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Sample records for intraosseous access route

  1. Intraosseous (IO) route

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    Fluid, blood, antibiotics, glucose, diazepam, and furosemide were given successfully with resultant effect ... whom intra-vascular access failed and as an alternative. Introduction .... transfusion was carried out by conventional gravity with clinical ...

  2. Complication with intraosseous access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%), and bended/broken needle (4.0%). When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%), slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag) (8.8%), displacement after insertion (8...

  3. Intraosseous access in the military operational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, J; Horne, S; Smith, J E

    2014-01-01

    In an operational military environment, circulatory access can prove difficult for a variety of reasons including profound hypovolaemia, and limited first responder experience. With many injuries that cause catastrophic haemorrhage, such as traumatic limb amputations, circulatory access is needed as quickly as possible. Since 2006, the Defence Medical Services have been using the EZ-IO and FAST1 devices as a means of obtaining circulatory access. A prospective observational study was conducted between March and July 2011 at the Emergency Department, Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. All patients with an intraosseous device had data recorded that included if the device successfully flushed (functionality) and if any problems were encountered. 117 patients presented with a total of 195 devices: 149 were EZ-IO (76%) and 46 were FAST1 (24%). Functionality was recorded for 111 (57%), with 17 failing to function, yielding an overall success rate of 84.7%. Device failure was observed to be more prevalent in the humerus; inability to flush the device was the leading cause, followed by mechanical failure. There were 2 complications, device breaking on removal being the reason for both. The devices in the study were tested for a period of time following insertion (median 32 minutes), and still the success rates mirror those found in the literature. Observed differences between sites were not found to be significant with confidence intervals overlapping. Further work is proposed to investigate the long-term complications of intraosseous devices.

  4. Complication with Intraosseous Access: Scandinavian Users’ Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Intraosseous access (IO) is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real-life emergency situations might differ from the results in the controlled environment of model studies and small patient series. We performed a survey of IO use in real-life emergency situations to assess users’ experiences of complications. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to Scandinavian emergency physicians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians. Results: 1,802 clinical cases of IO use was reported by n=386 responders. Commonly reported complications with establishing IO access were patient discomfort/pain (7.1%), difficulties with penetration of periosteum with IO needle (10.3%), difficulties with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%), and bended/broken needle (4.0%). When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%), slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag) (8.8%), displacement after insertion (8.5%), and extravasation (3.7%). Compartment syndrome and osteomyelitis occurred in 0.6% and 0.4% of cases respectively. Conclusion: In users’ recollection of real-life IO use, perceived complications were more frequent than usually reported from model studies. The perceived difficulties with using IO could affect the willingness of medical staff to use IO. Therefore, user experience should be addressed both in education of how to use, and research and development of IOs. PMID:24106537

  5. Complication with Intraosseous Access: Scandinavian Users' Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraosseous access (IO is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real-life emergency situations might differ from the results in the controlled environment of model studies and small patient series. We performed a survey of IO use in real-life emergency situations to assess users’ experiences of complications.Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to Scandinavian emergency physicians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians.Results: 1,802 clinical cases of IO use was reported by n=386 responders. Commonly reported complications with establishing IO access were patient discomfort/pain (7.1%, difficulties with penetration of periosteum with IO needle (10.3%, difficulties with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%, and bended/broken needle (4.0%. When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%, slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag (8.8%, displacement after insertion (8.5%, and extravasation (3.7%. Compartment syndrome and osteomyelitis occurred in 0.6% and 0.4% of cases respectively.Conclusion: In users’ recollection of real-life IO use, perceived complications were more frequent than usually reported from model studies. The perceived difficulties with using IO could affect the willingness of medical staff to use IO. Therefore, user experience should be addressed both in education of how to use, and research and development of IOs. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:440–443.

  6. The versatility of intraosseous vascular access in perioperative medicine: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Jonathan A; Sinz, Elizabeth H; Swick, John T

    2015-02-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a time-tested procedure that is reemerging in popularity. This is primarily a result of the emphasis on intraosseous access in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. Modern intraosseous insertion devices are easy to learn and use, suggesting the possibility of use beyond the resuscitation setting. We present a case series of recent intraosseous insertions for a variety of indications by anesthesiologists at our institution to demonstrate the potential utility of this alternative access technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blueprint for Implementing New Processes in Acute Care: Rescuing Adult Patients With Intraosseous Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D

    2015-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting.

  8. Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M

    2016-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?" Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. University-based academic research cell. Included evidence were randomized and nonrandomized trials, systematic reviews with and without meta-analysis, case series, and case reports. Excluded evidence included narrative reviews and expert opinion. Not applicable. Of 297 evidence sources located, 22 met inclusion criteria. Located evidence was organized into four categories including chemical agent poisoning, IO placement, while wearing chemical protective clothing (PPE), military trauma, and infectious disease outbreak. Evidence indicates that the IO route of infusion is pharmacokinetically equal to the IV route and superior to the intramuscular (IM) and endotracheal routes for the administration of antidotal drugs in animal models of chemical agent poisoning while wearing full chemical PPE. The IO route is superior to the IM route for antidote administration during hypovolemic shock. Civilian casualties of explosive attacks and mass shootings would likely benefit from expanded use of the IO route and military resuscitation strategies. The IO route is useful for fluid resuscitation in the management of diarrheal and hemorrhagic infectious disease outbreaks.

  9. Overview: Routes to Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure

  10. How many training modalities are needed to obtain procedural confidence in intraosseous access?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Folkestad, Lars; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Participants in advanced resuscitation courses are often expected to learn to perform intraosseous access (IO). But how many learning modalities are needed to achieve procedural confidence in IO? We distributed an online questionnaire to members of emergency medicine, paediatric and anaesthesiology...

  11. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  12. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C.

    2002-01-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  13. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Intraosseous Administration of Antidotes in the Chemical Weapons Victim - An Alternative to the Intravenous Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borron, S. W.; Arias, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Hazardous materials paradigms call for definitive treatment of chemical victims to begin in the 'warm zone' during decontamination. This delay may result in lethal outcomes, particularly in the case of multiple victims, where rescue may be delayed due to insufficient numbers of rescue teams. It is virtually impossible for rescuers in full protective gear to establish intravenous lines. In recent years, significant advances have been made in intraosseous (IO) infusion devices. An IO device developed in our institution, the EZ-IO, is very easily placed by rescuers in typical work uniforms. IO placement takes longer while in protective gear, but is feasible. The IO is equivalent to an intravenous line, allowing more rapid administration of antidotes in the event of chemical mass casualties. Antidotes not amenable to intramuscular administration and even those often given IM may be more effective given IO. IO administration has the following possible advantages over intravenous or intramuscular antidote administration: 1. Drugs administered IO reach the vascular system virtually instantaneously. 2. IO administration may be performed in protective clothing and could theoretically be employed while awaiting rescue. 3. IO administration may be preferred over intravenous administration in the warm zone. In summary, IO administration of antidotes should be further evaluated for use in chemical disasters. The ease and speed of placement, ready access to the vascular tree, and potential for earlier intervention make it a potentially ideal means of vascular access and antidotal administration in the mass casualty situation. (author)

  15. Barriers and facilitators to intraosseous access in adult resuscitations when peripheral intravenous access is not achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Cheung, Warren; Rosenberg, Hans; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Studies suggest that intraosseous (IO) access is underutilized in adult resuscitations, despite recommendations from advanced trauma and cardiac life support guidelines. The objective was to determine factors associated with IO access use by physicians during adult resuscitations when intravenous (IV) access is not immediately achievable. This study was an online survey among physicians purposefully recruited from various clinical care areas at three teaching hospitals. Questions were generated from the qualitative results of 20 iterative interviews, verified for internal validity, and piloted. The interview guide was based on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which elicits salient attitudes, social influences, and control beliefs that potentially influence intention to use IO access. Recruitment took place in September 2012 until reaching more than 100% of the required sample size (n = 200). Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha, and the effect of TPB constructs and specific beliefs were assessed with regression analyses. For the 205 respondents, the mean age was 35 years (range = 20 to 66 years), and 53.3% were male. Participants' departmental affiliations were 50.3% emergency medicine (EM), 16.9% internal medicine, 14.9% anesthesia, 10.8% general surgery, and 7.2% critical care. Residents comprised 60.7% of the sample, and 39.3% were attending physicians. Median intention to use IO access when IV is not immediately achievable was 4.67 (interquartile range [IQR] = 4 to 5) out of 5 (5 highest) and predicted by the following TPB constructs: attitudes (AdjCoefficients = 0.504; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.334 to 0.673), social influences (AdjCoefficients = 0.285; 95% CI = 0.172 to 0.398), and control beliefs (AdjCoefficients 0.217; 95% CI = 0.113 to 0.320). Physicians were more likely to use IO access if they believed that it provided rapid vascular access for delivering large volumes of fluids, could prevent delays in

  16. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  17. Semi-elective intraosseous infusion after failed intravenous access in pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego; Weiss, Markus; Engelhardt, Thomas; Henze, Georg; Giest, Judith; Strauss, Jochen; Eich, Christoph

    2010-02-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion is a well-established intervention to obtain vascular access in pediatric emergency medicine but is rarely used in routine pediatric anesthesia. In this observational study, we report on a series of 14 children in whom semi-elective IO infusion was performed under inhalational anesthesia after peripheral intravenous (IV) access had failed. Patient and case characteristics, technical details, and estimated timings of IO infusion as well as associated complications were reviewed. Data are median and range. IO infusion was successfully established in fourteen children [age: 0.1-6.00 years (median 0.72 years); weight: 3.5-12.0 kg (median 7.0 kg)]. The majority suffered from chronic cardiac, metabolic, or dysmorphic abnormalities. Estimated time taken from inhalational induction of anesthesia until insertion of an intraosseous needle was 26.5 min (15-65 min). The proximal tibia was cannulated in all patients. The automated EZIO IO system was used in eight patients and the manual COOK system in six patients. Drugs administered included hypnotics, opioids, neuromuscular blocking agents and reversals, cardiovascular drugs, antibiotics, and IV fluids. The IO cannulas were removed either in the operating theatre (n = 5), in the recovery room (n = 5), or in the ward (n = 4), after 73 min (19-225 min) in situ. There were no significant complications except one accidental postoperative dislocation. IO access represents a quick and reliable alternative for pediatric patients with prolonged difficult or failed IV access after inhalational induction of anesthesia.

  18. Salvage intraosseous thrombolysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Cameron Northey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous access is an alternative route of pharmacotherapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO provides cardiac and respiratory support when conventional therapies fail. This case reports the use of intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO in a patient with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE. A 34-year-old female presented to the emergency department with sudden onset severe shortness of breath. Due to difficulty establishing intravenous access, an intraosseous needle was inserted into the left tibia. Echocardiography identified severe right ventricular dilatation with global systolic impairment and failure, indicative of PE. Due to the patient′s hemodynamic compromise a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase bolus was administered through the intraosseous route. After transfer to the intensive care unit, venous-arterial ECMO was initiated as further therapy. The patient recovered and was discharged 36 days after admission. This is the first report of combination intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO as salvage therapy for massive PE.

  19. A randomized trial comparing two intraosseous access devices in intrahospital healthcare providers with a focus on retention of knowledge, skill, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, H J G M; Gerritse, B M; Gans, R; van der Meer, N J M

    2014-10-01

    Intraosseous access is recommended in vitally compromised patients if an intravenous access cannot be easily obtained. Intraosseous infusion can be initiated by various healthcare providers. Currently, there are two mechanical intraosseous devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults and children. A comparison is made in this study of the theoretical and practical performance by anesthesiologists and registered nurses of anesthesia (RNAs) in the use of the battery-powered device (device A) versus the spring-loaded needle device (device B). This study entailed a 12-month follow-up of knowledge, skill retention, and self-efficacy measured by standardized testing. A prospective randomized trial was performed, initially comparing 15 anesthesiologists and 15 RNAs, both on using the two types of intraosseous devices. A structured lecture and skill station was given with the educational aids provided by the respective manufacturers. Individual knowledge and practical skills were tested at 0, 3, and 12 months after the initial course. There was no statistical significant difference in the retention of theoretical knowledge between RNAs and anesthesiologists on all testing occasions. However, the self-efficacy of the anesthesiologists is significantly higher (p intraosseous access has been disproven, as anesthesiologists were as successful as RNAs. However, the low self-efficacy of RNAs in the use of intraosseous devices could diminish the chance of them actually using one.

  20. Sternal Route More Effective than Tibial Route for Intraosseous Amiodarone Administration in a Swine Model of Ventricular Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M; Martinez, Andre; O'Sullivan, Mara; Blouin, Dawn; Long, Audrey; Johnson, Arthur D

    2018-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of IO administered lipid soluble amiodarone during ventricular fibrillation (VF) with ongoing CPR are unknown. This study measured mean plasma concentration over 5 minutes, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of amiodarone administered by the sternal IO (SIO), tibial IO (TIO), and IV routes in a swine model of VF with ongoing CPR. Twenty-one Yorkshire-cross swine were randomly assigned to three groups: SIO, TIO, and IV. Ventricular fibrillation was induced under general anesthesia. After 4 minutes in VF, 300 mg amiodarone was administered as indicated by group assignment. Serial blood specimens collected at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, and 300 seconds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The mean plasma concentration of IV amiodarone over 5 minutes was significantly higher than the TIO group at 60 seconds (P = 0.02) and 90 seconds (P = 0.017) post-injection. No significant differences in Cmax between the groups were found (P <0.05). The Tmax of amiodarone was significantly shorter in the SIO (99 secs) and IV (86 secs) groups compared to the TIO group (215 secs); P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. The SIO and IV routes of amiodarone administration were comparable. The TIO group took nearly three times longer to reach Tmax than the SIO and IV groups, likely indicating depot of lipid-soluble amiodarone in adipose-rich tibial yellow bone marrow. The SIO route was more effective than the TIO route for amiodarone delivery in a swine model of VF with ongoing CPR. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the kinetic differences found between the SIO and TIO routes in this study affect survival of VF in humans.

  1. Intraosseous meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Yakulis, R.; Maroon, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with a long history of slowly progressive proptosis was found to have an intraosseous meningioma of the right sphenoid bone. Radiologically, the lesion resembled fibrous dysplasia. The key to the diagnosis is irregularity of the inner table of the skull. The histologic appearance is characteristic. Intraosseous meningioma is one part of the spectrum of diseases known as primary extraneuraxial meningioma. In this paper we discuss the theories of cellular origin as well as the radiologic differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Intraosseous devices: A randomized controlled trial comparing three intraosseous devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); W.C. Thies (Wim); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Access to the circulation is mandatory for adequate treatment in medical emergency situations. Intraosseous (IO) infusion is a safe, fast, and effective alternative for gaining access to the circulation, if intravenous access fails. In the last decade, the IO method gained

  3. The use of intraosseous infusions in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gayatri; Tobias, Joseph D

    2008-09-01

    The use of an intraosseous (IO) infusion during the anesthetic care of an 8-month-old, 5.4-kg infant with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) is presented. Previous vascular access had resulted in thrombotic occlusion of the upper and lower venous systems. When intravenous access could not be achieved, an IO needle was placed and IO access was used during the surgical procedure. The role of the IO route in the perioperative period is discussed and its adverse effect profile is reviewed.

  4. Anesthesia through an intraosseous line using an 18-gauge intravenous needle for emergency pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Riyadh Khudeir; Hartmans, Sharon; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    To describe the success and complication rate of intraosseous (IO) access for delivery of anesthesia with the use of an 18-gauge (G) intravenous (IV) needle. Prospective study. Children's Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. 300 critically ill infants and toddlers, age 3 weeks to 16 months, requiring emergency surgery for intra-abdominal or pelvic conditions, in whom peripheral or central access was not obtainable. Patients presented for surgery between 2007 and 2010. In 26 patients, the IO catheter was established when peripheral access was not obtained at the outset of surgery; in 4 patients standard peripheral vascular access failed during the surgical procedure and IO access was obtained. An 18-G IV needle was placed into the proximal tibia and attached to an extension set with a 3-way stopcock to deliver anesthesia. For 26 critically ill children and 4 other children, IV access failed during delivery of anesthesia; vascular access was successfully obtained within minutes in all 30 infants (100%) using the intraosseous route. Ninety percent (27/30) of patients awoke immediately postoperatively in good condition; 10% (3/30) went to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further care due to their critical preoperative condition. Complications associated with use of the IO route were considered minor (3/30 pts [10%]) and included extravasation of fluid in two cases and cellulitis in one. The IO route provided for rapid delivery of anesthesia, induction, and maintenance in this series of critically ill infants undergoing emergency surgery when other vascular access routes failed. Few complications were noted. Intraosseous access was achieved through a simple technique using an 18-gauge IV needle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraosseous Urography Compared with Intravenous Urography: An Experimental Study in the Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLAM, Mutlu; UĞUREL, Şahin

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of bone injection gun assisted intraosseous administration of contrast media as an alternative to the intravenous route for urography. Intravenous urographies were obtained in 6 rabbits. Urographic examinations by the intraosseous route were performed in the same animals 48 h later. After adequate anesthesia, the retroauricular vein was punctured for intravenous injection and a bone injection gun was used for intraosseous injections to the ...

  6. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers working on finance dictionaries have not properly exploited the fast development of the Internet. This is revealed by the poor utilization of the access routes found in current Internet finance dictionaries. Consequently, users cannot effectively and efficiently find answers to their lexicographical problems. Firstly ...

  7. Intraosseous anesthesia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R

    1999-10-01

    The recent introduction of intraosseous injection devices has renewed interest in the modality of local anesthesia. Three devices currently available are the Stabident System, the Hypo Brand Intraosseous Needle, and the Cyberjet System. The Stabident System is the most popular and the only one for which published research is available. Primary intraosseous anesthesia is 45 percent to 93 percent effective but of short duration. Supplemental intraosseous anesthesia is 80 percent to 90 percent effective and provides profound anesthesia of long duration (60 minutes or longer). It is used when a prior conventional infiltration or nerve block is inadequate. During use of an anesthetic solution with a vasoconstrictor for intraosseous anesthesia, 46 percent to 100 percent of patients reported an increase in heart rate. There was a 2 percent to 27 percent incidence of moderate and sometimes severe pain during the intraosseous procedure. Postoperative complications occurred in 2 percent to 15 percent of patients and lasted one to 14 days.

  8. Intraosseous infusion of blood products and epinephrine in an adult patient in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M

    2009-10-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented in the postanesthesia care unit with hematemesis following replacement of a jejunostomy tube. Her medical history included recurrent stage IIIC ovarian cancer. The patient rapidly decompensated despite blood products administered through the patient's implanted medication port. The anesthesia service was consulted for resuscitative support. Examination revealed an alert, hypotensive elderly female in hemorrhagic shock. While peripheral intravenous (IV) access was sought, her condition further deteriorated. Attempts at peripheral access were determined futile and central venous access would be required. An intraosseous (IO) catheter was placed in the proximal medial aspect of the left tibia using the EZ-IO device (Vidacare Corp, San Antonio, Texas). Crystalloid and colloid fluids, blood products, and drugs were administered via the IO route, stabilizing the patient's condition during the central access procedure. The IO route was used throughout the resuscitative effort. Hemostasis was achieved, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. Intraosseous infusion is a valuable and underutilized technique in managing patients in hemorrhagic shock with poor IV access. Anesthesia providers should seek education and training from those experienced in IO placement techniques and consider use of the IO route early in the resuscitative process.

  9. Sight Word Reading in Prereaders: Use of Logographic vs. Alphabetic Access Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Judith Anne; Ehri, Linnea C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates whether prereaders who knew all their letters are better at forming logographic access routes than letter-sound access routes into memory from words read by sight. Concludes that prereaders become capable of forming letter-sound access routes when they learn letters well enough to take advantage of the phonetic cues the letters…

  10. A theoretical alternative intraosseous infusion site in severely hypovolemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkhensani Mogale

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that the venous system tends to collapse during hypovolemic shock. The use of the bone marrow space for infusions is an effective alternative, with the tibial insertion site being the norm. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine a quick intraosseous infusion method that could be an alternative to the tibial route in neonates during emergency situations. Method: A sample of 30 neonatal cadavers was dissected to explore a possible alternative to the tibial insertion site. The needle was inserted in the superolateral aspect of the humerus. The needle infusion site was then dissected to determine possible muscular and neurovascular damage that might occur during the administration of this procedure, with the greatest concern being the posterior circumflex humeral artery and axillary nerve exiting the quadrangular space. The distance of the needle insertion site was measured in relation to the soft tissue aswell as to bony landmarks. Results: The calculated 95% confidence interval shows that the needle can be safely inserted into the intraosseous tissue at the greater tubercle of the humerus 9.5 mm – 11.1 mm from the acromion. This is about a little finger’s width from the acromioclavicular joint. Conclusion: Anatomically, the described site is suggested to offer a safe alternative access point for emergency infusion in severely hypovolemic newborns and infants, without the risk of damage to any anatomical structures.

  11. Onset and Duration of Intravenous and Intraosseous Rocuronium in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loughren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The intraosseous (IO route has become a popular method to gain access to the peripheral circulation in emergency situations. Despite little supporting data, it is generally believed that IO absorption is immediate and equivalent to the intravenous (IV route. It is important to determine if rocuronium can effectively be administered by the IO route. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the onset and duration of rocuronium when administered via the IO and IV routes in a normovolemic pig model. Methods: We recorded electromyographic (EMG data following tibial IO and peripheral IV administration of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg in 10 swine weighing between 56 and 71 Kg. We transformed data were transformed to percent of baseline, determined onset and recovery characteristics. Results: The onset EMG-time profiles for IO and IV administration were very similar: tibial IO compared to IV administration did not statistically alter the onset of paralysis. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 50 (p=0.042, 75 (p=0.034 and 95 (p=0.036 percent of baseline activity. Conclusion: The duration of effect is statistically longer after IO administration but is more of an academic interest than a clinical concern. The results of this study suggest that rocuronium can effectively be administered via the IO route without the need for dose adjustments. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:241-245.

  12. Onset and Duration of Intravenous and Intraosseous Rocuronium in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughren, Michael; Banks, Sarah; Naluan, Carleo; Portenlanger, Paul; Wendorf, Arthur; Johnson, Don

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The intraosseous (IO) route has become a popular method to gain access to the peripheral circulation in emergency situations. Despite little supporting data, it is generally believed that IO absorption is immediate and equivalent to the intravenous (IV) route. It is important to determine if rocuronium can effectively be administered by the IO route. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the onset and duration of rocuronium when administered via the IO and IV routes in a normovolemic pig model. Methods We recorded electromyographic (EMG) data following tibial IO and peripheral IV administration of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg) in 10 swine weighing between 56 and 71 Kg. We transformed data were transformed to percent of baseline, determined onset and recovery characteristics. Results The onset EMG-time profiles for IO and IV administration were very similar: tibial IO compared to IV administration did not statistically alter the onset of paralysis. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 50 (p=0.042), 75 (p=0.034) and 95 (p=0.036) percent of baseline activity. Conclusion The duration of effect is statistically longer after IO administration but is more of an academic interest than a clinical concern. The results of this study suggest that rocuronium can effectively be administered via the IO route without the need for dose adjustments. PMID:24672619

  13. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it?

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Diego

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally ...

  14. Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Gerard

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

  15. Primary intraosseous meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, E.; Diaz, C.; Latorre, F.F.; Menor, F.; Revert, A.; Beltran, A.; Navarro, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical, radiological and histological findings of 14 intraosseous meningiomas. Material and Methods: 14 histologically proved intraosseous meningiomas were studied with plain skull film and CT. Pathological records were reviewed. Results: We found 9 calvarial cases and 5 spheno-orbital ones. The most common symptom in the calvarial cases was a lump in the scalp, and in the spheno-orbital lesions it was exophtalmos. Hyperostosis was present in all 5 spheno-orbital cases and in 3 out of the 9 calvarial ones; in the other 6 cases it had a mixed pattern. Enhanced dura was present in 3 calvarial cases and in 2 sphenoidal ones. Dura was involved in 5 cases: 2 with inflammatory changes, 2 with a minimal intradural tumour and one with a subdural tumour. Conclusion: CT better detected both the bony reaction and the intraosseous extension of the tumour. The dural changes were not specific of tumoural involvement. The differential diagnosis comprises: fibrous dysplasia, osteomas, blastic metastasis and mainly meningioma en plaque (MEP). Comparing our findings with other series, we noticed that in some cases the term MEP was used for similar cases. As the name MEP is merely descriptive and both entities share a larger number of similarities than differences, we believe that a differentiation between hyperostotic en plaque meningioma and intraosseous meningioma can hardly be made. (orig.)

  16. Using Motion Planning to Determine the Existence of an Accessible Route in a CAD Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoshan; Han, Charles S.; Law, Kincho H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm based on motion-planning techniques to determine the existence of an accessible route through a facility for a wheeled mobility device. The algorithm is based on LaValle's work on rapidly exploring random trees and is enhanced to take into consideration the particularities of the accessible route domain. Specifically, the…

  17. Vascular access in pediatric patients in the emergency department: types of access, indications, and complications [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rachel; Langhan, Melissa; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-06-22

    Vascular access is a potentially life-saving procedure that is a mainstay of emergency medicine practice. There are a number of challenges associated with obtaining and maintaining vascular access, and the choice of the route of access and equipment used will depend on patient- and provider-specific factors. In this issue, the indications and complications of peripheral intravenous access, intraosseous access, and central venous access are reviewed. Timely and effective assessment and management of difficult-access patients, pain control techniques that can assist vascular access, and contraindications to each type of vascular access are also discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  18. The eternal enigma in prostatic biopsy access route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabiani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1. The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors. We work at a “minor” center and we always keep in mind that the goal of  prostatic biopsy is the diagnosis and the staging of prostatic neoplasms.. However, it remains uncertain which of the two techniques, transperineal (TP or transrectal (TR, is superior in terms of detection rate during first biopsy setting. Several studies have compared the prostate cancer detection rate but TR and TP access route in prostatic gland sampling seems to be equivalent in terms of efficiency and complications, as reported by Shen PF et al. (2, despite several methodological limitations recognized in their work. The results reported by Di Franco CA et al. represent the real life experience of most urologists that perform the PB based on their own training experience and available technical devices. From an historical viewpoint, the TP route has been the first one to be used to reach the prostate, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To date, because it seems to be more invasive and difficult, the TP route is less used worldwide than the TR one (2. Theoretically, the TP approach should detect more prostate cancer than the TR way  because the cores of the TP approach are directed longitudinally to the peripheral zone and the anterior part of the prostate (4. The results reported by Di Franco et al. seems to confirm these considerations. However, our real life experience differ from the conclusions

  19. The eternal enigma in prostatic biopsy access route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Andrea; Principi, Emanuele; Filosa, Alessandra; Servi, Lucilla

    2017-10-03

    Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1). The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors. We work at a "minor" center and we always keep in mind that the goal of  prostatic biopsy is the diagnosis and the staging of prostatic neoplasms.. However, it remains uncertain which of the two techniques, transperineal (TP) or transrectal (TR), is superior in terms of detection rate during first biopsy setting. Several studies have compared the prostate cancer detection rate but TR and TP access route in prostatic gland sampling seems to be equivalent in terms of efficiency and complications, as reported by Shen PF et al. (2), despite several methodological limitations recognized in their work. The results reported by Di Franco CA et al. represent the real life experience of most urologists that perform the PB based on their own training experience and available technical devices. From an historical viewpoint, the TP route has been the first one to be used to reach the prostate, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To date, because it seems to be more invasive and difficult, the TP route is less used worldwide than the TR one (2). Theoretically, the TP approach should detect more prostate cancer than the TR way  because the cores of the TP approach are directed longitudinally to the peripheral zone and the anterior part of the prostate (4). The results reported by Di Franco et al. seems to confirm these considerations. However, our real life experience differ from the conclusions reached in their

  20. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: An online questionnaire was e-mailed to the Heads of Department...

  1. Routes to DNA accessibility: alternative pathways for nucleosome unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Daniel J; Mack, Andrew H; Kamenetska, Masha; Mochrie, Simon G J; Regan, Lynne

    2014-07-15

    The dynamic packaging of DNA into chromatin is a key determinant of eukaryotic gene regulation and epigenetic inheritance. Nucleosomes are the basic unit of chromatin, and therefore the accessible states of the nucleosome must be the starting point for mechanistic models regarding these essential processes. Although the existence of different unwound nucleosome states has been hypothesized, there have been few studies of these states. The consequences of multiple states are far reaching. These states will behave differently in all aspects, including their interactions with chromatin remodelers, histone variant exchange, and kinetic properties. Here, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct states of the unwound nucleosome, which are accessible at physiological forces and ionic strengths. Using optical tweezers, we measure the rates of unwinding and rewinding for these two states and show that the rewinding rates from each state are different. In addition, we show that the probability of unwinding into each state is dependent on the applied force and ionic strength. Our results demonstrate not only that multiple unwound states exist but that their accessibility can be differentially perturbed, suggesting possible roles for these states in gene regulation. For example, different histone variants or modifications may facilitate or suppress access to DNA by promoting unwinding into one state or the other. We anticipate that the two unwound states reported here will be the basis for future models of eukaryotic transcriptional control. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Routes to DNA Accessibility: Alternative Pathways for Nucleosome Unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Schlingman, Daniel J.; Mack, Andrew H.; Kamenetska, Masha; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Regan, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic packaging of DNA into chromatin is a key determinant of eukaryotic gene regulation and epigenetic inheritance. Nucleosomes are the basic unit of chromatin, and therefore the accessible states of the nucleosome must be the starting point for mechanistic models regarding these essential processes. Although the existence of different unwound nucleosome states has been hypothesized, there have been few studies of these states. The consequences of multiple states are far reaching. Thes...

  3. U-Access: a web-based system for routing pedestrians of differing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Adam D.; Miller, Harvey J.

    2006-09-01

    For most people, traveling through urban and built environments is straightforward. However, for people with physical disabilities, even a short trip can be difficult and perhaps impossible. This paper provides the design and implementation of a web-based system for the routing and prescriptive analysis of pedestrians with different physical abilities within built environments. U-Access, as a routing tool, provides pedestrians with the shortest feasible route with respect to one of three differing ability levels, namely, peripatetic (unaided mobility), aided mobility (mobility with the help of a cane, walker or crutches) and wheelchair users. U-Access is also an analytical tool that can help identify obstacles in built environments that create routing discrepancies among pedestrians with different physical abilities. This paper discusses the system design, including database, algorithm and interface specifications, and technologies for efficiently delivering results through the World Wide Web (WWW). This paper also provides an illustrative example of a routing problem and an analytical evaluation of the existing infrastructure which identifies the obstacles that pose the greatest discrepancies between physical ability levels. U-Access was evaluated by wheelchair users and route experts from the Center for Disability Services at The University of Utah, USA.

  4. Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Jason; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effect of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for supplemental intraosseous injection in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-seven emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain upon endodontic access. The Stabident system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Success of the intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results demonstrated that anesthetic success was obtained in 86% (32 of 37) of the patients. Maximum mean heart rate was increased 32 beats/minute during the intraosseous injection. We can conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the intraosseous injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine would be successful 86% of the time in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis.

