% when compared to Nos3(+/+) (P Nos3(-/-) to wild-type Nos3(+/+). Finally, Nos3(-/-) showed a reduction of 29% in the maximum thickness of the placenta, which may be related to the appearance of IUGR due to compromised nutritional delivery to the fetus.

  7. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bergmann, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-07-21

    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states. Bacterial growth is limited by the available substrate and the inclusion of diffusion must obey this natural restriction. By inclusion of a modified logistic diffusion term it is possible to introduce a diffusion term flexible enough to capture both the growth phase and the stationary phase, while concentration is restricted to the natural state space (substrate and bacteria non-negative). The case considered is the growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus in a rich media. It is found that a hidden state is necessary to capture the lag phase of growth, and that a flexible logistic diffusion term is needed to capture the random behaviour of the growth model. Further, it is concluded that the Monod effect is not needed to capture the dynamics of bacterial growth in the data presented.

  8. Intrauterin graviditet efter Cavatermbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh-Amiri, Ali; Kjaergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A case of intrauterine pregnancy occurring after successful balloon thermal endometrial ablation is described. Although rare, pregnancy after endometrial ablation is possible, and use of a supplemental contraceptive method should be planned. In case of pregnancy after endometrial ablation...

  9. First trimester growth restriction and uterine artery blood flow in the second trimester as predictors of adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Sperling, L; Wøjdemann, K R;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if fetuses with first trimester growth restriction have poorer perfusion of the placenta compared to a control group, and to investigate whether first trimester growth restriction in combination with poor flow in the uterine arteries in the second trimester can be used to predict...

  10. Effects of antenatal corticosteroid administration on mortality and long-term morbidity in early preterm, growth-restricted infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, AH; Wolf, H; Bruinse, HW; Smolders-De Haas, H; Van Ertbruggen, [No Value; Treffers, PE

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on mortality, morbidity, and disability or handicap rate in early preterm, growth-restricted infants. Methods: This case-control study in two tertiary care centers included all live-born singleton infants with growth-restriction due to

  11. Effects of salt restriction on renal growth and glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, D S; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Dworkin, L D

    1992-06-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and infarction of two thirds of the left kidney. Rats were randomly assigned to ingest standard chow (REM) or a moderately salt restricted chow (LS). A third group of rats were fed the low salt diet and were injected with an androgen (LSA). Eight weeks after ablation, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were markedly increased in REM. This increase was prevented by the low salt diet, however, the antihypertrophic effect of the diet was overcome by androgen. Values for glomerular volume and capillary radius were similar in LSA and REM. Morphologic studies revealed that approximately 25% of glomeruli were abnormal in REM. Much less injury was observed in salt restricted rats, however, the protective effect of the low salt diet was significantly abrogated when renal growth was stimulated in salt restricted rats by androgen. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular pressure was elevated in all three groups and not affected by diet or androgen. Serum cholesterol was also similar in the three groups. These findings indicate that renal and glomerular hypertrophy are correlated with the development of glomerular injury after reduction in renal mass and suggest that dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth.

  12. The Role of Placental Homeobox Genes in Human Fetal Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Murthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is an adverse pregnancy outcome associated with significant perinatal and paediatric morbidity and mortality, and an increased risk of chronic disease later in adult life. One of the key causes of adverse pregnancy outcome is fetal growth restriction (FGR. While a number of maternal, fetal, and environmental factors are known causes of FGR, the majority of FGR cases remain idiopathic. These idiopathic FGR pregnancies are frequently associated with placental insufficiency, possibly as a result of placental maldevelopment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of abnormal placental development in idiopathic FGR is, therefore, of increasing importance. Here, we review our understanding of transcriptional control of normal placental development and abnormal placental development associated with human idiopathic FGR. We also assess the potential for understanding transcriptional control as a means for revealing new molecular targets for the detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of idiopathic FGR.

  13. Alterations of placental cytochrome P450 1A1 and P-glycoprotein in tobacco-induced intrauterine growth retardation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-e YAN; Hui WANG; Ying-hong FENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations of placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) at different gestational days (GD), and to explore the possible significance of placental P-gp and CYP1A1 in tobacco smoke-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in rats. Methods: An IUGR model was produced by passive tobacco smoking from GD 7 to parturition (GD 21) and predicted using fetal development parameters. Placental structure and function were monitored by observing pathological alteration and antioxidative function, including the content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT). The expressions of CYP1A1 and P-gp (mdr 1a and mdr 1b)were detected using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results: Placental pathological changes occurred and the malondialdehyde content increased, whereas the activities ofsuperoxide dismutase and CAT lowered, when compared to their controls. In the rat placenta of the tobacco group, the level of CYP1A1 mRNA increased significantly; the level of mdr1a mRNA increased significantly at GD 21 but not at GD 14, whereas the level of mdr1b mRNA in different term remained stable; the expression of P-gp increased significantly only in full-term placenta. Conclusion: The expression of placental CYP1A1 and P-gp increased in tobacco-induced IUGR. Overexpression of placental CYP1A1 can attribute to the metabolism of tobacco and the generation of reactive metabolites, which can trigger IUGR. As a compulsory mechanism,upregulation of P-gp might decrease tobacco exposure to a developing fetus with IUGR.

  14. Shining light in dark corners: diagnosis and management of late-onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Teresa M; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Walker, Susan P

    2015-02-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is the single biggest risk factor for stillbirth. In the absence of any effective treatment for fetal growth restriction, the mainstay of management is close surveillance and timely delivery. While such statements are almost self-evident, the daily clinical challenge of late-onset fetal growth restriction remains; the competing priorities of minimising stillbirth risk, while avoiding excessive obstetric intervention and the neonatal sequelae of iatrogenic preterm birth. This dilemma is made harder because the tools for late-onset FGR diagnosis and surveillance compare poorly to those used in early-onset FGR; screening tests in early pregnancy have limited predictive value; most cases escape clinical detection, a phenomenon set to worsen given the obesity epidemic; there is a failure of consensus on the definition of small for gestational age, and ancillary tools, such as umbilical artery Doppler--of value in identification of preterm FGR--are less useful in the late-preterm period and at term. Most importantly, the problem is common; 96% of all births occur after 32 weeks. This means a poor noise/signal ratio of any test or management algorithm will inevitably have large clinical consequences. Into such a dark corner, we cast some light; a summary on diagnostic criteria, new developments to improve the diagnosis of late-onset FGR and a suggested approach to management. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Identification of host-targeted small molecules that restrict intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Stanley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant threat to global health. Macrophages are the host cell for M. tuberculosis infection, and although bacteria are able to replicate intracellularly under certain conditions, it is also clear that macrophages are capable of killing M. tuberculosis if appropriately activated. The outcome of infection is determined at least in part by the host-pathogen interaction within the macrophage; however, we lack a complete understanding of which host pathways are critical for bacterial survival and replication. To add to our understanding of the molecular processes involved in intracellular infection, we performed a chemical screen using a high-content microscopic assay to identify small molecules that restrict mycobacterial growth in macrophages by targeting host functions and pathways. The identified host-targeted inhibitors restrict bacterial growth exclusively in the context of macrophage infection and predominantly fall into five categories: G-protein coupled receptor modulators, ion channel inhibitors, membrane transport proteins, anti-inflammatories, and kinase modulators. We found that fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, enhances secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and induces autophagy in infected macrophages, and gefitinib, an inhibitor of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR, also activates autophagy and restricts growth. We demonstrate that during infection signaling through EGFR activates a p38 MAPK signaling pathway that prevents macrophages from effectively responding to infection. Inhibition of this pathway using gefitinib during in vivo infection reduces growth of M. tuberculosis in the lungs of infected mice. Our results support the concept that screening for inhibitors using intracellular models results in the identification of tool compounds for probing pathways during in vivo infection and may also result in the identification of new anti

  16. Oxygen flux reduces Cux1 positive neurons and cortical growth in a gestational rodent model of growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elaine; Wade, Jean; Georgala, Petrina A; Gillespie, Trudi L; Price, David J; Pilley, Elizabeth; Becher, Julie-Clare

    2017-03-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7. Litters were reared in air or fluctuating hyperoxia (circa 10kPa) from P0 to P7. Cortical laminae were stained and measured. Neuronal subtypes were quantified using immunofluorescence for subtype-specific transcription factors (Satb2, Cux1, Ctip2, Tbr1). ΔO2 did not affect brain weight at P7 but reduced cortical thickness in both NR (pdevelopment in a rodent model with preferential disadvantage to superficial neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of intrauterine adhesions: a novel intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chun-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Xiao-Yun; Cai, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are a rare but significant cause of menstrual disturbance and infertility. Most cases are caused by uterine instrumentation. Several methods have been used to prevent IUAs in the past, which can be divided into two groups: pharmacological treatment and physical barrier. However, even with the liberal use of ancillary treatments to minimize reformation of adhesions, IUAs have a high rate of recurrence. Furthermore, medical literature of the last decades has only dedicated great attention to the restoration of normal anatomy in the uterine cavity, but not on the function of the endometrium. When the lesion of the endometrium is severe, especially intrauterine fibrosis, few basal layer is left which contains plenty stem cells to regenerate functional endometrium. Loss of endometrial stem cells directly causes the proliferation of fibrous tissue and subsequent synechiae. None of current treatments can compensate the defect of loss of stem cells. On the basis of existing researches, a novel intrauterine device (IUD) is recommended in this article. The new IUD consists of a light frame which contains two isolated drug-releasing system, one for estrogen and the other for cytokines to promote regeneration of endometrium such as growth factors, and a membrane in the middle of the frame which is also the carrier of endometrium stem cell. This device not only helps to preserve the original anatomy of the uterine cavity, but also to recover the function of endometrium. Experimental and clinical studies are now needed to testify the efficiency of the novel IUD in the prevention of IUAs. If there is a marked reduction in the IUAs and/or improvement of pregnancy success in the case group compared with the control group, our hypothesis will be confirmed.

  18. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring.

  19. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent.

  20. Depletion of Ascorbic Acid Restricts Angiogenesis and Retards Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheta Telang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound iron in its reduced state. We hypothesized that dietary ascorbic acid might be required for tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, tumor growth. Here, we show that, not surprisingly, ascorbic acid is necessary for the synthesis of collagen type IV by human endothelial cells and for their effective migration and tube formation on a basement membrane matrix. Furthermore, ascorbic acid depletion in mice incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid (Gulo-/- dramatically restricts the in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. Histopathological analyses of these tumors reveal poorly formed blood vessels, extensive hemorrhagic foci, and decreased collagen and von Willebrand factor expression. Our data indicate that ascorbic acid plays an essential role in tumor angiogenesis and growth, and that restriction of ascorbic acid or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase may prove to be novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer.

  1. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burstyn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5. Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.

  2. A uniform management approach to optimize outcome in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalli, Viola; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2015-06-01

    A uniform approach to the diagnosis and management of fetal growth restriction (FGR) consistently produces better outcome, prevention of unanticipated stillbirth, and appropriate timing of delivery. Early-onset and late-onset FGR represent two distinct clinical phenotypes of placental dysfunction. Management challenges in early-onset FGR revolve around prematurity and coexisting maternal hypertensive disease, whereas in late-onset disease failure of diagnosis or surveillance leading to unanticipated stillbirth is the primary issue. Identifying the surveillance tests that have the highest predictive accuracy for fetal acidemia and establishing the appropriate monitoring interval to detect fetal deterioration is a high priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of altered glucose supply and adiposity on expression of hypothalamic energy balance regulatory genes in late gestation growth restricted ovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2011-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes obesity in adulthood. This may be due to altered fetal nutrition causing sustained changes within the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory system. Using our established ovine model of IUGR, 130-day singleton fetuses (term=147 days) were obtained from growing adolescent mothers on control dietary intake (C), high intake (H) or H with growth hormone administration during either early (H+early GH) or late gestation (H+late GH) (n=6/group). GH increased maternal glycemia for the duration of treatment. H and H+early GH fetuses showed IUGR compared with C fetuses; body weight was partially restored in H+late GH fetuses, with 40% increased adiposity. In the fetal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA (anorexigenic) was decreased in H fetuses and correlated across all groups with total fetal liver glycogen. Neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide (orexigenic) and proopiomelanocortin (anorexigenic) mRNAs were not different between groups. Insulin receptor mRNA in the ARC was increased in H, H+early GH and H+late GH fetuses and correlated negatively with fetal plasma insulin. Leptin receptor mRNA in the ARC correlated positively with fetal plasma leptin concentration and fetal fat content. Therefore, in IUGR fetuses, a key anorexigenic neuropeptide is sensitive to altered glucose supply and the hypothalamic leptin-signaling pathway is altered prenatally by increased adiposity and leptinemia. These changes could impact on postnatal energy balance regulation. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Defined Medium Is Very Restricted by Acid pH and Mg2+ Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Piddington, Debra L.; Kashkouli, Ali; Buchmeier, Nancy A.