  5. Intraosseous blood samples for point-of-care analysis: agreement between intraosseous and arterial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousi, Milla; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2017-09-11

    Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples. The samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pH, blood gases, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate using the i-STAT® POC device. Agreement and reliability were estimated by using the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient calculations. Good agreement was evident between the IO and arterial samples for pH, glucose, and lactate. Potassium levels were clearly higher in the IO samples than those from arterial blood. Base excess and bicarbonate were slightly higher, and sodium and ionised calcium values were slightly lower, in the IO samples compared with the arterial values. The blood gases in the IO samples were between arterial and venous values. Haemoglobin and haematocrit showed remarkable variation in agreement. POC diagnostics of IO blood can be a useful tool to guide treatment in critical emergency care. Seeking out the reversible causes of cardiac arrest or assessing the severity of shock are examples of situations in which obtaining vascular access and blood samples can be difficult, though information about the electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lactate could guide clinical decision making. The analysis of IO samples should though be limited to situations in which no other option is available, and the results should be interpreted with caution, because there is not yet enough scientific evidence regarding the agreement of IO

  6. 75 FR 68568 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY United States Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 [USCG-2010-0833] Port... comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard (USCG) is conducting a Port Access Route Study (PARS) to evaluate: The... reduce the risk of marine casualties and increase the efficiency of vessel traffic in the study area. The...

  7. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  8. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J. [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi, Matsumoto (Japan); Tanikawa, H. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Fujioka, F. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Ishii, K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Seo, G.S. [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Karakida, O. [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Sone, S. [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of intraosseous neurilemmoma of the fibula in a 56-year-old woman. This case showed the typical radiographic appearance except for the presence of spotted calcifications that mimicked a cartilaginous tumor. Enhanced MR images revealed the heterogeneity of the tumor, which consisted of Antoni type A and B tissue. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  9. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the fibula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, J.; Tanikawa, H.; Fujioka, F.; Ishii, K.; Seo, G.S.; Karakida, O.; Sone, S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of intraosseous neurilemmoma of the fibula in a 56-year-old woman. This case showed the typical radiographic appearance except for the presence of spotted calcifications that mimicked a cartilaginous tumor. Enhanced MR images revealed the heterogeneity of the tumor, which consisted of Antoni type A and B tissue. (orig.). With 4 figs

  10. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally announced. The EZ-IO intraosseous infusion system has received expanded EU CE mark approval for an extended dwell time of up to 72 h and for insertion in pediatric patients in the distal femur. Key values of blood samples for laboratory analysis can be obtained with only 2 ml of blood/marrow waste and do also offer reliable values using an I-Stat point-of-care analyzer. Most problems in using an intraosseous infusion are provider-dependent. In pediatric anesthesia, the perioperative setting should further contribute to reduce these problems. Nevertheless, regular training, thorough anatomical knowledge and prompt availability especially in the pediatric age group are paramount to get a seldom used technique work properly under pressure. More longitudinal data on large cohorts were preferable to further support the safety of the intraosseous infusion technique in pediatric patients.

  11. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-09-01

    The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  12. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25298642

  13. The use of intraosseous needles for injection of contrast media for computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael; Talley, Cynthia; Woodward, Connor; Kingsbury, Alexander; Appiah, Frank; Elbelasi, Hossam; Landwher, Kevin; Li, Xingzhe; Fleischmann, Dominik

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and quality of computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA-TA) exams performed using intraosseous needle intravenous access (ION-IVA) for contrast media injection (CMI). All CTA-TA exams at the study institution performed between 1/1/2013 and 8/14/2015 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those exams which had been performed using ION-IVA (ION-exams). ION-exams were then analyzed to determine aortic attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linear regression was used to determine how injection rate and other variables affected image quality for ION-exams. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify any adverse events related to CTA-TA or ION-IVA. 17 (∼0.2%) of 7401 exams were ION-exams. ION-exam CMI rates varied between 2.5 and 4 ml/s. Mean attenuation was 312 HU (SD 88 HU) and mean CNR was 25 (SD 9.9). A strong positive linear association between attenuation and injection rate was found. No immediate or delayed complications related to the ION-exams, or intraosseous needle use in general, occurred. For CTA-TA, ION-IVA appears to be a safe and effective route for CMI at rates up to 4 ml/s. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mathematical Formulation and Comparison of Solution Approaches for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Access Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grosso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the principles of sustainability to the implementation of urban freight policies requires the estimation of all the costs and externalities involved. We focus here on the case of access time windows, which ban the access of freight vehicles to central urban areas in many European cities. Even though this measure seeks to reduce congestion and emissions in the most crowded periods of the day, it also imposes additional costs for carriers and results in higher emissions and energy consumption. We present here a mathematical model for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Access Time Windows, a variant of the VRP suitable for planning delivery routes in a city subject to this type of accessibility restriction. We use the model to find exact solutions to small problem instances based on a case study and then compare the performance over larger instances of a modified savings algorithm, a genetic algorithm, and a tabu search procedure, with the results showing no clear prevalence of any of them, but confirming the significance of those additional costs and externalities.

  15. POSTEROSUPERIOR SURGICAL ACCESS ROUTE FOR TREATMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR DISLOCATIONS: RESULTS FROM 84 SURGICAL CASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Danilo Canesin; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Filardi, Cantídio Salvador; Tenor, Antonio Carlos; Stipp, Willian Nandi; Petros, Rodrigo Souto Borges

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results from surgical treatment of 84 cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, using a posterosuperior access route. Eighty-four cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III in the Allman-Tossy classification) operated between November 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated. The patients' mean age was 34 years. The diagnoses were made using clinical and radiographic evaluations. The patients were operated by the same surgical team, within three weeks of the date of the trauma, using a posterosuperior approach to the shoulder to access the top of the base of the coracoid process for placement of two anchors, which were used in reducing the dislocation. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. The postoperative clinical-radiographic evaluation was done using the modified Karlsson criteria and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score. 92.8% of the 84 patients treated presented good or excellent results, and 7.2% presented fair or poor results, using the UCLA assessment score. According to the modified Karlsson criteria, 76.2% were assessed as grade A, 17.9% as grade B and 5.9% as grade C. The posterosuperior access route to the shoulder is a new option for accessing the coracoid process and treating acromioclavicular dislocation, with clinical and radiographic results equivalent to those in the literature.

  16. Preliminary access routes and cost study analyses for seven potentially acceptable salt sites: Final report, October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Intraosseous hemangioma of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, June Seok; Bae, Yong Chan; Kang, Gyu Bin; Choi, Kyung-Un

    2018-03-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for 1% or fewer of all osseous tumors. The most common sites of its occurrence are the vertebral column and calvaria. Occurrence in a facial bone is very rare. The authors aim to report a case of the surgical treatment of intraosseous hemangioma occurring in the periorbital region, which is a very rare site of occurrence and to introduce our own experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of this condition along with a literature review. A 73-year-old male patient visited our hospital with the chief complaint of a mass touching the left orbital rim. A biopsy was performed by applying a direct incision after local anesthesia. Eventually, intraosseous hemangioma was diagnosed histologically. To fully resect the mass, the orbital floor and zygoma were exposed through a subciliary incision under general anesthesia, and then the tumor was completely eliminated. Bony defect was reconstructed by performing a seventh rib bone graft. Follow-up observation has so far been conducted for 10 months after surgery without recurrence or symptoms.

  18. Accessibility of a cadeirante in a public institution of higher education: routes and routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Silveira Cambruzzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physical disability is group is heterogeneous, even within a “category”, since that covers a diversity, because each has a mechanism to organize in spaces in which attends but all participate of the same challenges. However, due to the challenges encountered by persons with disabilities in establishing routes and routines within a University is that we have developed this research. We chose search access of physically disabled person in your external displacement of student housing to the classroom and the classroom until the Secretariat Department that frequents. Research whose goal is the identification and analysis of routes as its accessibility, on the campus of a public institution of higher education. The survey was submitted to the Ethics Committee that approves their implementation. Direct observations were performed, as well as records via photos and footage, which were authorized by the University. The information collected were analyzed qualitatively as the standards of the Brazilian Association of technical norms and the guiding document for the Regional Council of engineering and architecture, Rio Grande do Sul, titled: Roadmap survey. In data analysis, we see that there are needs for providing accessibility with safety and convenience, as well as establish mechanisms for the community library and the University restaurant part of living as part of the University community and also, in the exercise of their constitutional rights.

  19. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joanne; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 minutes after a primary intraosseous injection. Using a crossover design, 55 subjects randomly received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (Dentsply Inc, York, PA) of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (using the Wand; Milestone Scientific, Deerfield, IL) and a repeated intraosseous or mock injection at 30 minutes in two appointments. The first molar and adjacent teeth were pulp tested every 2 minutes for a total of 120 minutes. Success was defined as obtaining two consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester. Success of the initial intraosseous injection was 100% for the first molar. The repeated intraosseous injection mimicked the initial intraosseous injection in terms of pulpal anesthesia and statistically provided another 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. In conclusion, using the methodology presented, repeating the intraosseous injection 30 minutes after an initial intraosseous injection will provide an additional 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia.

  20. Crural Amputation of a Newborn as a Consequence of Intraosseous Needle Insertion and Calcium Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlie, Gorm Erlend; Petersen, Klaus Kjaer; Knudsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous needle insertion and infusion is considered an easy and reliable method of achieving a vascular access in acute circulatory collapse where other methods have not been successful within reasonable time. Complications are considered few but may be serious. We present a case of a newborn...... girl, where intraosseous cannulation of the tibia was lifesaving. Despite following most standard recommendations, the treatment resulted in transtibial amputation due to necrosis. We suspect that the necrosis was a consequence of extravasation of tissue-toxic calcium infusion....

  1. Juvenile intraosseous gout of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Fang, Yang-Kai; Hung, Yu-Chung; Shih, Shin-Lin; Huang, Jon-Kway

    2005-01-01

    Gout presenting as an osteolytic lesion is exceedingly rare in children with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We report the clinical and radiological presentation of intraosseous gout in a 13-year-old boy. (orig.)

  2. Juvenile intraosseous gout of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Fang, Yang-Kai; Hung, Yu-Chung [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Shih, Shin-Lin; Huang, Jon-Kway [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Gout presenting as an osteolytic lesion is exceedingly rare in children with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We report the clinical and radiological presentation of intraosseous gout in a 13-year-old boy. (orig.)

  3. Providing intraosseous anesthesia with minimal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, K M

    1994-08-01

    A new variation of intraosseous anesthesia--crestal anesthesia--that is rapid, site-specific and minimally invasive is presented. The technique uses alveolar crest nutrient canals for anesthetic delivery without penetrating either bone or periodontal ligament.

  4. Proteus Syndrome With a Cranial Intraosseous Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Imahiyerobo, Thomas A; McComb, J Gordon; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Urata, Mark M

    2017-11-01

    Intraosseous lipomas are almost exclusively seen in the long bones. Presence in the craniofacial skeleton is extremely rare. A 7-year-old male is presented with a marked craniofacial deformation from a bony tumor containing an intraosseous lipoma. This finding established a clinical diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. Given the size of the tumor, producing an extensive deformity, three-dimensional modeling was used to generate a three-dimensional printed implant. The process to achieve a successful outcome is herein described.

  5. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  6. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions and Future Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Arnos Kwary

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Lexicographers working on finance dictionaries have not properly exploited the fast development of the Internet. This is revealed by the poor utilization of the access routes found in current Internet finance dictionaries. Consequently, users cannot effectively and efficiently find answers to their lexicographical problems. Firstly, there are Internet finance dictionaries which lack technological features and can simply be called meagre Internet dictionaries. Secondly, there are Internet finance dictionaries which utilize so many technological features that users incur high lexicographical information costs. In order to create better access routes, a sound theoretical foundation has to be established. This article shows that the implementation of the modern theory of lexicographical functions, which focuses on the users, results in a better design for future Internet finance dictionaries. With the proper theoretical basis, lexicographers will be able to create state-ofthe- art dictionaries that can provide effective and efficient solutions to lexicographical problems.

    OPSOMMING: Toegangsroetes van Internet- finansiële woordeboeke: Huidige oplossings en toekomstige geleenthede. Leksikograwe wat aan finansiële woordeboeke werk, het nie die vinnige ontwikkeling van die Internet behoorlik benut nie. Dit blyk uit die gebrekkige aanwending van die toegangsroetes wat in huidige Internet- finansiële woordeboeke aangetref word. Gevolglik kan gebruikers nie doeltreffend en doelmatig antwoorde kry op hul leksikografiese probleme nie. Eerstens is daar Internet- finansiële woordeboeke waarin tegnologiese kenmerke ontbreek en wat gewoon karige Internetwoordeboeke genoem kan word. Tweedens is daar Internet- finansiële woordeboeke wat so baie tegnologiese kenmerke aanwend dat gebruikers hoë leksikografiese inligtingskoste oploop. Om beter toegangsroetes te skep, moet 'n deeglike teoretiese grondslag gevestig word. Hierdie artikel toon

  7. 76 FR 47529 - Port Access Route Study: In the Waters of Montauk Channel and Block Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 [Docket No. USCG-2005-21650] Port...: The Coast Guard announces the availability of Preliminary Study Recommendations of a Port Access Route... help reduce the risk of marine casualties and increase vessel traffic management efficiency in the...

  8. 15 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - Motorized Personal Watercraft Zones and Access Routes Within the Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Access Routes Within the Sanctuary E Appendix E to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. E Appendix E to Subpart M of Part...

  9. Effects of Intraosseous Tibial vs. Intravenous Vasopressin in a Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fulkerson, MSN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study compared the effects of vasopressin via tibial intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV routes on maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, and time to ROSC in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. Methods: This study was a randomized prospective, between-subjects experimental design. A computer program randomly assigned 28 Yorkshire swine to one of four groups: IV (n=7, IO tibia (n=7, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR + defibrillation (n=7, and a control group that received just CPR (n=7. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and subjects remained in arrest for two minutes. CPR was initiated and 40 units of vasopressin were administered via IO or IV routes. Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 minutes. CPR and defibrillation were initiated for 20 minutes or until ROSC was achieved. We measured vasopressin concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference between the IO and IV groups relative to achieving ROSC (p=1.0 but a significant difference between the IV compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IV compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was a significant difference between the IO group compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IO compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was no significant difference between the CPR + defibrillation group and the CPR group (p=0.127. There was no significant difference in Cmax between the IO and IV groups (p=0.079. The mean ± standard deviation of Cmax of the IO group was 58,709±25,463pg/mL compared to the IV group, which was 106,198±62,135pg/mL. There was no significant difference in mean Tmax between the groups (p=0.084. There were no significant differences in odds of ROSC between the tibial IO and IV groups. Conclusion: Prompt access to the vascular system using the IO route can circumvent

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Intraosseous and Intravenous 5% Albumin on Infusion Time and Hemodynamic Measures in a Swine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Stacy L; Sheppard, Lance B; Maika-Wilson, Anne; Burgert, James M; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Johnson, Arthur D; Coyner, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in patients in hemorrhagic shock is often difficult and prolonged. Failed IV attempts delay life-saving treatment. Intraosseous (IO) access may often be obtained faster than IV access. Albumin (5%) is an option for prehospital volume expansion because of the absence of interference with coagulation and platelet function. Hypothesis/Problem There are limited data comparing the performance of IO and IV administered 5% albumin. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of tibial IO (TIO) and IV administration of 500 mL of 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. Sixteen male swine were divided into two groups: TIO and IV. All subjects were anesthetized and a Class III hemorrhage was achieved by exsanguination of 31% of estimated blood volume (EBV) from a femoral artery catheter. Following exsanguination, 500 mL of 5% albumin was administered under pressurized infusion (300 mmHg) by the TIO or IV route and infusion time was recorded. Hemodynamic measurements of HR, MAP, CO, and SV were collected before and after exsanguination and every 20 seconds for 180 seconds during 5% albumin infusion. An independent t-test determined that IV 5% albumin infusion was significantly faster compared to IO (P=.01). Mean infusion time for TIO was seven minutes 35 seconds (SD=two minutes 44 seconds) compared to four minutes 32 seconds (SD=one minute 08 seconds) in the IV group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was performed on hemodynamic data collected during the 5% albumin infusion. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences between the TIO and IV groups relative to MAP, CO, HR, or SV (P>.05). While significantly longer to infuse 5% albumin by the TIO route, the longer TIO infusion time may be negated as IO devices can be placed more quickly compared to repeated IV

  11. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Garcia-Blanco, Jose; Burgert, James; Fulton, Lawrence; Kadilak, Patrick; Perry, Katherine; Burke, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and epinephrine administration are pillars of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for epinephrine administration when intravenous (IV) access is unobtainable. Previous studies indicate the pharmacokinetics of epinephrine administration via IO and IV routes differ, but it is not known if the difference influences return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to determine the effects of humeral IO (HIO) and IV epinephrine administration during cardiac arrest on pharmacokinetics, ROSC, and odds of survival. Swine (N = 21) were randomized into 3 groups: humeral IO (HIO), peripheral IV (IV) and CPR/defibrillation control. Cardiac arrest was induced under general anesthesia. The swine remained in arrest for 2 min without intervention. Chest compressions were initiated and continued for 2 min. Epinephrine was administered and serial blood samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 4 min. Defibrillation and epinephrine administration proceeded according to ACLS guidelines continuing for 20 min or until ROSC. Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable.

  12. A solvent evaporation route towards fabrication of hierarchically porous ZSM-11 with highly accessible mesopores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Wen; Liu, Zhiting; Liu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    A route to generate hierarchically porous zeolite ZSM-11 has been paved via solvent evaporation induced self-assembly assisted by hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to produce a preformed dry gel, followed by its subsequent transformation into zeolite via steam-assisted-crystallization. The crystallization...

  13. ABO and D typing and alloantibody screening in marrow samples: relevance to intraosseous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Sari; Ångerman-Haasmaa, Susanne; Jousi, Milla; Siitonen, Sanna; Salmela, Katja

    2018-03-01

    Blood transfusion through the intraosseous route is gaining popularity in emergency medicine. Pretransfusion peripheral blood (PB) samples are usually not available in these patients, leading to discrepancies in blood group typing and a possible delay in transferring to group-specific blood products. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ABO and D typing and red blood cell alloantibody screening in marrow (BM) samples. Direct and reverse ABO typing, D typing, and a two-cell alloantibody screen were performed in EDTA-anticoagulated BM samples with standard manual column agglutination techniques. EDTA-anticoagulated PB samples were used as controls. The mean age of the study subjects (n = 71) was 47 years (range, 1-82 years). All ABO groups and both D+ and D- types were represented. In all subjects, concordant results were observed for all analyses in BM and PB samples. In 15 (21%) of the samples, a discrepancy of one reaction strength step (1+) was observed in at least one of the analyses (Cohen's weighted κ = 0.993); this did not affect interpretation of the results. Blood group typing and alloantibody screening are feasible in BM samples, providing proof-of-concept that intraosseous samples for blood group serologic analyses can be collected from emergency patients before intraosseous blood transfusion. This will enable a timely transfer to group-specific blood products and enable conservation of the valuable universal-donor blood products. © 2018 AABB.

  14. Intraligamentary--intraosseous anesthesia. A radiographic demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfunkel, A A; Kaufman, E; Marmary, Y; Galili, D

    1983-10-01

    Intraligamentary dental anesthesia has become a widely accepted technique. The periodontal ligament seems to provide easy access to the tooth apex. In the present study, radiopaque material was injected into baboon monkeys. Serial radiographs during incremental injections showed clouding of the crestal bone. The material was seen gradually advancing through the alveolar bone crest, apically. The spread was noticed through the marrow spaces, unexpectedly avoiding the PDL route.

  15. Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachus, E.J.; Almeida, T.; Demeester, P.; Depovere, G.F.G.; Ebberg, A.; Rui Ferreira, M.; Khoe, G.D.; Koning, O.; Marsden, R.; Rawsthorne, J.; Wauters, N.

    1996-01-01

    The RACE COBRA consortium has performed four field trials to verify the suitability of dense WDM combined with heterodyne detection (for which the term CMC, "Coherent Multicarrier" is used) for different network applications. The main advantage in using heterodyne detection is the simple access to

  16. Evaluation of Intraosseous Fluid as an Alternative Biological Specimen in Postmortem Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Volk, Justin A; Moffat, Ellen; Williams, Chinyere M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2018-04-01

    The postmortem redistribution phenomenon is an important factor in the interpretation of blood drug concentrations as a cause or factor in death. Intraosseous fluid (IOF) may serve as an alternative matrix for drug testing. Intraosseous fluid was collected from the left and right tibias and humerus of 29 decedents using the Arrow EZ-IO Intraosseous Vascular Access System. Standard autopsy specimens including blood were also collected at the same time during autopsy. Blood and IOF specimens were screened by immunoassay for opioids, fentanyl analogs, oxycodone, methadone, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cannabinoids, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Correlation between cardiac/central blood ELISA and IOF ELISA results was mostly 100% for drug targets. Further blood confirmation analysis was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also showed comparable correlation to IOF screen results. There was no significant difference between the IOF sites or sides of the body. This novel study supports the use of IOF as an alternative postmortem specimen for toxicological investigations as a potentially less-compromised tissue in decomposed or traumatized bodies. Preliminary data is provided for the screening of common drugs of abuse in IOF that may show to be subject to alternative rates of postmortem redistribution than to that of other biological specimens in future studies that quantitate IOF drug concentrations.

  17. Access to primary care and the route of emergency admission to hospital: retrospective analysis of national hospital administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Thomas E; Harris, Matthew; Watt, Hilary; Soljak, Michael; Richards, Emma; Gunning, Elinor; Bottle, Alex; Macinko, James; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-06-01

    The UK government is pursuing policies to improve primary care access, as many patients visit accident and emergency (A and E) departments after being unable to get suitable general practice appointments. Direct admission to hospital via a general practitioner (GP) averts A and E use, and may reduce total hospital costs. It could also enhance the continuity of information between GPs and hospital doctors, possibly improving healthcare outcomes. To determine whether primary care access is associated with the route of emergency admission-via a GP versus via an A and E department. Retrospective analysis of national administrative data from English hospitals for 2011-2012. Adults admitted in an emergency (unscheduled) for ≥1 night via a GP or an A and E department formed the study population. The measure of primary care access-the percentage of patients able to get a general practice appointment on their last attempt-was derived from a large, nationally representative patient survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations, adjusting for patient and admission characteristics. The analysis included 2 322 112 emergency admissions (81.9% via an A and E department). With a 5 unit increase in the percentage of patients able to get a general practice appointment on their last attempt, the adjusted odds of GP admission (vs A and E admission) was estimated to increase by 15% (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.17). The probability of GP admission if ≥95% of appointment attempts were successful in each general practice was estimated to be 19.6%. This probability reduced to 13.6% when <80% of appointment attempts were successful. This equates to 139 673 fewer GP admissions (456 232 vs 316 559) assuming no change in the total number of admissions. Associations were consistent in direction across geographical regions of England. Among hospital inpatients admitted as an emergency, patients registered to more accessible general practices were more

  18. Intraosseous anesthesia in hemodynamic studies in children with cardiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliman, Ana Cristina; Piccioni, Marilde de Albuquerque; Piccioni, João Luiz; Oliva, José Luiz; Auler Júnior, José Otávio Costa

    2011-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access has been used with good results in emergency situations, when venous access is not available for fluids and drugs infusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate IO a useful technique for anesthesia and fluids infusion during hemodynamic studies and when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. The setting was an university hospital hemodynamics unit, and the subjects were twenty one infants with congenital heart disease enrolled for elective hemodynamic study diagnosis. This study compared the effectiveness of IO access in relation to IV access for infusion of anesthetics agents (ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl) and fluids during hemodynamic studies. The anesthetic induction time, procedure duration, anesthesia recovery time, adequate hydration, and IV and IO puncture complications were compared between groups. The puncture time was significantly smaller in IO group (3.6 min) that in IV group (9.6 min). The anesthetic onset time (56.3 second) for the IV group was faster than IO group (71.3 second). No significant difference between groups were found in relation to hydration (IV group, 315.5 mL vs IO group, 293.2 mL), and anesthesia recovery time (IO group, 65.2 min vs IV group, 55.0 min). The puncture site was reevaluated after 7 and 15 days without signs of infection or other complications. Results showed superiority for IO infusion when considering the puncture time of the procedure. Due to its easy manipulation and efficiency, hydration and anesthesia by IO access was satisfactory for hemodynamic studies without the necessity of other infusion access. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Accessing 2-substituted piperidine iminosugars by organometallic addition/intramolecular reductive amination: aldehyde vs. nitrone route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, S; Fibbi, G; Matassini, C; Faggi, C; Goti, A; Cardona, F

    2017-11-07

    A dual synthetic strategy to afford 2-substituted trihydroxypiperidines is disclosed. The procedure involved Grignard addition either to a carbohydrate-derived aldehyde or to a nitrone derived thereof, and took advantage of an efficient ring-closure reductive amination strategy in the final cyclization step. An opposite diastereofacial preference was demonstrated in the nucleophilic attack to the two electrophiles, which would finally produce the same piperidine diastereoisomer as the major product. However, use of a suitable Lewis acid in the Grignard addition to the nitrone allowed reversing the selectivity, giving access to 2-substituted piperidines with the opposite configuration at C-2.

  20. Subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, L.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve cases of subchondral synovial cysts (intra-osseous ganglion) have been seen and their clinical features, radiological findings and differential diagnosis are described. The lesion is a benign cystic tumour-like mass in the subchondral portion of a synovial joint. Our findings in respect of age, sex and localisation are compared with those of other authors. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the lesion is not completely understood. There is an increased incidence in middle life and joints with high dynamic and static stress are favoured, particularly in the lower extremities. Chronic stress or microtrauma, causing damage to the involved joint, therefore appears to be a plausible explanation. (orig.) [de

  1. Intraosseous pseudotumor in a child with hypofibrinogenemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, H.N. [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cebeci, Ankara (Turkey); Ergen, Fatma Bilge; Aydingoz, Ustun [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara, (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    Intraosseous pseudotumor (i.e. chronic, encapsulated, hemorrhagic fluid collection that can be seen in any portion of the tubular bones) is an uncommon complication of severe hemophilia; however, it can occur with other rare bleeding disorders. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with hypofibrinogenemia who had multiple intramedullary lesions that were consistent with intramedullary pseudotumor associated with this rare bleeding disorder. Percutaneous biopsy of a pseudotumor is contraindicated due to the high prevalence of complications, including life-threatening bleeding. Therefore, radiologists should make the diagnosis with characteristic MR imaging findings in a patient with a severe coagulation disorder. (orig.)

  2. Intraosseous pseudotumor in a child with hypofibrinogenemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.N.; Ergen, Fatma Bilge; Aydingoz, Ustun

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous pseudotumor (i.e. chronic, encapsulated, hemorrhagic fluid collection that can be seen in any portion of the tubular bones) is an uncommon complication of severe hemophilia; however, it can occur with other rare bleeding disorders. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with hypofibrinogenemia who had multiple intramedullary lesions that were consistent with intramedullary pseudotumor associated with this rare bleeding disorder. Percutaneous biopsy of a pseudotumor is contraindicated due to the high prevalence of complications, including life-threatening bleeding. Therefore, radiologists should make the diagnosis with characteristic MR imaging findings in a patient with a severe coagulation disorder. (orig.)

  3. Achieving profound anesthesia using the intraosseous technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, K A

    1997-10-01

    The intraosseous technique has been described as a useful adjunct to primary anesthetic administration. It has several advantages (Table 3) over other supplemental techniques in that it is relatively simple to implement into routine practice, it affords fast, predictable results, and it is relatively painless. The technique has been shown to be very successful in achieving profound pulpal anesthesia when administered as a supplement to the inferior alveolar nerve block and is effective in achieving profound anesthesia in irreversibly inflamed teeth, especially mandibular molars.

  4. Uncommon tumor of the bone: Intraosseous epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candemir Ceran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous epidermoid cyst is an uncommon bone tumor. The differential diagnosis of expansile, lytic lesions of the phalanges remains broad, and definitive diagnosis requires histopathological tissue analysis. Differentiation of intraosseous epidermoid cysts of the phalanx from other radiolucent lesions of the digits remains challenging, especially when classical radiographic findings are not seen. Here, we present a case of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst with atypical findings at the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb without a history of trauma. It was treated successfully without any complications. [Hand Microsurg 2017; 6(1.000: 43-46

  5. Intraosseous anesthesia: implications, instrumentation and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Christopher H

    2003-04-01

    The author reviews historical methods and the instruments used to bring about intraosseous anesthesia, or IOA; discusses the criteria for successful use of the intraosseous injection, or IOI, technique; and provides recommendations. Articles from before 1990 consisted of subjective reports of patient types and procedures performed using IOI as a primary technique. Studies published after 1990 yielded subjective findings on indications for expanded clinical use. The author discusses the expansion of the role of IOI relative to integrated local anesthetic delivery systems. The literature and studies verify the efficacy of IOI as a supplemental or primary technique. The author recommends anesthetics and infusion sites, and reports on the patients' perceptions of comfort. IOI can be used as a supplemental or primary technique to bring about local anesthesia in routine dental procedures. It can be used as a supplemental technique with mandibular nerve blocks to enhance deep pulpal anesthesia. It can be used as a primary technique so that patients do not experience numb lips or tongues postoperatively. Dentists can appreciate the immediate onset of anesthesia and reduced dosage levels of anesthetics associated with using IOI.

  6. Fertility tourism: circumventive routes that enable access to reproductive technologies and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-01-01

    “Fertility tourism” is a journalistic eye‐catcher focusing on the phenomenon of patients who search for a reproductive treatment in another country in order to circumvent laws, access restrictions, or waiting lists in their home country. In Europe, the reasons why people seek reproductive treatments outside their national boundaries are quite diverse, in part because regulations differ so much among countries. Beginning with four examples of people who crossed borders for an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with gamete donation, this article provides some insight into these transnational circumvention practices based on material from ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in Spain, Denmark, and the Czech Republic. In all three countries, gamete donation is made strictly anonymous. Clinical practices such as egg donor recruitment and phenotypical matching between donors and recipients serve to naturalize the substitution of gametes and to install social legitimacy through resemblance markers with the prospective child. In comparison to other areas of medical tourism, which are subjects of debate as a consequence of neoliberal health politics and international medical competition, mobility in the area of reproductive technologies is deeply intertwined with new forms of doing kinship. For prospective parents, it holds a promise of generating offspring who could pass as biogenetically conceived children. Therefore, IVF with gamete donation is mostly modeled after conceptions of nature. Through anonymity and concealment it creates forms of nonrelatedness that leave space for future imaginings and traces of transnational genetic creators.