    2000-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis grows within the phagocytic vacuoles of macrophages, where it encounters a moderately acidic and possibly nutrient-restricted environment. Other mycobacterial species encounter acidic conditions in soil and aquatic environments. We have evaluated the influence of pH and divalent cation levels on the growth of M. tuberculosis and seven other mycobacterial species. In a defined medium, the growth of M. tuberculosis was very restricted by acidic pH. Higher levels of Mg...

  5. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Abedelmalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR. All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day. Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P<0.05 and performance (P<0.05. However, heart rate and SJFT index (P<0.05 increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH, leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P<0.05. Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P<0.05 and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P<0.05.

  6. Influences of Root Zone Restriction and Nitrogen Nutrition on Hybrid Wheat Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGRONGIAN; SHENZHENGUO; 等

    1997-01-01

    To study the physiological effects of small root zone,plants of a hybrid wheat variety(Triticum aestivum L.cv.Meiyou 4) were grown in small pots(1 litre)or large pots(8 litre) with low nitrogen(50 mg kg-1 soil) and high nitrogen(200 mg kg-1 soil).Restricting root zone decreased dry weight of plants at the stages of stem elongation and flowering ,compared to those of control plants grown in the large pots(P<0.01).Spraying of 6-benzylaminopurine(50 μmol L01) increased dry weight of plants and chlorophyll concentration in leaves. restriction of root zone decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen,chlorophyll and soluble protein in the flag leaf and accelerated senescence of the leaves,Supply of high nitrogen delayed senescence of the flag leaf.The results suggested that the shortage of nutrients ,especially nitrogen deficiency,was the primary reason for the decreased growth of plant in the treatment of root zone restriction.

  7. Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1996-03-01

    Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease. Male Munich-Wistar rats that underwent right nephrectomy and segmental infarction of two thirds of the left kidney were fed standard chow for 4 wk and then randomly assigned to ingest standard or low-salt chow for an additional 4 wk. Four wk after ablation, rats had systemic hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis. The prevalence of sclerosis, protein excretion rate, and glomerular volume increased between the fourth and eighth week in rats that were fed standard chow, however, in rats that were fed low-salt chow, the increase in glomerular volume and development of further glomerular sclerosis was prevented whereas the protein excretion rate actually declined. Micropuncture studies performed 8 wk after ablation revealed that the glomerular hydraulic pressure was elevated in remnant kidneys and was not affected by salt restriction. This study demonstrates that dietary salt restriction can prevent further glomerular injury and reduce proteinuria even when instituted in rats with established renal disease. These findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that glomerular hypertrophy promotes injury in this model of hypertension and progressive renal disease.

  8. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05).

  9. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rana Choudhary,1 Kavita Desai,2 Hetal Parekh,3 Kedar Ganla1 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ankoor Fertility Clinic, 2Department of Radiology, Dadar Imaging and Diagnostic Centre, 3IVF Department, Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Abstract: Fetal growth restriction (FGR and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. Keywords: sildenafil citrate, fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, thin endometrium

  11. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ∼50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137–144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life. PMID:21807611

  14. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-10-01

    Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ~50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137-144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life.

  15. Growing Pains: Psychological evaluation of children with short stature after intrauterine growth retardation, before and after two years of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Reijden-Lakeman (Ilse)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSince the availability of biosynthetic human growth hormone (hGH) in 1985, many studies on the effects of hGH administration on various groups of children with short stature have been performed. The present study reports on the psychological evaluation of children with short stature afte

  16. Curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população de alto nível socioeconômico Intrauterine growth curves in a high-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição A. M. Segre

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: as curvas de percentil constituem uma das formas de avaliação do crescimento intra-uterino e podem predizer doenças do recém-nascido como também caracterizar uma população. Este trabalho teve por objetivo construir as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino dos recém-nascidos da Maternidade do Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE, hospital que atende a uma população de alto nível socioeconômico, e comparar com as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população norte-americana da Califórnia. MÉTODOS: foram construídas curvas de crescimento intra-uterino a partir do peso do recém-nascido de parto único, tomado logo após o nascimento, e da idade gestacional segundo informações maternas, a partir da 32ª. semana de idade gestacional, abrangendo os nascimentos ocorridos na MAE no período de fevereiro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram calculados os percentis 10, 50 e 90 do peso ao nascer para cada idade gestacional e comparados com os das curvas da Califórnia. RESULTADOS: as curvas dos percentis 10 e 50 na população da MAE não diferiram das curvas da Califórnia. Para o percentil 90, a curva da MAE ficou abaixo das curvas da Califórnia. Houve número menor de pequenos e grandes para a idade gestacional (PIG e GIG quando classificados pelas curvas da Califórnia. A classificação em PIG, AIG, GIG mostrou-se relacionada significantemente com o ganho de peso materno nos dois sexos. CONCLUSÕES: as duas populações analisadas segundo as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino são diferentes entre si; deverão ser identificados fatores específicos que atuem na população da MAE.OBJECTIVE: growth curves can be used to assess intrauterine growth, to predict diseases in newborns, and to characterize different populations. The objective of this study was to obtain intrauterine growth curves of newborns from the maternity ward of the Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE and compare them with intrauterine growth curves of a population

  17. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  18. Perinatal outcome of growth restricted fetus with absent end diastolic umbilical blood flow: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery is usually associated with poor perinatal outcome and high perinatal mortality rate. Case report. We present the case of a pregnant woman with absent end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery in the 27th week of pregnancy with initial restriction of fetal growth. All though it was more and more obvious that the fetal growth was hindered, the Doppler, cardiotocographic and biophysical parameters did not get any worse as the pregnancy developed. The full fetal maturation was reached after the intense monitoring of the fetal condition and the pregnancy was terminated in the 37lh week by elective Cesarean section. Conclusion. The basic purpose of prenatal fetal monitoring in the situation of hindered fetal growth with chronic hypoxia is to predict the phase of decompensation and to terminate pregnancy before it is developed. The major problem is in great individual variations at the moment of development of decompensation phase, so the major obstetric aim in the monitoring of the fetus hindered in growth is to determine the optimal time and way of delivery.

  19. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-01-01

    Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. E...

  20. Consumo calórico, estado nutricional materno, y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino Energy intake, maternal nutritional status and intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bender Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la asociación entre el consumo de energía en el embarazo y el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU, se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso-cohorte en tres hospitales de maternidad de la ciudad de México, entre enero y agosto de 1995. De un total de 4.000 partos que ocurrieron en este período, nos referimos en este estudio a los resultados de un análisis de 264 casos de RCIU y 892 controles. Se procedió a un análisis de regresión logística no condicionada, en el que también se ajustaron los factores maternos potencialmente proclives a la confusión. Para el total de los casos no se observó un efecto directo del consumo de energía en el RCIU (RM: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,99-1,00. Sin embargo, entre las mujeres que comenzaron el embarazo con un peso de 50 kilos o menos, el consumo de energía en relación a RCIU mostró una razón de momios de 2,31 (RM: 2,31; IC 95%: 1,59-3,36; para las mujeres primigestas de 1,72 (RM: 1,72; IC 95%: 1,18-2,51; en aquellas con antecedente de bajo peso al nacer de 3,54 (RM: 3,54; IC 95%: 1,93-6,46 y para aquellas que presentaron tensión arterial alta en el embarazo de 1,61 (RM: 1,61; IC 95%: 1,00-2,59.To explore the association between low caloric intake during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, a case-control study with 264 cases and 892 controls was conducted in three maternity hospitals in Mexico City from January to August 1995. Nutritional information on pregnancy was recorded using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for other known maternal risk factors in the non-conditional logistic regression analysis, for the total sample, caloric intake did not present a direct effect on IUGR (OR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.99-1.00. However the odds ratios were as follows for women: with low pre-gestational weight (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.59-3.36, in first gestation (OR: 1.72; CI 95%: 1.18-2.51, with low birth weight infants (OR: 3.54; CI 95%: 1.93-6.46, and

  1. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  2. Effects of nutrientin take in the gestation on fetus intrauterine growth retardance%孕期营养素摄入量对胎儿宫内发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁向军

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究不同孕期营养素摄入量对宫内胎儿发育的影响.方法 239例妊娠妇女分为10~20周、21~30周及31周以上三组,根据营养素摄入量,用常规方法确定不同孕期胎儿宫内发育迟缓,比较不同孕期及不同营养素供给量(RDA)间胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率.结果 第1、2、3组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);第2组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);第3组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 合理的营养素摄入量对于降低胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率具有重要意义.%Objective To study the effect of nutrientin take in different periods of gestation on fetus intrau-growth retardance in different periods of gestation was estimated by routine methods, Comparing the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance between different periods of gestation and different nutrient intake.Results Group 1, group2 and group3:Comparison to cases with < 90% RDA or > 110% RDA, the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance was higher than in pregnant women with 90% - 110% RDA ( P <0.05 ). Conclusion It is important of optimal nutrient intake to reduce the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance.

  3. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  4. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  5. The missing intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD is an acceptable and common form of contraception worldwide. The objective of this study was to report the case of an asymptomatic missing intrauterine contraceptive (IUD inserted to prevent intrauterine adhesions after synechiolysis. A patient presented with missing IUD threads. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed an empty uterine cavity with the missing IUD probably anterior to the uterus. We present a stepwise approach in the management of the and ldquo;lost IUD and rdquo;, where the strings of the device are not visible at the time of speculum examination. We suggest first determining sonographically whether the IUD is within the cavity. If it is in situ, options for retrieval are including hysteroscopic retrieval. If the IUD is not within the cavity, X-rays are recommended. The device will not be present on X-ray if expulsion has occurred. If the device is present on the X-ray, cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval is required. IUD-providers should not only screen potential users and insert IUD correctly, but also ensure adequate follow-up with localization. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3587-3589

  6. A type IV translocated Legionella cysteine phytase counteracts intracellular growth restriction by phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen; Stirnimann, Christian U; Wieser, Mara; Frey, Daniel; Meier, Roger; Engelhardt, Sabrina; Li, Xiaodan; Capitani, Guido; Kammerer, Richard A; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-12-05

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, colonizes diverse environmental niches, including biofilms, plant material, and protozoa. In these habitats, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) is prevalent and used as a phosphate storage compound or as a siderophore. L. pneumophila replicates in protozoa and mammalian phagocytes within a unique "Legionella-containing vacuole." The bacteria govern host cell interactions through the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) and ∼300 different "effector" proteins. Here we characterize a hitherto unrecognized Icm/Dot substrate, LppA, as a phytate phosphatase (phytase). Phytase activity of recombinant LppA required catalytically essential cysteine (Cys(231)) and arginine (Arg(237)) residues. The structure of LppA at 1.4 Å resolution revealed a mainly α-helical globular protein stabilized by four antiparallel β-sheets that binds two phosphate moieties. The phosphates localize to a P-loop active site characteristic of dual specificity phosphatases or to a non-catalytic site, respectively. Phytate reversibly abolished growth of L. pneumophila in broth, and growth inhibition was relieved by overproduction of LppA or by metal ion titration. L. pneumophila lacking lppA replicated less efficiently in phytate-loaded Acanthamoeba castellanii or Dictyostelium discoideum, and the intracellular growth defect was complemented by the phytase gene. These findings identify the chelator phytate as an intracellular bacteriostatic component of cell-autonomous host immunity and reveal a T4SS-translocated L. pneumophila phytase that counteracts intracellular bacterial growth restriction by phytate. Thus, bacterial phytases might represent therapeutic targets to combat intracellular pathogens.

  7. Programming of maternal and offspring disease: impact of growth restriction, fetal sex and transmission across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jean N; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M; Cuffe, James S M

    2016-09-01

    Babies born small are at an increased risk of developing myriad adult diseases. While growth restriction increases disease risk in all individuals, often a second hit is required to unmask 'programmed' impairments in physiology. Programmed disease outcomes are demonstrated more commonly in male offspring compared with females, with these sex-specific outcomes partly attributed to different placenta-regulated growth strategies of the male and female fetus. Pregnancy is known to be a major risk factor for unmasking a number of conditions and can be considered a 'second hit' for women who were born small. As such, female offspring often develop impairments of physiology for the first time during pregnancy that present as pregnancy complications. Numerous maternal stressors can further increase the risk of developing a maternal complication during pregnancy. Importantly, these maternal complications can have long-term consequences for both the mother after pregnancy and the developing fetus. Conditions such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension as well as thyroid, liver and kidney diseases are all conditions that can complicate pregnancy and have long-term consequences for maternal and offspring health. Babies born to mothers who develop these conditions are often at a greater risk of developing disease in adulthood. This has implications as a mechanism for transmission of disease across generations. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding long-term intergenerational implications of being born small and/or experiencing stress during pregnancy on programming outcomes.