  7. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  8. Uncommon presentations of intraosseous haemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Polezi, Mariana Basso; Pastorello, Monica Tempest; Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Engel, Edgard Eduard; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing uncommon presentations of intraosseous hemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis. Materials and methods: Retrospective study evaluating five hemophilic pseudotumors in bones of two patients with hemophilia A. Imaging findings were consensually evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were analyzed. Results: At contrast-enhanced computed tomography images, one of the lesions on the left thigh was visualized with heterogeneously enhanced solid areas. This finding was later confirmed by anatomopathological study. Another uncommon finding was the identification of a healthy bone portion interposed between two intraosseous pseudotumors in the humerus. And, finally, a femoral pseudotumor with extension towards soft tissues and transarticular extension, and consequential tibial and patellar involvement. Conclusion: The above described imaging findings are not frequently reported in cases of intraosseous pseudotumors in hemophilic patients. It is important that radiologists be aware of these more uncommon presentations of intraosseous pseudotumors. (author)

  9. Intraosseous ameloblastoma masquerading as exophytic growth: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, Prashanth; Ramnarayan, BK; Sanjay, CJ; David, Chaya M; Kaul, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    Intraosseous ameloblastoma is the most common and simple type of ameloblastoma prevalent among odontogenic tumors. Clinico-radiographically intraosseous ameloblastoma presents as slow, painless swelling or expansion of the jaws and described as multilocular expansile radiolucency that occurs most frequently in mandibular molar/ramus area. This article describes a case of follicular ameloblastoma involving 45 year old male which is different from the usual presentation, which includes-exophytic growth, different location and without expansion of the cortex.

  10. Intraosseous ameloblastoma masquerading as exophytic growth: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, Prashanth; Ramnarayan, BK; Sanjay, CJ; David, Chaya M [Dr Shyamala Reddy Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore (India); Kaul, Rachna [Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2011-06-15

    Intraosseous ameloblastoma is the most common and simple type of ameloblastoma prevalent among odontogenic tumors. Clinico-radiographically intraosseous ameloblastoma presents as slow, painless swelling or expansion of the jaws and described as multilocular expansile radiolucency that occurs most frequently in mandibular molar/ramus area. This article describes a case of follicular ameloblastoma involving 45 year old male which is different from the usual presentation, which includes-exophytic growth, different location and without expansion of the cortex.

  11. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations w...

  12. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Ja [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  13. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Ja

    2004-01-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  14. Evaluation of clinical and paraclinical effects of intraosseous vs intravenous administration of propofol on general anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare the intraosseous (IO) and intravenous (IV) effects of propofol on selected blood parameters and physiological variables during general anesthesia in rabbits. Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were studied. Six rabbits received IV propofol (group 1) and another 6 rabbits, were injected propofol intraosseously (Group 2) for 30 minutes (experimental groups). Rabbits of the third and fourth groups received IV and IO normal saline at the same volume given to the experimental groups, respectively. In the fifth group IO cannulation was performed but neither propofol nor normal saline were administered. Blood profiles were assayed before induction and after recovery of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, saturation of peripheral oxygen and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded. Heart rate increased significantly 1 to 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia in experimental groups (P anesthesia in rabbits with limited vascular access.

  15. Effect of intraosseous anesthesia on control of hemostasis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tyler F; Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Schwartz, Stephen F; Wolf, David

    2009-11-01

    Intraosseous anesthesia is used to deliver anesthetic into cancellous bone adjacent to the root apices. No study has assessed the effect of this anesthetic technique on hemostasis. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of bleeding from soft tissue and bone in pig jaws after preoperative intraosseous or infiltration anesthesia with 2% lidocaine containing 1:50,000 epinephrine. Twelve pigs were divided into 3 groups. The first group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The second group received intraosseous anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The third group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and intraosseous anesthesia on the second half. Blood was collected during flap reflection to measure the volume of soft tissue bleeding. Osteotomies were then prepared with blood collected from the surgical site to measure the volume of osseous bleeding. The median soft tissue blood loss observed in animals receiving infiltration anesthesia (1.14 mL) was significantly less as compared with animals that received no anesthesia (4.49 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (2.45 mL). Compared with median hard tissue blood loss observed in animals without anesthesia (1.51 mL), significantly less blood loss was observed in animals receiving either infiltration anesthesia (0.67 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (0.76 mL). Infiltration anesthesia resulted in significantly less soft tissue bleeding (p = .004) as compared with no anesthesia. Infiltration and intraosseous anesthesia resulted in significantly less osseous bleeding than the use of no anesthetic (p < .001). The volume of blood loss for each animal was shown to be below the maximum safe volume of blood loss for a single procedure.

  16. Comparison of time to loss of consciousness and maintenance of anesthesia following intraosseous and intravenous administration of propofol in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-07-01

    To compare time to loss of consciousness (LOC) and effective maintenance of anesthesia following intraosseous (IO) and IV administration of propofol in rabbits. Evaluation study. 24 New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits were selected to receive IO (n = 6) or IV (6) bolus administration of 1% propofol (12.5 mg/kg [5.67 mg/lb]) only or an identical bolus of propofol IO (6) or IV (6) followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI; 1 mg/kg/min [0.45 mg/lb/min]) by the same route for 30 minutes. Physiologic variables were monitored at predetermined time points; time to LOC and durations of anesthesia and recovery were recorded. Following IO and IV bolus administration, mean time to LOC was 11.50 and 7.83 seconds, respectively; changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (as measured by pulse oximetry), and mean arterial blood pressure values were evident, but findings did not differ between groups. For the IO- and IV-CRI groups, propofol-associated changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and mean arterial blood pressure values were similar, and although mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline, values remained > 60 mm Hg; respiratory rate decreased significantly during CRI in both groups, but remained higher in the IO-CRI group. Anesthesia and recovery time did not differ between the IO- and IV-CRI groups. In all evaluated aspects of anesthesia, IO administration of propofol was as effective as IV administration in rabbits. Results suggested that total IO anesthesia can be performed in rabbits with limited vascular access.

  17. Comparison of routes for achieving parenteral access with a focus on the management of patients with Ebola virus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ker, Katharine; Tansley, Gavin; Beecher, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    .04 to 0.61; n = 182). A larger volume of fluids was infused via the intravenous route (GRADE rating: moderate). There was no evidence of a difference between the two routes for any other outcomes, including adverse events.Compared to the subcutaneous group, patients in the intravenous group were more...

  18. [An evaluation of eight cases of intraosseous lipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yilmaz; Dabak, Nevzat; Selçuk, M Bekir; Bariş, Y Sancar

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated patients with intraosseous lipoma. The study included eight patients (5 males, 3 females; mean age 39 years; range 23 to 60 years) who were treated between 1997 and 2005 for intraosseous lipoma. Localizations of the lipomas were the calcaneus in six patients, proximal humerus in one patient, and proximal femur in one patient. The presenting complaints were heel pain in patients with calcaneal involvement, and shoulder pain associated with proximal humeral involvement. In one patient, detection of intraosseous lipoma in the left proximal femur was incidental during examination for right hip pain. According to the Milgram classification, five of the intraosseous lipomas were stage 1, while two calcaneal lesions and one femoral lesion were stage 2. Treatment consisted of excisional biopsy, curettage, and allografting under regional or general anesthesia. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in all cases. The mean follow-up period was 28 months (range 9 to 110 months). Complaints of heel pain and shoulder pain resolved within four and five months, respectively. No infection or skin necrosis occurred at the wound site. No neurovascular complications developed during or after surgery. Radiological consolidation of the implanted bone allografts were complete by a mean of three months (range 2 to 4 months). No pathological fractures or recurrences were encountered. Treatment of intraosseous lipomas with curettage and grafting is effective in relieving pain and preventing possible pathological fractures.

  19. Spectral encoded optical label detection for dynamic routing of impulse radio ultra-wideband signals in metro-access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Yu, Xianbin; Yin, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate the principle of coherent label detection for dynamic routing of wavelength division multiplexed impulse radio ultra-wideband signals by using four-tone spectral amplitude coded labels.......In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate the principle of coherent label detection for dynamic routing of wavelength division multiplexed impulse radio ultra-wideband signals by using four-tone spectral amplitude coded labels....

  20. Procedural mishaps with trephine-based intraosseous anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Joel C; Witherspoon, David E; Regan, John D; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Failure to achieve profound anesthesia during dental treatment can be a significant problem for dental clinicians, especially for endodontic procedures on teeth in the mandibular arch with irreversible pulpitis. A number of supplemental local anesthesia techniques exist, the most effective of which may be the intraosseous injection. Two cases are presented demonstrating the dangers associated with the use of the intraosseous anesthesia technique. While the technique can provide profound anesthesia in otherwise difficult to anesthetize cases, care must be taken during its administration. Both cases show the damage done to the root and overlying bone by the injudicious use of the trephine. It is incumbent on the clinician to fully consider the anatomy in the area prior to insertion of the trephine. Intraosseous anesthesia techniques are a valuable addition to the clinicians' armamentarium. However careless administration can result in problems of endodontic or periodontal nature that may be difficult to rectify.

  1. Calf Compartment Syndrome associated with the Use of an Intra-osseous Line in an Adult Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a lower limb compartment syndrome associated with the use of an intra-osseous line inserted into the proximal tibia in an adult patient. An unconscious 59-year old male with multiple injuries presented to our Emergency Department after a road traffic accident. Bilateral proximal tibial intra osseous-lines were inserted due to poor venous access. After resuscitation his left leg was noted to be tense and swollen with absent pulses. Acute compartment syndrome was diagnosed both clinically and with compartment pressure measurement. Two incision fasciotomy on his left lower leg was performed. Intra osseous-lines in the proximal tibia are increasingly used in adult patients in the pre-hospital setting by paramedics and emergency physicians. Their use, along with the possible complications of these devices, such as the development of compartment syndrome or osteomyelitis leading to amputation, is well reported in the paediatric literature. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any previous reports of complications in the adult patient. We present a case of lower leg compartment syndrome developing from the use of an intra-osseous line in the proximal tibia in an adult patient. With the increasing use of intra-osseous lines in adult patients, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of developing compartment syndrome which may lead to disability or amputation in severe cases.

  2. Cranio-orbital primary intraosseous haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, T; Rose, G E; Manisali, M; Minhas, P; Uddin, J M; Verity, D H

    2013-11-01

    Primary intraosseous haemangioma (IOH) is a rare benign neoplasm presenting in the fourth and fifth decades of life. The spine and skull are the most commonly involved, orbital involvement is extremely rare. We describe six patients with cranio-orbital IOH, the largest case series to date. Retrospective review of six patients with histologically confirmed primary IOH involving the orbit. Clinical characteristics, imaging features, approach to management, and histopathological findings are described. Five patients were male with a median age of 56. Pain and diplopia were the most common presenting features. A characteristic 'honeycomb' pattern on CT imaging was demonstrated in three of the cases. Complete surgical excision was performed in all cases with presurgical embolisation carried out in one case. In all the cases, histological studies identified cavernous vascular spaces within the bony tissue. These channels were lined by single layer of cytologically normal endothelial cells. IOCH of the cranio-orbital region is rare; in the absence of typical imaging features, the differential diagnosis includes chondroma, chondrosarcoma, bony metastasis, and lymphoma. Surgical excision may be necessary to exclude more sinister pathology. Intraoperative haemorrhage can be severe and may be reduced by preoperative embolisation.

  3. Osteonecrosis related to intraosseous anesthesia: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl F; White, Robert K; He, Jianing

    2009-02-01

    Intraosseous anesthesia is an effective and increasingly used technique with few reported complications. The technique uses a specialized drill to perforate the osseous cortex where local anesthetic can then be deposited to anesthetize teeth. It has been reported that separation of the perforation drills from their plastic bases can occur because of the friction generated during osseous perforation. Prolonged rotation of the perforator drills in the bone can also cause excessive heat, which can lead to bone necrosis. This report describes a case of focal osteonecrosis subsequent to intraosseous anesthesia and discusses possible etiologies of this sequela.

  4. Intraosseous hemangioblastoma of the cervical spine: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenteng; Curtis, Brian; Layser, Robert; Selvarajan, Santosh Kumar; Harrop, James; Kenyon, Lawrence C; Parsons, Theodore; Rubin, Asa

    2017-09-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with bilateral upper-extremity radiculopathy and neck pain after a mechanical fall. Admission CT and MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a pathological C-4 fracture. Subsequent malignancy workup was negative. A CT-guided biopsy of the lesion showed intraosseous hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastoma is a highly vascular, slow-growing tumor of the CNS; intraosseous location of this tumor is extremely rare. The authors review the diversity of its presentation and the treatment techniques of this rare tumor in an extremely rare location.

  5. Dynamic optical routing and simultaneous generation of millimeter-wave signals for in-building access network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, S.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Cao, Z.; Tran, N.C.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage optical routing using SOA and integrated micro-ring resonator, and remote generation of millimeter-wave signals by optical frequency multiplication is demonstrated for inbuilding network. Both 150Mb/s 64-QAM and 802.11a WLAN signal at 38GHz are transmitted.

  6. X-ray and CT diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xiangyang; Zhang Weimin; Yan Shigui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, imaging features, and differential diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion. Methods: Clinical and imaging features of 15 cases (5 men, 10 women; mean age 39.7 years) with intraosseous ganglia were retrospectively analyzed. There were 17 lesions, including 6 acetabular, 4 lunate, 3 proximal ends of tibia, 1 major tuberculum of humeral, 1 femoral head, 1 scaphoid, and 1 phalange. Results: ( 1 ) Common radiological features included a unilocular or multilocular cyst surrounded by a full and thin rim of sclerotic: bone in the subchondral epiphysis without any signs of degenerative joint disease. (2) Lesions were displayed as well-defined round radiolucent defect or multi-cystic changes with surrounding bony sclerosis or cystic and expansile change with irregular shape on CT scans. (3) CT showed an intraosseous ganglion communicating with adjacent joint in 1 patient. (4) CT values of the lesions were between 15 - 80 HU. (5) Gas in the cyst could be seen in 3 cases. Conclusion: Combined with patient's age, lesion distribution, clinical manifestations, and imaging features, it is possible to make a correct diagnosis of intraosseous ganglion

  7. [Intraosseous anesthesia X-tip system in tooth extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augello, Marcello; Furrer, Thomas; Locher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) as an alternative to the infra alveolar nerve block (IANB) or the maxillary anesthesia. 55 subjects who underwent a tooth extraction received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (LLC Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S.A.) of Ubistesin forte (articaini hydrochloridum 40 mg, adrenalinum 10 pg ut adrenalini hydrochloridum 1:100000, median 1.5 ml). A pulse oximeter measured the heart rate and the oxygen saturation. The results demonstrated, that the maximum heart rate was higher with the intraosseous injection (average 14.6 beats/min increase) during 1.5-2 minutes, but there was no depression of the oxygen saturation. The wound healing was uneventful. We registered five non-responders which were treated additionally with 1.3 ml of Ubistesin forte terminal anesthesia. For all patients the IOA was unpleasant similar to a "normal" anesthesia. Success of the intraosseous injection was 91%, comparable to the study of Turner et al. (2002) (or the clinical experience after an IANB). For non-responders to an IANB the IOA seems to be a good alternative method.

  8. The efficacy of supplemental intraosseous anesthesia after insufficient mandibular block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Prohić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known scientific fact that only a small percentage of infiltration of inferior alveolar nerve is clinically proven to be efficient. The objective of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of supplemental intraosseous injection, used after the insufficient classical mandibular block that didn't provide deep pulp anesthesia of mandibular molar planed for extraction. The experimental teeth consisted of 98 mandibular molars with clinical indication for extraction. Based on the history of disease, we indicated the extraction of the tooth. After that each tooth was tested with a electric pulp tester P1. We tested the pulp vitality and precisely determined the level of vitality. After that, each patient received classical mandibular block, and the pulp vitality was tested again. If the pulp tester indicated negative vitality for the certain mandibular molar, and the patient didn't complain about pain or discomfort during the extraction, the molar was extracted and the result was added to anesthetic success rate for the classical mandibular block. If, five minutes after receiving the mandibular block, the pulp tester indicated positive vitality (parameters of vitality or the patient complained about pain or discomfort (parameters of pain and discomfort, we used the Stabident intraosseous anesthesia system. Three minutes after the application of supplemental intraosseous injection the molar was tested with the pulp tester again. The anesthetic solution used in both anesthetic techniques is lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine. The results of this study indicate that the anesthetic efficacy of the mandibular block is 74.5%, and that supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, provides pulpal anesthesia in 94.9% of mandibular molars. The difference between anesthetic efficacy of the classical mandibular block and anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied

  9. The efficacy of supplemental intraosseous anesthesia after insufficient mandibular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohić, Samir; Sulejmanagić, Halid; Secić, Sadeta

    2005-02-01

    It is a well-known scientific fact that only a small percentage of infiltration of inferior alveolar nerve is clinically proven to be efficient. The objective of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of supplemental intraosseous injection, used after the insufficient classical mandibular block that didn't provide deep pulp anesthesia of mandibular molar planed for extraction. The experimental teeth consisted of 98 mandibular molars with clinical indication for extraction. Based on the history of disease, we indicated the extraction of the tooth. After that each tooth was tested with a electric pulp tester P1. We tested the pulp vitality and precisely determined the level of vitality. After that, each patient received classical mandibular block, and the pulp vitality was tested again. If the pulp tester indicated negative vitality for the certain mandibular molar, and the patient didn't complain about pain or discomfort during the extraction, the molar was extracted and the result was added to anesthetic success rate for the classical mandibular block. If, five minutes after receiving the mandibular block, the pulp tester indicated positive vitality (parameters of vitality) or the patient complained about pain or discomfort (parameters of pain and discomfort), we used the Stabident intraosseous anesthesia system. Three minutes after the application of supplemental intraosseous injection the molar was tested with the pulp tester again. The anesthetic solution used in both anesthetic techniques is lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine. The results of this study indicate that the anesthetic efficacy of the mandibular block is 74.5%, and that supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, provides pulpal anesthesia in 94.9% of mandibular molars. The difference between anesthetic efficacy of the classical mandibular block and anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the

  10. Intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate scintigraphy in patients with various painful conditions in the hip and knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldi, C.C.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Heerfordt, J.; Karle, A.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with pain in the knee or hip were examined by means of bilateral intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m) technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy. All patients with typical rest pain - either due to osteoarthritis or to the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome - showed venous statis and increased pressure in the bone marrow near the painful joint and abnormally high uptake of the radiotracer. In patients with other types of pain this correlation was absent. The results indicate that sup(99m)technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy can be used as a screening method in the diagnosis of the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome in patients with a typical history. However, increased isotope uptake in a joint region may be due to a variety of other causes. The identical findings with all three methods of investigation in patients with the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome and osteoarthritis suggest a common pathomechanism. (author)

  11. Intraosseous disc prolapse: A diagnostic puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasnis Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Schmorl′s node or intraosseous disc prolapse is herniation of the nucleus pulposus material through the vertebral end plates. Presence of Schmorl′s nodes as end plate lesions following trauma, tumours and osteoporosis further complicates diagnosis. The present study was done to understand diagnosis and approach to management of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes. Methods : During a period of three years we came across 14 patients who presented with severe back pain. Conventional radiographs, CT Scans and MRI showed the presence of end plate lesions with varied radiological appearance. The first group, comprising of seven patients had lytic lesions without any sclerosis on only one side of the intervertebral disc as seen on the CT scan. The second group comprising of five patients had sclerotic lesions with new bone formation associated with disc space reduction. The two patients in the third group showed a combined lytic and sclerotic lesion without any soft tissue changes. MRI of eleven patients revealed hypointense lesion on T 1 and T 2 weighted images with surrounding zone of hyper intensity on T 2 weighted images. The remaining three patients, did not have this hyper intense zone on T 2 weighted images . In five patients multiple Schmorl′s nodes were observed. Diagnosis of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes was mainly done by exclusion. All patients were given rest and anti-inflammatory drugs followed by exercises. Results : The first two groups of patients responded to the treatment and had complete relief of symptoms but both the patients in third group had persistent symptoms. MRI repeated after eight weeks showed an enhancing lesion with prevertebral soft tissue. A transpedicular core biopsy proved the lesion to be tuberculosis in one patient. Anti Koch′s therapy was promptly started and follow up study showed resolution of the lesions. At the end of the study period all the patients were asymptomatic and returned to their

  12. Intraosseous Leiomyoma of the Jaw in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Ontañón, Adaia; Pozuelo-Arquimbau, Laura; Mateu-Esquerda, Gemma; Arranz-Obispo, Carlos; Cuscó-Albors, Sílvia; Melero-Luque, Mireia; Morla, Arnaud; Marí-Roig, Antoni

    2017-05-15

    Leiomyoma is a benign tumor of the smooth muscle that rarely occurs in the mouth as an intraosseous lesion. The purposes of this paper are to: (1) present a case of an intraosseous solid leiomyoma of the mandible in a 13-year-old child, who presented with a well-defined unilocular radiolucency in the right mandible incidentally discovered during a routine dental radiographic examination; and (2) conduct a review of the literature to describe clinicopathological features and management of intraosseous jaw leiomyoma (IJL). A total of 17 articles describing 18 cases of IJL satisfied the selection criteria; including the present patient, to date a total of 19 cases of IJL have been reported. IJL occurs mainly in young patients (36.8 percent), more often in boys (1:5:1 male-to-female ratio), and reaches a larger size in children than in adults. The treatment of choice for IJL is surgical excision, which should be as minimally invasive as possible, especially in children.

  13. Intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver-De-Araujo, L M; Chaves-Tarquinio, S B; Neuzling-Gomes, A P; Etges, A

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands, affecting mainly the parotid gland. The preferential intraoral site of this tumor is the palate. A case of a 31-year-old woman with an intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma located in the maxilla (left paramedian region), showing an approximate evolution of one year is reported. The present intraosseous case represents a rare location, with the tumor probably originating from glandular epithelial remnants captured during embryogenesis. In a review of the literature of 142 cases of intragnathic localization (24% in the maxilla) are identified. A slight predominance of women was observed (56%), with 55% of the patients being affected during the 5th to 7th decade of life. The tumors were malignant in 94% of the cases, with special predominance of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (65%). Intraosseous pleomorphic adenomas are rare, with the present patient being the 6th case reported in the literature and the second found in the maxilla. Mean age of the 5 previously reported cases was 58.8 years.

  14. The feasibility of inducing mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac resuscitation using iced saline infusion via an intraosseous needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Timothy J; Walterscheid, Joshua K; Kellogg, Adam R; Lodding, Cynthia C

    2010-01-01

    This study was done, using a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, to determine the feasibility of inducing therapeutic hypothermia after successful resuscitation by giving an intraosseous infusion of iced saline. This study was IACUC approved. Liter bags of normal saline, after being refrigerated for at least 24h, were placed in an ice filled cooler. Female Yorkshire swine weighing between 27 and 35 kg were sedated and instrumented under general anesthesia. A temperature probe was inserted 10 cm into the esophagus. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and allowed to continue untreated for 10 min. Animals were randomized to one of two resuscitation schemes for the primary study (N=53). One group had central intravenous access for drug delivery and the other had an intraosseous needle inserted into the proximal tibia for drug administration. Animals in which spontaneous circulation was restored were immediately cooled, for this secondary study, by means of a rapid, pump-assisted infusion of 1L of iced saline either through the intraosseous needle (n=8), the central access (n=6), or a peripheral intravenous catheter (n=7) in a systematic, non-randomized fashion. Room, animal, and saline temperatures were recorded at initiation and upon completion of infusion. The data were analyzed descriptively using Stata SE v8.1 for Macintosh. The baseline characteristics of all three groups were mathematically the same. The average ambient room temperature during the experimental sessions was 25.5 degrees C (SD=1.3 degrees C). There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups with regard to saline temperature, rate of infusion, or decrease in core body temperature. The decrease in core temperature for the intraosseous group was 2.8 degrees C (95% CI=1.8, 3.8) over the infusion period. Mild therapeutic hypothermia can be effectively induced in swine after successful resuscitation of prolonged

  15. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin versus Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin Compared to Intraosseous Whole Blood or No Treatment for Hemorrhagic Shock in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    3794 5. Purpose: To determine if hydroxocobalamin, a portable, safe and FDA approved drug, is effective in improving hemorrhagic shock 6...Results: Intravenous (IV) versus proximal tibial intraosseous ( IO ) hydroxocobalamin (HOC) compared to no treatment: Systolic blood pressure, the...primary outcome variable, was similar between the IV and IO HOC groups over time. This was significantly different from the non-treated group such

  16. Intraosseous infusions: a review for the anesthesiologist with a focus on pediatric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joseph D; Ross, Allison Kinder

    2010-02-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is used most frequently for emergency care of critically ill infants and children when IV access cannot be rapidly achieved. Despite its efficacy in such situations, applications outside of the emergency room or resuscitation scenario have been limited. Furthermore, although the technique is emphasized in the teaching of those caring for critically ill infants and children in the emergency room or critical care setting, there is limited emphasis on its potential use in the perioperative setting. When peripheral venous access cannot be achieved in the operating room, alternative means of securing vascular access such as central line placement or surgical cutdown are generally successful; however, these techniques may be time consuming. Anyone providing anesthesia care for infants and children may want to become facile with the use of IO infusions for selected indications. We present the history of IO infusions, review the anatomy of the bone marrow space, discuss the potential role of IO infusions in the perioperative period, and analyze its adverse effect profile.

  17. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  18. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations for the

  19. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable.The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR.In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained.The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1-19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1-30.9) s] (P < 0.001).Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867.

  20. Expedient Route To Access Rare Deoxy Amino l-Sugar Building Blocks for the Assembly of Bacterial Glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapala, Someswara Rao; Kulkarni, Suvarn S

    2016-04-13

    Bacterial glycoproteins and oligosaccharides contain several rare deoxy amino l-sugars which are virtually absent in the human cells. This structural difference between the bacterial and host cell surface glycans can be exploited for the development of carbohydrate based vaccines and target specific drugs. However, the unusual deoxy amino l-sugars present in the bacterial glycoconjugates are not available from natural sources. Thus, procurement of orthogonally protected rare l-sugar building blocks through efficient chemical synthesis is a crucial step toward the synthesis of structurally well-defined and homogeneous complex glycans. Herein, we report a general and expedient methodology to access a variety of unusual deoxy amino l-sugars starting from readily available l-rhamnose and l-fucose via highly regioselective, one-pot double serial and double parallel displacements of the corresponding 2,4-bistriflates using azide and nitrite anions as nucleophiles. Alternatively, regioselective monotriflation at O2, O3, and O4 of l-rhamnose/l-fucose allowed selective inversions at respective positions leading to diverse rare sugars. The orthogonally protected deoxy amino l-sugar building blocks could be stereoselectively assembled to obtain biologically relevant bacterial O-glycans, as exemplified by the first total synthesis of the amino linker-attached, conjugation-ready tetrasaccharide of O-PS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:50 strain 3229 and the trisaccharide of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71.

  1. Intraosseous Hibernoma in the Sacrum of an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westacott, Lorraine; Collins, Angus; Dickenson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Hibernoma is an uncommon lipomatous tumor composed of brown adipose cells that until recently has only ever been described in soft tissue locations. This report describes the histological features of a discrete lesion in the sacrum of an 84-year-old lady. Biopsy of this lesion demonstrated that it consisted predominantly of multivacuolated lipocytes with a morphological and immunohistochemical profile consistent with brown fat cells. The lesion was diagnosed as an intraosseous hibernoma. This is the 16th report in the English literature of a hibernoma occurring outside of a soft tissue location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. 75 FR 17562 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... or dangerous. Vessel routing system means any system of one or more routes or routing measure aimed... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and the approach to the San Pedro Channel from the Pacific Ocean... are most cost- effective? 5. What impacts, both positive and negative, would changes to existing...

  3. Analysis of intraosseous samples in endotoxemic shock--an experimental study in the anaesthetised pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G; Larsson, A; Lipcsey, M; Berglund, L; Eriksson, M

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is used in emergency situations to allow rapid initiation of treatment. IO access is also sometimes used for blood sampling, although data on accuracy of such sampling in critical illness are limited. There is also a potential risk that bone marrow fragments in IO samples may damage laboratory equipment. It is ethically questionable to perform a simultaneous comparison between IO and arterial/venous sampling in critically ill humans. We have, thus, studied the analytical performance of IO sampling in a porcine septic shock model using a cartridge-based analyser. Eight pigs with endotoxin-induced septic shock were sampled hourly for 6 h, and analysed for blood gases, acid base status, haemoglobin, glucose and lactate using point of care instruments. Samples were taken from three IO cannulae (tibia bilaterally, one with infusion, and humerus), one arterial and one venous. An interaction test was used to assess changes in agreement between methods over time. Bland–Altman plots were constructed to study bias between methods. There were, to a varying extent, differences between IO and arterial/venous levels for all studied variables, but agreement did not change significantly during the experiment. A general finding was a large dispersion of differences between methods. IO sample values should be treated with caution in this setting but may add useful information to the clinical picture. The tibia or humerus may be used for sampling. IO infusion decreases agreement, thus sampling during infusion should be avoided.

  4. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinetti, A.; Sessa, M.; Falzone, A.; Della Sala, S.W. [Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons may be complicated by adjacent bone erosion and subsequent migration of calcific deposits within the bone resulting in marrow inflammation. Bone marrow involvement is not readily visible using X-ray and ultrasound (US) and further testing is necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive technique that can detect a focal bone T1 and T2-weighted hypointensity with bone marrow edema-like signal and cortical erosion. These findings can mislead the radiologist by suggesting an infectious or neoplastic lesion, often requiring further evaluation with computed tomography (CT) and biopsy. We report two cases of patients with shoulder pain in which different radiological approaches were used with pathological confirmation in one of them. In the first case, MRI revealed significant bone involvement in the head of the humerus and cortical erosion of the greater tuberosity. A CT examination and a biopsy was necessary for a final diagnosis of inflammatory bone reaction from intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications. In the second case, similar MRI findings prompted re-evaluation of imaging to make a diagnosis of intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications, obviating the need to perform CT and biopsy. We illustrate MRI signs of this complication that we think would allow to narrow the differential diagnosis potentially avoiding biopsy and additional CT examinations. (orig.)

  5. [Anatomic rationale for clinical efficacy of intraosseous mental nerve anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S A; Vasil'ev, Yu L; Kuzin, A N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prove the anatomical and clinical effectiveness of the modified anesthesia of mental nerve. The effectiveness of conductive anesthesia near the mental foramen was objectively evaluated using the electric pulp test (EPT) in 100 volunteers of both sexes, aged 35-43 years. Wet anterior mandible preparations obtained from 350 cadavers aged 18-74 years were also studied. EPT value after local mental anesthesia conducted according to Malamed C. using 4% articain solution of local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor concentration of 1:200.000 after 2 minutes was 93±0.82 mA, after 4 minutes - 188±1.26 mA. Yield variability indicators of intraosseous mental nerve anesthesia was slightly higher varying from 94.11 mA to 96.61 mA after 2 minutes and from 197.4 to 199.92 mA after 4 minutes survey. The study showed the efficiency and predictability of intraosseous anesthesia of the mental nerve.

  6. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinetti, A.; Sessa, M.; Falzone, A.; Della Sala, S.W.