  8. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  9. 超声对宫内胚胎停止发育诊断的应用观察%Application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine embryo growth arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树新

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of intrauterine embryo growth arrest, stop the application effect observa-tion of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine embryo development.Methods:From 2013 to 2014 in our hospital for treat-ment of 30 cases of diagnosed intrauterine embryos stop development of ultrasonic testing images were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 30 cases of embryonic images with different characteristics, in the ultrasonic observation, air sac type 11 cases, accounting for 24.4%, in the ultrasonic observation, no echo area inside the uterus appears irregular oval sacs, and the pregnancy pregnant sac is larger, the size of gestational sac size is 3~4cm. With favorable pregnancy pregnancy, the inner wall of uterus of pregnant women was clear, and the wall of the uterus pregnancy pregnant sac some separation. Pregnancy pregnant sac deformation type is 5 cases, accounting for 11%, patients with intrauterine pregnancies were more irregular shape, with a flat, C, and presents the bleak rough pregnancy pregnant sac state, no embryo. Light spot, wide type in 12 cases, accounting for 26.6%, in the acoustic observation, showed a light or facula echo obvious.Conclusion:Ultrasonic observation on development has a direct, accurate, rapid for intra-uterine embryo stops, miscarriage prevention and treatment of pregnant women without meaning, providing the reliable basis for the clinical treatment of.%目的:分析宫内胚胎停止发育的特点,观察超声在宫内胚胎停止发育诊断中的应用效果。方法选取2013到2014年在本院治疗的30例被诊断为宫内胚胎停止发育的患者的超声检测图片进行回顾分析。结果30例胚胎停止发育的图片各有特点,在超声观察下,空囊型的为11例,占36.6%,在超声观测下,子宫内部呈现出来的椭圆形的不规则囊状物无回声区,而且它的孕娠囊较大,妊娠囊大小为3~4cm,妊娠大小基本与怀孕周期一致,孕妇的

  10. [Effect of positive nutritional support strategy on extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Min; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of positive nutritional support in the early stage after birth on the nutritional status during hospitalization and extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants. There were two groups of preterm infants. Group A (n=99) was given the previous nutritional program, while group B (n=101) was given positive nutritional support. The nutritional intake, growth rate and EUGR incidence were compared between the two groups. Compared with group A, group B had significantly higher enteral calorie intake and total calorie intake within one week after birth. Additionally, the age of first feeding, time of regaining birth weight, duration of intravenous nutrition, time to full enteral feeding, and length of hospital stay in group B were all shorter than in group A. Group B also had less physiological weight loss than group A. Among the preterm infants with a gestational age less than 32 weeks, group B had faster increases in body weight, head circumference, and body length and a lower incidence of EUGR compared with group A. Among the preterm infants with a gestational age not less than 32 weeks, group B had faster increases in body weight and a lower incidence of EUGR (evaluated based on body weight and head circumference) compared with group A. During hospitalization, group B had significantly lower incidence of feeding intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis than group A. Positive nutritional support strategy, applied in preterm infants early after birth, can effectively improve their nutritional status during hospitalization and reduce the incidence of EUGR without increasing the incidence of related complications during hospitalization.

  11. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  12. Quantification of mechanical dyssynchrony in growth restricted fetuses and normal controls using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kristina; Möllers, Mareike; Hammer, Kerstin; Falkenberg, Maria Karina; Möllmann, Ute; Görlich, Dennis; Klockenbusch, Walter; Schmitz, Ralf

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony in normally grown fetuses by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and to compare longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony in fetal growth restriction (FGR) with normal controls. A prospective study was performed on 30 FGR and 62 normally grown fetuses, including 30 controls matched by gestational age, using STE and a transversal four-chamber view. Data analysis was carried out with a high frame rate of about 175 frames/s. Dyssynchrony was analyzed offline with QLab 9 (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA) as time differences between peaks in strain of both ventricles and the septum. Inter- and intraventricular and intraseptal dyssynchrony were obtained and inter- and intraobserver reliability was analyzed. Longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony was feasible in all cases, with high inter- and intraobserver reliability. Levels of inter- and intraventricular dyssynchrony were higher in the FGR than in the control group. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a reliable technique for cardiac function assessment in the fetal heart. Interventricular dyssynchrony could be a potential parameter for early detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction before other parameters demand intervention. The future clinical role of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony needs to be verified in larger studies and with a technique customized for prenatal echocardiography.

  13. Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction at 37 Weeks: A Comparison of Doppler and Placental Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, William M; Millington, Karmaine A; Ibekwe, Tochi O; Ural, Serdar H

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Our objective was determining if abnormal Doppler evaluation had a higher prevalence of placental pathology compared to normal Doppler in suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR) of cases delivered at 37 weeks. Study Design. This retrospective cohort study of suspected FGR singletons with antenatal Doppler evaluation delivered at 37 weeks had a primary outcome of the prevalence of placental pathology related to FGR. Significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results. Of 100 pregnancies 46 and 54 were in the abnormal and normal Doppler cohorts, respectively. Placental pathology was more prevalent with any abnormal Doppler, 84.8% versus 55.6%, odds ratio (OR) 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55, 13.22, and p = 0.002. Abnormal middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler had a higher prevalence: 96.2% versus 54.8%, OR 20.7, 95% CI: 2.54, 447.1, and p < 0.001. Conclusion. Abnormal Doppler was associated with more placental pathology in comparison to normal Doppler in fetuses with suspected FGR. Abnormal MCA Doppler had the strongest association.

  14. Sleep: A Window Into Autonomic Control in Children Born Preterm and Growth Restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Whatley, Christie; Odoi, Alexsandria; Hollis, Samantha; Weichard, Aidan J; Muthusamy, Jayan Shivanandhan; Varma, Suraj; Cameron, James; Narayan, Om; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2017-05-01

    Preterm birth and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are both associated with risk of hypertension in adulthood. Mechanisms leading to this pathology are unclear. In children aged 5-12 years, who were born preterm and FGR, we used sleep as a tool to assess autonomic control with assessment of cardiovascular structure and function. Eighteen children born preterm and FGR, 15 children born preterm with appropriate birth weights for gestational age (AGA), and 20 AGA term-born children were studied. Children underwent overnight polysomnography with the addition of continuous noninvasive blood pressure (Finometer™). Spectral measures of heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity were assessed and overnight urinary catecholamine levels measured. Echocardiographic studies (Vivid7, GE Healthcare) were performed and vascular compliance assessed (Miller Instruments™). Statistical comparisons were adjusted for age and body size. Compared to term children, preterm AGA children had increased high frequency HRV (p Preterm FGR children had smaller left ventricular lengths, ascending aorta, and left ventricular outflow tract diameter (p preterm birth did not alter autonomic control but altered heart structure in children. In contrast, preterm birth alone altered autonomic control but had no change in heart structure. These changes in children born preterm and FGR may contribute, in part, to increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life but by different mechanisms.

  15. Nitric oxide-mediated intracellular growth restriction of pathogenic Rhodococcus equi can be prevented by iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Kristine; Wohlmann, Jens; Taylor, Gregory Alan; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2011-05-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular pathogen which causes pneumonia in young horses and in immunocompromised humans. R. equi arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages at a prephagolysosome stage and grows inside a privileged compartment. Here, we show that, in murine macrophages activated with gamma interferon and lipopolysaccharide, R. equi does not multiply but stays viable for at least 24 h. Whereas infection control of other intracellular pathogens by activated macrophages is executed by enhanced phagosome acidification or phagolysosome formation, by autophagy or by the interferon-inducible GTPase Irgm1, none of these mechanisms seems to control R. equi infection. Growth control by macrophage activation is fully mimicked by treatment of resting macrophages with nitric oxide donors, and inhibition of bacterial multiplication by either activation or nitric oxide donors is annihilated by cotreatment of infected macrophages with ferrous sulfate. Transcriptional analysis of the R. equi iron-regulated gene iupT demonstrates that intracellular R. equi encounters iron stress in activated, but not in resting, macrophages and that this stress is relieved by extracellular addition of ferrous sulfate. Our results suggest that nitric oxide is central to the restriction of bacterial access to iron in activated macrophages.

  16. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Intracellular Growth Restriction of Pathogenic Rhodococcus equi Can Be Prevented by Iron▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Kristine; Wohlmann, Jens; Taylor, Gregory Alan; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular pathogen which causes pneumonia in young horses and in immunocompromised humans. R. equi arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages at a prephagolysosome stage and grows inside a privileged compartment. Here, we show that, in murine macrophages activated with gamma interferon and lipopolysaccharide, R. equi does not multiply but stays viable for at least 24 h. Whereas infection control of other intracellular pathogens by activated macrophages is executed by enhanced phagosome acidification or phagolysosome formation, by autophagy or by the interferon-inducible GTPase Irgm1, none of these mechanisms seems to control R. equi infection. Growth control by macrophage activation is fully mimicked by treatment of resting macrophages with nitric oxide donors, and inhibition of bacterial multiplication by either activation or nitric oxide donors is annihilated by cotreatment of infected macrophages with ferrous sulfate. Transcriptional analysis of the R. equi iron-regulated gene iupT demonstrates that intracellular R. equi encounters iron stress in activated, but not in resting, macrophages and that this stress is relieved by extracellular addition of ferrous sulfate. Our results suggest that nitric oxide is central to the restriction of bacterial access to iron in activated macrophages. PMID:21383050

  17. Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction at 37 Weeks: A Comparison of Doppler and Placental Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Curtin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Our objective was determining if abnormal Doppler evaluation had a higher prevalence of placental pathology compared to normal Doppler in suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR of cases delivered at 37 weeks. Study Design. This retrospective cohort study of suspected FGR singletons with antenatal Doppler evaluation delivered at 37 weeks had a primary outcome of the prevalence of placental pathology related to FGR. Significance was defined as p≤0.05. Results. Of 100 pregnancies 46 and 54 were in the abnormal and normal Doppler cohorts, respectively. Placental pathology was more prevalent with any abnormal Doppler, 84.8% versus 55.6%, odds ratio (OR 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.55, 13.22, and p=0.002. Abnormal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler had a higher prevalence: 96.2% versus 54.8%, OR 20.7, 95% CI: 2.54, 447.1, and p<0.001. Conclusion. Abnormal Doppler was associated with more placental pathology in comparison to normal Doppler in fetuses with suspected FGR. Abnormal MCA Doppler had the strongest association.

  18. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species. PMID:26959761

  19. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  20. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography short

  1. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T M; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H A; Wolf, Hans; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; Van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; Van Haastert, Inge Lot; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Mansi, Giuseppina; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Oepkes, Dick; Ogge, Giovanna; Van Der Post, Joris; Prefumo, Federico; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Scheepers, H. C J; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea; Moore, Tamanna; Johnson, Samantha; Rigano, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography shor

  2. 2 Year Neurodevelopmental and Intermediate Perinatal Outcomes in Infants With Very Preterm Fetal Growth Restriction (TRUFFLE) : A Randomised Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus on the best methods to monitor fetal growth restriction or to trigger delivery. Previous studies have suggested that the abnormal ductus venosus (DV) pulsatility index is the best discriminating variable for neonatal outcome. This study hypothesized that changes in the fetal DV

  3. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T M; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, Gerard H A; Wolf, Hans; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; Van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; Van Haastert, Inge Lot; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Mansi, Giuseppina; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Oepkes, Dick; Ogge, Giovanna; Van Der Post, Joris; Prefumo, Federico; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Scheepers, H. C J; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea; Moore, Tamanna; Johnson, Samantha; Rigano, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography

  4. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148835163; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Kingdom, J.; Marlow, N.; Marsal, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T.M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Thornton, J.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Valensise, H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Visser, G. H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229317057; Aktas, A.; Borgione, S.; Chaoui, R.; Cornette, J. M.J.; Diehl, T.; van Eyck, J.; Fratelli, N.; van Haastert, I. C.; Lobmaier, S.; Lopriore, E.; Missfelder-Lobos, H.; Mansi, G.; Martelli, P.; Maso, G.; Maurer-Fellbaum, U.; Mensing van Charante, N.; Mulder-de Tollenaer, S.; Napolitano, R.; Oberto, M.; Oepkes, D.; Ogge, G.; van der Post, J. A.M.; Prefumo, F.; Preston, L.; Raimondi, F.; Reiss, I. K.M.; Scheepers, L. S.; Skabar, A.; Spaanderman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Zimmermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from

  5. Defining the residual risk of adverse perinatal outcome in growth restricted fetuses with normal umbilical artery blood flow.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2014-07-25

    To determine the cause of adverse perinatal outcome in fetal growth restriction(FGR) where umbilical artery Doppler(UA) was normal, as identified from the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health(PORTO). We compared cases of adverse outcome where UA Doppler was normal and abnormal.