    2018-01-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons may be complicated by adjacent bone erosion and subsequent migration of calcific deposits within the bone resulting in marrow inflammation. Bone marrow involvement is not readily visible using X-ray and ultrasound (US) and further testing is necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive technique that can detect a focal bone T1 and T2-weighted hypointensity with bone marrow edema-like signal and cortical erosion. These findings can mislead the radiologist by suggesting an infectious or neoplastic lesion, often requiring further evaluation with computed tomography (CT) and biopsy. We report two cases of patients with shoulder pain in which different radiological approaches were used with pathological confirmation in one of them. In the first case, MRI revealed significant bone involvement in the head of the humerus and cortical erosion of the greater tuberosity. A CT examination and a biopsy was necessary for a final diagnosis of inflammatory bone reaction from intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications. In the second case, similar MRI findings prompted re-evaluation of imaging to make a diagnosis of intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications, obviating the need to perform CT and biopsy. We illustrate MRI signs of this complication that we think would allow to narrow the differential diagnosis potentially avoiding biopsy and additional CT examinations. (orig.)

  7. Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...

  8. Improvement of dose evaluation system for employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Minami, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. had developed the dose evaluation system to evaluate the radiation dose of employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This system has features, which are (1) the dose rate of any evaluation point can be evaluated, (2) the dose rate at any time can be evaluated in consideration of the change in the radioactive source, (3) the dose rate map in the plant can be displayed (4) the dose along the access route when moving can be evaluated, and it is possible to use it for examination of the accident management guideline on the dose side etc.. To upgrade the dose evaluation function of this system, the improvements had been done which were introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function. By introducing the dose rate conversion coefficient, the calculation time of the dose rate map in the plant was shortened at about 20 seconds, and a new function to evaluate time-dependent dose rate of any evaluation point was added. By adding the access route edit function, it became possible to re-calculate the dose easily at the route change. (author)

  9. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising de novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2009-07-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma is an odontogenic tumour with aggressive behaviour usually noticed in 6th to 7th decades of life. The tumour is characterized by progressive swelling of the jaw, pain and loosening of teeth. Microscopically, the lesion is showing foci of keratinising cells separated by collagenous connective tissue stroma. A case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of mandible arising de novo in a 40-year-old man is reported.

  10. A comparison of two intraosseous anesthetic techniques in mandibular posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallatin, Juliane; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2003-11-01

    A number of studies have evaluated the Stabident (Fairfax Dental, Miami) intraosseous anesthesia technique. A second intraosseous technique--the X-tip system (X-tip Technologies, Lakewood, N.J.)--has been introduced, but no scientific studies have yet compared its effectiveness to that of the Stabident system. The authors undertook a study to compare the two systems' anesthetic outcomes in primary intraosseous injections in mandibular posterior teeth. The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered a primary Stabident intraosseous injection and a primary X-tip intraosseous injection, at two separate appointments, to 41 subjects. Subjects were asked if they perceived an increase in heart rate with the intraosseous injections. The research team blind-tested each subject's first molar, second molar and second premolar with a pulp tester at two-minute cycles for 60 minutes after the injection. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive pulp tester readings of 80 were obtained. Anesthetic success rates for the Stabident technique and the X-tip technique, respectively, were 93 percent and 93 percent for the first molar; 95 percent and 95 percent for the second molar; and 81 percent and 83 percent for the second premolar, with no significant differences (P > .05) between the two techniques. For both intraosseous techniques, onset of pulpal anesthesia occurred within the first two minutes, but the duration of anesthesia declined steadily over the 60 minutes. Eighty-five percent of the subjects had a perceived increase in heart rate with the Stabident injection and 93 percent with the X-tip injection, with no significant differences (P > .05) between the techniques. The two primary intraosseous injection techniques were similar regarding anesthetic success, onset, duration and perceived heart rate increases.

  11. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Idris; Nasil Sakkir; Kishore Gopalakrishna Naik; Nandakishore Kunijal Jayaram

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alve...

  12. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Materials and methods: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for res-pective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite...

  13. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Material and method: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two ...

  14. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the mandible: Report of a rare ancient type

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Jahanshahi; Abbas Haghighat; Faezeh Azmoodeh

    2011-01-01

    The neurilemmoma is a benign neoplasm of Schwann cell origin. One of the histopathologic subtypes of this tumor is ancient schwannoma which is characterized by degenerative alterations including cystic change, calcification, hemorrhage, and hyalinization. Intraosseous schwannomas especially ancient ones are rare tumors. Here we present a case of intraosseous ancient schwannoma in the lower jaw of an 11-year-old girl which caused a non-tender expansion. Radiographic examination showed a well-c...

  15. Sickle-cell hip necrosis and intraosseous pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisi, M M; Bashoun, K; Burny, F

    2009-04-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a frequent complication of sickle-cell disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated increased intraosseous pressure (IOP) in idiopathic necrosis and necrosis secondary to corticotherapy or alcohol poisoning. Several reports have testified to the clinical interest of decompression by drilling which, when performed in the early course of the pathology, can arrest or slow evolution. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have reported IOP increase in sickle-cell ONFH. The present study sought to show that intraosseous hyperpressure plays a role in the physiopathology of sickle-cell, like idiopathic, ONFH. Sixteen intraosseous pressure (IOP) measurements were taken: eight in adult sickle-cell disease patients, four in sickle-cell trait carrying ONFH patients (AS) and four in non-sickle-cell ONFH patients (AA). Arterial blood-pressure equipment with bone-puncture needle was used to measure IOP in the great trochanter body. Three IOP measurements were made after zero calibration: before drilling (direct pressure: IOP-1), after hyperpressure test but before drilling (IOP-2), and after drilling (IOP-3). The present, admittedly short, series displayed elevated predrilling IOP-1 and IOP-2, reduced after drilling (IOP-3). Abnormal IOP fell after drilling performed for evolutive symptomatic ONFH. Significant differences in IOP-1 and IOP-2 were found, these being higher in the "sickle-cell disease" and "sickle-cell trait carriers" groups (pintraosseous hyperpressure is the cause of the pain and of the onset and evolution of ONFH. The drilling tunnel acts as a safety valve, achieving real decompression of the segment involved and immediate postoperative reduction in or disappearance of pain. Measuring pressure is of diagnostic interest in sickle-cell disease patients with symptomatic hips. Manometry can be performed independently of surgery, under local anesthesia, and provides early confirmation of ONFH in geographic regions in which

  16. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  17. Intraosseous lipomata in Paget's disease: an unusual CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbie, M.J.; Pratsis, K.K.; Lockie, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A case of multiple intraosseous lumbar vertebral lipomata is reported occurring in the prescence of Paget's disease. The pathology and radiology are correlated. An 84 year old man with Paget's disease presented after a cerebrovascular accident which caused him a mild right hemiparesis. Lumbar vertebral lesions were noted incidentally on abdominal radiographs and a CT scan was performed to define the abnormal areas. CT appearance favoured a slow growing non-invasive lesion. However, it failed to show the lower attenuation expected of a fatty lesion such as a lipoma. It is estimated that CT can be diagnostic if it does show fat level attenuation while Magnetic Resonance Imaging can define the lesion in the sagittal and coronal planes as well as provide the signal characteristics of fat (high signal on T1 and T2 weighted images) irrespective of its myxoid ground substance content

  18. Intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma of maxilla: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasannasrinivas Suresh Deshpande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC accounts for approximately 6-10% of all salivary gland tumors. Palatal minor salivary glands, parotid, and sub-mandibular glands are usually affected. Rarely, these lesions arising intraosseously have been reported. Mandible is commonly involved than maxilla. The present case is a giant ACC involving the right maxilla. A thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed to assess the involvement of surrounding vital structures along with a meticulous metastatic work-up. Computed tomography showed a giant lesion in maxilla encroaching the left nasal fossa, antrum, buccal space, and oral cavity. No metastasis was noted. Histological evaluation from multiple sites showed both cribriform and solid patterns. Radiotherapy was given as patient did not comply for surgery. Though central ACC is extremely rare, especially in maxilla, it should be included in the differentials for lesions in maxilla. A prompt diagnosis with treatment and long-term follow-up is advised in such cases.

  19. Comparison of the effects of sternal and tibial intraosseous administered resuscitative drugs on return of spontaneous circulation in a swine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Mara; Martinez, Andre; Long, Audrey; Johnson, Michelle; Blouin, Dawn; Johnson, Arthur D; Burgert, James M

    2016-01-01

    Compare vasopressin, amiodarone, and epinephrine administration by sternal intraosseous (SIO), tibial intraosseous (TIO), and intravenous (IV) routes in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Prospective, randomized, between subjects, experimental design. Laboratory. Male Yorkshire-cross swine (N = 35), seven per group. Swine were randomized to SIO, TIO, IV, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with defibrillation, or CPR-only groups. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced under general anesthesia. Mechanical CPR began 2 minutes postarrest. Vasopressin (40 U) was administered to the SIO, TIO, and IV groups 4 minutes postarrest. Defibrillation was performed and amiodarone (300 mg) was administered 6 minutes postarrest. Defibrillation was repeated, and epinephrine (1 mg) was administered 10 minutes postarrest. Defibrillation was repeated every 2 minutes and epinephrine repeated every 4 minutes until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or 26 postarrest minutes elapsed. Rate of ROSC, time to ROSC, and odds of ROSC. There were no significant differences in rate of ROSC between the SIO and TIO (p = 0.22) or IV groups (p = 1.0). Time to ROSC was five times less in the SIO group than the TIO group (p = 0.003) but not compared to IV (p = 0.125). Time to ROSC in the IV group was significantly less than the TIO group (p = 0.04). Odds of ROSC for the SIO group were five times higher compared to the TIO group but same as IV. Odds of ROSC in the IV group were higher than the TIO group. There was a statistically significant delay in the time to ROSC and a clinically significant difference in odds of ROSC when resuscitative drugs, including lipophilic amiodarone, were administered by the TIO route compared to the SIO and IV routes in a swine model of sudden cardiac arrest. Further investigations are warranted to isolate the mechanism behind these findings.

  20. Evaluation of clinical and paraclinical effects of intraosseous vs intravenous administration of propofol on general anesthesia in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mazaheri-Khameneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study aimed to compare the intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV effects of propofol on selected blood parameters and physiological variables during general anesthesia in rabbits. Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were studied. Six rabbits received IV propofol (group 1 and another 6 rabbits, were injected propofol intraosseously (Group 2 for 30 minutes (experimental groups. Rabbits of the third and fourth groups received IV and IO normal saline at the same volume given to the experimental groups, respectively. In the fifth group IO cannulation was performed but neither propofol nor normal saline were administered. Blood profiles were assayed before induction and after recovery of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, saturation of peripheral oxygen and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded. Heart rate increased significantly 1 to 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia in experimental groups (P < 0.05. Although mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline, values remained above 60 mm Hg (P < 0.05. Respiratory rate decreased significantly in experimental groups, but remained higher in group 2 (P < 0.05. The lymphocyte count decreased significantly in group 1 (P < 0.05. The concentration of alkaline phosphatase in all rabbits, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma- glutamyl transferase in the first group and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the third group increased significantly (P < 0.05. Total bilirubin decreased significantly in group 2 (P < 0.05. All measured values remained within normal limits. Based on the least significant physiological, hematological and biochemical effects, the IO injection of propofol appears to be safe and suitable method of anesthesia in rabbits with limited vascular access.

  1. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  2. The efficacy of IntraFlow intraosseous injection as a primary anesthesia technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Todd; Glickman, Gerald; Spears, Robert; He, Jianing

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar (IA) nerve block in anesthetizing mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty human subjects were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the IntraFlow system (Pro-Dex Inc, Santa Ana, CA) or IA block as the primary anesthesia method. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated via electric pulp testing at 4-minute intervals for 20 minutes. Two consecutive 80/80 readings were considered successful pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia success or failure was recorded and groups compared. Intraosseous injection provided successful anesthesia in 13 of 15 subjects (87%). The IA block provided successful anesthesia in 9 of 15 subjects (60%). Although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2148), the results of this preliminary study indicate that the IntraFlow system can be used as the primary anesthesia method in teeth with irreversible pulpitis to achieve predictable pulpal anesthesia.

  3. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-03-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  4. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Aim: To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Materials and Methods: Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:23716971

  5. Root damage induced by intraosseous anesthesia. An in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Christian; Fawzy-El-Sayed, Karim-Mohamed; Graetz, Nicole; Dörfer, Christof-Edmund

    2013-01-01

    The principle of the intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) relies on the perforation of the cortical plate of the bone for direct application of the local anesthetic solution into the underlying cancellous structures. During this procedure, IOA needles might accidentally come in contact with the tooth roots. The aim of the current in vitro study was to examine the consequences of this 'worst case scenario' comparing five commercially available IOA systems. Extracted human roots were randomly perforated using five different IOA systems with a drilling time ≤5s. To simulate normal in vivo conditions, the roots were kept humid during the drilling procedure. Data was statistically evaluated using F-test (SPSS16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. All examined systems resulted in root perforation. Drill fractures occurred in either none 0% (Quicksleeper, Anesto, Intraflow, Stabident) or 100% (X-Tip) of the applications. Excessive heat generation, as evident by combustion odor as well as metal and tooth discoloration, appeared in 30% (Quicksleeper), 40% (Anesto), 60% (Intraflow), 90% (Stabident) and 100% (X-Tip) of all perforations. Within the limits of in-vitro studies, the results show a potential for irreversible root damage that might be inflicted by an improper use of IOA systems.

  6. [Intraosseous veins of the maxilla in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, R A

    1975-12-01

    The intraosseous veins of the maxilla in newborns grow larger with enlargement of the bone and become disposed in three mutually perpendicular planes. The venous plexus of the alveolar process is large. V. v. vallares are thin and interlace forming a network. The veins of interdental septum are well pronounced. The thick venous network of the periosteum and the mucous membrane of the nasal surface of the palatine process includes the vessels transversal and longitudinal to the nasal septum. The venous loops of the incisor part are of triangular, pentagonal and polygonal shape. The veins of the palatine process are connected with 3-4 large vessels falling into the vessels of the tear duct. The transversal and oblique veins of the oral surface of the palatine process are connected with large vessels disposed in parallel to the medial structure of the hard palate. The venous network of the incisor part of the bone is restricted by densified small arc-shaped plexuses. Two-three largest veins lie sagittally and, connected by arc-shaped anastomoses, are tributaries of the vessels of the palate bone, soft palate and pharynx.

  7. Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dhupar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child.

  8. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Kamarthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented.

  9. Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder with intraosseous extension: outcomes of ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E. [University Hospital and Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Department of Medical Imaging, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Imperial College London, Department of Chemical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Vassalou, Evangelia E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital and Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Department of Medical Imaging, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-02-15

    Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT) with intraosseous extension is a rare complication of tendinous and peritendinous involvement. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the outcome of ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation of calcific tendinopathy (US-PICT) in patients with intraosseous involvement. From January 2011 to June 2014, patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of RCCT were prospectively categorised in two groups based on imaging findings: group A (10 patients) with intraosseous RCCT and group B (control group 35 patients) without osseous involvement. US-PICT followed by subacromial injection was applied to all patients in groups A and B. During a 1-year follow-up, treatment outcome in terms of pain and functional improvement was evaluated at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, with the use of a four-grade scale. The study has been approved by our hospital's ethics committee. Mean improvement scores of group A were significantly lower than those of group B at all time points (p < 0.0001). Improvement of group B was noted mainly within the first 3 months post-treatment (p = 0.016). Outcomes of ultrasound-guided treatment in cases of RCCT with intraosseous extension are significantly less favourable than in purely tendinous or peritendinous disease. (orig.)

  10. Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder with intraosseous extension: outcomes of ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Vassalou, Evangelia E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT) with intraosseous extension is a rare complication of tendinous and peritendinous involvement. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the outcome of ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation of calcific tendinopathy (US-PICT) in patients with intraosseous involvement. From January 2011 to June 2014, patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of RCCT were prospectively categorised in two groups based on imaging findings: group A (10 patients) with intraosseous RCCT and group B (control group 35 patients) without osseous involvement. US-PICT followed by subacromial injection was applied to all patients in groups A and B. During a 1-year follow-up, treatment outcome in terms of pain and functional improvement was evaluated at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, with the use of a four-grade scale. The study has been approved by our hospital's ethics committee. Mean improvement scores of group A were significantly lower than those of group B at all time points (p < 0.0001). Improvement of group B was noted mainly within the first 3 months post-treatment (p = 0.016). Outcomes of ultrasound-guided treatment in cases of RCCT with intraosseous extension are significantly less favourable than in purely tendinous or peritendinous disease. (orig.)

  11. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  12. The use of intraosseous anesthesia in a patient with myositis ossificans progressiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M D; Wilson, C

    1996-01-01

    The case of a pediatric patient with myositis ossificans progressiva in whom it became increasingly difficult to obtain local anesthesia is presented. Intraosseous anesthesia was successful in allowing pain-free dental treatment to be completed. This approach should be considered in other patients who have limited mouth-opening ability due to injury or disease.

  13. The efficacy of an intraosseous injection system of delivering local anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M S

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the clinical testing of a new system for the intraosseous delivery of local anesthesia. The author concluded that the system delivered local anesthetic very effectively (in some situations more effectively than the traditional delivery method), thus offering a great potential advantage to both dentists and patients.

  14. Uncommon presentations of intraosseous haemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis; Apresentacoes incomuns no diagnostico por imagem do pseudotumor intraosseo do hemofilico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Polezi, Mariana Basso; Pastorello, Monica Tempest; Simao, Marcelo Novelino [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Engel, Edgard Eduard [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Aparelho Locomotor; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Radiologia], e-mail: marcellonog@yahoo.com

    2009-05-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing uncommon presentations of intraosseous hemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis. Materials and methods: Retrospective study evaluating five hemophilic pseudotumors in bones of two patients with hemophilia A. Imaging findings were consensually evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were analyzed. Results: At contrast-enhanced computed tomography images, one of the lesions on the left thigh was visualized with heterogeneously enhanced solid areas. This finding was later confirmed by anatomopathological study. Another uncommon finding was the identification of a healthy bone portion interposed between two intraosseous pseudotumors in the humerus. And, finally, a femoral pseudotumor with extension towards soft tissues and transarticular extension, and consequential tibial and patellar involvement. Conclusion: The above described imaging findings are not frequently reported in cases of intraosseous pseudotumors in hemophilic patients. It is important that radiologists be aware of these more uncommon presentations of intraosseous pseudotumors. (author)

  15. Patients undergoing PCI from the femoral route by default radial operators are at high risk of vascular access-site complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Ihsan M; Uddin, Muez M; Ossei-Gerning, Nicholas; Anderson, Richard A; Kinnaird, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    Radial artery (RA) access for PCI has a lower incidence of vascular access-site (VAS) complications than the femoral artery (FA) approach. However, even for default radial operators certain patients are intervened upon from the FA. We examined the demographics and incidence of VAS complications when default radial operators resort to the FA for PCI. The demographics and VAS complications were compared by access site retrospectively for all PCI cases performed by default radial operators (n=1,392). A modified ACUITY trial definition of major VAS complication was used. FA puncture occurred in 25.2% (351/1,392) of cases. Patients were more likely to be female, older and weigh less than patients undergoing PCI from the RA. The FA procedure was likely to be more complex with larger sheaths, more left main stem, graft and multivessel intervention, and there was a greater proportion of emergency cases. Despite increased case complexity, glycoprotein inhibitors were used less frequently in femoral cases (26.5% vs. 36.8%, prisk factors for access-site bleeding are disproportionately high in the population requiring FA puncture by default radial operators, and as a result such patients have a high rate of vascular access-site complications.

  16. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. Design: A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent trea...

  17. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2012-05-01

    To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia--the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia--the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia.

  18. Giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin: a newly reported benign entity to be distinguished from chordoma. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirra, J.M.; Brien, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are reported of a newly described intraosseous entity of vertebral bodies deemed ''giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin''. This entity is commonly mistaken for chordoma and must be distinguished from it as the consequences of misinterpretation may be serious. The clinical, radiological and histologic criteria that can be used to distinguish these two entities are emphasized. Included is a proposed pathogenesis for this lesion, its probable notochordal origin, and a review of other probable cases. (orig.)

  19. The Lost Art of Whole Blood Transfusion in Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Norway; 2Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care...intravenously or intraosseously will increase the CO and hence the BP because the circulation is constricted severely with low circulating blood volume...lactate monitor). & Establish an intravenous or intraosseous route. For intraosseous route, sternal access is preferred. & The initial fluid of choice is

  20. Primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: original report and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kropp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive followup is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  1. Primary Intraosseous Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Original Report and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Lauren; Siegal, Gene P; Frampton, Garrett M; Rodriguez, Michael G; McKee, Svetlana; Conry, Robert M

    2016-11-17

    We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive follow-up is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  2. Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst with parotid lymph node metastasis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Shenoy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from odontogenic cyst lining is rare. The exact incidence of carcinoma arising in odontogenic cyst is unknown, but it is estimated to vary between 1 and 2/1000. The pathogenesis is unknown, but a long-standing inflammation and continuous intracystic pressure have been suggested as possible causative factors. Metastasis from these lesions is not common (< 20%, and most of the carcinomas are moderately to well differentiated. To qualify as a primary intraosseous carcinoma, there must be no initial connection with the oral mucosa, overlying skin, or antral or nasal mucosa. This paper presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst in the anterior mandible with metastasis to left parotid lymph nodes.

  3. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the mandible: Report of a rare ancient type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahanshahi

    2011-01-01

    Intraosseous schwannomas especially ancient ones are rare tumors. Here we present a case of intraosseous ancient schwannoma in the lower jaw of an 11-year-old girl which caused a non-tender expansion. Radiographic examination showed a well-circumscribed, unilocular radiolucent lesion with thin sclerotic borders in the mandibular body and the ramus. Histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy showed areas of typical Antoni A with verocay bodies and Antoni B that was strongly suggestive of a schwannoma. Complete excision of the lesion was done under general anesthesia. The histopathologic examination confirmed the primary diagnosis and also degenerative changes such as hyalinization and calcification. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was made. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up examination after 3 months.

  4. Primary Benign Intraosseous Meningioma on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Mimicking Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Seok Hwi; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Joo Hee; Hong, Sun Pyo; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We present a case of primary benign intraosseous meningioma in the sphenoid bone mimicking malignancy. A 44-year-old female patient who had a protruding right eye and headache came to our hospital. MRI showed a large, destructive, heterogeneously well-enhancing soft tissue mass in the right sphenoid bone suggesting malignancy. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT showed a hypermetabolic mass in the same site with an SUV{sub max} of 9.1 The pathological diagnosis by surgery revealed that this tumor was a WHO grade I transitional meningioma. This case suggests that primary benign intraosseous meningioma may show high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake mimicking a malignancy.

  5. Root damage induced by intraosseous anesthesia?An in vitro investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Graetz, Christian; Fawzy-El-Sayed, Karim M.; Graetz, Nicole; D?rfer, Christof-Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The principle of the intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) relies on the perforation of the cortical plate of the bone for direct application of the local anesthetic solution into the underlying cancellous structures. During this procedure, IOA needles might accidentally come in contact with the tooth roots. The aim of the current in vitro study was to examine the consequences of this ?worst case scenario? comparing five commercially available IOA systems. Material and Methods: Extracted ...

  6. Isolated intraosseous gout in hallux sesamoid mimicking a bone tumor in a teenaged patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shi-Zuo; Yeh, LeeRen; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang; Pan, Huay-Ban; Chou, Yi-Jiun

    2003-01-01

    We are reporting an unusual case of isolated intraosseous tophus in medial hallux sesamoid presenting as tumor-like lesion in a teenage patient without prior history of gouty attack and underlying systemic disorders. The lesion manifested isointensity to surrounding muscles with internal low signal on spin echo (SE) T1-weighted images, and heterogeneous low signal intensity on fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted images. Computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed expansion and diffusely increased attenuation of the medial hallux sesamoid with focal cortical erosion and extraosseous extension of high attenuation content. The subsequent resection and pathology revealed intraosseous tophus deposition, which is particularly rare at this site and at this age. Imaging studies revealed some characteristic imaging features which can retrospectively be attributed to gouty tophus. When an expansile osteolytic lesion manifesting low signal intensity on T2-weighted image and internal calcifications on CT scan is encountered, the possibility of intraosseous tophus should be included in the list of differential diagnoses, even in a teenage patient without prior history of gout. (orig.)

  7. Biomechanical aspects of initial intraosseous stability and implant design: a quantitative micro-morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kivanç; Chang, Ting-Ling; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Fanuscu, Mete I

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this biomechanical study was to explore the effect of bone micro-morphology on initial intraosseous stability of implants with different designs. Straumann and Astra Tech dental implants were placed into anterior and posterior regions of completely edentulous maxilla and mandible of a human cadaver. Experiments were undertaken to quantify initial implant stability and bone micro-morphology. Installation torque values (ITVs) and implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured to determine initial intraosseous implant stability. For quantification of relative bone volume and micro-architecture, sectioned implant-bone and bone core specimens of each implant placement site were consecutively scanned and trabecular bone was analyzed in a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) unit. Experimental outcomes were evaluated for correlations among implant designs, initial intraosseous implant stability and bone micro-structural parameters. ITVs correlated higher with bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than ISQs, at 88.1% and 68.9% levels, respectively. Correlations between ITVs and micro-morphometric parameters were significant at the 95% confidence level (Pimplant designs used were not significant at the 95% confidence level (P>0.05). Bone micro-morphology has a prevailing effect over implant design on intraosseus initial implant stability, and ITV is more sensitive in terms of revealing biomechanical properties at the bone-implant interface in comparison with ISQ.

  8. Patterns of Intraosseous Recurrence After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Coxal Bone Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kei; Shimizuguchi, Takuya; Nihei, Keiji; Furuya, Tomohisa; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasai, Keisuke; Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the detailed pattern of intraosseous failure after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for coxal bone metastasis. Patients treated with SBRT to coxal bone metastasis were identified by retrospective chart review. The SBRT doses were 30 Gy or 35 Gy in 5 fractions. A margin of 5 to 10 mm was added to the gross tumor volume to create the clinical target volume. We evaluated the presence or absence of intraosseous recurrence using magnetic resonance imaging. Intraosseous recurrences were assessed as "in-field" or "marginal/out-of-field." In addition, we measured the distance between the center of the recurrent tumor and the nearest edge of the initial bone metastasis in cases of marginal/out-of-field recurrence. Seventeen patients treated for 17 coxal bone metastases were included. Median age was 64 years (range, 48-79 years). Coxal lesions involved the ilium in 14 cases, pubis in 3, and ischium in 4 (3 lesions crossed over multiple regions). Patients most commonly had renal cell carcinoma (29.4%), followed by lung, hepatic cell, and colorectal cancers (23.5%, 11.8%, and 11.8%, respectively). Median follow-up after SBRT was 13 months (range, 2-44 months). Among all 17 cases, 7 cases developed 8 intraosseous recurrences, including in-field recurrence in 1 case and marginal/out-of-field recurrences in 7 cases. Median time to intraosseous recurrence was 10 months (range, 2-35 months). Among 7 cases with marginal/out-of-field recurrence, mean distance to the center of the recurrent tumor from the nearest edge of the initial bone metastasis was 34 mm (range, 15-55 mm). Most recurrences were observed out-of-field in the same coxal bone. These results suggest that defining the optimal clinical target volume in SBRT for coxal bone metastasis to obtain sufficient local tumor control is difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception of discomfort during injection and the need for supplemental anesthesia in the intraosseous technique using 4% articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, Adel; Lujan Pardo, María Del Pilar; Harris Ricardo, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The authors conducted an experimental study to determine patient perception of discomfort during injection and the need for supplemental anesthesia using the intraosseous technique with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in patients with symptomatic pulpitis in mandibular molars. At different clinical sessions, researchers used 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine to apply intraosseous injection (Group 1) or inferior alveolar nerve block (Group 2). Each technique was applied in 35 patients. In each group, the need for additional anesthesia was determined and patient discomfort during injection was assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) test. In the intraosseous group, no supplemental technique was needed in 22 patients (62.85 %), and results were similar for the inferior alveolar technique (n: 23 65.71%). The intraosseous technique proved to be more comfortable than the mandibular technique (18 patients - 25.7%). This study found that the use of intraosseous technique with 4% articaine shows promising results regarding patient comfort and reducing the need for additional anesthesia. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  10. Intraosseous access can be taught to medical students using the four-step approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzali, Monika; Kvisselgaard, Ask Daffy; Lyngeraa, Tobias Stenbjerg

    2017-01-01

    was evaluated by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and rated using a weighted checklist. To evaluate the validity of the checklist, three raters rated performance and Cohen's kappa was performed to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR). To examine the strength of the overall IRR, Randolph...

  11. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  12. Via de acesso cirúrgico posterossuperior para o tratamento das luxações acromioclaviculares: resultados de 84 casos operados Posterosuperior surgical access route for treatment of acromioclavicular dislocations: results from 84 surgical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Canesin Dal Molin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico de 84 luxações acromioclaviculares agudas com a utilização da via de acesso posterossuperior do ombro. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 84 casos de luxações acromioclaviculares agudas grau III da classificação de Allman-Tossy operados de novembro de 2002 a maio de 2010. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 34 anos. O diagnóstico foi realizado por avaliação clínica e radiográfica. Os pacientes foram operados pela mesma equipe cirúrgica em até três semanas da data do trauma realizando-se a via de acesso posterossuperior do ombro com acesso ao topo da base do processo coracoide para colocação de duas âncoras utilizadas na redução da luxação. O seguimento mínimo foi de 12 meses. A avaliação clínica-radiográfica pós-operatória foi realizada pelos critérios de Karlsson modificados e do escore da Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles (UCLA. RESULTADOS: Dos 84 pacientes operados, 92,8% apresentavam resultados bons ou excelentes e 7,2% de resultados regulares ou fracos pelo escore de avaliação da UCLA. Pelos critérios de Karlsson modificados 76,2% foram avaliados como grau A, 17,9% como grau B e 5,9% como grau C. CONCLUSÃO: A VIA de acesso posterossuperior do ombro é uma nova opção para acesso ao processo coracoide e tratamento das luxações acromioclaviculares, com resultados clínicos e radiográficos equivalentes aos da literatura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results from surgical treatment of 84 cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, using a posterosuperior access route. METHODS: Eighty-four cases of acute acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III in the Allman-Tossy classification operated between November 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated. The patients' mean age was 34 years. The diagnoses were made using clinical and radiographic evaluations. The patients were operated by the same surgical team, within three weeks of the date of the trauma, using a

  13. Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol administered intraosseously to green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R A; Schumacher, J; Hedjazi-Haring, K; Newell, S M

    1998-01-01

    To determine cardiopulmonary effects of intraosseous administration of propofol in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Prospective study. 14 green iguanas. Anesthesia was induced in 4 iguanas with propofol (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb] of body weight, intraosseously). Heart and respiratory rates, functional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 concentration, and cloacal temperature were recorded. Ten additional iguanas were given propofol intraosseously for induction (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb] and maintenance (0.5 mg/kg/min [0.23 mg/lb/min], q 30 min) of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, cloacal temperature, and SpO2 were recorded. Mean induction time for the first 4 iguanas was 1.2 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was seen 1 minute after induction of anesthesia. All iguanas were apneic, but spontaneous ventilation resumed within 5 minutes. End-tidal CO2 concentration decreased from 46 mm of Hg 4 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 32 mm of Hg 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean duration of anesthesia was 27 minutes. Mean induction time for the other 10 iguanas was 3 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was detected 35 minutes after induction of anesthesia and persisted until 120 minutes. Mean SpO2 value decreased from 79% 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 64% 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean recovery time was 57 minutes. Propofol is an effective anesthetic agent for use in green iguanas. It is recommended that iguanas be intubated, provided oxygen, and given assisted ventilation after administration of propofol to prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia.