  6. Three-dimensional US assessment of hepatic volume, head circumference, and abdominal circumference in healthy and growth-restricted fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Boito; J.A.M. Laudij (Jacqueline); P.C. Struijk (Pieter); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To establish reproducibility and normal values for fetal hepatic volume and its significance in identification of fetal growth restriction relative to head and upper abdominal circumferences according to a cross-sectional study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pr

  7. Restriction of placental and fetal growth in sheep alters fetal blood pressure responses to angiotensin II and captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L J; Simonetta, G; Owens, J A; Robinson, J S; McMillen, I C

    1999-01-01

    We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between the PR (42.7 ± 2.6 mmHg) and control groups (37.7 ± 2.3 mmHg). Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PO2 were significantly correlated in control animals (r = 0.53, P captopril (7.5 μg captopril min−1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6) between 115 and 125 days gestation. After 135 days gestation, there was a significant decrease (P captopril infusion (15 μg captopril min−1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6).There was a significant effect (F = 14.75; P < 0.001) of increasing doses of angiotensin II on fetal diastolic blood pressure in the PR and control groups. The effects of angiotensin II were different (F = 8.67; P < 0.05) in the PR and control groups at both gestational age ranges.These data indicate that arterial blood pressure may be maintained by different mechanisms in growth restricted fetuses and normally grown counterparts and suggests a role for the fetal renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in growth restricted fetuses. PMID:10066914

  8. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Fetuses with Growth Restriction and Normal Karyotype: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Antoni; Grande, Maribel; Pauta, Montse; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Figueras, Francesc

    2017-09-09

    To perform a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis to estimate the incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) over karyotyping in fetal growth restriction (FGR). This was a systematic review conducted in accordance with the PRISMA criteria. All articles identified in PubMed, Ovid Medline, and ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) from January 2009 to November 2016 describing pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) in fetuses with growth restriction were included. Case reports were excluded. Risk differences were pooled to estimate the overall and stratified CMA incremental yield. Ten studies with full data available met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Combined data from these studies revealed a 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-6%) incremental yield of CMA over karyotyping in nonmalformed growth-restricted fetuses, and a 10% (95% CI 6-14%) incremental yield in FGR when associated with fetal malformations. The most frequently found pathogenic CNVs were 22q11.2 duplication, Xp22.3 deletion, and 7q11.23 deletion (Williams-Beuren syndrome), particularly in isolated FGR. The use of genomic CMA provides a 4% incremental yield of detecting pathogenic CNVs in fetuses with isolated growth restriction and normal karyotype. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE) : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, Christoph C.; Marlow, Neil; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Arabin, Birgit; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Derks, Jan B.; Diemert, Anke; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Frusca, Tiziana; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Hecher, Kurt; Martinelli, Pasquale; Ostermayer, Eva; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Todros, Tullia; Valcamonico, Adriana; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography

  10. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from prospec

  11. Is middle cerebral artery Doppler related to neonatal and 2-year infant outcome in early fetal growth restriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stampalija, Tamara; Arabin, Birgit; Wolf, Hans; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christoph; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148835163; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Kingdom, J.; Marlow, N.; Marsal, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T.M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Thornton, J.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Valensise, H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Visser, G. H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229317057; Aktas, A.; Borgione, S.; Chaoui, R.; Cornette, J. M.J.; Diehl, T.; van Eyck, J.; Fratelli, N.; van Haastert, I. C.; Lobmaier, S.; Lopriore, E.; Missfelder-Lobos, H.; Mansi, G.; Martelli, P.; Maso, G.; Maurer-Fellbaum, U.; Mensing van Charante, N.; Mulder-de Tollenaer, S.; Napolitano, R.; Oberto, M.; Oepkes, D.; Ogge, G.; van der Post, J. A.M.; Prefumo, F.; Preston, L.; Raimondi, F.; Reiss, I. K.M.; Scheepers, L. S.; Skabar, A.; Spaanderman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Zimmermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler impedance is associated with hypoxemia in fetal growth restriction. It remains unclear as to whether this finding could be useful in timing delivery, especially in the third trimester. In this regard there is a paucity of evidence from prospect

  12. Fetal growth restriction alters transcription factor binding and epigenetic mechanisms of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwinderjit; Hale, Merica A.; Bares, Allyson; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W.; McKnight, Robert A.; Lane, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of serious adult morbidities such as hypertension. In an IUGR rat model of hypertension, we reported a persistent decrease in kidney 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) mRNA and protein levels from birth through postnatal (P) day 21. This enzyme deficiency can lead to hypertension by limiting renal glucocorticoid deactivation. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR affects renal 11β-HSD2 epigenetic determinants of chromatin structure and alters key transcription factor binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in association with persistent downregulation of its mRNA expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed bilateral uterine artery ligation on embryonic day 19.5 pregnant rats and harvested kidneys at day 0 (P0) and P21. Key transcription factors that can affect 11β-HSD2 expression include transcriptional enhancers specificity protein 1 (SP1) and NF-κB p65 and transcriptional repressors early growth response factor (Egr-1) and NF-κB p50. Our most important findings were as follows: 1) IUGR significantly decreased SP1 and NF-κB (p65) binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in males, while it increased Egr-1 binding in females and NF-κB (p50) binding in males; 2) IUGR increased CpG methylation status, as well as modified the pattern of methylation in several CpG sites of 11β-HSD2 promoter at P0 also in a sex-specific manner; and 3) IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 in exon 5 of 11β-HSD2 at P0 and P21 in both genders. We conclude that IUGR is associated with altered transcriptional repressor/activator binding in connection with increased methylation in the 11β-HSD2 promoter region in a sex-specific manner, possibly leading to decreased transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 of the 11β-HSD2 gene in both genders, which is associated with decreased transcriptional elongation. We speculate that alterations in transcription factor binding and

  13. Embryonic/fetal mortality and intrauterine growth restriction is not exclusive to the CBA/J sub-strain in the CBA × DBA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kelly J; Yenson, Vanessa M; Ashton, Anthony W; Morris, Jonathan M; McCracken, Sharon A

    2016-10-21

    Inbred strains of mice are powerful models for understanding human pregnancy complications. For example, the exclusive mating of CBA/J females to DBA/2J males increases fetal resorption to 20-35% with an associated decline in placentation and maintenance of maternal Th1 immunity. More recently other complications of pregnancy, IUGR and preeclampsia, have been reported in this model. The aim of this study was to qualify whether the CBA/CaH substrain female can substitute for CBA/J to evoke a phenotype of embryonic/fetal mortality and IUGR. (CBA/CaH × DBA/2J) F1 had significantly higher embryonic/fetal mortality mortality (p = 0.0063), smaller fetuses (p  10(th) percentile). In addition, placentae of "normal-weight" (CBA/CaH × DBA/2J) F1 were significantly smaller (p < 0.0006) with a greater proportion of labyrinth (p = 0.0128) and an 11-fold increase in F4/80 + macrophage infiltration (p < 0.0001) when compared to placentae of (CBA/CaH × Balb/c) F1. In conclusion, the embryonic/fetal mortality and IUGR phenotype is not exclusive to CBA/J female mouse, and CBA/CaH females can be substituted to provide a model for the assessment of novel therapeutics.

  14. Expression of Interferon γ by Decidual Cells and Natural Killer Cells at the Human Implantation Site: Implications for Preeclampsia, Spontaneous Abortion, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chie-Pein; Piao, Longzhu; Chen, Xilin; Yu, Jianhua; Masch, Rachel; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J; Huang, S Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Human first-trimester decidual cells (FTDCs) chemoattract CXCR3-expressing circulating CD56(bright)CD16(-) natural killer (NK) cells, which increase uteroplacental blood flow by remodeling spiral arteries and arterioles. This recruitment reflects elevated FTDC expression of NK cell-recruiting induced protein 10 and interferon (IFN)-inducible T-cell-α chemoattractant produced in response to the synergistic effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IFN-γ stimulation. Decidual macrophages express TNF-α, whereas the cellular origin of IFN-γ is unclear. Therefore, this study aims to identify the cell source(s) of IFN-γ in human first trimester decidua. Immunostaining of decidual sections revealed that both FTDCs and decidual NK (dNK) cells express IFN-γ. Although individual dNK cells express higher IFN-γ levels, the more numerous FTDCs account for greater proportion of total IFN-γ immunostaining. Freshly isolated FTDCs express greater IFN-γ staining than dNK cells as measured by flow cytometry, whereas incubation of dNK cells with documented NK cell activators significantly increases IFN-γ above FTDC levels. Confluent FTDCs intrinsically produce, but paradoxically respond to, exogenous IFN-γ.

  15. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...... (t = 0 min). The piglets were randomly allocated to be euthanized at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min (all groups, n = 6) after bolus feeding, and the weights of the stomach and its residuals were recorded. There was no difference in gastric emptying rates between normal and IUGR piglets (P = 0.129); however...

  16. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0–13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7–11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1–60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1–60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0–36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1–79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0–52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1–3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier pregnancy the risk increased to 11.4 (95%CI 4.5–20.9). Chronic hypertension (n = 60) increased the risk of preeclampsia 5.3-fold (95%CI 2.4–9.8), of severe preeclampsia 22.2-fold (95%CI 9.9–41.0), and risk of early-onset preeclampsia 16.7-fold (95%CI 2.0–57.6). If a woman had chronic hypertension combined with obesity, gestational diabetes and earlier preeclampsia, the risk of term preeclampsia increased 4.8-fold (95%CI 0.1–21.7). Women with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a high risk of all subgroups of preeclampsia. Conclusion The risk of preeclampsia increases exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Early-onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia have different risk profile from term preeclampsia. PMID:28350823

  17. The role of brain sparing in the prediction of adverse outcomes in intrauterine growth restriction: results of the multicenter PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2014-05-06

    The aim of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in IUGR (PORTO) Study was to evaluate the optimal management of fetuses with estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10(th) centile. The objective of this secondary analysis was to describe the role of the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome.

  18. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Pia M; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier pregnancy the risk increased to 11.4 (95%CI 4.5-20.9). Chronic hypertension (n = 60) increased the risk of preeclampsia 5.3-fold (95%CI 2.4-9.8), of severe preeclampsia 22.2-fold (95%CI 9.9-41.0), and risk of early-onset preeclampsia 16.7-fold (95%CI 2.0-57.6). If a woman had chronic hypertension combined with obesity, gestational diabetes and earlier preeclampsia, the risk of term preeclampsia increased 4.8-fold (95%CI 0.1-21.7). Women with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a high risk of all subgroups of preeclampsia. The risk of preeclampsia increases exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Early-onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia have different risk profile from term preeclampsia.

  19. Identification of messenger RNA of fetoplacental source in maternal plasma of women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Ayala Ramírez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: cuantificar RNA (ácido ribonucleico específico de placenta en el plasma de mujeres con embarazos con fetos con Restricción de Crecimiento Intrauterino (RCIU y gestantes con embarazos normales.    Materiales y métodos: se estudiaron 8 mujeres con embarazos con fetos con RCIU y 18 mujeres con embarazos sin complicaciones, en el tercer trimestre de embarazo. Se cuantificó el RNA total libre en plasma materno por espectrofotometría y la expresión del gen Lactógeno Placentario Humano (hPL a nivel de RNA mensajero (RNAm por medio de la técnica Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa en Tiempo Real (qPCR-RT.   Resultados: se logró detectar RNA en plasma de origen fetoplacentario en el 100% de las gestantes. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los valores de RNA total extraído de plasma (p=0,5975 ni en la expresión del RNAm del gen hPL (p=0,5785 entre casos y controles.   Conclusión: es posible detectar RNAm de origen fetoplacentario en plasma materno durante el embarazo.  

  20. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  1. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  2. 生长激素和胰岛素与新生儿宫内生长发育的关系%Relationship of Serum Growth Hormone and Insulin at Birth with Neonatal Intrauterine Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常艳美; 齐婧; 关育红; 童笑梅; 朴梅花; 王新利

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨生长激素(GH)和胰岛素(INS)与新生儿宫内生长发育的关系.方法 研究对象为2010年1月-2011年1月在北京大学第三医院住院的73例健康足月新生儿和97例早产儿,研究对象均在出生24 h内取静脉血,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测血清GH和INS水平,同时核对胎龄及测量新生儿的出生体质量、头围和身长,比较新生儿出生24 h内血清GH和INS水平与胎龄、出生体质量、身长、头围的关系.结果 1.新生儿的胎龄与出生时血清GH水平呈负相关(r=-0.403,P=0.000),而与血清INS水平呈正相关(r=0.247,P=0.001);早产组出生时血清GH水平[(40.54±19.58) μg·L-1]显著高于足月组[(26.23±18.30) μg·L-1],而血清INS水平[(2.58±2.78) IU·L-1]则显著低于足月组[(4.02±3.60) IU·L-1](P=0.000,0.029).2.足月儿的出生体质量、身长、头围与出生时血清GH水平均呈负相关,而与血清INS水平均呈正相关;早产儿仅出生体质量与血清GH水平呈负相关,与血清INS水平呈正相关.3.足月新生儿出生时血清GH与INS水平无相关性(r=0.291,P= 0.090),而早产儿出生时血清GH与INS水平呈负相关(r=-0.353,P=0.004).结论 新生儿出生时GH和INS水平与其宫内发育密切相关,GH和INS可能参与调节新生儿宫内的生长发育.%Objective To study the relationship among the levels of serum growth hormone(GH) ,insulin (INS) at birth and the intrauterine growth of neonates. Methods During Jan. 2010 to Jan. 2011,73 healthy full - term and 97 premature neonates, hospitalized in Peking University Third Hospital were studied. Blood samples were collected, and gestational age, birth weight, head circumference and length of neonates were checked within 24 hours after birth. The levels of serum GH and INS were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation was analyzed between serum GH, INS and gestational age, birth weight, length,head circumference of neonates. Results 1. Gestational age

  3. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  4. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  5. Disruption of growth hormone receptor prevents calorie restriction from improving insulin action and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bonkowski

    Full Text Available Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15% CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30% CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice.