  14. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous cystic cavity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shicheng; Teng Gaojun; Deng Gang; Fang Wen; Guo Jinhe; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozao; Shen Zhiping; Ding Huijuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the key technique, short term clinical efficacy and degree of changes in vertebral body height for percutaneous vertebroplasty in treating patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures containing intraosseous cystic cavity phenomena. Methods: Thirty two vertebrae of painful compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum sign occurring in 27 patients were identified from 326 percutaneous vertebroplasties performed in 207 patients during 4 years. PVP was performed under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance only with local anesthesia. Intaosseous venography was performed on each vertebra by hand injection with non-ionic contrast agent, with CT monitoring after PMMA injection for the PMMA distribution in the vertebrae and looking for leakage. The heights of 32 vertebral bodies were measured before and after the vertebroplasty. The efficacy of PVP was evaluated during the follow-up. Results: The successful rate of PVP was 100%. Main appearance of vertebral venography showed cystic cavity-like, stasis of contrast medium within the marrow space of the fractured vertebra. 6.8 ml of PMMA in average was injected into each vertebra. CR, PR and NR were obtained respectively 66.7%, 18.5%, 14.8% mm centrally and 0.06 mm posteriorly. The heights restoration of vertebrae anteriorly and centrally were significantly different (P 0.05). No serious complications related to the technique occurred, except 3 cases with asymptomatic PMMA leakage around vertebrae demonstrated by CT. Conclusions: Significant pain relief and vertebral height restoration by PVP in the treatment of patients with painful vertebral compression fractures accompanied by intraosseous cysticavitary change, are promising with low-rate of PMMA leakage. The basic successful mechanism lies on the proper complete PMMA filling predicting through venography. (authors)

  15. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Ata-Ali, J; Oltra-Moscardó, M-J; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Peñarrocha, M

    2012-03-01

    To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. The mean patient age was 28.6±9.92 years. Fifty-five vestibular infiltrations and 45 mandibular blocks were performed. All patients were also subjected to IA. The type of intervention (conservative or endodontic) exerted no significant influence (p=0.58 and p=0.62, respectively). The latency period was 8.52±2.44 minutes for the conventional techniques and 0.89±0.73 minutes for IA - the difference being statistically significant (panesthesia sensation, the infiltrative techniques lasted a maximum of one hour, the inferior alveolar nerve blocks lasted between 1-3 hours, and IA lasted only 2.5 minutes - the differences being statistically significant (p≤0.0000, Φ=0.29). Anesthetic success was recorded in 89% of the conventional procedures and in 78% of the IA. Most patients preferred IA (61%)(p=0.0032). The two anesthetic procedures have been compared for latency, duration of anesthetic effect, anesthetic success rate and patient preference. Intraosseous anesthesia has been shown to be a technique to be taken into account when planning conservative and endodontic treatments.

  16. Intraosseous lipoma: report of 35 new cases and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.S.D.; Grainger, A.J.; Mangham, D.C.; Beggs, I.; Teh, J.; Davies, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To identify the common imaging features of intraosseous lipomas on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), and review their histological features.Design and patients Thirty-five previously unreported cases of intraosseous lipoma were reviewed and a meta-analysis was performed of another 110 cases identified from the English language literature. The mean age at presentation is 43 years. Sex distribution is nearly equal. Lipomas occur most frequently in the lower limb (71% overall), particularly in the os calcis (32%). Other common sites include the metaphyses of long bones, where lesions are typically eccentric. Lipomas are usually well defined, but marginal sclerosis is commoner in lesions of the os calcis (61%) than at other sites (38%). Calcification is also more frequent in the os calcis (62%), and almost invariably centrally located. Calcification at other sites is less common (30%), and is more variable in appearance. Bone expansion is less common (30%), and usually minimal. Fat necrosis and cyst formation identified on MRI is common (67%), and more frequent in the os calcis. Although there is correlation between the histological and radiological features of intraosseous lipomas in general, some discrepancies occur in the radiological appearances of lipomas in different sites. The evidence that these lesions are true benign tumours of fat is controversial. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in their development. The constant location of os calcis lesions at the critical angle suggests an aetiology that may be related to biomechanical lines of stress. In other instances it is possible that involution of pre-existing lesions may lead to the development of lipomas. (orig.)

  17. Intraosseous pneumatocyst of the ilium: CT findings in two cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; De Rosa, F.; Muto, M.

    1997-01-01

    Intraosseous pneumatocyst of the ilium is a rare lesion of uncertain origin. It predilects male subjects and may be associated or not with sacroiliac joint degenerative disease, intra-articular gas, sacral pneumatocyst, and communication with the articular space. To our knowledge, only 16 observations have been reported in the literature. We have evaluated with plain radiographs and CT two additional cases. Plain films frequently identify these lesions, but CT is the method of choice in demonstrating their air density and assessing the possible abnormalities of the surrounding bone and sacroiliac joints. (orig.)

  18. [Principles of bone tissue structures interaction with full removable dentures fixed on intraosseous implantates modelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashmurina, V R; Chumachenko, E N; Olesova, V N; Volozhin, A I

    2008-01-01

    Math modelling "removable dentures-implantate-bone" with size and density of bone tissue as variables was created. It allowed to study biomechanical bases of mandibular bone tissue structures interaction with full removable dentures of different constructions and fixed on intraosseous implantates. Analysis of the received data showed that in the majority of cases it was expedient to recommend 3 bearing (abutments) system of denture making. Rest on 4 and more implantates was appropriate for patients with reduced density of spongy bone and significant mandibular bone atrophy. 2 abutment system can be used in patients with high density of spongy bone and absence of mandibular bone atrophy.

  19. Periodontal ligament and intraosseous anesthetic injection techniques: alternatives to mandibular nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Cuddy, Michael A; Cooke, Matthew R; Sokolowski, Chester J

    2011-09-01

    and Overview. The provision of mandibular anesthesia traditionally has relied on nerve block anesthetic techniques such as the Halsted, the Gow-Gates and the Akinosi-Vazirani methods. The authors present two alternative techniques to provide local anesthesia in mandibular teeth: the periodontal ligament (PDL) injection and the intraosseous (IO) injection. The authors also present indications for and complications associated with these techniques. The PDL injection and the IO injection are effective anesthetic techniques for managing nerve block failures and for providing localized anesthesia in the mandible. Dentists may find these techniques to be useful alternatives to nerve block anesthesia.

  20. Comparison of the degree of pulpal anesthesia achieved with the intraosseous injection and infiltration injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John; Wood, Mark; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2005-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained from an intraosseous injection to an infiltration injection that used 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The success rate for the intraosseous injection was 98%; for the infiltration injection, the success rate was 85%. There was no significant difference between the two techniques. The mean time for the onset of pulpal anesthesia was significantly faster with the intraosseous injection and the infiltration injection resulted in a significantly longer duration of pulpal anesthesia.

  1. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  2. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  3. Intraosseous repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats: an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, N J; Trickett, R I; Owen, E; Lanzetta, M

    1998-08-01

    A reliable method of exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in Wistar rats has been developed, to allow intraosseous repair with two microsurgical techniques under halothane inhalational anaesthesia. The microsuturing technique involves anastomosis with 10-0 nylon sutures; a laser-weld technique uses an albumin-based solder containing indocyanine green, plus an infrared (810 nm wavelength) diode laser Seven animals had left inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed with the microsuture and laser-weld techniques. Controls were provided by unoperated nerves in the repaired cases. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion, following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed similar mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated controls and both microsuture and laser-weld groups. This new technique of intraosseous exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats is described. It allows reliable and reproducible microsurgical repairs using both microsuture and laser-weld techniques.

  4. Root damage induced by intraosseous anesthesia–An in vitro investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy-El-Sayed, Karim M.; Graetz, Nicole; Dörfer, Christof-Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The principle of the intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) relies on the perforation of the cortical plate of the bone for direct application of the local anesthetic solution into the underlying cancellous structures. During this procedure, IOA needles might accidentally come in contact with the tooth roots. The aim of the current in vitro study was to examine the consequences of this ‘worst case scenario’ comparing five commercially available IOA systems. Material and Methods: Extracted human roots were randomly perforated using five different IOA systems with a drilling time ≤5s. To simulate normal in vivo conditions, the roots were kept humid during the drilling procedure. Data was statistically evaluated using F-test (SPSS16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) and the significance level was set at p≤0.05. Results: All examined systems resulted in root perforation. Drill fractures occurred in either none 0% (Quicksleeper®, Anesto®, Intraflow®, Stabident®) or 100% (X-Tip®) of the applications. Excessive heat generation, as evident by combustion odor as well as metal and tooth discoloration, appeared in 30% (Quicksleeper®), 40% (Anesto®), 60% (Intraflow®), 90% (Stabident®) and 100% (X-Tip®) of all perforations. Conclusion: Within the limits of in-vitro studies, the results show a potential for irreversible root damage that might be inflicted by an improper use of IOA systems. Key words:Intraosseous anesthesia, complication, root damage. PMID:23229260

  5. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  6. Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

  7. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the mandible: report of a rare ancient type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Haghighat, Abbas; Azmoodeh, Faezeh

    2011-01-01

    The neurilemmoma is a benign neoplasm of Schwann cell origin. One of the histopathologic subtypes of this tumor is ancient schwannoma which is characterized by degenerative alterations including cystic change, calcification, hemorrhage, and hyalinization.Intraosseous schwannomas especially ancient ones are rare tumors. Here we present a case of intraosseous ancient schwannoma in the lower jaw of an 11-year-old girl which caused a non-tender expansion. Radiographic examination showed a well-circumscribed, unilocular radiolucent lesion with thin sclerotic borders in the mandibular body and the ramus. Histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy showed areas of typical Antoni A with verocay bodies and Antoni B that was strongly suggestive of a schwannoma. Complete excision of the lesion was done under general anesthesia. The histopathologic examination confirmed the primary diagnosis and also degenerative changes such as hyalinization and calcification. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was made. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up examination after 3 months.

  8. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María-José; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Heart rate was recorded in all cases before injection of the anesthetic solution and again 30 seconds after injection. The complications observed after anesthetic administration were recorded. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. Both IA and conventional anesthesia resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, though the increase was greater with the latter technique. Incidents were infrequent with either anesthetic technique, with no significant differences between them. Regarding the complications, there were significant differences in pain at the injection site, with more intense pain in the case of IA (x2=3.532, p=0.030, Φ2=0.02), while the limitation of oral aperture was more pronounced with conventional anesthesia (x2=5.128, panesthesia. Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences between the two techniques.

  9. Localization of 14C-labeled 2% lidocaine hydrochloride after intraosseous anesthesia in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takashi; Mamiya, Hideki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of lidocaine hydrochloride in mandibular bone marrow after intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) in rabbits. We used macroautoradiography to examine the tissue distribution of a (14)C-labeled 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 1:80,000 epinephrine ((14)C-lidocaine). Under general anesthesia, (14)C-lidocaine was injected intraosseously or paraperiosteally. After IOA, animals were divided into three groups and observed at 1 (IOA-1), 5 (IOA-5), and 10 minutes (IOA-10) after injection. After infiltration anesthesia (IA), animals were observed at 1 minute after injection. The accumulation of (14)C-lidocaine was observed around the injection site in both the IA and the IOA groups. Paraperiosteally injected (14)C-lidocaine diffused to the surrounding tissues such as the lip, whereas IOA showed concentrated accumulation around the root apex throughout the experiment. The distribution area was significantly smaller in the IOA-1 group than in the IA group. The distribution area in the IOA-5 group was larger than those in the IOA-1 and IOA-10 groups. The accumulation of (14)C-lidocaine injected by IOA in rabbits was concentrated around the root apex. These results may explain the rapid onset time of IOA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: cortical erosions, subcortical migration and extensive intramedullary diffusion, a SIMS series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Lecouvet, Frederic; Berg, Bruno vande [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de radiologie et d' imagerie medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a common disorder, which sometimes causes acute pain as calcifications dissolve and migrate into adjacent soft tissue. Intraosseous calcium penetration has also been described. We illustrate the appearance of these lesions using a series of 35 cases compiled by members of the French Society of Musculoskeletal Imaging (Societe d'Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, SIMS). The first group in our series (7 cases) involved calcification-related cortical erosions of the humeral and femoral diaphyses, in particular at the pectoralis major and gluteus maximus insertions. A second group (28 cases) involved the presence of calcium material in subcortical areas. The most common site was the greater tubercle of the humerus, accompanying a calcifying tendinopathy of the supraspinatus. In addition, an extensive intramedullary diffusion of calcium deposits was observed in four of these cases, associated with cortical erosion in one case and subcortical lesions in three cases. Cortical erosions and intraosseous migration of calcifications associated with calcific tendinitis may be confused with neoplasm or infection. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of hydroxyapatite deposition to avoid unnecessary investigation or surgery. (orig.)

  11. X-tip intraosseous injection system as a primary anesthesia for irreversible pulpitis of posterior mandibular teeth: A randomized clinical trail

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Hamid; Kazemi, Shantia; Khazaei, Saber; Jahromi, Maryam Zare

    2013-01-01

    Background: Successful anesthesia during root canal therapy may be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous injection significantly improves anesthesia′s success as a supplemental pulpal anesthesia, particularly in cases of irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in primary anesthesia for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: Forty emergency patients wi...

  12. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  13. X-tip intraosseous injection system as a primary anesthesia for irreversible pulpitis of posterior mandibular teeth: A randomized clinical trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Kazemi, Shantia; Khazaei, Saber; Jahromi, Maryam Zare

    2013-03-01

    Successful anesthesia during root canal therapy may be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous injection significantly improves anesthesia's success as a supplemental pulpal anesthesia, particularly in cases of irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in primary anesthesia for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Forty emergency patients with an irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the X-tip intraosseous injection system or IAN block as the primary injection method for pulpal anesthesia. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated using an electric pulp tester and endo ice at 5-min intervals for 15 min. Anesthesia's success or failure rates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 12 statistical software. Success or failure rates were compared using a Fisher's exact test, and the time duration for the onset of anesthesia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. P Intraosseous injection system resulted in successful anesthesia in 17 out of 20 patients (85%). Successful anesthesia was achieved with the IAN block in 14 out of 20 patients (70%). However, the difference (15%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.2). Considering the relatively expensive armamentarium, probability of penetrator separation, temporary tachycardia, and possibility of damage to root during drilling, the authors do not suggest intraosseous injection as a suitable primary technique.

  14. X-tip intraosseous injection system as a primary anesthesia for irreversible pulpitis of posterior mandibular teeth: A randomized clinical trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful anesthesia during root canal therapy may be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous injection significantly improves anesthesia′s success as a supplemental pulpal anesthesia, particularly in cases of irreversible pulpitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN block in primary anesthesia for mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: Forty emergency patients with an irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the X-tip intraosseous injection system or IAN block as the primary injection method for pulpal anesthesia. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated using an electric pulp tester and endo ice at 5-min intervals for 15 min. Anesthesia′s success or failure rates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 12 statistical software. Success or failure rates were compared using a Fisher′s exact test, and the time duration for the onset of anesthesia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Intraosseous injection system resulted in successful anesthesia in 17 out of 20 patients (85%. Successful anesthesia was achieved with the IAN block in 14 out of 20 patients (70%. However, the difference (15% was not statistically significant ( P = 0.2. Conclusion: Considering the relatively expensive armamentarium, probability of penetrator separation, temporary tachycardia, and possibility of damage to root during drilling, the authors do not suggest intraosseous injection as a suitable primary technique.

  15. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  16. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-11-01

    Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  17. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist–patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25506137

  18. Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus mimicking intraosseous lesions of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Elnaz; Tadinada, Aditya [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus is a developmental variant that is not always well recognized and is often confused with other pathologies associated with the skull base. This report describes the case of a patient referred for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging for dental implant therapy. CBCT demonstrated a well-defined incidental lesion in the left sphenoid sinus with soft tissue-like density and sclerotic borders with internal curvilinear opacifications. The differential diagnoses included intraosseous lipoma, arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, chondrosarcoma, chondroid chordoma, and ossifying fibroma. The radiographic diagnosis of arrested pneumatization was based on the location of the lesion, its well-defined nature, the presence of internal opacifications, and lack of expansion. Gray-scale CBCT imaging of the area demonstrated values similar to fatty tissue. This case highlighted the fact that benign developmental variants associated with the skull base share similar radiographic features with more serious pathological entities.

  19. Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5% being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%, mandibular mucosal area (1.5% and posterior trigone region (0.5% are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

  20. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma mimicking periapical disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Joo; Oh, Song Hee; Kang, Ju Han; Choi, Hwa Young; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae June [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare carcinoma, which arises within the jaws without connection to the oral mucosa and presumably develops from a remnant of odontogenic epithelium. We present a case of solid type PIOSCC in a 52-year-old male patient complaining of dull pain on his left lower molar. In this case, early stage PIOSCC mimicking a periapical lesion might lead to a one-year delay in treatment due to the misdiagnosis of osteomyelitis after extraction of the third molar. The clinical, radiological, and histologic features are described. In this case, there was initial radiographic evidence for PIOSCC mimicking a periapical lesion. Incautious radiographic interpretation and treatment procedures had delayed the correct diagnosis and resulted in extensive bony destruction during the patient's disease progression.

  1. Cone-beam tomographic analysis of canalis sinuosus accessory intraosseous canals in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandourah, Abdalmalik O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, location and width of accessory canals (AC of canalis sinuosus (CS using cone beam computed tomography and compare our findings with recent literature. Additionally, intraosseous canals (IOC in the sinus wall other than the CS were noted. A retrospective analysis of 219 scans from our university department was conducted. The registered parameters were age, sex, location and width of canals. Group A consisted of 201 (85 males and 116 females adults ranged from 19 to 99 years of age (mean age = 47.5 years. A total of 136 patients (67.6% presented at least 1 AC, of which 55 cases showed a foramen width greater than 1 mm (27.4%. Group B had a sample size of 18 adolescents (7 males and 11 females with a range of age from 7 to 18 years (mean age = 15.8 years. Eight cases (44.4% presented at least one AC, of which only 3 had a foramen width greater than 1 mm (3.6%. ACs were found to occur predominantly at central incisors region (Group A and the left lateral incisor and canine as well as the central incisors regions (Group B. Adolescents showed a lower prevalence of accessory canals compared to adults. These findings supplement earlier reports on the anatomical variations of the intraosseous vessel and nerve conduits of the maxilla. Surgical interventions in this area can be planned more precisely, taking into account the three-dimensional imaging, thus possibly protecting these sensitive structures.

  2. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chenchev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical template was fabricated, helping us to find intraoperatively the exact locations of implants. The preliminary analysis of the number, height and diameter of intraossal implants helped us to find the exact prosthetic solution in this clinical case. The preparation of the implant bed was done by conical osteotomy in order to expand and condense the existing bone, which allowed us to use endoossal implants with a possible maximum size in a very limited maxillary volume and the reluctance of the patient to use other methods and surgical techniques. Conical threaded and self-tapping intraossal implants were used, placed according to a classic two-stage methodology with a flap and a long-term functional loading after a period of four months.Results and Conclusion: The applied surgical and prosthetic solution allowed us to achieve a good functional and aesthetic rehabilitation in this case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, following a number of restrictions imposed on us by the reluctance of the patient to use other surgical solutions. This shows that in the case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, a good clinical result can be achieved. For this reason, the use of CT,a well-planned surgical template, sufficient preparation ,the maximum use of available bone volume and the choice of a good prosthetic solution is very important.

  3. Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome: MRI features of intraosseous fat necrosis involving the feet and knees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Her, Minyoung; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is extremely rare and presents as a triad of the three diseases. The patient usually presents with mild or absent abdominal symptoms. Here, we report on a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with pain and swelling in both legs and mild abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis by pancreatic enzyme analysis and abdominal computed tomography (CT) and with skin lesions of panniculitis through a biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal intraosseous fat necrosis and arthritis involving both the feet and the knees. Therefore, we report a case of PPP syndrome with intraosseous fat necrosis involving both the feet and the knees. (orig.)

  4. Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome: MRI features of intraosseous fat necrosis involving the feet and knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung [Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Her, Minyoung [Busan Paik Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyoung [Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Pathology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is extremely rare and presents as a triad of the three diseases. The patient usually presents with mild or absent abdominal symptoms. Here, we report on a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with pain and swelling in both legs and mild abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis by pancreatic enzyme analysis and abdominal computed tomography (CT) and with skin lesions of panniculitis through a biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal intraosseous fat necrosis and arthritis involving both the feet and the knees. Therefore, we report a case of PPP syndrome with intraosseous fat necrosis involving both the feet and the knees. (orig.)

  5. Intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system during non-surgical periodontal therapy (root planing): Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keumah; Kim, Jongbin

    2018-02-01

    Local anesthesia is administered to control pain, but it may induce fear and anxiety. Root planing is a non-surgical periodontal therapy; however, when it is performed in an extensive manner, some tissue removal is inevitable. Notably, this removal may be so painful that local anesthesia is required to be administered to the area scheduled for the treatment. Although patients tend to accept root planing easily, they frequently express a fear of local anesthesia. Intraosseous anesthesia (IA) is an intraosseous injection technique, whereby local anesthetic is injected into the cancellous bone supporting the teeth. A computer-controlled IA system (CIAS) exhibits multiple benefits, such as less painful anesthesia, reduced soft tissue numbness, and the provision of palatal or lingual, as well as buccal, anesthesia via single needle penetration. In this report, we present two cases of root planing that were performed under local anesthesia, using a CIAS.

  6. Primary intraosseous atypical inflammatory meningioma presenting as a lytic skull lesion: Case report with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohara, Sangita; Agarwal, Swapnil; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P N

    2016-01-01

    Primary extradural meningiomas of the skull comprise 1% of all meningiomas, and lytic skull meningiomas are still rarer and are said to be more aggressive. We present a case of 38-year-old male with an extradural tumor which on histopathological examination showed features of inflammatory atypical meningioma (WHO Grade II). The intense inflammatory nature of osteolytic primary intraosseous meningioma has not been reported before. This entity deserves special mention because of the need for adjuvant therapy and proper follow-up.

  7. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  8. Clinical study of intramedullary route as an alternative for fluid administration in young dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    1996-12-01

    accomplished and rapidly performed. Our results show that intramedullary route is safe and may be of great value as an alternative on the treatment of young dogs with critical hemodynamic alterations when the intravenous route is not accessible.

  9. Comparison of Transverse Intraosseous Loop Technique and Pull Out Suture for Reinsertion of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus tendon. A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigó, István Zoltán; Røkkum, Magne

    2013-12-01

    We compared the results of two methods for reinsertion of flexor digitorum profundus tendons retrospectively. In 35 fingers of 29 patients pull-out suture and in 13 fingers of 11 patients transverse intraosseous loop technique was performed with a mean follow-up of 8 and 6 months, respectively. Eleven and nine fingers achieved "excellent" or "good" function according to Strickland and Glogovac at 8 weeks; 20 and ten at the last control in the pull-out and transverse intraosseous loop groups, respectively. The difference at 8 weeks was statistically significant in favour of the transverse intraosseous loop group. Ten patients underwent 12 complications in the pull-out group (four superficial infections; one rerupture, one PIP and one DIP joint contracture, one adhesion, two granulomas, one nail deformity and one carpal tunnel syndrome) and four of them were reoperated (one carpal tunnel release, one teno-arthrolysis and two resections of granuloma). There was no complication and no reoperation in the transverse intraosseous loop group, the difference being statistically significant for the former. In our study the transverse intraosseous loop technique seemed to be a safe alternative with possibly better functional results compared to the pull-out suture.

  10. Effects of humeral intraosseous versus intravenous epinephrine on pharmacokinetics and return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine cardiac arrest model: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Seven HIO swine, 4 IV swine, and no control swine had ROSC. There were no significant differences in ROSC, maximum concentration; except at 30 s, and time-to-concentration-maximum between the HIO and IV groups. Significant differences existed between the experimental groups and the control. The HIO delivers a higher concentration of epinephrine than the IV route at 30 s which may be a survival advantage. Clinicians may consider using the IO route to administer epinephrine during CA when there is no preexisting IV access or when IV access is unobtainable.

  11. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  13. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  14. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  15. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  16. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  17. Pain assessment by children and adolescents during intraosseous anaesthesia using a computerized system (QuickSleeper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Marie-Cousin, Alexia; Huet, Adeline; Hingant, Bernard; Robert, Jean-Claude

    2009-09-01

    Intraosseous (IO) anaesthesia has been shown to be effective in children. However, the pain associated with anaesthetic injections, and its acceptance by children, have never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the pain associated with the IO injection of 4% articaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine using the computerized QuickSleeper' system in a population of children and adolescents. IO anaesthesia was performed on patients aged 10.4 +/- 2.6 years of age. The patients assessed their pain on a faces pain scale (FPS) and on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The operators were also asked to assess signs of patient pain/discomfort. No pain or mild discomfort was reported by, respectively, 81.8% (FPS) and 83.9% (VAS) of the patients. Some 58.9% of children with previous experience of dental anaesthesia reported that computerized IO anaesthesia was more comfortable than traditional infiltration methods. Operators noted signs of discomfort during penetration and injection in 18.3% and 25.3% of the patients, respectively. This study showed that the majority of children reported no pain or mild pain when anaesthetic was administered by computerized needle rotation and solution deposition. This technique holds promise for use by trained paediatric dentists.

  18. Randomized Clinical Trial of Intraosseous Methylprednisolone Injection for Acute Pulpitis Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Khaly; Charpentier, Emmanuel; Bronnec, François; Descroix, Vianney; Gaye-N'diaye, Fatou; Kane, Abdoul Wahabe; Toledo, Rafael; Machtou, Pierre; Azérad, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a randomized clinical trial comparing local intraosseous methylprednisolone injection and emergency pulpotomy in the management of acute pulpitis on efficacy, safety, and efficiency end points. After providing prior informed written consent, 94 patients consulting for acute irreversible pulpitis pain at university-affiliated teaching hospital dental clinics in Dakar, Senegal were randomly assigned to either the methylprednisolone treatment group (n = 47) or the pulpotomy treatment group (n = 47). Patients were followed up at 1 week and assessed 6 months later to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of their treatment. At day 7 the patients in the methylprednisolone group reported less intense spontaneous and percussion pain in the day 0-day 7 period than the patients in the pulpotomy group. Methylprednisolone treatment took approximately 7 minutes (4.6-9.3) less to accomplish than pulpotomy (or about half the time). No difference in the therapeutic outcome was found between the 2 treatment groups at 6 months (all credible intervals span 0). This study establishes that methylprednisolone injection for acute pulpitis is relieved by a minimally invasive pharmacologic approach more effectively than by the reference pulpotomy and conserves scarce dental resources (ie, endodontic equipment and supplies, dental surgeon's time). Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of intraosseous anesthesia among endodontists: results of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Chad; Mines, Pete; Sweet, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of supplemental intraosseous (IO) anesthesia among endodontists in the United States. The study also looked at the types of anesthetic solutions commonly used for IO anesthesia and in which diagnostic conditions IO anesthesia is used. A Web-based survey of 2,528 active members of the American Association of Endodontists was sent out by e-mail. Data from 833 respondents were collected with a response rate of 33%. It was discovered that 94.77% of the respondents used some form of IO anesthesia, with the periodontal ligament injection (PDL) being the most commonly administered (49.78%). Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is the pulpal diagnosis for which respondents most often use some form of IO anesthesia (61.99%), and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 is the most common anesthetic solution used in IO anesthesia (37.62%). Although more than half of the respondents use some form of IO anesthesia more than twice a week, newer IO anesthesia delivery systems such as Stabident (Fairfax Dental, San Francisco, CA) and X-Tip (Dentsply International, Johnson City, TN) are used less often than the PDL injection.

  20. Enhancing the soft tissue seal around intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses using silanized fibronectin titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Pendegrass, C; Blunn, G, E-mail: mukai.cg@mac.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on achieving a tight seal between the soft tissues and the implant in order to avoid infection. Fibronectin (Fn) may be silanized onto titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in order to promote soft-tissue attachment. The silanization process includes passivation with sulphuric acid, which alters surface characteristics. This study aimed to improve in vitro fibroblast adhesion to silanized fibronectin (SiFn) titanium alloy by omitting the passivation stage. Additionally, the study assessed the effects of SiFn on in vivo dermal attachment, comparing the results with adsorbed Fn, hydroxyapatite (HA), Fn adsorbed onto HA (HAFn) and uncoated controls. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurement. Anti-vinculin antibodies were used to immunolocalize fibroblast adhesion sites. A histological assessment of soft-tissue attachment and cell alignment relative to implants in an in vivo ovine model was performed. Passivation resulted in rougher, more hydrophobic, microcracked surfaces and was associated with poorer fibroblast adhesion than unpassivated controls. SiFn and HAFn surfaces resulted in more favourable cell alignment in vivo, implying that dermal attachment was enhanced. These results suggest that SiFn and HAFn surfaces could be useful in optimizing the soft tissue seal around ITAP.

  1. Fibrosarcoma of the jaws: two cases of primary tumors with intraosseous growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiero, Francesca; Rizzuti, Tommaso; Crippa, Rolando; Stefani, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma (FS) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of the fibroblasts that rarely affects the oral cavity. Two cases of primary FS of the jaws with intraosseous growth (2 men, aged 53 and 71 years) are described. Microscopically, in one case the tumor showed an intense proliferation of spindle-shaped cells, varying little in size and shape and arranged in parallel bands, partly crossing each other, with significant mitotic activity and nuclear pleomorphism; the second case was characterized by low cellularity comprising spindle-shaped cells, deposited in a variably fibrous and myxoid stroma. On immunohistochemistry, cells in both cases were strongly immunoreactive for MIB-1 and vimentin, focally positive for CD68, and negative for S-100 protein, pancytokeratin, HMB45, CD34, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was FS in the first case, myxofibrosarcoma in the second. Treatment was radical surgery with mandibular reconstruction. After two years, the first patient displayed multiple metastases and died during the third year after the initial diagnosis; the second patient was still alive and doing well five years after treatment. We discuss the differential diagnosis versus other forms of sarcoma, examining the morphological appearance that is frequently very similar, the immunohistochemical expression of MIB-1, vimentin, S-100, CD-34, CD68, EMA, as well as conventional clinicopathological features that may help to distinguish FS from other sarcomas.

  2. Proximal Row Carpectomy for Coexisting Kienböck’s Disease and Giant Intraosseous Ganglion of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologies of Keinböck’s disease and intraosseous ganglion remain unknown. Both entities are rare and the coexistence of these two pathologies in the same patient and hand is even less frequent. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with a longstanding history of martial arts practice (karate who developed an avascular necrosis of the lunate concomitant with a giant intraosseous ganglion of the scaphoid bone successfully managed by proximal row carpectomy. We review the literature of these two diseases.

  3. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  4. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55±14.11 to week 24 (74.60±19.19, after treatment (p=0.008, in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p=0.004; ADL, p=0.022; sport/rec., p=0.017; QOL, p=0.012, as well as VAS score (p<0.001 and Lequesne Index (p=0.008. The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98±8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04±5.36 MSC/μL (p=0.019 and from 601.75±312.30 to 139.19±123.61  (p=0.012, respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32.

  5. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  6. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  7. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  8. Numerical simulation of in vivo intraosseous torsional failure of a hollow-screw oral implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akca Kivanc

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the complexity and magnitude of functional forces transferred to the bone-implant interface, the mechanical strength of the interface is of great importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the intraosseous torsional shear strength of an osseointegrated oral implant using 3-D finite element (FE stress analysis implemented by in vivo failure torque data of an implant. Methods A Ø 3.5 mm × 12 mm ITI® hollow screw dental implant in a patient was subjected to torque failure test using a custom-made strain-gauged manual torque wrench connected to a data acquisition system. The 3-D FE model of the implant and peri-implant circumstances was constructed. The in vivo strain data was converted to torque units (N.cm to involve in loading definition of FE analysis. Upon processing of the FE analysis, the shear stress of peri-implant bone was evaluated to assume torsional shear stress strength of the bone-implant interface. Results The in vivo torque failure test yielded 5952 μstrains at custom-made manual torque wrench level and conversion of the strain data resulted in 750 N.cm. FE revealed that highest shear stress value in the trabecular bone, 121 MPa, was located at the first intimate contact with implant. Trabecular bone in contact with external surface of hollow implant body participated shear stress distribution, but not the bone resting inside of the hollow. Conclusion The torsional strength of hollow-screw implants is basically provided by the marginal bone and the hollow part has negligible effect on interfacial shear strength.

  9. Anesthetic duration of lidocaine with 10% dextran is comparable to lidocaine with 1:160 000 epinephrine after intraosseous injection in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Emiko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Hidetaka; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2007-09-01

    To compare the effects of 10% dextran and epinephrine on intraosseous injection with lidocaine in rabbits. Twenty male Japanese white rabbits were used. The effect of intraosseous injection was evaluated using an electromyogram (EMG) of the digastric muscle after electrical pulp stimulation. Two percent lidocaine alone (L), 2% lidocaine containing 1:80000 epinephrine (LE8), 2% lidocaine containing 1:160 000 epinephrine (LE16), and 2% lidocaine containing 10% dextran (LD) were tested. Electromyogram recordings were repeated before and 30 seconds, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, and 20 minutes after the intraosseous injection. Thereafter, recordings were repeated every 5 minutes until the EMG recovered to the control value. There was no difference in the onset time between the 4 groups. The order of the duration of maximum effect was LE8 >LE16 = LD >or=L. The order of the duration of anesthesia was LE8 >LE16 = LD >L. Ten percent dextran potentiates local anesthetic effects of 2% lidocaine in intraosseous injection. The potency of 10% dextran is comparable to 1:160 000 epinephrine.

  10. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst previously treated with marsupialization: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Rumayor-Piña, Alicia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is presented here, with the clinical and histologic features of the first biopsy showing characteristics of OKC and the second biopsy disclosing a squamous cell carcinoma. Immunoprofile of this case was compared with five cases of classical OKC by using cytokeratins CK5, CK14, and CK19, CD138, p63, Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2. Classic OKCs showed expected positivity, mainly in the basal and/or suprabasal layers with most antibodies, except for p53, which was negative, whereas the present case showed irregular positivity in all layers, indicating that this can be useful for differential diagnosis and suggesting a possible role in malignant transformation into primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, immunohistochemical differences between the first biopsy of the present case and classic OKC suggest that immunohistochemistry can be helpful in cases with areas of subtle initial malignant transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary intraosseous desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the calvarium: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Khachaturov, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare, aggressive malignancy typically occurring intra-abdominally in young adolescent males. Rare extra-abdominal primaries have been reported in the mediastinum, head and neck area, central nervous system, paratesticular region, visceral organs, and soft tissue. We report a primary intraosseous DSRCT of the calvarium in a 6-year-old male who presented with right ear pain and swelling. Imaging showed an aggressive-appearing permeative mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion of the right sphenoid and temporal bones with extensive periosteal reaction, clinically concerning for osteosarcoma. An open biopsy was performed, and the tumor was composed of primitive round cells with perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing, arranged in diffuse sheets and ill-defined nests and surrounded by a prominent desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were reactive for desmin (dot-like, CD99 (membranous and cytokeratin AE1/3 (focal. EWSR1-WT1 chimeric fusion transcript was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of the fusion transcript revealed a rare in-frame junction of EWSR1 exon 10 to WT1 exon 8. This is the third documented case of an intraosseous DSRCT with molecular confirmation, but it is the first reported case to arise in the calvarium. While the diagnosis of DSRCT is usually straightforward in the classic clinical setting of an intra-abdominal mass, awareness that this entity may present as a bone primary is necessary to prevent misclassification as osteosarcoma or other malignancy.

  12. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  13. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  14. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  15. GIS for the Valorization of Hardly Accessible Alpine Areas with Complex Potentials for Tourism, with a View to Their Inclusion in Tourist Routes. Development of the Valleys of Lotru and Olteţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available VALOT originates in the experience of European countries from the Alpine Space that succeeded to establish three top priorities for hardly accessible mountain areas based on communitarian programs (Natura 2000, Interreg IIIB – AlpNa Tour, VIADVENTURE, RegioMarket, etc.: competitiveness and attractiveness of the Alpine Space, accessibility and connectivity between high altitude settlements, environmental protection and prevention of natural hazards and disasters (snow falls, land slides, etc.. Starting from the project of Law on Approving the National Spatial Plan – Section VI – Tourism, the project aims at evaluating the current resources of hardly accessible mountain areas with complex potentials for tourism according to the experience of the European Union. GIS analysis will underline national/regional disparities of these areas, leading to conclusions on their typology and intervention proposals. The second part will focus on a case study of a hardly accessible area with a high landscape value and still un-valorized potentials for tourism. The existing situation of the area between the Lotru and Parâng mountains, consisting of the territories of four communes and a city, belonging to the counties of Vâlcea and Gorj, will be analyzed. Based on a spatial development scenario using selected statistical and geographic indicators, intervention priorities will be analyzed with the SPATIAL ANALYST, as well as funding possibilities for the creation of a cluster of mountain resorts (Rânca, Vidra, Voineasa in order to valorize the recreational and balneary patrimony of the area, observing principles and objectives of sustainable development in mountain areas. The project will create a methodology for diagnosing problems and dysfunctions of such areas, development possibilities based on the experience of the pilot study, proposals for improving the institutional framework for implementing, monitoring and evaluating the results and (last but not

  16. A tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology is an agile solution for spectrum congestion and spectrum access utilization problems that result from the legacy fixed spectrum management policies. CR technology can exploit unused licensed band to meet the increasing demand for radio frequency. The routing process faces many challenges in CR Network (CRN such as the absence of centralized infrastructure, the coordination between the routing module and spectrum management module, in addition to the frequent link failure due to the sudden appearance of PUs. In this paper we propose a Tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network (C-TRP that jointly utilizes the tree routing algorithm with a spectrum management module in routing decisions, and also we proposed a new metric used in taking the best route decisions. In addition, we enhance the traditional tree routing algorithm by using a neighbor table technique that speeds up the forwarding data packets. Moreover, we add a robust recovery module to C-TRP to resume the network in case of the link failure. The main motivation in the design of C-TRP is quick data transmission and maximization of date rates. The performance evaluation is carried out in NS2 simulator. The simulation results proved that C-TRP protocol achieves better performance in terms of average “PDR”, “end-to-end delay” and “routing overhead ratio “compared to “CTBR” and “STOD-RP” routing protocols.

  17. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Smail-Faugeron , Violaine; Muller-Bolla , Michèle; Sixou , Jean-Louis; Courson , Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the comp...

  18. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  19. Calcium phosphate cement as a "barrier-graft" for the treatment of human periodontal intraosseous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Calcium phosphate cements (CPC are apparently good candidates for periodontal treatment by virtue of their biocompatibility, mouldability and osteoconductivity. However, the clinical efficacy in this regard has not been established. This study is aimed at the evaluation of the efficacy of a formulation of CPC in healing human periodontal intraosseous defects in comparison with hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 60 patients with periodontal defects were divided into 2 test groups and 1 control group. The defect sites in the test groups were repaired with CPC and hydroxyapatite ceramic granules (HAG. Debridement alone was given in the control group. The progress was assessed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months observation intervals through soft tissue parameters (probing depth, attachment level and gingival recession. Results: CPC showed significantly better outcome. Probing depth reduction values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.40 ± 1.43, 3.75 ± 1.71 and 2.90 ± 1.48, and those at 12 months were 6.20 ± 1.80, 4.5 ± 1.91 and 2.95 ± 1.73. Clinical attachment gain values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.15 ± 1.50, 3.45 ± 1.96 and 2.25 ± 1.52, and those at 12 months were 5.80 ± 2.02, 3.55 ± 2.06 and 2.30 ± 1.78, In both cases the P value was < 0.001 showing high significance. The gingival recession over 12 months, for the CPC group is lesser than that in the HAG group and the value for the control group is marginally higher than both. Soft-tissue measurements were appended by postoperative radiographs and surgical re-entry in selected cases. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate cement is found to be significantly better than hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. The material could be considered as a "barrier-graft".

  20. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  1. Route Instruction Mechanism for Mobile Users Leveraging Distributed Wireless Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Takeshi; Shinkuma, Ryoichi; Murase, Tutomu; Motoyoshi, Gen; Yamori, Kyoko; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    The market growths of smart-phones and thin clients have been significantly increasing communication traffic in mobile networks. To handle the increased traffic, network operators should consider how to leverage distributed wireless resources such as distributed spots of wireless local access networks. In this paper, we consider the system where multiple moving users share distributed wireless access points on their traveling routes between their start and goal points and formulate as an optimization problem. Then, we come up with three algorithms as a solution for the problem. The key idea here is ‘longcut route instruction’, in which users are instructed to choose a traveling route where less congested access points are available; even if the moving distance increases, the throughput for users in the system would improve. In this paper, we define the gain function. Moreover, we analyze the basic characteristics of the system using as a simple model as possible.

  2. Successful Treatment of Early Talar Osteonecrosis by Core Decompression Combined with Intraosseous Stem Cell Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Mika T; Repo, Jussi P; Pesola, Maija; Nyrhinen, Jukka P

    2018-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the talus is a fairly rare condition. Many predisposing factors have been identified including previous trauma, use of corticosteroids, alcoholism, and smoking. As a gold standard, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive and specific diagnostic examination to detect osteonecrosis. While many treatment options for talar osteonecrosis exist, core decompression is suggested on young patients with good outcome results. More recently, intraosseous stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been added to the core decompression procedure. We report a successful treatment of early talar osteonecrosis ARCO I (Association Research Circulation Osseous) by core decompression combined with stem cell and PRP injection. On 3-month and 15-month follow-up, MRI showed complete resolution of the osteonecrotic changes together with clinical improvement. This modified technique is a viable treatment option for early talar osteonecrosis. Nevertheless, future prospects should include a study comparing this combined technique with plain core decompression.

  3. Dental radiography: efficacy in the assessment of intraosseous lesions of the face and jaws in asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    In this investigation the efficacy of dental radiography for the detection of occult intraosseous lesions of the face and jaws was evaluated. An analysis of 30 million health insurance records indicated that the period prevalence of malignant lesions was less than 5 cases/million/year, and for benign lesions approximately 100 cases/million/year. Data from a controlled observer-performance study showed that radiographic sensitivities ranged between 50% and 80%. The cost per true-positive finding was estimated to be +8.6 million per malignant case and +430,000 per benign case. An assessment of the dosimetric literature indicated that the benefits of radiographic screening as a means for early detection of a malignancy appear to be counterbalanced by the risk of causing a radiation-induced malignancy. Taken together, these data demonstrate that dental radiography is not efficacious for the purpose of detecting occult lesions

  4. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  5. Indoor Semantic Modelling for Routing: The Two-Level Routing Approach for Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2017-11-01

    stand for their connectivity; the detailed (second level focuses on transition spaces such as openings and Spaces of Interest (SOI, and geometric networks are generated regarding these spaces. Nodes of a geometric network refers to locations of doors, windows and subspaces (SOIs inside of the larger spaces; and the edges represent detailed paths among these geometric nodes. A combination of the two levels can represent complex buildings in specified spaces, which avoids maintaining a largescale complete network. User preferences on ordered SOIs are considered in routing on the logical network, and preferences on ordered Points of Interest (POI are adopted in routing on geometric networks. In a geometric network, accessible obstacle-avoiding paths can be computed for users with different sizes. To facilitate automatic generation of the two types of network in any building, a new data model named Indoor Navigation Space Model (INSM is proposed to store connectivity, semantics and geometry of indoor spaces for buildings. Abundant semantics of building components are designed in INSM based on navigational functionalities, such as VerticalUnit(VU and HorizontalConnector(HC as vertical and horizontal passages for pedestrians. The INSM supports different subdivision ways of a building in which indoor spaces can be assigned proper semantics. A logical and geometric network can be automatically derived from INSM, and they can be used individually or together for indoor routing. Thus, different routing options are designed. Paths can be provided by using either the logical network when some users are satisfied with a rough description of the path (e.g., the name of spaces, or a geometric path is automatically computed for a user who needs only a detailed path which shows how obstacles can be avoided. The two-level routing approach integrates both logical and geometric networks to obtain paths, when a user provides her/his preferences on SOIs and POIs. For example, routing results

  6. In vitro comparison of the effect of piezosurgery and conventional bone preparation technique on intraosseous heat generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziriak, N B; Szalma, J; Vag, J; Bogdan, S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of sagittal saw handpiece with a piezoelectric device on the rise in intraosseous temperature and on the preparation time. 100 native pieces of pork ribs were cut either with S-8 S handpiece connected to Elcomed surgical motor (W&H) (n = 30) or with B6 insert connected to Piezomed (W&H) using continuous movement (n = 30) or with B6 using short breaks to perform intermittent cutting (n = 30). The rest were cut either by S-8 S (n = 5) or by B6 (n = 5) both applied by permanent pressure. The intraosseous temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple connected to digital thermometer placed in the bone 1 mm away of the cutting line. The heat generated and the time of the complete cutting were recorded. In S-8 S group the temperature never rose above 47⁰C. Using the B6 with permanent movement the critical temperature was reached in 16.2 ± 3.53% of the cases while taking breaks decreased the results to 2.6 ? 0.96% (p <0.001). In no cases the temperature elevation above 4700 lasted more than 60 sec. Applying the B6 by permanent pressure resulted in heat up to 90.3⁰C. Our results suggest that piezoelectric device could use safely according to the factory instructions, however further reduce of heat load could be achieved if the intermittent cutting motion combined with short-time cooling periods.

  7. Elisabeth Badinter, Fausse route

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Juchat, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Elisabeth Badinter, philosophe de formation, est l’auteure de nombreux ouvrages sur la condition féminine et les rapports hommes/femmes dans la société. Avec Fausse route, elle signe une vision polémique du féminisme occidental. Son ouvrage a suscité de nombreuses critiques de femmes dans diverses revues destinées au grand public. Hélène Strohl, recenseur de la revue Culture en mouvement, conclut que cet ouvrage est peu scientifique, sujet à caution : « Argument contre argument, amalgame cont...

  8. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... popularity, which are enabled by common driving behaviors found in available trajectory data. The ability to evaluate the quality of routing services enables service providers to improve the quality of their services and enables users to identify the services that best serve their needs. The paper covers......Mobile location-based services is a very successful class of services that are being used frequently by users with GPS-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones. This paper presents a study of how to exploit GPS trajectory data, which is available in increasing volumes, for the assessment...

  9. Comparison of hyaluronic acid and PRP intra-articular injection with combined intra-articular and intraosseous PRP injections to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ke; Bai, Yuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Haisen; Liu, Hao; Ma, Shiyun

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit provided by intraosseous infiltration combined with intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma to treat mild and moderate stages of knee joint degeneration (Kellgren-Lawrence score II-III) compared with other treatments, specifically intra-articular injection of PRP and of HA. Eighty-six patients with grade II to grade III knee OA according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification were randomly assigned to intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (group A), intra-articular PRP (group B), or intra-articular HA (group C). Patients in group A received intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (administered twice, 2 weeks apart). Patients in group B received intra-articular injection of PRP every 14 days. Patients in group C received a series of five intra-articular injections of HA every 7 days. All patients were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score before the treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after treatment. There were significant improvements at the end of the 1st month. Notably, group A patients had significantly superior VAS and WOMAC scores than were observed in groups B and C. The VAS scores were similar in groups B and group C after the 6th month. Regarding the WOMAC scores, groups B and C differed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months; however, no significant difference was observed at the 18th month. The combination of intraosseous with intra-articular injections of PRP resulted in a significantly superior clinical outcome, with sustained lower VAS and WOMAC scores and improvement in quality of life within 18 months.

  10. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. Methods MSCs were derived from negative ...

  11. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  12. Intraosseous focal venous malformation of the mandibular body: Cone beam computed tomography planning followed by piezoelectric knife resection and free bone graft reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Živorad S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraosseous vascular malformation could be life-threatening due to uncontrolled hemorrhage after tooth extraction. According to biological behavior of this lesion, adequate diagnostic and treatment strategies are necessary in order to avoid possible complications. We reported cone beam computed tomography (CBCT planning of an urgent en bloc resection of an intraosseous venous malformation by piezoelectric knife. Case report. A 55-year-old man was submitted to CBCT planning followed by piezoelectric knife resection of an intraosseous focal venous malformation of the mandibular body. Immediate reconstruction of the defect using iliac bone free graft was performed. The surgical treatment was uneventful and a 2-year follow-up revealed no signs of recurrence. Conclusion. Piezoelectric knife could provide precise, safe and bloodless procedure which is especially important in this pathology. Advantages of this technique are: lower risk of damaging soft tissue structures, precise osteotomy and bloodless surgery. Moreover, using piezosurgery bone knife, blood transfusion and blood transmitted diseases could be avoided. This case highlights the importance of CBCT as planning tool for resection of the mandible, using piezoelectric knife as safe method to achieve bloodless surgery. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175075

  13. Vertex routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D; Gros, C

    2009-01-01

    A class of models describing the flow of information within networks via routing processes is proposed and investigated, concentrating on the effects of memory traces on the global properties. The long-term flow of information is governed by cyclic attractors, allowing to define a measure for the information centrality of a vertex given by the number of attractors passing through this vertex. We find the number of vertices having a nonzero information centrality to be extensive/subextensive for models with/without a memory trace in the thermodynamic limit. We evaluate the distribution of the number of cycles, of the cycle length and of the maximal basins of attraction, finding a complete scaling collapse in the thermodynamic limit for the latter. Possible implications of our results for the information flow in social networks are discussed.

  14. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  15. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  16. Effective ANT based Routing Algorithm for Data Replication in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Nithya Nandhini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, the nodes often move and keep on change its topology. Data packets can be forwarded from one node to another on demand. To increase the data accessibility data are replicated at nodes and made as sharable to other nodes. Assuming that all mobile host cooperative to share their memory and allow forwarding the data packets. But in reality, all nodes do not share the resources for the benefits of others. These nodes may act selfishly to share memory and to forward the data packets. This paper focuses on selfishness of mobile nodes in replica allocation and routing protocol based on Ant colony algorithm to improve the efficiency. The Ant colony algorithm is used to reduce the overhead in the mobile network, so that it is more efficient to access the data than with other routing protocols. This result shows the efficiency of ant based routing algorithm in the replication allocation.

  17. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  18. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which

  19. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  20. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  1. "To Control Tibet, First Pacify Kham": Trade Routes and "Official Routes" (Guandao in Easternmost Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Booz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the trade routes in the western Sichuan borderlands that facilitated contact and trade between Chinese counties and Eastern Tibet. In particular, the article offers a description of “official routes” (guandao—which the Chinese emperor twice proclaimed to be the vital mode of access between China and Tibet—from Chengdu, Sichuan’s provincial capital, to Khampa areas, with Lhasa as the final destination. The exchange of goods in this region followed various routes during different periods. From the tenth to sixteenth centuries, transactions occurred primarily along the borders of Amdo (Tib. A mdo, Northeastern Tibet, but for political, economic, and practical reasons, such exchanges became more limited geographically and eventually focused along the Sichuan–Kham/Ngawa border. Many routes shifted to the towns of Kangding (Tib. Dartsedo and Songpan (Tib. Zungchu, the main sites of distribution, where rich opportunities for trade and a strictly limiting transport geography made them important entrepôts that evolved into centers of prosperity. The geographic range of this article reaches to these two towns and leaves the investigation of the routes that led to western centers such as Derge, Batang, Chamdo, and Jyekundo for future research.

  2. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    1. Introduction. Recent advances in Internet technology offer numerous features ..... (e) What is the level of their general cultural and encyclopaedic knowledge? ... the texts in the framework of preparing for the CFA examinations, the secon-.

  3. Partial differential equations an accessible route through theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasy, András

    2015-01-01

    This text on partial differential equations is intended for readers who want to understand the theoretical underpinnings of modern PDEs in settings that are important for the applications without using extensive analytic tools required by most advanced texts. The assumed mathematical background is at the level of multivariable calculus and basic metric space material, but the latter is recalled as relevant as the text progresses. The key goal of this book is to be mathematically complete without overwhelming the reader, and to develop PDE theory in a manner that reflects how researchers would think about the material. A concrete example is that distribution theory and the concept of weak solutions are introduced early because while these ideas take some time for the students to get used to, they are fundamentally easy and, on the other hand, play a central role in the field. Then, Hilbert spaces that are quite important in the later development are introduced via completions which give essentially all the fea...

  4. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  5. Blind Cooperative Routing for Scalable and Energy-Efficient Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multihop networking is promoted in this paper for energy-efficient and highly-scalable Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, the use of blind cooperation

  6. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  7. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  8. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Qingsong; George, Betsy; Shekhar, Shashi

    2006-01-01

    .... In this paper, we propose a new approach, namely a capacity constrained routing planner which models capacity as a time series and generalizes shortest path algorithms to incorporate capacity constraints...

  9. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  10. Route planning algorithms: Planific@ Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Ortega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Planific@ is a route planning project for the city of Madrid (Spain. Its main aim is to develop an intelligence system capable of routing people from one place in the city to any other using the public transport. In order to do this, it is necessary to take into account such things as: time, traffic, user preferences, etc. Before beginning to design the project is necessary to make a comprehensive study of the variety of main known route planning algorithms suitable to be used in this project.

  11. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  12. Routes to embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Anita; Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Research on embodiment is rich in impressive demonstrations but somewhat poor in comprehensive explanations. Although some moderators and driving mechanisms have been identified, a comprehensive conceptual account of how bodily states or dynamics influence behavior is still missing. Here, we attempt to integrate current knowledge by describing three basic psychological mechanisms: direct state induction, which influences how humans feel or process information, unmediated by any other cognitive mechanism; modal priming, which changes the accessibility of concepts associated with a bodily state; sensorimotor simulation, which affects the ease with which congruent and incongruent actions are performed. We argue that the joint impact of these mechanisms can account for most existing embodiment effects. Additionally, we summarize empirical tests for distinguishing these mechanisms and suggest a guideline for future research about the mechanisms underlying embodiment effects.

  13. VT Route Log Points 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer is used with VTrans' Integrated Route Log System (IRA). It is also used to calibrate the linear referencing systems, including the End-to-End and...

  14. Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Lien

    2004-01-01

    .... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...

  15. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  16. Initial-Stage Primary Intraosseous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived from Odontogenic Keratocyst with Unusual Keratoameloblastomatous Change of the Maxilla: A Case Report and Literature Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kikuchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC is a rare malignant neoplasm derived from odontogenic epithelial remnants in the central jaw bone. Most PIOSCCs originate from odontogenic cysts with a nonkeratinized epithelial lining, especially from radicular/residual and dentigerous cysts. There have been few reports of PIOSCCs derived from the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, particularly those describing pathological features at the initial stage. The diagnosis of PIOSCC is difficult and based on exclusion of other carcinomas, including metastatic tumors from other primary sites. Here, we report an extremely rare case of initial-stage PIOSCC derived from the OKC with unusual keratoameloblastomatous change of the maxilla.

  17. Principles of Vessel Route Planning in Ice on the Northern Sea Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A complex of ice cover characteristics and the season of the year were considered in relation to vessel route planning in ice-covered areas on the NSR. The criteria for navigation in ice - both year-round and seasonal were analyzed. The analysis of the experts knowledge, dissipated in the literature, allowed to identify some rules of route planning in ice-covered areas. The most important processes from the navigation point of view are the development and disintegration of ice, the formation and disintegration of fast ice and behavior of the ice massifs and polynyas. The optimal route is selected on basis of available analysis and forecast maps of ice conditions and ice class, draught and seaworthiness of the vessel. The boundary of the ice indicates areas accessible to vessels without ice class. Areas with a concentration of ice from 0 to 6/10 are used for navigation of vessels of different ice classes. Areas of concentration of ice from 7/10 up are eligible for navigation for icebreakers and vessels with a high ice class with the assistance of icebreakers. These rules were collected in the decision tree. Following such developed decision-making model the master of the vessel may take decision independently by accepting grading criteria of priorities resulting from his knowledge, experience and the circumstances of navigation. Formalized form of decision making model reduces risk of the "human factor" in the decision and thereby help improve the safety of maritime transport.

  18. Secure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Matam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is an indispensable communication technique in wireless mesh network (WMN. Many applications in WMN including multicast TV, audio and video conferencing, and multiplayer social gaming use multicast transmission. On the other hand, security in multicast transmissions is crucial, without which the network services are significantly disrupted. Existing secure routing protocols that address different active attacks are still vulnerable due to subtle nature of flaws in protocol design. Moreover, existing secure routing protocols assume that adversarial nodes cannot share an out-of-band communication channel which rules out the possibility of wormhole attack. In this paper, we propose SEMRAW (SEcure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless mesh network that is resistant against all known active threats including wormhole attack. SEMRAW employs digital signatures to prevent a malicious node from gaining illegitimate access to the message contents. Security of SEMRAW is evaluated using the simulation paradigm approach.

  19. Route Scherrer closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March.   The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works. The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the car park situated between Buildings 32, 38 and 168.

  20. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  1. Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Single Doses of Oxytocin Administered via an Inhaled Route in Healthy Females: Randomized, Single-blind, Phase 1 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disala Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Interpretation: These data suggest that similar oxytocin systemic exposure can be achieved with IM and IH administration routes, and no safety concerns were identified with either route. The inhalation route may offer the opportunity to increase access to oxytocin for women giving birth in resource-poor settings.

  2. The simple transverse intraosseous phalangeal suture for zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injuries: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeson, Daniel Benjamin; Evgeniou, Evgenios; Choa, Robert; Iyer, Srinivasan

    2013-05-01

    Zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injury often precludes the use of a simple core suture as a result of a distal remnant that is too short. The aim of this study was to assess the senior author's (S.I.) simple technique for reinsertion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The case series consisted of 12 patients who required a primary flexor digitorum profundus repair in zone 1, with all repairs performed by the senior author. A Bruner incision was extended to the pulp to expose the base of the distal phalanx. A two-strand repair was anchored to the distal phalanx using the author's technique, which involved passing a 3-0 polypropylene suture on a straight needle through a hypodermic needle that had been drilled through the base of the distal phalanx. This provided a stable, intraosseous, internal repair, allowing a standard early active mobilization regimen. Two patients had excellent results and 10 had good results in terms of distal interphalangeal joint range of movement (mean, 57 degrees; range, 51 to 80 degrees) and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire scores (mean, 12; range, 0 to 31.8). There were no reported tendon ruptures at the time of writing this article (range, 6 to 37 months after surgery). The authors present a technique for the repair of zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injuries that is simple, can be performed quickly, is easily learned, and has results that compare favorably with other techniques in the literature. Furthermore, there is limited morbidity to surrounding fingertip structures. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  4. Route Flap Damping Made Usable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelsser, Cristel; Maennel, Olaf; Mohapatra, Pradosh; Bush, Randy; Patel, Keyur

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the de facto inter-domain routing protocol of the Internet, is known to be noisy. The protocol has two main mechanisms to ameliorate this, MinRouteAdvertisementInterval (MRAI), and Route Flap Damping (RFD). MRAI deals with very short bursts on the order of a few to 30 seconds. RFD deals with longer bursts, minutes to hours. Unfortunately, RFD was found to severely penalize sites for being well-connected because topological richness amplifies the number of update messages exchanged. So most operators have disabled it. Through measurement, this paper explores the avenue of absolutely minimal change to code, and shows that a few RFD algorithmic constants and limits can be trivially modified, with the result being damping a non-trivial amount of long term churn without penalizing well-behaved prefixes' normal convergence process.

  5. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  6. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  7. Articaine (4%) with epinephrine (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) in intraosseous injections in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars: anesthetic efficacy and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leandro Augusto Pinto; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; Meechan, John Gerard; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Ranali, José

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular effects and the anesthetic efficacy of intraosseous injections of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (EPI100) or 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (EPI200). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 0.9 mL EPI100 and EPI200 solutions were administered for endodontic treatment of mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 60 patients. The anesthetic success and pain during anesthesia were evaluated by visual analog scale. The cardiovascular parameters evaluated were heart rate, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiogram changes. Both solutions provided high anesthetic efficacy (96.8% and 93.1% for EPI100 and EPI200, respectively; P > .05), and the cardiovascular parameters showed minimal incidences of significant differences throughout the clinical procedure. The epinephrine concentration did not affect the efficacy of 4% articaine, and both solutions produced a high success level of pulpal anesthesia. Intraosseous delivery by slow speed of injection did not induce significant clinical changes in cardiovascular parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  9. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  10. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  11. Roots/Routes: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  12. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  13. KAUST Open Access policy

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2017-03-07

    The transition to open access (OA) is being driven by funders, libraries, researchers and publishers around the world, and is having an impact on us all. It is inevitable that different countries, organisations and disciplines are moving at different rates towards an OA model, and it is this that we will focus on in this session. Drawing on experiences from across Europe and the Middle East we will provide perspectives from both a global publisher and institutions based in the region. Taylor & Francis take a flexible, evidence-based approach to open access, providing a choice of publication routes for our authors, and a choice of agreements for our library customers. Carolyn will outline some of the open access developments, opportunities and challenges at Taylor & Francis. The library plays a critical role in facilitating open access for their researchers, from managing a repository to providing support and information on the OA publication process to their authors. Janis Tyhurst and Dr Imad Bachir will each give an overview of how this is being managed by their institution. There will be an opportunity for questions and discussion with the panel.

  14. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  15. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  16. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  17. Walk, ride and learn: students' discovery of nature and other evironmental elements on their routes to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney Knollenberg; Jeamok Kwon; Christine. Vogt

    2010-01-01

    America's youth face epidemic levels of childhood obesity and are suffering from a lack of exposure to the outdoors. The Safe Routes to School Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, aims to improve access to safe routes to school for elementary and junior high school children. As a required...