  6. The influence of maternal Lewis, Secretor and ABO(H) blood groups on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Greer, I A

    2011-12-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with thrombosis of the placenta and an increased risk of subsequent vascular disease in the mother and fetus. The products of interactions between ABO(H), Lewis and Secretor genes are also associated with thrombosis and vascular disease risk. A prospective case-control study of mothers with a severe FGR pregnancy (cases, n = 128; controls, n = 288) was performed to determine whether FGR is associated with particular maternal blood groups. No association with ABO(H) status was observed, but FGR was more common in maternal secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.69) and consequently in those mothers expressing Le(b) on their red cells (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.83), with a reduced risk in non-secretors and those expressing Le(a). Given the association between blood groups and both activated protein C resistance (APCR) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, post hoc pilot studies on first-trimester APCR and VWF antigen levels and blood group genotypes were performed. No relationship with Lewis or Secretor was observed. Despite this, lower first-trimester VWF levels were observed in pregnancies subsequently complicated by FGR.  This is the first study reporting a relationship between maternal Secretor/Lewis status and FGR. A link between blood groups and FGR is plausible, as both are associated with cardiovascular disease. We observed no relationship between Lewis/Secretor status and VWF or APCR, but this should be confirmed in a larger study. Thus, the mechanism whereby Secretor and/or Lewis influences FGR is unknown. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Altered transmission of maternal angiotensin II receptor haplotypes in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Clare; Chappell, Sally; Acharya, Meera; Crane, Richard; Szolin, Stephanie; Symonds, Lyneth; Chevins, Helen; Kalsheker, Noor; Baker, Philip; Morgan, Linda

    2006-02-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) predisposes to significant short- and long-term health problems. Epidemiological studies have suggested a role for inherited factors in its pathogenesis. The angiotensin II receptor genes, AGTR1 and AGTR2, are candidate genes because they mediate processes that are important for placentation. This study investigated AGTR1 and AGTR2 haplotypes and genotypes in FGR. A total of 107 families (father, mother, and baby) with FGR, and 101 families with normal pregnancies were genotyped at five sites in AGTR1 and six sites across AGTR2. All of the participants were white western Europeans. FGR was identified antenatally by ultrasound scans and confirmed postnatally by correcting the birth weight centile for gestation, infant sex, maternal height, weight, and parity. Fetal genes were investigated using transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT), and a case-control comparison of maternal haplotypes was conducted. FGR was associated with maternal (but not paternal) transmission of the AGTR1 haplotype (GenBank AF245699.1) g.4955T, g.5052T, g.5245C, g.5612A, and haplotype g.4955T, g.5052T, g.5245T, g.5612A. Haplotype g.4955A, g.5052G, g.5245T, g.5612G was undertransmitted (P = 0.002). TDT of the AGTR1 genotype showed undertransmission of maternal AGTR1 genotypes g.4955T>A (odds ratio (OR), 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.86); P = 0.02), g.5052T>G (OR, 0.18 (0.06-0.48); PG (OR, 0.21 (0.08-0.55); P AGTR1 or AGTR2 (P > 0.10). This is the first study to show distortion of transmission of maternal AGTR1 haplotypes in FGR, which suggests that this gene plays a role in FGR. In particular, maternal-fetal gene sharing may be an important factor. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A longitudinal analysis of arterial dopler parameters in growth restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miković Željko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler parameters enable noninvasive and direct detection of placental insufficiency and brain sparing effect, which occurs as an adaptive mechanism to chronic hypoxemia. It is of great interest if further changes of Doppler parameters, which occur after the detection of the first pathologic value, can anticipate a moment of fetal distress. We investigated growth-restricted fetuses with the brain sparing effect in the time interval between the detection of blood flow redistribution until the distress. The aim of our study was to evaluate longitudinally Doppler parameters in umbilical (Aum, medial cerebral (MCA, renal (AR and femoral (AF artery and find: 1 if there are significant changes in their value; 2 the character and time interval of these changes; and 3 if they differ from changes in biophysical profile (BFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective clinical study evaluated 35 pregnancies with fetal growth restriction. Fetuses were selected for the study if: 1 there were pathologic cerebral/umbilical (C/U ratio, 2 at least four Doppler examinations in 3-4 days interval were performed and 3 prepartal fetal distress, defined as silent fetal heart rate pattern with spontaneous and late decelerations, was present. In 28 neonates after delivery umbilical artery gas and acid-base status was determined. Blood flow velocity waveforms were evaluated in Aum MCA, AR, and AF. Arterial blood flow was estimated by pulsatility index (Pi, while in Aum we also used: present end-diastolic velocity (PEDV absent end-diastolic velocity (AEDV and reverse end-diastolic velocity (REDV. All of the fetuses were monitored by cardiotocogram (CTG once to twice a day and by BFP twice a week. Elective Cesarean section was done in the presence of distress, except if severe immaturity or extreme malnutrition occurred. RESULTS Etiological factors of placental insufficiency were: 1 hypertensive syndrome (n=26, 2 chronic renal disease (n=3, 3 primary antiphospholipid syndrome (n

  9. Effects of Aspirin and Intrauterine Balloon on Endometrial Repair and Reproductive Prognosis in Patients with Severe Intrauterine Adhesion: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Luo, Yuanna; Chen, Minghui; Fang, Ruili

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen in combination with aspirin and intrauterine balloon on the uterine endometrial repair and reproductive prognosis in patients after surgery for severe intrauterine adhesion (sIUA). We prospectively recruited 114 patients with sIUA. Intrauterine device (IUD) was placed and oral estrogen was administered after surgery. Patients were divided into control group and aspirin group. In addition, patients in aspirin group were subdivided into nonballoon group and balloon group. Results showed that, after therapy, the increase in endometrial thickness of aspirin groups was superior to control group (P 0.05). Thus, aspirin may promote the uterine endometrial growth and repair after surgery for sIUA, and IUD in combination with intrauterine balloon may reduce the recurrence of intrauterine adhesion, but their effect on the reproductive prognosis is required to be further studied.

  10. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF......The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...

  11. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF...

  12. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  13. 血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4水平与胎儿宫内生长发育的关系%Relationship between serum retinol binding protein 4 level and fetal intrauterine growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 张小莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测新生儿血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP-4)的水平,探讨其与胰岛素水平及胎儿宫内生长发育的关系,并对相关因素进行分析.方法:用酶联免疫法检测89例新生儿血清中RBP-4和胰岛素水平,其中小于胎龄组(SGA)30例、适于胎龄组(AGA)30例、大于胎龄组(LGA)29例,并按出生体重评估新生儿宫内的营养状态.结果:①3组间RBP-4及胰岛素水平的差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).②血清RBP-4水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.943,P<0.01);③胰岛素水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.975,P<0.01);④RBP-4水平与胰岛素水平呈明显正相关(r=0.979,P<0.01).结论:新生儿体内RBP-4水平在一定程度上反映宫内牛长发育状态,可能和胰岛素共同参与调节新生儿的生长发育.%Objective: To detect the serum retinol binding protein 4 ( RBP -4) level in neonates, explore its relationship with insulin level and fetal intrauterine growth and development, and analyze the related factors.Methods: ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of RBP-4 and insulin in 89 neonates, 89 neonates included 30 neonates in small for gestational age (SGA) group, 30 neonates in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group and 29 neonates in large for gestational age (LGA) group, then the intrauterine nutritional conditions of the neonates were assessed according to birth weight.Results: There was significant difference in serum levels of RBP -4 and insulin among the three groups ( P < 0.05 ).There was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.943, P < 0.05 ); there was a significant positive correlation between serum insulin level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.975, P <0.05); there was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and serum insulin level ( γ = 0.979, P < 0.0l ).Conclusion: Neonatal RBP-4 level reflect the state of intrauterine growth and

  14. Growth hormone abolishes beneficial effects of calorie restriction in long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways.

  15. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen therapy on experimental fetal growth restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting WAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen on experimental fetal growth restriction(FGR in rats.Methods Forty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups(8 each: control group(group N,did nothing to rats,sham operation group(group M,rats were only anesthetized on day 12 of gestation and did nothing else except that,FGR model group(group F,rats accepted partial ligation of both uterine arteries and veins on day 12 of gestation and no therapy after that,hyperbaric oxygen therapy group(group A,rats accepted hyperbaric oxygen treatment after the operation,normobaric hyperoxia therapy group(group B,rats accepted normobaric oxygen treatment after the operation.On day 21 of gestation,the fetuses and placentas in all groups were surgically taken out and weighted,and the incidence of FGR and mortality in the fetus,and pathological changes of placentas were analyzed.Results Newborn’s weight in group F,N,M,A and B respectively were 3.26±0.49g,4.57±0.37g,4.46±0.36g,4.11±0.37g and 4.08±0.32g,and the placenta weight were 0.40±0.05g,0.54±0.07g,0.53±0.08g,0.47±0.05g and 0.46±0.05g.Newborn’s weight and placenta in group F were significantly lower than that in group N and M(P 0.05.FGR rates in group N,M,F,A and B respectively were 1.33%,2.94%,83.10%,13.63% and 13.89%,and mortality rates were 1.33%,1.47%,11.27%,6.06% and 6.94%.The incidence of FGR and the mortality in group F were significantly higher than that in group N(P < 0.01,and in group A and B were significantly lower than that in group N(P < 0.01.Blood stasis and villous ischemia were found in placenta of FGR model rats.Placental microcirculation was significantly improved in treatment groups.Conclusion Both hyperbaric oxygen and normobaric oxygen have a similar and good therapeutic effect on experimental FGR in rats.

  16. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two ne...

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed 'placental infarction hematoma' is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such a lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This paper describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma.

  18. Update: Consequences of Abnormal Fetal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chernausek, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is prevalent worldwide and affects children and adults in multiple ways. These include predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, persistent reduction in stature, and possibly changes in the pattern of puberty. A review of recent literature confirms that the metabolic effects of being born small for gestational age are evident in the very young, persist with age, and are amplified by adiposity. Furthermore...

  19. Effect of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on their fetal growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Feng; HOU; XianZhi; LIU; YingChun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on the ovine fetus growth and development. One hundred Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and mated, were divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 1, RG1), 0.33 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 2, RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group, CG) during their late pregnancy respectively. The results suggested that with the supply of exogenous energy decreasing during late pregnancy, maternal body weight and net body weight loss in RG2 and RG1 were lower than those of CG (P<0.01). The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations of ewes in RG2 and RG1 tended to be lower than those of CG (P>0.05), but the GH concentrations in RG2 and RG1 were enhanced and there was significant difference between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). The glucose concentration of ewes in RG2 and RG1 was decreased throughout the feed restriction period, and the differences were observed between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). In addition, the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total amino acid (TAA) concentrations of ewes in RG2 tended to increase, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the NEFA and FAA concentrations of ewes in RG1 were reduced from d 90 to d 120 of gestation, then enhanced from d 120 to d 140 of gestation. During the late pregnancy, with the supply of nutrition decreasing, the negatively physiological and biochemical maternal reactions to restriction became worse, which significantly reduced the average lamb birth weight and daily growth rate of fetus in RG2 (P<0.05) and RG1 (P<0.01).

  20. Effect of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on their fetal growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on the ovine fetus growth and development. One hundred Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and mated, were divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 1, RG1), 0.33 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 2, RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group, CG) during their late pregnancy respectively. The results suggested that with the supply of exogenous energy decreasing during late pregnancy, maternal body weight and net body weight loss in RG2 and RG1 were lower than those of CG (P<0.01). The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations of ewes in RG2 and RG1 tended to be lower than those of CG (P>0.05), but the GH concentrations in RG2 and RG1 were enhanced and there was significant difference between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). The glucose concentration of ewes in RG2 and RG1 was decreased throughout the feed restriction period, and the differences were observed between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). In addition, the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total amino acid (TAA) concentrations of ewes in RG2 tended to increase, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the NEFA and FAA concentrations of ewes in RG1 were reduced from d 90 to d 120 of gestation, then enhanced from d 120 to d 140 of gestation. During the late pregnancy, with the supply of nutrition decreasing, the negatively physiological and biochemical maternal reactions to restriction became worse, which significantly reduced the average lamb birth weight and daily growth rate of fetus in RG2 (P<0.05) and RG1 (P<0.01).

  1. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were ...

  2. Effects of Root Penetration Restriction on Growth and Mn Nutrition of Different Winter Wheat Genotypes in Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shi-hua; ZENG Xiang-zhong; LIU Xue-jun; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2002-01-01

    Effects of root penetration restriction on the growth and Mn nutrition of different wheat genotypes were studied in paddy soils using a method of nylon net bags (400 mesh) buried in the soil. The results showed that the spatial distribution of Mn in paddy soils played an important role in the growth and Mn nutrition of wheat crops. In the treatment where wheat roots were restricted in the plough layer by nylon net bags,the symptoms of Mn deficiency in wheat occurred much earlier and more seriously than usual. Of the two tested wheat genotypes, 80-8 was tolerant to Mn deficiency while 3295 was sensitive to Mn deficiency, respectively. The restriction of root penetration intensified symptoms of Mn deficiency of the Mn-deficient sensitive genotype (3295). The experiment demonstrated that well-developed roots with a strong ability to penetrate into the Mn-rich deep soil layer might explain the better tolerance of Mn deficiency in the tolerant genotypes.

  3. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  4. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Ramirez-Aquino; Irena Radovanovic; Anny Fortin; Edda Sciutto-Conde; Gladis Fragoso-González; Philippe Gros; Irma Aguilar-Delfin

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, wit...

  5. The microRNA bantam regulates a developmental transition in epithelial cells that restricts sensory dendrite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Soba, Peter; Parker, Edward; Kim, Charles C; Parrish, Jay Z

    2014-07-01

    As animals grow, many early born structures grow by cell expansion rather than cell addition; thus growth of distinct structures must be coordinated to maintain proportionality. This phenomenon is particularly widespread in the nervous system, with dendrite arbors of many neurons expanding in concert with their substrate to sustain connectivity and maintain receptive field coverage as animals grow. After rapidly growing to establish body wall coverage, dendrites of Drosophila class IV dendrite arborization (C4da) neurons grow synchronously with their substrate, the body wall epithelium, providing a system to study how proportionality is maintained during animal growth. Here, we show that the microRNA bantam (ban) ensures coordinated growth of C4da dendrites and the epithelium through regulation of epithelial endoreplication, a modified cell cycle that entails genome amplification without cell division. In Drosophila larvae, epithelial endoreplication leads to progressive changes in dendrite-extracellular matrix (ECM) and dendrite-epithelium contacts, coupling dendrite/substrate expansion and restricting dendrite growth beyond established boundaries. Moreover, changes in epithelial expression of cell adhesion molecules, including the beta-integrin myospheroid (mys), accompany this developmental transition. Finally, endoreplication and the accompanying changes in epithelial mys expression are required to constrain late-stage dendrite growth and structural plasticity. Hence, modulating epithelium-ECM attachment probably influences substrate permissivity for dendrite growth and contributes to the dendrite-substrate coupling that ensures proportional expansion of the two cell types.

  6. Measurement of Second-trimester Placental Volume by Ultrasound: Prediction of Fetal Intrauterine Growth%超声测量中孕期胎盘容积预测胎儿发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧芳; 李慰玑; 黄幼珍; 王新房

    1993-01-01

    本文对中孕期胎盘容积的增长和胎盘循环进行了纵向性监测,发现中孕期胎盘容积增长较快,且有二个加速期,即15~17孕周,19~21孕周.胎盘容积发育不良或胎盘循环功能受损,均能影响胎儿宫内生长发育.中孕期胎盘发育的超声监测对预测胎儿宫内生长发育迟缓有价值,而中孕期胎儿生物学测量对胎儿宫内生长发育迟缓预测价值不大.%Placental volume includes the placental cellular mass and placental circulating blood volume.The development of placental volume was not even during pregnancy.A longitudinal ultrasonic study of placental volume and placental circulation were performed.The results were that placental vol-nme developed rapidly during second-trimester and has two quickened phases at 15~17 weeks and 19 ~21 weeks of gestation respectively.Both abnormal placental volume and placental circulation could in-fluence the fetal growth.The developmentof second-trimester placental volome monitored by ultra-sound Was proved to be valuable in predicting fetal intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR).Fetal biom-etry during second-trimester has little value in predicting IUGR.

  7. Impact on offspring methylation patterns of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restraint suggest common genes and pathways linked to subsequent type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Claire R; Cooper, Wendy N; Cliffe, Kerry M; Skinner, Benjamin M; Prentice, Philippa M; Nelson, LaTasha; Bauer, Julien; Ong, Ken K; Constância, Miguel; Lowe, William L; Affara, Nabeel A; Dunger, David B

    2014-11-01

    Size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and adult risk for type 2 diabetes may reflect environmental exposures during developmental plasticity and may be mediated by epigenetics. Both low birth weight (BW), as a marker of fetal growth restraint, and high birth weight (BW), especially after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), have been linked to increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes. We assessed DNA methylation patterns using a bead chip in cord blood samples from infants of mothers with GDM (group 1) and infants with prenatal growth restraint indicated by rapid postnatal catch-up growth (group 2), compared with infants with normal postnatal growth (group 3). Seventy-five CpG loci were differentially methylated in groups 1 and 2 compared with the controls (group 3), representing 72 genes, many relevant to growth and diabetes. In replication studies using similar methodology, many of these differentially methylated regions were associated with levels of maternal glucose exposure below that defined by GDM [the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study] or were identified as changes observed after randomized periconceptional nutritional supplementation in a Gambian cohort characterized by maternal deprivation. These studies provide support for the concept that similar epigenetic modifications may underpin different prenatal exposures and potentially increase long-term risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

  8. Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo

  9. Amotl1 mediates sequestration of the Hippo effector Yap1 downstream of Fat4 to restrict heart growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Chiara V.; Diguet, Nicolas; Le Garrec, Jean-François; Novotova, Marta; Resende, Tatiana P.; Pop, Sorin; Charon, Nicolas; Guillemot, Laurent; Kitasato, Lisa; Badouel, Caroline; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Trouvé, Alain; McNeill, Helen; Meilhac, Sigolène M

    2017-01-01

    Although in flies the atypical cadherin Fat is an upstream regulator of Hippo signalling, the closest mammalian homologue, Fat4, has been shown to regulate tissue polarity rather than growth. Here we show in the mouse heart that Fat4 modulates Hippo signalling to restrict growth. Fat4 mutant myocardium is thicker, with increased cardiomyocyte size and proliferation, and this is mediated by an upregulation of the transcriptional activity of Yap1, an effector of the Hippo pathway. Fat4 is not required for the canonical activation of Hippo kinases but it sequesters a partner of Yap1, Amotl1, out of the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of Amotl1 is accompanied by Yap1 to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation. We, therefore, identify Amotl1, which is not present in flies, as a mammalian intermediate for non-canonical Hippo signalling, downstream of Fat4. This work uncovers a mechanism for the restriction of heart growth at birth, a process which impedes the regenerative potential of the mammalian heart. PMID:28239148

  10. Doppler study of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery in biometrically suspected intra uterine growth restricted pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kuber

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Doppler imaging is of value for monitoring pregnancies complicated with IUGR because it can provide indirect evidence of foetal compromise and is known to improve outcome of high risk pregnancies. Doppler evaluation is complementary to all other surveillance modalities. Because the changes in umbilical, uterine and MCA strongly correlate with pregnancy outcome in growth restricted foetuses the use of foetal biometry and Doppler examination is recommended in all cases of suspected IUGR cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 403-414

  11. Studies of methods to restrict the grain growth of nanocrystalline metal oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Angari, Y

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable interest in nanocrystalline materials. This thesis is concerned with nanocrystalline oxides and the development of methods to prevent their grain growth on heating. This growth, which is evident at temperatures as low as 400 deg C, presents a serious problem in the study and applications of nanocrystalline oxides. The systems that were studied were nanocrystalline magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, cerium oxide and tin oxide. The methods of preventing grain growth included the encapsulation of the oxide in the pores of porous silica, mixing with nanocrystals of alumina and treating the surface with a silanising agent, hexamethyldisilazane. All the methods employed showed some effect on reducing the grain growth. Encapsulation in the pores of silica was effective, however it proved difficult to get large amounts of the oxides into the pores. A more efficient method of preparing large samples was the incorporation of alumina, which was achieved by a sol-gel process. An alkoxide of the targe...

  12. Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Länsberg, John-Kalle; Sveinsdóttir, Snjólaug; Garwicz, Martin; Ohlsson, Lennart; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2017-10-04

    Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by cesarean section at day 29 of gestation, cared for in closed incubators with humidified air, and gavage fed with formula. Control term pups (T) delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at day 32 of gestation were housed and fed by their lactating doe. In vivo perfusion-fixation for immunohistochemical evaluation of cerebellar proliferation, cell maturation, and apoptosis was performed at repeated time points in PT and T pups. Results show that the mean weight of the pups and circulating IGF-1 protein levels were lower in the PT group at all time points (p Preterm birth in rabbit pups is associated with lower circulating levels of IGF-1, decreased postnatal growth, and decreased cerebellar EGL proliferation and Purkinje cell maturation. The preterm rabbit pup model exhibits important characteristics of human preterm birth, and may thus be suitable for the evaluation of interventions aiming to modify growth and cerebellar development in the preterm population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Role of the placental Vitamin D receptor in modulating feto-placental growth in Fetal growth restriction and Preeclampsia-affected pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma eMurthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signalling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  14. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E J; Ngyuen, Thy P H; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation.

  15. Cord blood triglycerides are associated with IGF-I levels and contribute to the identification of growth-restricted neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifianou, Popi; Zisis, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether readily available laboratory tests may aid in the identification of growth-restricted neonates. Cord serum levels of 15 chemical analytes, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were measured in newborns ≥36 weeks gestational age (GA). Based on the number of anthropometric indices (out of four) with values ≤25th centile for GA, the babies were allocated into three groups, i.e., Group(25)0, Group(25)1 and Group(25)2 corresponding to neonates with 0, 1 and 2 or more indices, respectively, that were ≤25th centile for GA. Furthermore, two composite variables were developed: A25 (Group(25)0 and Group(25)1) and B25 (Group(25)0 and Group(25)2). The data were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney test and multiple regression analyses. Cord serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in Group(25)2 compared to Group(25)0 (p values 0.004 and 0.0009, respectively). The triglycerides almost doubled the power of the variable B25 for predicting IGF-I levels and were found to have a highly significant, negative association with the IGF-I levels (ptriglycerides. Cord serum triglycerides can assist in the identification of growth-restricted neonates. The novel finding of the association of triglycerides with IGF-I calls for further research as this can illuminate unknown aspects of the fetal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal serum ferritin as a clinical tool at 34-36 weeks' gestation for distinguishing subgroups of fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Mehmet Ozgur; Akkurt, Iltac; Altay, Metin; Coskun, Bora; Erkaya, Salim; Sezik, Mekin

    2017-02-01

    To compare maternal ferritin levels across pregnancies with fetal growth restriction including SGA and IUGR compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Three groups were enrolled: AGA, SGA (birth weight below 10th percentile for gestational age with no placental insufficiency findings), and IUGR (birth weight below 5th percentile for gestational age accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms and/or oligohydramnios). Maternal serum ferritin samples were obtained at gestational weeks 34 through 36, and delivery occurred at or beyond 36 weeks. A total of 126 pregnancies with AGA (36%), SGA (40%), and IUGR (24%) were enrolled. The mean maternal serum ferritin level was higher in the IUGR group than in the AGA group (59 μg/l versus 32.5 μg/l, p serum ferritin cutoff of 48 μg/l was found to be optimal for distinguishing between IUGR and AGA with a sensitivity of 67.7%, specificity of 92%, PPV of 84%, NPV of 82%, diagnostic accuracy of 82.7%, LR + of 8 and LR- of 0.3, respectively. Maternal serum ferritin levels differ in pregnancies with IUGR. The role of maternal serum ferritin measurements as a clinical tool for distinguishing different forms of fetal growth restriction warrants further investigation.

  17. Muscle fibre size optimisation provides flexibility for energy budgeting in calorie-restricted coho salmon transgenic for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian A; de la Serrana, Daniel Garcia; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (GH) show substantially faster growth than wild-type (WT) fish. We fed GH-transgenic salmon either to satiation (1 year; TF) or the same smaller ration of wild-type fish (2 years; TR), resulting in groups matched for body size to WT salmon. The myotomes of TF and WT fish had the same number and size distribution of muscle fibres, indicating a twofold higher rate of fibre recruitment in the GH transgenics. Unexpectedly, calorie restriction was found to decrease the rate of fibre production in transgenics, resulting in a 20% increase in average fibre size and reduced costs of ionic homeostasis. Genes for myotube formation were downregulated in TR relative to TF and WT fish. We suggest that muscle fibre size optimisation allows the reallocation of energy from maintenance to locomotion, explaining the observation that calorie-restricted transgenics grow at the same rate as WT fish whilst exhibiting markedly higher foraging activity.