  18. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  19. Estimated transportation routes to a candidate salt repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of possible highway and rail transportation routes within Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico for shipments of spent fuel to the candidate repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Two cases are examined for highway shipments. The initial case analyzes shipments following the Department of Transportation's HM-164 regulations for shipment of spent fuel. The second case analyzes normal commercial routes. Three rail cases are also examined. Each case analyzes potential routes that would be used based for different access spurs into the repository site. Two appendices are included which examine additional scenarios generated by restricting routes from passing through various metropolitan areas. The major finding is that most shipments to the Deaf Smith site will pass through Amarillo, Texas. There are few, if any, feasible alternative routes which would significantly reduce the amount of traffic passing through Amarillo

  20. High throughput route selection in multi-rate wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yi-fei; GUO Xiang-li; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2008-01-01

    Most existing Ad-hoc routing protocols use the shortest path algorithm with a hop count metric to select paths. It is appropriate in single-rate wireless networks, but has a tendency to select paths containing long-distance links that have low data rates and reduced reliability in multi-rate networks. This article introduces a high throughput routing algorithm utilizing the multi-rate capability and some mesh characteristics in wireless fidelity (WiFi) mesh networks. It uses the medium access control (MAC) transmission time as the routing metric, which is estimated by the information passed up from the physical layer. When the proposed algorithm is adopted, the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing can be improved as high throughput AODV (HT-AODV). Simulation results show that HT-AODV is capable of establishing a route that has high data-rate, short end-to-end delay and great network throughput.

  1. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  2. Open access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Dennis Ocholla

    The argument that access to information is an instrumental and individual as well as ... and Dean School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. ... to scholarly publications and can be in any digital format, including text, movies and ... language barriers, censorship, lack of access to the Internet and ...

  3. New routes of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricigil, Mitat; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sakarya, Engin Umut; Sakalar, Emine Güven; Senturk, Mehmet; Reisacher, William R; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed. ILIT features direct injection of allergens into lymph nodes. ILIT may be clinically effective after only a few injections and induces allergen-specific immunoglobulin G, similarly to SCIT. A limitation of ILIT is that intralymphatic injections are required. EPIT features allergen administration by using patches mounted on the skin. EPIT seeks to target epidermal antigen-presenting Langerhans cells rather than mast cells or the vasculature; this should reduce both local and systemic adverse effects. LNIT involves the spraying of allergen extracts into the nasal cavity. Natural or chemically modified allergens (the latter, termed allergoids, lack immunoglobulin E reactivity) are prepared in a soluble form. OIT involves the regular administration of small amounts of a food allergen by mouth and commences with low oral doses, which are then increased as tolerance develops. OMIT seeks to deliver allergenic proteins to an expanded population of Langerhans cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity. ILIT, EPIT, LNIT, OIT, and OMIT are new routes for allergen immunotherapy. They are safe and effective.

  4. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  5. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  6. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  7. Construction of a new wastewater treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue through until February 2009.

  8. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  9. Developing an eco-routing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study develops eco-routing algorithms and investigates and quantifies the system-wide impacts of implementing an eco-routing system. Two eco-routing algorithms are developed: one based on vehicle sub-populations (ECO-Subpopulation Feedback Assign...

  10. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  11. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  12. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  13. Comparison of transhepatic and extrahepatic routes for EUS-guided rendezvous procedure for distal CBD obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Vinay; Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bapat, Mukta; Joshi, Nitin; Vivekanandarajah, Suhirdan; Maydeo, Amit

    2013-04-01

    EUS-guided rendezvous procedure (EUS-RV) can be done by the transhepatic (TH) or the extrahepatic (EH) route. There is no data on the preferred access route when both routes are available. To compare the success, complications, and duration of hospitalization for patients undergoing EUS-RV by the TH or the EH route. Patients with distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction, who failed selective cannulation, underwent EUS-RV by the TH route through the stomach or the EH route through the duodenum. A total of 35 patients were analysed (17 TH, 18 EH). The mean procedure time was significantly longer for the TH group (34.4 vs. 25.7 min; p = 0.0004). There was no difference in the technical success (94.1 vs. 100%). However, the TH group had a higher incidence of post-procedure pain (44.1 vs. 5.5%; p = 0.017), bile leak (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228), and air under diaphragm (11.7 vs. 0; p = 0.228). All bile leaks were small and managed conservatively. Duration of hospitalization was significantly higher for the TH group (2.52 vs. 0.17 days; p = 0.015). EUS-RV has similar success rate by the TH or the EH route. However, the TH route has higher post-procedure pain, longer procedure time, and longer duration of hospitalization. The EH route should be preferred for EUS-RV in patients with distal CBD obstruction when both access routes are technically feasible.

  14. A Novel Linear Programming Formulation of Maximum Lifetime Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, one of the key challenge is to achieve minimum energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime. In fact, lifetime depends on many parameters: the topology of the sensor network, the data aggregation regime in the network, the channel access schemes, the routing...... protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...

  15. Route activity tracking and management using available technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Yousef Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small organizations that maintain their own fleet and make their own deliveries are responsible for ensuring their drivers are utilizing the most efficient routes while delivering products to their customers. Furthermore, efficient delivery requires that drivers spend as little time as possible dropping off and picking up products, since these activities are referred to as “non-value added activities,” although they are necessary tasks in the order cycle process. To aid in reducing order cycle times, large organizations that can afford it have employed transportation management systems. Unfortunately, small organizations with limited resources are less likely to adopt transportation management systems, despite the need for such automation. One solution is to use available productivity software to track and manage driver route activity in an effort to improve and maintain driver productivity by reducing non-value time and identifying optimal routes. This paper will outline how office productivity software such as Microsoft® Access can meet the needs of small organizations with limited resources by describing the development and use of a route activity database that employs an easy-to-use multi-user interface. This paper also includes the details of the underlying infrastructure and the user interface.

  16. A dual-route approach to orthographic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2011-01-01

    In the present theoretical note we examine how different learning constraints, thought to be involved in optimizing the mapping of print to meaning during reading acquisition, might shape the nature of the orthographic code involved in skilled reading. On the one hand, optimization is hypothesized to involve selecting combinations of letters that are the most informative with respect to word identity (diagnosticity constraint), and on the other hand to involve the detection of letter combinations that correspond to pre-existing sublexical phonological and morphological representations (chunking constraint). These two constraints give rise to two different kinds of prelexical orthographic code, a coarse-grained and a fine-grained code, associated with the two routes of a dual-route architecture. Processing along the coarse-grained route optimizes fast access to semantics by using minimal subsets of letters that maximize information with respect to word identity, while coding for approximate within-word letter position independently of letter contiguity. Processing along the fined-grained route, on the other hand, is sensitive to the precise ordering of letters, as well as to position with respect to word beginnings and endings. This enables the chunking of frequently co-occurring contiguous letter combinations that form relevant units for morpho-orthographic processing (prefixes and suffixes) and for the sublexical translation of print to sound (multi-letter graphemes).

  17. A dual-route approach to orthographic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGrainger

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present theoretical note we examine how different learning constraints, thought to be involved in optimizing the mapping of print to meaning during reading acquisition, might shape the nature of the orthographic code involved in skilled reading. On the one hand, optimization is hypothesized to involve selecting combinations of letters that are the most informative with respect to word identity (diagnosticity constraint, and on the other hand to involve the detection of letter combinations that correspond to pre-existing sublexical phonological and morphological representations (chunking constraint. These two constraints give rise to two different kinds of prelexical orthographic code, a coarse-grained and a fine-grained code, associated with the two routes of a dual-route architecture. Processing along the coarse-grained route optimizes fast access to semantics by using minimal subsets of letters that maximize information with respect to word identity, while coding for approximate within-word letter position independently of letter contiguity. Processing along the fined-grained route, on the other hand, is sensitive to the precise ordering of letters, as well as to position with respect to word beginnings and endings. This enables the chunking of frequently co-occurring contiguous letter combinations that form relevant units for morpho-orthographic processing (prefixes and suffixes and for the sublexical translation of print to sound (multi-letter graphemes.

  18. Eco-routing: More green drivers means more benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Serrano, C.; Perez Prada, F.; Monzon de Caceres, A.

    2016-07-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT)/Information and Technology Services (ITS) can play an important role in the transport sector, helping in maintaining accessibility and contemporarily optimizing the use of the vehicles. Among these ICT measures, eco-routing seems a promising one. Drivers normally follow the route which minimizes their generalized costs, normally time and money. But environmental concern is increasing, and drivers are starting to think about the effects of their driving. This means including CO2 emissions or fuel consumption in their route choice. But is this always positive, independently of the traffic situation and the penetration level of green drivers? This articles aims to analyze what happens in terms of fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and travel time, when different penetration levels of drivers, and with different traffic situations, follow the route of minimum fuel consumption instead of the conventional generalized costs. The analysis is based on a modelling process using a transport model of the whole region of Madrid. A total of 18 scenarios are considered: 3 reference scenarios (for congested, medium and low flow traffic situations), and 5 different penetration levels of green drivers for each traffic situation. Results show how impact varies substantially with the level of traffic and, also, that the more the best is not always true. (Author)

  19. Modeling route choice criteria from home to major streets: A discrete choice approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Osiris Vidana-Bencomo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A discrete choice model that consists of three sub-models was developed to investigates the route choice criteria of drivers who travel from their homes in the morning to the access point along the major streets that bound the Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs. The first sub-model is a Nested Logit Model (NLM that estimates the probability of a driver has or has no multiple routes, and if the driver has multiple routes, the route selection criteria are based on the access point’s intersection control type or other factors. The second sub-model is a Mixed Logit (MXL model. It estimates the probabilities of the type of intersection control preferred by a driver. The third sub-model is a NLM that estimates the probabilities of a driver selecting his/her route for its shortest travel time or to avoid pedestrian, and if the aim is to take the fastest route, the decision criteria is based on the shortest distance or minimum stops and turns. Data gathered in a questionnaire survey were used to estimate the sub-models. The attributes of the utility functions of the sub-models are the driver’s demographic and trip characteristics. The model provides a means for transportation planners to distribute the total number of home-based trips generated within a TAZ to the access points along the major streets that bound the TAZ.

  20. Risk factors and prediction of inflammatory complications and local secondary osteoporosis in the bone structure of jaws in dental intraosseous implantation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashchenko I.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of complex clinical, immunologic and biochemical investigations of 48 patients peculiarities of development of inflammatory com¬plications, local osteoporosis and destruction of bone tissue after performed dental intraosseous implantantion were first revealed. It was shown that multiple surgical traumas of soft tissues of jaws and bone tissue of alveolar processes with putting 4 or more implants simultaneously may lead to reducing biocidity of mucosa of jaw tissues; this promotes lesion of oral cavity hygiene and development of inflammatory process in zone of periimplant. It is set that massive accumulation of soft coat and dental calculus in the area of implant, superconstruction and marked deficit of sIgA production of oral mucosa promote development of periimplant mucositis in remote post-operative period. A sharp production of secretory ІL -1β is a risk factor in formation of general-destructive process in a periimplant zone, development of dental periimplant.

  1. A comparative evaluation of pain and anxiety levels in 2 different anesthesia techniques: locoregional anesthesia using conventional syringe versus intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system (Quicksleeper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Senem; Yaltirik, Mehmet; Kirli, Irem; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anxiety and pain levels during anesthesia and efficacy of Quicksleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system, which delivers computer-controlled IO anesthesia and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molars. Forty subjects with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars randomly received IO injection or conventional IANB at 2 successive appointments. The subjects received 1.8 mL 2% articaine. IO injection has many advantages, such as enabling painless anesthesia with less soft tissue numbness and quick onset of anesthesia as well as lingual and palatal anesthesia with single needle penetration. Although IO injection is a useful technique commonly used during various treatments in dentistry, the duration of injection takes longer than conventional techniques, there is a possibility of obstruction at the needle tip, and, the duration of the anesthetic effect is inadequate for prolonged surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Intra-osseous ganglion cyst of the carpal bones. A review of the literature underlining the importance of systematic computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, P; Georgiou, C; Chignon-Sicard, B; Balaguer, T; Lebreton, E; Dumontier, C

    2013-02-01

    The intraosseous ganglion cyst (IOGC) is a benign and lytic bone tumor affecting mostly the metaphyseal and epiphyseal regions of long bones. Its location on the short bones, including the carpal bones has been little reported in the literature. Our review of the literature shows consensus about the surgical techniques to use, but there is currently no real consensus about its pathophysiology, and its diagnostic work-up. Complications related to this lesion (mainly the risk of pathologic fracture) are potentially serious, and can cause irreversible damage. They therefore require accurate assessment to guide the choice of medical or surgical treatment, including a CT scan, which - we believe - is essential. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. The Silk Route from Land to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Weatherford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Route reached its historic and economic apogee under the Mongol Empire (1207–1368, as a direct result of the policies of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan and his successors. Because the land network proved inefficient for the amount of goods needing transport from one part of the empire to another, the Mongols expanded the Silk Route to ocean shipping and thus created the first Maritime Silk Route. The sea traffic initially expanded the land routes but soon strangled them. With the expansion of the Maritime Silk Route through the fourteenth century, the land connections reverted to local networks and lost their global importance.

  4. Malformación vascular intraósea en el maxilar que se presenta en forma de sangrado gingival Intra-osseous vascular malformation in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveenjayakumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones arterio-venosas intraóseas (MAVs en la región maxilofacial son entidades clínicas poco frecuentes. Ofrecen una amplia gama de presentación clínica y no siempre se diagnostican sin sorpresa. El tratamiento de estas lesiones siempre ha representado un reto para el cirujano debido a su intensa vascularización y a la elevada incidencia de recurrencia. Se presenta el caso de una malformación arterio-venosa intraósea en el maxilar superior que se manifiesta como sangrado gingival, cuyos exámenes radiológicos de rutina no fueron concluyentes. Se llevó a cabo la excisión quirúrgica y el empaquetado del hueso con cera, y se realizó el seguimiento del paciente durante 1 año sin que se produjera recurrencia. Las malformaciones vasculares deben tenerse en consideración en el diagnóstico diferencial del sangrado gingival con radiografías dentales no concluyentes.Intraosseous arterio-venous malformations (AVM in the maxillofacial region are rare clinical entities. They have a wide range of clinical presentation and are not always diagnosed without a surprise. Treatment of these lesions has always been a challenge to the surgeon due to extreme vascularity and the high recurrence rate. The case presented is that of an intraosseous arterio-venous malformation in the maxilla that started as gingival bleeding and routine radiographic examinations were inconclusive. Surgical excision and bone wax packing was performed there were no recurrences during 1-year of follow-up. Vascular malformations may be considered in differential diagnosis of gingival bleeding with inconclusive dental radiographs.

  5. Access Contested

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of ... 8 Control and Resistance: Attacks on Burmese Opposition Media 153 ...... “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet,” in Access ...

  6. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  7. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  8. Forbidden Access

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

  9. INTERLINE, a railroad routing model: program description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, B.E.

    1985-11-01

    INTERLINE is an interactive computer program that finds likely routes for shipments over the US railroad system. It is based on a shortest path algorithm modified both to reflect the nature of railroad company operations and to accommodate computer resource limitations in dealing with a large transportation network. The first section of the report discusses the nature of railroad operations and routing practices in the United States, including the tendency to concentrate traffic on a limited number of mainlines, the competition for traffic by different companies operating in the same corridors, and the tendency of originating carriers to retain traffic on their systems before transferring it to terminating carriers. The theoretical foundation and operation of shortest path algorithms are described, as well as the techniques used to simulate actual operating practices within this framework. The second section is a user's guide that describes the program operation and data structures, program features, and user access. 11 refs., 11 figs

  10. Speed limit on the Route de l’Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Construction work to create a cycle path is under way on the Route de l’Europe, between CERN’s Meyrin and Prévessin sites. The new cycle path is expected to be ready for use in August.   On the part of the road under construction, only one lane is open and the speed limit is 30 km/h. Unfortunately, drivers frequently exceed this limit. Those who drive too fast put their own lives at risk as well as those of the people working on the site.  Please respect the speed limit.  In addition, access to the Route de l’Europe from the SM18, SM19 and BA1 areas and from the tunnel may be in the part of the road where only one lane is open. In this case, please join the road only when the traffic lights allow travel in the relevant direction.

  11. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  12. Evaluation of Crosstalk Attacks in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    WDM-PON systems regained interest as low-cost solution for metro and access networks. We present a comparative analysis of resilience of wavelength-selective and wavelength-routed architectures against crosstalk attackers. We compare the vulnerability of these architectures against attacks...

  13. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  14. Novel routes to nanodispersed semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Novel synthetic routes to nanodispersed compound semiconductors using organometallic precursors have been developed. The quantum dots have been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, infra red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Polar Lewis base solvents such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and 4-ethylpyridine were utilized as both passivating agent and dispersing medium. In the the search for new solvent systems and passivating agents, and investigation was also made into the use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a reaction solvent and capping agent in the preparation of nanocrystalline CdS. Existing routes using metal alkyls and silylated precursors in hot TOPO were improved by substituting the metal alkyl with an metal alkyl adduct. Cadmium monothiocarbamate and a related precursor, cadmium thioacetate were investigated as possible single source precursors to nanometer sized CdS. The thermolysis of diorganophosphides in the Lewis bases coordinating solvent (4-ethylpridine) has been investigated, including studies of decompositon mechanisms, and quantum dots of Cd 3 P 2 , Zn 3 P 2 , Inp and GaP have been prepared. The synthesis of InAs using the metal chloride and an aminoarsenide precursor in 4-ethylpridine has also been developed. A simple method for the organization of III-V materials into glass like aggregates has been described. (author)

  15. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  16. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  17. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  18. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  19. A SURVEY on WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS, ROUTING METRICS and PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak DURUKAN ODABASI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Internet has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. It has a growing user community in many fields from banking transactions to online entertainment. It will be very efficient for users, as the next generation internet access becomes wireless like frequently used services such as cellular phones. But for providing this, a new network is needed to be designed or an existing network must be improved as well as making changes on infrastructure. At this point, mesh network infrastructure arises and offers more sophisticated internet access with less need. The most important advantage of mesh networks is the capability of working without infrastructure. Mesh networks are an additional access technology more than being a renewed one in the next generation wireless networks called 4G. In this study, wireless mesh networks and example applications are mentioned. Base architecture and design factors are emphasized, current routing protocols that are used on wireless mesh networks and routing metrics on which these protocols are based, are explained. Finally, the performance effects of these protocols and metrics on different network topologies are referred.

  20. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  1. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  2. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  3. Predicting transportation routes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Clarke, D.B.; McGuire, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models

  4. Risk assessment of alternative proliferation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-Attribute Decision Theory is applied to rank II alternative routes to nuclear proliferation in order of difficulty in acquiring nuclear weapons by nonnuclear countries. The method is based on reducing the various variables affecting the decision to a single function providing a measure for the proliferation route. The results indicate that the most difficult route to obtain atomic weapons is through nuclear power reactors, specifically the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, heavy water Canada deuterium uranium reactor, and light water reactors such as boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The easiest routes are supercritical centrifuge isotope separation, laser isotope separation, and research reactor. However, nonnuclear routes available that result in substantial damage to life and property are easier than any nuclear route

  5. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  6. A joint routing and speed optimization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Ricardo; He, Qie; Santos, Fernando; Song, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost contributes to a significant portion of operating cost in cargo transportation. Though classic routing models usually treat fuel cost as input data, fuel consumption heavily depends on the travel speed, which has led to the study of optimizing speeds over a given fixed route. In this paper, we propose a joint routing and speed optimization problem to minimize the total cost, which includes the fuel consumption cost. The only assumption made on the dependence between the fuel cost an...

  7. Gaining Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)

  8. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  9. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  10. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Salivary gland tumors are also known to develop within jaw bones, arising within the jaw as a ... Treatment of acinic cell carcinoma in most cases is surgical. High recurrence rates ... Panoramic radiograph [Figure 3] showed a ...

  11. The vehicle routing problem with edge set costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Pisinger, David

    We consider an important generalization of the vehicle routing problem with time windows in which a fixed cost must be paid for accessing a set of edges. This fixed cost could reflect payment for toll roads, investment in new facilities, the need for certifications and other costly investments....... The certifications and contributions impose a cost for the company while they also give unlimited usage of a set of roads to all vehicles belonging to the company. Different versions for defining the edge sets are discussed and formulated. A MIP-formulation of the problem is presented, and a solution method based...

  12. New routes of XAFS with the low emittance storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, A.

    1993-01-01

    New routes of XAFS should come from the extreme focusing and the polarization tunability of the new storage rings. It is certainly of interest to recall that fundamental ideas in X-ray absorption spectroscopy should come from direct soft X-ray excitations, currently accessible with the national facilities but also via inelastic scattering by electronic excitations more relevant of the new storage rings. Because of the ESRF proximity, references come from the European development, but it is only due to my ignorance if pertinent quotations of the American and Japanese efforts are missing. (author)

  13. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  14. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  15. New Hybrid Route to Biomimetic Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    To develop economical low-temperature routes to biomimetic synthesis of high-performance composite materials, with control of composition and structure based on the molecular mechanisms controlling...

  16. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Route Choice in Subway Station during Morning Peak Hours: A Case of Guangzhou Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at crowding phenomenon in the subway. As passengers are inclined to choose the route with minimum disutility, we put forward a route choice model which is constructed to achieve minimum objective function of feasibility for the optimal solution. Meanwhile we set passenger volume threshold values according to capacity of facilities. In the case of actual capacity exceeding the threshold, the decision node of constrained route will be selected; computing procedure about searching decision points will be presented. Then we should set rational restrictions at the decision node of the minimum utility function route to prevent too many passengers’ access to platform. Through certification, this series of methods can effectively ensure the safety of the station efficient operation.

  18. Wine routes as an element of the regional development of borderline regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drozg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of winw routes in promoting the development of wine-growing regions. It focuses both on the criteria for tracing wine routes (landscape value of a region, distribution of tourist supply settlements and events, natural and cultural monuments, existing road netivorks and transport accessibility, supplemenlary activities along the wine routes and on the impact that wine exert on the landscape/region (an increased income of individual households, better infrastructure equipment, recuttivation ol desert land lots, decreasing depopulalion and development of supplementary activities. The wine route through the Svečinske gorice region is presented as an example of countryside regulation.

  19. Evaluation and development the routing protocol of a fully functional simulation environment for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar Tareq; Warip, Mohd Nazri Mohd; Yaakob, Naimah; Abduljabbar, Waleed Khalid; Atta, Abdu Mohammed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an area of wireless technologies that is attracting a great deal of interest. There are still several areas of VANETS, such as security and routing protocols, medium access control, that lack large amounts of research. There is also a lack of freely available simulators that can quickly and accurately simulate VANETs. The main goal of this paper is to develop a freely available VANETS simulator and to evaluate popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols in several VANETS scenarios. The VANETS simulator consisted of a network simulator, traffic (mobility simulator) and used a client-server application to keep the two simulators in sync. The VANETS simulator also models buildings to create a more realistic wireless network environment. Ad-Hoc Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) were initially simulated in a city, country, and highway environment to provide an overall evaluation.

  20. Closure of the Route de Meyrin as of 11 February 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    In the framework of the work on the new Cornavin-Meyrin-CERN tramline, an underpass is to be cut into the hill of Meyrin village where the Route de Meyrin meets the Avenue de Vaudagne and the Avenue Virginio-Malnati. As a result, the Route de Meyrin will be closed to through traffic for a period of two years, starting on Monday 11 February 2008. The following traffic diversions will be in operation: - Traffic travelling in the Geneva-France direction will be diverted along the Avenue de Mategnin and the Avenue Louis-Rendu or the Route du Nant-d'Avril and the Route du Mandement, - Traffic travelling in the France-Geneva direction will be diverted along the Route du Mandement and the Route du Nant-d'Avril. There will also be special diversion routes in the centre of Meyrin reserved for access to shops, houses and flats and the La Tour hospital. The map is available at the following link. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Closure of the Route de Meyrin as of 11 February 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the work on the new Cornavin-Meyrin-CERN tramline, an underpass is to be cut into the hill of Meyrin village where the Route de Meyrin meets the Avenue de Vaudagne and the Avenue Virginio-Malnati. As a result, the Route de Meyrin will be closed to through traffic for a period of two years, starting on Monday 11 February 2008. The following traffic diversions will be in operation: Traffic travelling in the Geneva-France direction will be diverted along the Avenue de Mategnin and the Avenue Louis-Rendu or the Route du Nant-d’Avril and the Route du Mandement, Traffic travelling in the France-Geneva direction will be diverted along the Route du Mandement and the Route du Nant-d’Avril. There will also be special diversion routes in the centre of Meyrin reserved for access to shops, houses and flats and the La Tour hospital. Full details of the project (in French) can be consulted on the following website: http://w...

  2. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  3. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System -- TRAGIS, progress on improving a routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model provides a useful tool to calculate and analyze transportation routes for radioactive materials within the continental US. This paper outlines some of the features available in this model

  4. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  5. Routes to the past: Neural substrates of direct and generative autobiographical memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Addis, Donna Rose; Knapp, Katie; Roberts, Reece P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Models of autobiographical memory propose two routes to retrieval depending on cue specificity. When available cues are specific and personally-relevant, a memory can be directly accessed. However, when available cues are generic, one must engage a generative retrieval process to produce more specific cues to successfully access a relevant memory. The current study sought to characterize the neural bases of these retrieval processes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), partic...

  6. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  7. Route churn: an analysis of low-cost carrier route continuity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented

  8. Planning routes around the world: International evidence for southern route preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Andonova, Elena; Meneghetti, Chiara; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Wienemann, Rasmus; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies test whether the southern route preference, which describes the tendency for route planners to disproportionately select south- rather than north-going routes, can be attributed to regional elevation patterns; specifically, we ask whether this effect replicates in three topographically

  9. The QKD network: model and routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jinhai

    2017-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) technology can establish unconditional secure keys between two communicating parties. Although this technology has some inherent constraints, such as the distance and point-to-point mode limits, building a QKD network with multiple point-to-point QKD devices can overcome these constraints. Considering the development level of current technology, the trust relaying QKD network is the first choice to build a practical QKD network. However, the previous research didn't address a routing method on the trust relaying QKD network in detail. This paper focuses on the routing issues, builds a model of the trust relaying QKD network for easily analysing and understanding this network, and proposes a dynamical routing scheme for this network. From the viewpoint of designing a dynamical routing scheme in classical network, the proposed scheme consists of three components: a Hello protocol helping share the network topology information, a routing algorithm to select a set of suitable paths and establish the routing table and a link state update mechanism helping keep the routing table newly. Experiments and evaluation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed routing scheme.

  10. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different

  11. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used to c...

  12. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  13. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW

  14. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless real-time home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  15. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless ¿real-time¿ home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  16. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    University of Kwazulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South ... Key Words: Nigeria Immigration Service, Illegal Routes, Security Policing, Border,. State .... transported weapons across borders to sell them in exchange for food or other commodities. ... The study's respondents were of the opinion that illegal routes exist around the ...

  17. Optimizing Departure Times in Vehicle Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. In practice, however, temporary traffic congestion make such solutions non-optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, the VRPTW does not

  18. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  19. Joint route planning under varying market conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein; Salomon, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  20. Time and timing in vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabali, O.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of goods to a set of geographically dispersed customers is a common problem faced by carrier companies, well-known as the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). The VRP consists of finding an optimal set of routes that minimizes total travel times for a given number of vehicles with a fixed

  1. 78 FR 59339 - Intracoastal Waterway Route “Magenta Line” on NOAA Nautical Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... waterways have been based principally on surveys made from 60 to 80 years ago and, necessarily, are obsolete... found where the charted Intracoastal Waterway Route (``magenta line'') passes on the wrong side of aids... specifically seeks comments regarding: 1. How do you currently access the magenta line? On paper nautical...

  2. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  3. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  4. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  5. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  6. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  7. Route analysis for MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Fumio; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    In Tokamak facilities which are promising in nuclear fusion reactor development, the plasma in the core is often described by MHD approximation. Specifically, since an axisymmetric torus is approximately assumed as the first wall (shell) shape in actual Tokamak facilities, the Grad-Shafranov equation to be satisfied by an axisymmetric equilibrium solution for ideal MHD fluid must be solved, and the characteristics of its solution must be clarified. This paper shows the outline of the numerical calculation which employs both the incremental method taking the particular incremental nodal point values as the control parameters and the interaction method in accordance with Newton method at the same time, the analysis objective being a non-linear eigenvalue problem dealing the boundary of plasma region with surrounding vacuum region as the free boundary. Next, the detailed route analysis of the equilibrium solution is performed, utilizing the above numerical calculation technique, to clarify the effect of shell shape on the behaviour of the equilibrium solution. As the shape of the shell, a rectangular section torus, which have a notch depression at a part of the shell inner boundary, is considered. In the paper, the fundamental MHD equation and its approximate solution by the finite element method, the behaviour of plasma equilibrium solution in a shell having a notch, and the effect of notch shapes on plasma behaviour are described. This analysis verifies the effectiveness of the calculation method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Evacuation route planning during nuclear emergency using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear industry the routing in case of any emergency is a cause of concern and of great importance. Even the smallest of time saved in the affected region saves a huge amount of otherwise received dose. Genetic algorithm an optimization technique has great ability to search for the optimal path from the affected region to a destination station in a spatially addressed problem. Usually heuristic algorithms are used to carry out these types of search strategy, but due to the lack of global sampling in the feasible solution space, these algorithms have considerable possibility of being trapped into local optima. Routing problems mainly are search problems for finding the shortest distance within a time limit to cover the required number of stations taking care of the traffics, road quality, population size etc. Lack of any formal mechanisms to help decision-makers explore the solution space of their problem and thereby challenges their assumptions about the number and range of options available. The Genetic Algorithm provides a way to optimize a multi-parameter constrained problem with an ease. Here use of Genetic Algorithm to generate a range of options available and to search a solution space and selectively focus on promising combinations of criteria makes them ideally suited to such complex spatial decision problems. The emergency response and routing can be made efficient, in accessing the closest facilities and determining the shortest route using genetic algorithm. The accuracy and care in creating database can be used to improve the result of the final output. The Genetic algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of result on the basis of distance where other algorithm cannot be obtained. The search space can be utilized to its great extend

  9. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Effect of intraosseous injection versus inferior alveolar nerve block as primary pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Alireza; Razavian, Hamid; Shafiee, Maryam

    2018-01-27

    This study sought to assess the success rate, effect on blood pressure, and pain of intraosseous injection (IO) and inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis as the primary anaesthetic technique. This randomized clinical trial (IRCT2013022712634N1) was conducted on 60 patients between 18 and 65 years suffering from symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group one received IO while group two received IANB with 3% mepivacaine. After anaesthetic injection, success rate of pulpal anaesthesia was assessed by pulp testing in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures of patients were compared before and after the anaesthetic injections. Level of pain during injection was scored using a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, t-test and chi square test at p = .05 level of significance. Success rate of IO (56.7%) was significantly higher than that of IANB (23.3%) (p = .008). There was no significant difference in pain during anaesthetic injection (p = .304) or change in systolic (p = .80) and diastolic (p = .28) blood pressures following injection between the two techniques. IO had a higher success rate than IANB for pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Neither technique provided profound pulpal anaesthesia.

  11. On board processing for future satellite communications systems: Comparison of FDM, TDM and hybrid accessing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.

    1982-01-01

    Several satellite uplink and downlink accessing schemes for customer premises service are compared. Four conceptual system designs are presented: satellite-routed frequency division multiple access (FDMA), satellite-switched time division multiple access (TDMA), processor-routed TDMA, and frequency-routed TDMA, operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The designs are compared on the basis of estimated satellite weight, system capacity, power consumption, and cost. The systems are analyzed for fixed multibeam coverage of the continental United States. Analysis shows that the system capacity is limited by the available satellite resources and by the terminal size and cost.

  12. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  13. A user equilibrium, traffic assignment model of network route and parking lot choice, with search circuits and cruising flows

    OpenAIRE

    LEURENT, Fabien; BOUJNAH, Houda

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a novel network model of parking and route choice. Parking supply is represented by parking type, management strategy including the fare, capacity and occupancy rate of parking lot, and network location, in relation to access routes along the roadway network. Trip demand is segmented according to origin-destination pair, the disposal of private parking facilities and the individual preferences for parking quality of service. Each traveller is assumed to make a two stage cho...

  14. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA

    Event detection; wireless sensor networks; hybrid routing; cost benefit analysis; proactive routing; reactive routing. 1. ... additional energy, high processing power, etc. are deployed to extend the .... transmit to its parent node. (2) Reactive ...

  15. StateGEN/StateNET - A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modeling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modeling structure permits the state or local government to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE

  16. INTERLINE 5.0 -- An expanded railroad routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    A rail routine model, INTERLINE, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate potential routes for transporting radioactive materials. In Version 5.0, the INTERLINE routing algorithms have been enhanced to include the ability to predict alternative routes, barge routes, and population statistics for any route. The INTERLINE railroad network is essentially a computerized rail atlas describing the US railroad system. All rail lines, with the exception of industrial spurs, are included in the network. Inland waterways and deep water routes along with their interchange points with the US railroadsystem are also included. The network contains over 15,000 rail and barge segments (links) and over 13,000 stations, interchange points, ports, and other locations (nodes). The INTERLINE model has been converted to operate on an IBM-compatible personal computer. At least a 286 computer with a hard disk containing approximately 6 MB of free space is recommended. Enhanced program performance will be obtained by using arandom-access memory drive on a 386 or 486 computer

  17. StateGEN/StateNET--A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modelling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system (Cashwell, 1989) and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modelling structure permits the state or local to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines (Cashwell, 1989) or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia national Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy's (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE. 2 refs

  18. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  19. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  20. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  1. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF 3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings

  2. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  3. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  4. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  5. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  6. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal....... Subcutaneous injection of melatonin displayed a rapid absorption rate compared to oral administration. Conclusion: Intranasal administration of melatonin has a large potential, and more research in humans is warranted. Transdermal application of melatonin has a possible use in a local application, due to slow...

  8. Ising model for packet routing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Chiaki

    2004-01-01

    For packet routing control in computer networks, we propose an Ising model which is defined in order to express competition among a queue length and a distance from a node with a packet to its destination node. By introducing a dynamics for a mean-field value of an Ising spin, we show by computer simulations that effective control of packet routing through priority links is possible

  9. Efficient Networks Communication Routing Using Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by natural biological swarm’s collective intelligence has an abundance of desirable properties for problem-solving like in network routing. The focus of this paper is in the applications of swarm based intelligence in information routing for communication networks. As we know networks are growing and adopting new platforms as new technologies comes. Also according to new demands and requirements networks topologies and its complexity is increasing with time. Thus it is becomin...

  10. Learning Points and Routes to Recommend Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dawei; Ong, Cheng Soon; Xie, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    The problem of recommending tours to travellers is an important and broadly studied area. Suggested solutions include various approaches of points-of-interest (POI) recommendation and route planning. We consider the task of recommending a sequence of POIs, that simultaneously uses information about POIs and routes. Our approach unifies the treatment of various sources of information by representing them as features in machine learning algorithms, enabling us to learn from past behaviour. Info...

  11. Self-Interested Routing in Queueing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Parlaktürk; Sunil Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We study self-interested routing in stochastic networks, taking into account the discrete stochastic dynamics of such networks. We analyze a two-station multiclass queueing network in which the system manager chooses the scheduling rule and individual customers choose routes in a self-interested manner. We show that this network can be unstable in Nash equilibrium under some scheduling rules. We also design a nontrivial scheduling rule that negates the performance degradation resulting from s...

  12. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents

  13. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  14. Clinical utility of an endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous technique via various approach routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sasahira, Naoki; Nakai, Yousuke; Kogure, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mizuno, Suguru; Sasaki, Takashi; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    The endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous techniques (EUS-rendezvous) provide reliable biliary access after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cannulation. We evaluated the clinical utility of an EUS-rendezvous technique using various approach routes. Patients undergoing EUS-rendezvous for biliary access after failed bile duct cannulation in ERCP were included. EUS-rendezvous was performed via three approach routes depending on the patient's condition: transgastric, transduodenal in a short endoscopic position, or transduodenal in a long endoscopic position. The main outcomes were the technical success rates. Secondary outcomes were procedure time and complications. Fourteen patients (median age, 77 years) underwent EUS-rendezvous for biliary access resulting from failed biliary cannulation. The reasons for biliary drainage were malignant biliary obstruction in five patients and choledocholithiasis in nine. Transgastric, transduodenal in a short position, and transduodenal in a long position EUS-rendezvous was performed in five, five, and four patients, respectively. Bile duct puncture occurred in the left intrahepatic duct in four patients, right hepatic duct in one, middle common bile duct in four, and lower common bile duct in five. The technical success rate was 100 %. In four patients, the approach route was modified from transduodenal in a short position to transduodenal in a long position or transgastric route. The median procedure time was 81 min. One case each of biliary peritonitis and pancreatitis occurred and were managed conservatively. EUS-rendezvous provided safe and reliable transpapillary bile duct access after failed ERCP cannulation. The selection of the appropriate approach routes, depending on patient condition, is critical.

  15. Apresentações incomuns no diagnóstico por imagem do pseudotumor intraósseo do hemofílico Uncommon presentations of intraosseous hemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Koenigkam Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever apresentações incomuns do pseudotumor do hemofílico no diagnóstico por imagem. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com avaliação de cinco pseudotumores ósseos do hemofílico em dois pacientes. Os achados de imagem em dois pacientes hemofílicos tipo A foram avaliados em consenso por dois radiologistas musculoesqueléticos. Foram estudados exames de radiografia simples, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. RESULTADOS: Em uma das lesões analisadas a fase pós-contraste intravenoso da tomografia computadorizada mostrou áreas de reforço heterogêneo e de aspecto sólido no interior da lesão da coxa direita. Este aspecto foi confirmado no exame anatomopatológico da lesão em questão. Outro achado raro foi a identificação de dois pseudotumores intraósseos no úmero, separados por segmento de osso normal. E, por fim, também um pseudotumor do fêmur com extensão para partes moles e transarticular, com conseqüente acometimento da tíbia e patela. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados de diagnóstico por imagem acima descritos não são comumente relatados para os pseudotumores ósseos do hemofílico. É importante que o radiologista tenha conhecimento dessas apresentações mais raras.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at describing uncommon presentations of intraosseous hemophilic pseudotumor in imaging diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study evaluating five hemophilic pseudotumors in bones of two patients with hemophilia A. Imaging findings were consensually evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were analyzed. RESULTS: At contrast-enhanced computed tomography images, one of the lesions on the left thigh was visualized with heterogeneously enhanced solid areas. This finding was later confirmed by anatomopathological study. Another uncommon finding was the identification of

  16. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  17. SAFEBIKE: A Bike-sharing Route Recommender with Availability Prediction and Safe Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Weisheng; Chen, Fanglan; Fu, Kaiqun; Lu, Chang-Tien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents SAFEBIKE, a novel route recommendation system for bike-sharing service that utilizes station information to infer the number of available bikes in dock and recommend bike routes according to multiple factors such as distance and safety level. The system consists of a station level availability predictor that predicts bikes and docks amount at each station, and an efficient route recommendation service that considers safety and bike/dock availability factors. It targets use...

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Rendezvous Technique after Failed Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: Which Approach Route Is the Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Nozomi; Hara, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hijioka, Susumu; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Hirayama, Yutaka; Onishi, Sachiyo; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    Objective The endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous technique (EUS-RV) is a salvage method for failed selective biliary cannulation. Three puncture routes have been reported, with many comparisons between the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. We used the trans-esophagus (TE) and trans-jejunum (TJ) routes. In the present study, the utility of EUS-RV for biliary access was evaluated, focusing on the approach routes. Methods and Patients In 39 patients, 42 puncture routes were evaluated in detail. EUS-RV was performed between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were prospectively enrolled, and their clinical data were retrospectively collected. Results The patients' median age was 71 (range 29-84) years. The indications for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were malignant biliary obstruction in 24 patients and benign biliary disease in 15. The technical success rate was 78.6% (33/42) and was similar among approach routes (p=0.377). The overall complication rate was 16.7% (7/42) and was similar among approach routes (p=0.489). However, mediastinal emphysema occurred in 2 TE route EUS-RV patients. No EUS-RV-related deaths occurred. Conclusion EUS-RV proved reliable after failed ERCP. The selection of the appropriate route based on the patient's condition is crucial.

  19. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL

  20. Bellman Ford algorithm - in Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; Mahmud Siregar, Amir; Nasution, Khairuddin; Haramaini, Tasliyah

    2018-04-01

    In a large scale network need a routing that can handle a lot number of users, one of the solutions to cope with large scale network is by using a routing protocol, There are 2 types of routing protocol that is static and dynamic, Static routing is manually route input based on network admin, while dynamic routing is automatically route input formed based on existing network. Dynamic routing is efficient used to network extensively because of the input of route automatic formed, Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of dynamic routing that uses the bellman-ford algorithm where this algorithm will search for the best path that traversed the network by leveraging the value of each link, so with the bellman-ford algorithm owned by RIP can optimize existing networks.

  1. Phases and Steps in the Access to Data in Information Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo; Gouws, Rufus

    2015-01-01

    route and access time, but not access structure. This term is not only ill defined – it is less relevant, because each user has different access routes, and also the same user makes use of different routes in different cases. We describe four experiments in a case study with one test person how...... the different access processes in different user situations take place. This test person is trying to solve different accounting information needs in different user situations. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the access process terminology of lexicography and information science, to systematize...... the terms in a logical structure and to show how these disciplines complement one another by providing clearer definitions to describe the different access processes....

  2. Update on Instrumentations for Cholecystectomies Performed via Transvaginal Route: State of the Art and Future Prospectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Pulvirenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES is an innovative approach in which a flexible endoscope enters the abdominal cavity via the transesophageal, transgastric, transcolonic, transvaginal or transvescical route, combining the technique of minimally invasive surgery with flexible endoscopy. Several groups have described different modifications by using flexible endoscopes with different levels of laparoscopic assistance. Transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC consists in accessing the abdominal cavity through a posterior colpotomy and using the vaginal incision as a visual or operative port. An increasing interest has arisen around the TVC; nevertheless, the most common and highlighted concern is about the lack of specific instruments dedicated to the vaginal access route. TVC should be distinguished between “pure”, in which the entire operation is performed through the transvaginal route, and “hybrid”, in which the colpotomy represents only a support to introduce instruments and the operation is performed mainly by the classic transabdominal-introduced instruments. Although this new technique seems very appealing for patients, on the other hand it is very challenging for the surgeon because of the difficulties related to the mode of access, the limited technology currently available and the risk of complications related to the organ utilized for access. In this brief review all the most recent advancements in the field of TVC's techniques and instrumentations are listed and discussed.

  3. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES (SUBJECT REVIEW OF AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    article editorial

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years advances in drug formulations and innovative routes of administration have been made. Our understanding of drug transport across tissues has increased. These changes have often resulted in improved patient adherence to the therapeutic regiment and pharmacologic response. The administration of drugs by transdermal or transmucosal routes offers the advantage of being relatively painless. Also, the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situations exists, often precluding the need to establish intravinus access which is a particular benefit for children. This statement focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of alternative routes of drug administration. Issues of particular importance in the care of pediatric patients especially factors that could lead to drug-relaxed toxicity or adverse responses are emphasized.Key words: drug formulation, pharmacoKINETICS, pharmacodynamics, drug, children.

  4. Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine: a previously unreported cause of neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Contreras, Oscar

    2017-05-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a frequent disorder caused by hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; however, bone erosions from calcific tendinitis are unusual. The spinal manifestation of this disease is calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle; this disease has never been described in the posterior aspect of the spine. We report a case of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition involving the posterior cervical spine eroding the bone cortex. A 57-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of left-sided neck pain. Radiographs showed C4-C5 interspinous calcification with lytic compromise of the posterior arch of C4. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a lytic lesion of the posterior arch of C4, with a soft tissue mass extending to the C4-C5 interspinous space; calcifications were observed as very low signal intensity areas on T1 and T2 sequences, surrounded by gadolinium-enhanced soft tissues. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the bone erosions and the soft tissue calcifications. A CT-guided needle biopsy was performed; it showed vascularized connective tissue with inflammatory histiocytic infiltration and multinucleated giant cells; Alizarin Red stain confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite crystals. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatories for 2 weeks. She has been asymptomatic in a 6-month follow-up; a CT scan at the last follow-up revealed reparative remodeling of bone erosions. This is the first report of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition with intraosseous penetration involving the posterior aspect of the cervical spine. Considering that this unusual lesion can be misinterpreted as a tumor or infection, high suspicion is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  5. The effect of intraosseous local anesthesia of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine on pulpal blood flow and pulpal anesthesia of mandibular molars and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Samdrup, Tshering; Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Noppakun

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraosseous (IO) anesthesia with 4% articaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine on pulpal blood flow (PBF) and pulpal anesthesia of mandibular first molars and canines in human subjects. Ten healthy volunteers with intact mandibular first molar and canine were given an osteocentral technique of IO injection using the Quick Sleeper 5 system and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine at distal site of mandibular first molar. The PBF was monitored by a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). Pulpal anesthesia was assessed with an electric pulp tester (EPT). IO injection caused a decrease in PBF in molars from 6.31 ± 3.85 perfusion units (P.U.) before injection to 2.51 ± 2.53 P.U. 1 min after injection (P anesthesia in the molars, the mean onset was 2.40 ± 0.84 min and the mean duration was 38 ± 16.19 min. In the canines, there was a decrease in the sensitivity to EPT but complete pulpal anesthesia was not achieved. IO injection distal to mandibular first molar caused a decrease in PBF and successful pulpal anesthesia in first molar, but not in canine. Both PBF and EPT readings returned to normal, suggesting that pulpal ischemia may not occur. IO anesthesia is safe to use as a primary technique in teeth with normal pulp.

  6. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  7. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  8. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  9. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  10. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  11. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sanmartin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX. However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption.

  12. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  13. Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schurgot, Mary R.; Comaniciu, Cristina; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

  14. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  15. A Routing Mechanism for Cloud Outsourcing of Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Web-based technologies have been increasingly used in picture archive and communication systems (PACS), in services related to storage, distribution, and visualization of medical images. Nowadays, many healthcare institutions are outsourcing their repositories to the cloud. However, managing communications between multiple geo-distributed locations is still challenging due to the complexity of dealing with huge volumes of data and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. In order to improve the performance of distributed medical imaging networks, a smart routing mechanism was developed. This includes an innovative cache system based on splitting and dynamic management of digital imaging and communications in medicine objects. The proposed solution was successfully deployed in a regional PACS archive. The results obtained proved that it is better than conventional approaches, as it reduces remote access latency and also the required cache storage space.

  16. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  17. Robust against route failure using power proficient reliable routing in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to propose a novel routing protocol for Mobile Adhoc Network communication which reduces the route failure during transmission. The proposed routing protocol uses 3 salient parameters to discover the path which ensure the reliable communication. The quality of the channel, link quality and energy level of the node are the major reasons for unintentional node failure in mobile Adhoc network. So the proposed routing protocol considers these three parameters to select the best forwarder node in the path. The reliable data communication is achieved by transmitting data via path selected by the proposed routing scheme has been proven using network simulator (NS2. Keywords: Channel quality, Link quality, Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET, Residual energy

  18. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  19. Evolution Strategies in the Multipoint Connections Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krulikovska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure. First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms. Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.

  20. Hazardous materials routing - risk management of mismanagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Along with emergency planning and preparedness, the placement of restrictions on routing has become an increasingly popular device for managing the highway and rail risks of hazardous materials transportation. Federal studies conducted in 1985 indicate that at that time there were 513 different state and local restrictions on the routing of hazardous materials for these two modes of transportation, and that there were 136 state and local notification requirements, that is, restrictions that take the form of a statute or ordinance requiring advance warning or periodic reporting about hazardous materials shipments. Routing restrictions also take the form of prohibiting the use of road, a tunnel, or a bridge for a specified set of hazardous materials

  1. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also...... lacks the ability to cooperate between different domains and operators. The emergence of label switching transport technology such as of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) supports the traffic transport in a finer granularity and more dedicated end-to-end Quality...... (RACF) provides the platform that enables cooperation and ubiquitous integration between networks. In this paper, we investigate in the network architecture, protocols and algorithms for inter-domain QoS routing and traffic engineering. The PCE based inter-domain routing architecture is enhanced...

  3. Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP in literature. Based on a classification of waste collection (residential, commercial and industrial, firstly the key findings for these three types of waste collection are presented. Therefore, according to the model (Node Routing Problems and Arc Routing problems used to represent WCVRP, different methods and techniques are analyzed in this paper to solve WCVRP. This paper attempts to serve as a roadmap of research literature produced in the field of WCVRP.

  4. Eco-sustainable routing in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    infrastructures are now widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the emission of green-house gases (GHG) in the at- mosphere, signicantly aecting the environmental sustainability of new evolutions in network architectures as well as technological developments in communication devices. In this paper......, a novel eco-sustainable Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithm, based on shortest-path routing with an adaptive link weighting function relying on an extension of the OSPF-TE protocol to convey carbon footprint information, has been proposed to decrease the network ecological impact while...

  5. Applied Multiprotocol Routing in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to create a multi-protocol system using SIP, H.323 and MGCP standards, which would ensure routing to various types of VoIP networks. The priority was to provide multi-protocol support to SIP and H.323 signalling and the support of the routing using the ENUM standard which has recently passed from the trial phase into full operation in the Czech Republic. The document describes the system's architecture and the components used. It also briefly describes ENUM.

  6. PROPOSAL OF ALGORITHM FOR ROUTE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ramon de Carvalho Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses “Six Sigma” methodology for the elaboration of an algorithm for routing problems which is able to obtain more efficient results than those from Clarke and Wright´s (CW algorithm (1964 in situations of random increase of product delivery demands, facing the incapability of service level increase . In some situations, the algorithm proposed obtained more efficient results than the CW algorithm. The key factor was a reduction in the number of mistakes (one way routes and in the level of result variation.

  7. Developing New Tourism routes in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Flognfeldt, Thor

    2013-01-01

    For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - "Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the col...

  8. Vessels Route Planning Problem with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find a solution for route planning in a transport networks, where the costs of tracks, factor of safety and travel time are ambiguous. This approach is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory and well known Dijkstra's algorithm. In this approach important are the influencing factors of the mentioned coefficients using uncertain possibilities presented by probability intervals. Based on these intervals the quality intervals of each route can be determined. Applied decision rules can be described by the end user.

  9. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  10. Average opportunity-based accessibility of public transit systems to grocery stores in small urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Dharmadhikari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the accessibility of grocery stores to university students using the public transportation system, drawing from a case study of Fargo, North Dakota. Taking into consideration the combined travel time components of walking, riding, and waiting, this study measures two types of accessibilities: accessibility to reach a particular place and accessibility to reach the bus stop to ride the public transit system. These two accessibilities are interdependent and cannot perform without each other. A new method to calculate the average accessibility measure for the transit routes is proposed. A step-wise case study analysis indicates that one route provides accessibility to a grocery store in eight minutes. This also suggests that the North Dakota State University area has moderate accessibility to grocery stores.

  11. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  12. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  13. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  14. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  15. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  16. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  17. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  18. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  19. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony...

  20. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  1. Scenemash: multimodal route summarization for city exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of mining tourist information from social multimedia data gives rise to new applications offering much richer impressions of the city. In this paper we propose Scenemash, a system that generates multimodal summaries of multiple alternative routes between locations in a city. To get

  2. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary ...

  3. Transportation access to Yucca Mountain: Critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Souleyrette, R.R.; Bartolo, R. di

    1991-01-01

    Transportation planning for a repository at Yucca Mountain is complicated because of uncertainty about the modes and numbers of nuclear waste shipments and because of uncertainty about the routes which will be used. There could be as many as 76,000 truck shipments, or as few as 1,060 dedicated train shipments, during repository operations. The site lacks rail access. Three rail access options currently under study range in length from 120 miles to more than 400 miles. The site is more than 100 miles from the Interstate highway system. The UNLV Transportation Research Center has evaluated three rail and four highway routes using a broad range of impact measures. This preliminary evaluation found that the routing options differ significantly regarding resident and non-resident populations, environmentally sensitive areas, accident rates, and other factors. Crosscutting issues include impacts on Nevada Indian tribes, potential conflicts with US Air Force operations, and future population growth in southern Nevada. Considerable additional analysis will be required prior to environmental impact statement scoping

  4. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  5. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  6. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  7. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  8. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  9. Comparison of routing metrics for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, SL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available in each and every relay node so as to find the next hop for the packet. A routing metric is simply a measure used for selecting the best path, used by a routing protocol. Figure 2 shows the relationship between a routing protocol and the routing... on its QoS-awareness level. The routing metrics that considered QoS the most were selected from each group. This section discusses the four routing metrics that were compared in this paper, which are: hop count (HOP), expected transmission count (ETX...

  10. Cooperative HARQ with Poisson Interference and Opportunistic Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Kaveh, Mostafa

    2014-01-06

    This presentation considers reliable transmission of data from a source to a destination, aided cooperatively by wireless relays selected opportunistically and utilizing hybrid forward error correction/detection, and automatic repeat request (Hybrid ARQ, or HARQ). Specifically, we present a performance analysis of the cooperative HARQ protocol in a wireless adhoc multihop network employing spatial ALOHA. We model the nodes in such a network by a homogeneous 2-D Poisson point process. We study the tradeoff between the per-hop rate, spatial density and range of transmissions inherent in the network by optimizing the transport capacity with respect to the network design parameters, HARQ coding rate and medium access probability. We obtain an approximate analytic expression for the expected progress of opportunistic routing and optimize the capacity approximation by convex optimization. By way of numerical results, we show that the network design parameters obtained by optimizing the analytic approximation of transport capacity closely follows that of Monte Carlo based exact transport capacity optimization. As a result of the analysis, we argue that the optimal HARQ coding rate and medium access probability are independent of the node density in the network.

  11. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k LLID Routed Streams (routes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ROUTE features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  12. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. MSCs were derived from negative HLA cross-match donors. Donor bone marrow was harvested 5 weeks prior to KT. At the time of transplantation, 1 x 106 cell/kg of donor MSC was directly injected into the bone marrow of the recipient's right iliac bone. Patients' clinical outcomes, presence of mixed chimerism by short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, analysis of plasma FoxP3 mRNA and cytokine level, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were performed. Seven patients enrolled in this study and received donor MSC injections simultaneously with LDKT. The median age of recipients was 36 years (32 ~ 48). The number of HLA mismatches was 3 or less in 5 and more than 3 in 2. No local complications or adverse events such as hypersensitivity occurred during or after the injection of donor MSC. There was no graft failure, but the biopsy-proven acute rejections were observed in 3 recipients during the follow-up period controlled well with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). The last serum creatinine was a median of 1.23 mg/dL (0.83 ~ 2.07). Mixed chimerism was not detected in the peripheral blood of the recipients at 1 and 8 week of post-transplantation. Donor-specific lymphocyte or T cell proliferation and Treg priming responses were observed in some patients. Plasma level of IL-10, a known mediator of MSC-induced immune suppression, increased in the patients with Treg induction. Donor MSC injection into the iliac bone at the time of KT was feasible and safe. A possible correlation was observed between the induction of inhibitory

  13. Literary Routes: Contributions to Natural/Cultural Heritage Tourism. How landscape transforms literature and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto

    2013-12-01

    ;  Don Quijote of La Mancha (1603 was first made tangible as a literary route in 1780 with a detailed topographical surveyor map inspiring visitors like Washington Irving (1829, Alexander Dumas (1861, and Hans Christian Andersen (1880 to the Spanish plains. This eventually galvanized into an innovative move to pass the Don Quijote Route Law (2007, complete with GPS coordinates. In Japan, Basho’s literary route (1700 with its natural elements changed the style of Japanese Haiku, encouraging writers around the world to follow in his footsteps, and Humboldt’s account of his Andes’ route in South America inspired Lewis & Clark, Darwin, and Muir to follow a similar path that spurred events, websites, and even a NASA astrobiology project to conserve and access the accumulated heritage of these literary routes.  Economic investments in literary routes in natural settings have been initiated by worldwide government ministries of culture, recreation/tourism, environment, economy, and/or education, demonstrating commitments to the conservation of landscapes which have inspired literature. Hence, literary routes can highly contribute to cultural itineraries in natural settings.

  14. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described

  15. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  16. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  17. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the catheter. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A central catheter permits infusion of solutions containing ... products may be given by this route, including antibiotics and blood products. The catheter also may be ...

  18. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  19. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  20. Route Fidelity during Marine Megafauna Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Horton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of marine megafauna require robust knowledge of where and when animals are located. Yet, our ability to predict animal distributions in space and time remains limited due to difficulties associated with studying elusive animals with large home ranges. The widespread deployment of satellite telemetry technology creates unprecedented opportunities to remotely monitor animal movements and to analyse the spatial and temporal trajectories of these movements from a variety of geophysical perspectives. Reproducible patterns in movement trajectories can help elucidate the potential mechanisms by which marine megafauna navigate across vast expanses of open-ocean. Here, we present an empirical analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris satellite telemetry-derived route fidelity movements in magnetic and gravitational coordinates. Our analyses demonstrate that: (1 humpback whales, great white sharks and northern elephant seals are capable of performing route fidelity movements across millions of square kilometers of open ocean with a spatial accuracy of better than 150 km despite temporal separations as long as 7 years between individual movements; (2 route fidelity movements include significant (p < 0.05 periodicities that are comparable in duration to the lunar cycles and semi-cycles; (3 latitude and bedrock-dependent gravitational cues are stronger predictors of route fidelity movements than spherical magnetic coordinate cues when analyzed with respect to the temporally dependent moon illumination cycle. We further show that both route fidelity and non-route fidelity movement trajectories, for all three species, describe overlapping in-phase or antiphase sinusoids when individual movements are normalized to the gravitational acceleration present at migratory departure sites. Although these empirical results provide an

  1. RSRP: A Robust Secure Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Ditipriya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm RSRP to build a robust secure routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs. This algorithm is based on some basic schemes such as RSA_CRT for encryption and decryption of messages; CRT for safety key generation, Shamir’s secret sharing principle for generation of secure routes. Those routes which are free from any malicious node and which belong to the set of disjoint routes between a source-destination pair are considered as probable routes. Shamir’s secret sharing principle is applied on those probable routes to obtain secure routes. Finally, most trustworthy and stable route is selected among those secure routes. Selection of the final route depends on some criteria of the nodes present in a route e.g.: battery power, mobility and trust value. In addition, complexity of key generation is reduced to a large extent by using RSA-CRT instead of RSA. In turn, the routing becomes less expensive and most secure and robust one. Performance of this routing protocol is then compared with non-secure routing protocols (AODV and DSR, secure routing scheme using secret sharing, security routing protocol using ZRP and SEAD depending on basic characteristics of these protocols. All such comparisons show that RSRP shows better performance in terms of computational cost, end-to-end delay and packet dropping in presence of malicious nodes in the MANET, keeping the overhead in terms of control packets same as other secure routing protocols.

  2. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Kodal, Anne Louise Bank

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been...... demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble...... into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could...

  3. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  4. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  5. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Bank Kodal, Anne Louise; Madsen, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Woehrstein, Johannes B.; Wickham, Shelley F. J.; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Schueder, Florian; Vinther, Jesper; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Gudnason, Daniel; Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zelikin, Alexander N.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Birkedal, Victoria; Yin, Peng; Shih, William M.; Jungmann, Ralf; Dong, Mingdong; Gothelf, Kurt V.

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could therefore be used to create molecular-scale electronic or optical wires in arbitrary geometries.

  6. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    This project began with an emphasis on developing new low-­temperature synthetic routes to intermetallic alloys in order to advance the synthesis and processing science of superconducting materials, as well as to potentially discover new materials that would be inaccessible using more traditional higher-­temperature methods. Our initial target materials, chosen as model systems for developing new low-­temperature solution-­based synthetic platforms, were based on well known superconducting alloys, including Nb3M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn), Bi-­M (M = In, Cu), and MgCNi3. Several key, fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials using solution chemistry routes were identified and investigated.

  7. Design alternatives for wavelength routing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, K.; Papadimitriou, G. I.; Pomportsis, A. S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to provide a high level overview of many of the technologies employed in optical networks with a focus on wavelength-routing networks. Optical networks involve a number of technologies from the physics of light through protocols and networks architectures. In fact there is so much technology and know-how that most people involved with optical networks only have a full understanding of the narrow area they deal with. We start first examining the principles that govern light and its use as a wave guide, and then turn our focus to the various components that constitute an optical network and conclude with the description of all optical networks and wavelength-routed networks in greater detail.

  8. Effective Privacy-Preserving Online Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    An online Route Planning Service (RPS) computes a route from one location to another. Current RPSs such as Google Maps require the use of precise locations. However, some users may not want to disclose their source and destination locations due to privacy concerns. An approach that supplies fake...... privacy. The solution re-uses a standard online RPS rather than replicate this functionality, and it needs no trusted third party. The solution is able to compute the exact results without leaking of the exact locations to the RPS or un-trusted parties. In addition, we provide heuristics that reduce...... the number of times that the RPS needs to be queried, and we also describe how the accuracy and privacy requirements can be relaxed to achieve better performance. An empirical study offers insight into key properties of the approach....

  9. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    very short computational time on real-life data involving up to 200 pairs of suppliers and customers. The second problem we consider is a dynamic vehicle routing problem with multiple objectives over a planning horizon that consists of multiple periods. In this problem, customer orders are revealed...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints....... The method is implemented and tested on real-life data involving up to 2000 orders. It is shown that the method is able to provide solutions of good quality within reasonable running time....

  10. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characteriz...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  11. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  12. Route Choice Model Based on Game Theory for Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licai Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic behaviours of commuters may cause traffic congestion during peak hours. Advanced Traffic Information System can provide dynamic information to travellers. Due to the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness, the provided information