  18. An RGD-restricted substrate interface is sufficient for the adhesion, growth and cartilage forming capacity of human chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vonwil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at testing whether an RGD-restricted substrate interface is sufficient for adhesion and growth of human articular chondrocytes (HAC, and whether it enhances their post expansion chondrogenic capacity. HAC/substrate interaction was restricted to RGD by modifying tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS with a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG based copolymer system that renders the surface resistant to protein adsorption while at the same time presenting the bioactive RGD-containing peptide GCRGYGRGDSPG (RGD. As compared to TCPS, HAC cultured on RGD spread faster (1.9-fold, maintained higher type II collagen mRNA expression (4.9-fold and displayed a 19% lower spreading area. On RGD, HAC attachment efficiency (66±10% and proliferation rate (0.56±0.04 doublings/day, as well as type II collagen mRNA expression in the subsequent chondrogenic differentiation phase, were similar to those of cells cultured on TCPS. In contrast, cartilaginous matrix deposition by HAC expanded on RGD was slightly but consistently higher (15% higher glycosaminoglycan-to-DNA ratio. RDG (bioinactive peptide and PEG (no peptide ligand controls yielded drastically reduced attachment efficiency (lower than 11% and proliferation (lower than 0.20 doublings/day. Collectively, these data indicate that restriction of HAC interaction with a substrate through RGD peptides is sufficient to support their adhesion, growth and maintenance of cartilage forming capacity. The concept could thus be implemented in materials for cartilage repair, whereby in situ recruited/infiltrated chondroprogenitor cells would proliferate while maintaining their ability to differentiate and generate cartilage tissue.

  19. Impairments in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced glutamate release in cultured cortical neurons derived from rats with intrauterine growth retardation: possible involvement of suppression of TrkB/phospholipase C-γ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Chiba, Shuichi; Furuta, Miyako; Izumi, Aiko; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Odaka, Haruki; Hashido, Kazuo; Adachi, Naoki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Low birth weight due to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is suggested to be a risk factor for various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. It has been reported that developmental cortical dysfunction and neurocognitive deficits are observed in individuals with IUGR, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are associated with schizophrenia and play a role in cortical development. We previously demonstrated that BDNF induced glutamate release through activation of the TrkB/phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) pathway in developing cultured cortical neurons, and that, using a rat model for IUGR caused by maternal administration of thromboxane A2, cortical levels of TrkB were significantly reduced in IUGR rats at birth. These studies prompted us to hypothesize that TrkB reduction in IUGR cortex led to impairment of BDNF-dependent glutamatergic neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that BDNF-induced glutamate release was strongly impaired in cultured IUGR cortical neurons where TrkB reduction was maintained. Impairment of BDNF-induced glutamate release in IUGR neurons was ameliorated by transfection of human TrkB (hTrkB). Although BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of TrkB and of PLC-γ was decreased in IUGR neurons, the hTrkB transfection recovered the deficits in their phosphorylation. These results suggest that TrkB reduction causes impairment of BDNF-stimulated glutamatergic function via suppression of TrkB/PLC-γ activation in IUGR cortical neurons. Our findings provide molecular insights into how IUGR links to downregulation of BDNF function in the cortex, which might be involved in the development of IUGR-related diseases such as schizophrenia.

  20. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  1. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Parraguez

    Full Text Available Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  2. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states...

  3. Phosphorus restriction prevents parathyroid gland growth. High phosphorus directly stimulates PTH secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatopolsky, E; Finch, J; Denda, M; Ritter, C; Zhong, M; Dusso, A; MacDonald, P N; Brown, A J

    1996-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus (P) restriction is known to ameliorate secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal failure patients. In early renal failure, this effect may be mediated by an increase in 1,25-(OH)2D3, whereas in advanced renal failure, P restriction can act independent of changes in 1,25-(OH)2D3 and serum ionized calcium (ICa). In this study, we examined the effects of dietary P on serum PTH, PTH mRNA, and parathyroid gland (PTG) hyperplasia in uremic rats. Normal and uremic rats were maintained on a low (0.2%) or high (0.8%) P diet for 2 mo. PTG weight and serum PTH were similar in both groups of normal rats and in uremic rats fed the 0.2% P diet. In contrast, there were significant increases in serum PTH (130 +/- 25 vs. 35 +/- 3.5 pg/ml, P < 0.01), PTG weight (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.06 microg/gram of body weight, P < 0.01), and PTG DNA (1.63 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.07 microg DNA/gland, P < 0.01) in the uremic rats fed the 0.8% P diet as compared with uremic rats fed the 0.2% P diet. Serum ICa and 1,25-(OH)2D3 were not altered over this range of dietary P, suggesting a direct effect of P on PTG function. We tested this possibility in organ cultures of rat PTGs. While PTH secretion was acutely (30 min) regulated by medium calcium, the effects of medium P were not evident until 3 h. During a 6-h incubation, PTH accumulation was significantly greater in the 2.8 mM P medium than in the 0.2 mM P medium (1,706 +/- 215 vs. 1,033 +/- 209 pg/microg DNA, P < 0.02); the medium ICa was 1.25 mM in both conditions. Medium P did not alter PTH mRNA in this system, but cycloheximide (10 microg/ml) abolished the effect of P on PTH secretion. Thus, the effect of P is posttranscriptional, affecting PTH at a translational or posttranslational step. Collectively, these in vivo and in vitro results demonstrate a direct action of P on PTG function that is independent of ICa and 1,25-(OH)2D3. PMID:8647946

  4. Intrauterine growth characteristics of twins and those twins discordant birthweight%双胎及出生体质量不同一性双胎胎儿宫内生长发育的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振艳; 方群; 罗艳敏; 侯红瑛; 陈敏玲; 何志明; 宋花蕾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intrauterine growth characteristics of twins and birthweight discordant twins (discordant twins ).Methods Total of 1010 twin pregnancies (2020 fetuses) with complete delivery records from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,the First and Third Affiliated Hospital of SUN Yat-sen University between January 1,2000 and July 31,2010 were studied retrospectively.One handred and ninteen cases (238 fetuses) with intrapair birthweight difference ≥25% were determined as the discordant twins group,and the other 891 cases (1782 fetuses) with intrapair birthweight difference < 25% were identified as the concordant twins group.The singleton control group included 4042 singleton pregnancies in the same period.Results ( 1 ) Comparison of clinical data between the twins groups:the birthweight of larger-twin,smaller-twin and intrapair birthweight difference in the discordant twins group and the concordant twins group were ( 2090± 827 ) g,( 1392 ± 592 ) g,( 33.9 ±9.3 ) %,and ( 2408 ± 543 ) g,( 2191 ± 505 ) g,( 8.9 ± 6.5 ) %,respectively,with significant differences (P<0.01).The incidence of discordant twins was 11.78% (119/1010).Compared with the concordant twins group,the discordant twins group bad higher proportion of monochorionic twins,and higher prevalence of pregnancy complications such as late miscarriage,abnormal umbilical insertion,twin-twin transfusion syndrome and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ( P < 0.05 ).( 2 ) The characteristics of twin birthweight distribution:① In all the 2020 twins,80.05% (1617/2020) fetuses had birthweight below the 50th percentile of the singleton control group,while 23.71% (479/2020) feeuses got birthweight below the 10th percentile of the singleton control group.② After 19th gestational week,the 50th and 90th percentile of all twins' birthweight were lower than those of singletons.After 38th gestational week,the birthweight of singletons kept increasing and reached its

  5. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak,; Choudhari, Fazal UR Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause ...

  6. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  7. Plant-mediated gene silencing restricts growth of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sultana N; Åsman, Anna K M; Corcoran, Pádraic; Fogelqvist, Johan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete that causes severe damage to potato, and is well known for its ability to evolve rapidly in order to overcome resistant potato varieties. An RNA silencing strategy was evaluated here to clarify if small interfering RNA homologous to selected genes in P. infestans could be targeted from the plant host to reduce the magnitude of the infection. As a proof-of-concept, a hairpin RNA (hp-RNA) construct using the GFP marker gene was designed and introduced in potato. At 72 hpi, a 55-fold reduction of the signal intensity of a corresponding GFP expressing P. infestans strain on leaf samples of transgenic plants, compared with wild-type potato, was detected. This suggests that an RNA interference construct in the potato host could be processed and target a transcript of the pathogen. Three genes important in the infection process of P. infestans, PiGPB1, PiCESA2, and PiPEC, together with PiGAPDH taking part in basic cell maintenance were subsequently tested using an analogous transgenic strategy. Out of these gene candidates, the hp-PiGPB1 targeting the G protein β-subunit (PiGPB1) important for pathogenicity resulted in most restricted disease progress. Further, Illumina sequencing of inoculated transgenic potato leaves revealed sRNAs of 24/25 nt size homologous to the PiGPB1 gene in the transgenic plants indicating post-transcriptional silencing of the target gene. The work demonstrates that a host-induced gene-silencing approach is functional against P. infestans but is highly dependent on target gene for a successful outcome. This finding broadens the arsenal of control strategies to this important plant disease.

  8. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yibo; Yang, Yunxia; Cai, Fasheng

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0 29.0°C for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  9. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O.Niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CUI Yibo; YANG Yunxia; CAI Fasheng

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0-29.0℃ for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  10. A hypomorphic Cbx3 allele causes prenatal growth restriction and perinatal energy homeostasis defects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ebru Aydin; Dick-Paul Kloos; Emmanuel Gay; Willem Jonker; Lijuan Hu; Jörn Bullwinkel; Jeremy P Brown; Maria Manukyan; Martin Giera; Prim B Singh; Reinald Fundele

    2015-06-01

    Mammals have three HP1 protein isotypes HP1 (CBX1), HP1 (CBX3) and HP1 (CBX5) that are encoded by the corresponding genes Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5. Recent work has shown that reduction of CBX3 protein in homozygotes for a hypomorphic allele (Cbx3hypo) causes a severe postnatal mortality with around 99% of the homozygotes dying before weaning. It is not known what the causes of the postnatal mortality are. Here we show that Cbx3hypo/hypo conceptuses are significantly reduced in size and the placentas exhibit a haplo-insufficiency. Late gestation Cbx3hypo/hypo placentas have reduced mRNA transcripts for genes involved in growth regulation, amino acid and glucose transport. Blood vessels within the Cbx3hypo/hypo placental labyrinth are narrower than wild-type. Newborn Cbx3hypo/hypo pups are hypoglycemic, the livers are depleted of glycogen reserves and there is almost complete loss of stored lipid in brown adipose tissue (BAT). There is a 10-fold reduction in expression of the BAT-specific Ucp1 gene, whose product is responsible for non-shivering themogenesis. We suggest that it is the small size of the Cbx3hypo/hypo neonates, a likely consequence of placental growth and transport defects, combined with a possible inability to thermoregulate that causes the severe postnatal mortality.

  11. Infection risk and intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisca; López-Arregui, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    For most women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are a safe option. Upper genital tract infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) occur when pathogenic microorganisms ascend from the cervix and invade the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, causing an inflammatory reaction. Evidence-based recommendations regarding intrauterine contraception and risk of infection were presented at the Congress of the European Society of Contraception, in Prague, 2008: A clinical history (including sexual history) should be taken as part of the routine assessment for intrauterine contraception to identify women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI); if appropriate a test should be offered; if symptoms or signs are present, appropriate diagnostic tests should be done, results awaited, necessary treatment completed, and IUCD insertion postponed until resolution. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended (evidence level II-3). STI screening is not routinely recommended. PID among IUCD users is most strongly related to the insertion process and to the background risk of STI (evidence level II-2). Conditions which represent an unacceptable health risk if an IUCD is inserted (WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria, MEC, Categories 3-4) are current PID, current purulent cervicitis, chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. For continuation as well as initiation, WHO MEC categories 3-4 are allotted to women with known pelvic tuberculosis, puerperal sepsis and septic abortion.

  12. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional Doppler assessment of fetal growth restriction with different severity and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Barnea, Ofer; Shalev, Josef; Barkat, Jonathan; Kovo, Michal; Golan, Abraham; Bar, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the role of three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal growth-restriction (FGR) with various degrees of severity and onset, and compare the results with the analysis of two-dimensional (2D) Doppler. Vascular indices extracted from 3D Doppler measurements of the placenta were compared with indices of flow-velocity waveforms extracted from 2D Doppler measurements of the major sites of the fetal circulation between FGR (study group) and uncomplicated pregnancies (control group) from 25 to 38 weeks' gestation. Three-dimensional indices were significantly lower in pregnancies complicated by FGR compared with uncomplicated pregnancies. When measured in placental periphery, vascularization index was 9.4 ± 9.6 in FGR pregnancies compared with 16 ± 14.7, P = 0.04. Flow index was 33.9 ± 6.9 compared with 38.7 ± 4.9, P = 0.03 and the vascularization-flow index was 3.8 ± 4.3 compared with 6.5 ± 6, respectively, P = 0.03. Among the conventional 2D indices, umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices were not significantly different between the FGR and control groups. Higher rate of maternal or fetal compartment vascular lesions were detected in the FGR group. Three-dimensional Doppler was found to be more strongly associated with placental vascular compromise than conventional 2D Doppler, regardless of severity and onset of fetal growth restriction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. 高原地区胎盘VEGF在胎儿生长受限和巨大儿中的表达及意义%Expression of plateau area placenta vascular endothelial growth factor iIn fetal growth restriction And Great children and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉芬

    2012-01-01

    目的 血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)是一种对血管内皮细胞有特异高效的促有丝分裂因子,通过检测血管内皮生长因子在胎盘母面和子面的水平,探索胎儿生长受限和巨大儿的发病因素和发生的机制.方法 随机选择2010年1月至2011年2月在青海省妇女儿童医院足月分娩的足月小样儿(体重<2 500g的新生儿)50例产妇为宫内发育受限组,选择同期分娩体重≥4 000g新生儿50例产妇为巨大儿组;采用免疫组化链霉菌抗生物素蛋白-过氧化酶连接法(SP法)检测巨大儿(对照组)和胎儿生长受限患者(IUGR组)胎盘组织中VEGF的表达;巨大儿和IUGR组均为初产妇,两组孕妇年龄、孕周及体质量差异无显著性.结果 胎儿生长受限患者胎盘组织中VEGF阳性表达率低于巨大儿组,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IUGR患者胎盘VEGF水平下降,可能是胎儿生长受限发病机理中的一个重要因素.%Objective Vascular endothelial growth factor is a vascular endothelial cell - specific and efficient mitogenic factor,by vascular endothelial growth factor in placenta parent surface and sub - surface level,to explore fetal growth restriction and a huge childrens risk factors and the mechanisms. Methods Randomly selected from January 2010 to February 2011 in our hospital term delivery of full - term small for gestational age ( body weight < 2500g neonates ) 50 cases of maternal intrauterine growth restriction group,select the new year birth weight ≥4000g children 50 cases of maternal child for the great group; Immunohistochemical streptavidin - biotin - peroxidase method (SP method) to detect a huge children ( control group) and patients with fetal growth restriction (IUGR group) placental tissue VEGF expression; Great children and the IUGR group were primipara,two groups of maternal age,gestational age and body mass difference was not statistically significant. Results Fetal growth restriction in placental

  14. Food restriction in young Japanese quails: effects on growth, metabolism, plasma thyroid hormones and mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Mortensen, Anne S; Moe, Børge; Chastel, Olivier; Arukwe, Augustine; Bech, Claus

    2009-10-01

    Young birds, in their post-natal growth period, may reduce their growth and metabolism when facing a food shortage. To examine how such responses can be mediated by endocrine-related factors, we exposed Japanese quail chicks to food restriction for either 2 days (age 6-8 days) or 5 days (age 6-11 days). We then measured growth and resting metabolic rate (RMR), and circulating 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4) levels as well as expression patterns of genes involved in growth (insulin-like growth factor-I: IGF-I) and thyroid hormone signalling (thyroid-stimulating hormone-beta: TSHbeta, type II iodothyronine deiodinase: D2, thyroid hormone receptors isoforms: TRalpha and TRbeta). The food-restricted chicks receiving a weight-maintenance diet showed reductions in structural growth and RMR. Plasma levels of both T3 and T4 were reduced in the food-restricted birds, and within the 5 days food-restricted group there was a positive correlation between RMR and T3. IGF-I mRNA showed significantly higher abundance in the liver of ad libitum fed birds at day 8 compared with food-restricted birds. In the brain, TSHbeta mRNA level tended to be lower in food-restricted quails on day 8 compared with controls. Furthermore, TRalpha expression was lower in the brain of food-restricted birds at day 8 compared with birds fed ad libitum. Interestingly, brain D2 mRNA was negatively correlated with plasma T3 levels, tending to increase with the length of food restriction. Overall, our results show that food restriction produced significant effects on circulating thyroid hormones and differentially affected mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway. Thus, we conclude that the effects of food restriction observed on growth and metabolism were partly mediated by changes in the endocrine-related factors investigated.

  15. The effect of intra-uterine breech position on postnatal motor functions of the lower limbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Prechtl, H F; Sonder, G H; Touwen, B C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intra-uterine movement restriction on the development of motor functions was studied longitudinally by comparing infants born after uncomplicated breech position (n = 13) with control infants (vertex position, n = 5-10). Before birth, fetal leg posture was studied at regular intervals

  16. THE EFFECT OF INTRAUTERINE BREECH POSITION ON POSTNATAL MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LOWER-LIMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, DA; PRECHTL, HFR; SONDER, GHA; TOUWEN, BCL

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intra-uterine movement restriction on the development of motor functions was studied longitudinally by comparing infants born after uncomplicated breech position (n = 13) with control infants (vertex position, n = 5-10). Before birth, fetal leg posture was studied at regular intervals

  17. Glutamine synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardito, Saverio; Oudin, Anaïs; Ahmed, Shafiq U; Fack, Fred; Keunen, Olivier; Zheng, Liang; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Øystein; Weinstock, Adam; Wagner, Allon; Lindsay, Susan L; Hock, Andreas K; Barnett, Susan C; Ruppin, Eytan; Mørkve, Svein Harald; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Chalmers, Anthony J; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-12-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) functions physiologically to balance the carbon and nitrogen requirements of tissues. It has been proposed that in cancer cells undergoing aerobic glycolysis, accelerated anabolism is sustained by Gln-derived carbons, which replenish the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). However, it is shown here that in glioblastoma (GBM) cells, almost half of the Gln-derived glutamate (Glu) is secreted and does not enter the TCA cycle, and that inhibiting glutaminolysis does not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, Gln-starved cells are not rescued by TCA cycle replenishment. Instead, the conversion of Glu to Gln by glutamine synthetase (GS; cataplerosis) confers Gln prototrophy, and fuels de novo purine biosynthesis. In both orthotopic GBM models and in patients, (13)C-glucose tracing showed that GS produces Gln from TCA-cycle-derived carbons. Finally, the Gln required for the growth of GBM tumours is contributed only marginally by the circulation, and is mainly either autonomously synthesized by GS-positive glioma cells, or supplied by astrocytes.

  18. Lack of effective anti-apoptotic activities restricts growth of Parachlamydiaceae in insect cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The fundamental role of programmed cell death in host defense is highlighted by the multitude of anti-apoptotic strategies evolved by various microbes, including the well-known obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia (Chlamydophila pneumoniae. As inhibition of apoptosis is assumed to be essential for a successful infection of humans by these chlamydiae, we analyzed the anti-apoptotic capacity of close relatives that occur as symbionts of amoebae and might represent emerging pathogens. While Simkania negevensis was able to efficiently replicate within insect cells, which served as model for metazoan-derived host cells, the Parachlamydiaceae (Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Protochlamydia amoebophila displayed limited intracellular growth, yet these bacteria induced typical features of apoptotic cell death, including formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and effector caspase activity. Induction of apoptosis was dependent on bacterial activity, but not bacterial de novo protein synthesis, and was detectable already at very early stages of infection. Experimental inhibition of host cell death greatly enhanced parachlamydial replication, suggesting that lack of potent anti-apoptotic activities in Parachlamydiaceae may represent an important factor compromising their ability to successfully infect non-protozoan hosts. These findings highlight the importance of the evolution of anti-apoptotic traits for the success of chlamydiae as pathogens of humans and animals.

  19. RNAseq analysis of fast skeletal muscle in restriction-fed transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): an experimental model uncoupling the growth hormone and nutritional signals regulating growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Devlin, Robert H; Johnston, Ian A

    2015-07-31

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (Gh) express Gh in multiple tissues which results in increased appetite and continuous high growth with satiation feeding. Restricting Gh-transgenics to the same lower ration (TR) as wild-type fish (WT) results in similar growth, but with the recruitment of fewer, larger diameter, muscle skeletal fibres to reach a given body size. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms behind these different patterns of muscle growth and to investigate how the decoupling of Gh and nutritional signals affects gene regulation we used RNA-seq to compare the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome in TR and WT coho salmon. Illumina sequencing of individually barcoded libraries from 6 WT and 6 TR coho salmon yielded 704,550,985 paired end reads which were used to construct 323,115 contigs containing 19,093 unique genes of which >10,000 contained >90 % of the coding sequence. Transcripts coding for 31 genes required for myoblast fusion were identified with 22 significantly downregulated in TR relative to WT fish, including 10 (vaspa, cdh15, graf1, crk, crkl, dock1, trio, plekho1a, cdc42a and dock5) associated with signaling through the cell surface protein cadherin. Nineteen out of 44 (43 %) translation initiation factors and 14 of 47 (30 %) protein chaperones were upregulated in TR relative to WT fish. TR coho salmon showed increased growth hormone transcripts and gene expression associated with protein synthesis and folding than WT fish even though net rates of protein accretion were similar. The uncoupling of Gh and amino acid signals likely results in additional costs of transcription associated with protein turnover in TR fish. The predicted reduction in the ionic costs of homeostasis in TR fish associated with increased fibre size were shown to involve multiple pathways regulating myotube fusion, particularly cadherin signaling.

  20. Use of translational medicine in the early diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation%转化医学用于外源物所致宫内发育迟缓的临床早期诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩松; 汪晖

    2011-01-01

    转化医学是一种医学研究理念,它强调打破以往研究组单一学科或有限合作的模式.加强基础研究人员与临床医生的密切合作,进而填平基础研究与临床医学之间的鸿沟.要达到转化医学的目标,需借助系统生物学的理论与方法.本文着重探讨如何运用转化医学的研究理念和系统生物学的研究方法,开展外源物所致富内发育迟缓(IUGR)的临床早期诊断研究,包括提出IUGR发牛的共性机制假说,利用系列组学(如基因组学、蛋白质组学、细胞组学、代谢组学)和分子生物学技术开展验证性研究,代谢组学方法探寻IUGR生物标志物,生物信息学及计算生物学方法构建IUGR预测模型等,以建立一种新的、无创性的、高敏感性的IUGR早期评价标准.%Translational medicine is an emerging idea in current medical research area. Typically, for the purpose of bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, it not only emphasizes the urgency and necessity to break the traditional working formats, including single subject centered research team and limited cooperation among different scientific groups, but also highlights a more close and frequent interaction between basic scientist and clinician. In order to reach this goal, the theory and method of systems biology should be employed. This paper mainly focused on a central issue that how to carry out an investigation on early clinical diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using research concept of translational medicine and method of systems biology. Briefly, a hypothesis of common mechanism of IUGR was first proposed and subsequent validation was performed via integrating - omics (e.g. genomics, proteomics, cytomics, metabonomics/metabolomics) and molecular biology techniques. Metabonomics was further utilized to explore IUGR biomarker and establish preliminary forecasting model by bioinformatics and computational biology

  1. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Salazar García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs and 20 control rats (CRs were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21 and newborn (NB pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC. In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.

  2. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells. PMID:25756053

  3. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis of test accuracy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Stephen C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate, exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. Discussion The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  4. Prenatal testosterone-induced fetal growth restriction is associated with down-regulation of rat placental amino acid transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Gary DV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies. We examined whether maternal testosterone crosses the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth or if it modifies placental function to reduce the capacity for transport of nutrients to the fetus. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to testosterone propionate (TP; 0.5 mg/kg by daily subcutaneous injection from gestational days (GD 15-19. Maternal and fetal testosterone levels, placental nutrient transport activity and expression of transporters and birth weight of pups and their anogenital distances were determined. Results This dose of TP doubled maternal testosterone levels but had no effect on fetal testosterone levels. Maternal daily weight gain was significantly lower only on GD 19 in TP treated dams compared to controls. Placental weight and birth weight of pups were significantly reduced, but the anogenital distance of pups were unaffected by TP treatment. Maternal plasma amino acids concentrations were altered following testosterone exposure, with decreases in glutamine, glycine, tyrosine, serine, proline, and hydroxyproline and increases in asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine and arginine. In the TP dams, placental system A amino acid transport activity was significantly reduced while placental glucose transport capacity was unaffected. Decreased expression of mRNA and protein levels of slc38a2/Snat2, an amino acid transporter, suggests that reduced transporter proteins may be responsible for the decrease in amino acid transport activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that increased maternal testosterone concentrations do not cross the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth but affects amino acid nutrient delivery to the fetus by downregulating specific amino acid transporter activity.

  5. Identification of human leukemia antigen A*0201-restricted epitopes derived from epidermal growth factor pathway substrate number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baishan; Zhou, Weijun; Du, Jingwen; He, Yanjie; Li, Yuhua

    2015-08-01

    T-cell-mediated immunotherapy of hematological malignancies requires selection of targeted tumor-associated antigens and T-cell epitopes contained in these tumor proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), whose function is pivotal for tumor proliferation, progression and metastasis, has been found to be overexpressed in most human tumor types, while its expression in normal tissue is low. The aim of the present study was to identify human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted epitopes of EPS8 by using a reverse immunology approach. To achieve this, computer algorithms were used to predict HLA-A*0201 molecular binding, proteasome cleavage patterns as well as translocation of transporters associated with antigen processing. Candidate peptides were experimentally validated by T2 binding affinity assay and brefeldin-A decay assay. The functional avidity of peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay and a cytotoxicity assay. Four peptides, designated as P455, P92, P276 and P360, had high affinity and stability of binding towards the HLA-A*0201 molecule, and specific CTLs induced by them significantly responded to the corresponding peptides and secreted IFN-γ. At the same time, the CTLs were able to specifically lyse EPS8-expressing cell lines in an HLA-A*0201-restricted manner. The present study demonstrated that P455, P92, P276 and P360 were CTL epitopes of EPS8, and were able to be used for epitope-defined adoptive T-cell transfer and multi-epitope-based vaccine design.

  6. Efficacy of intrauterine device in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA.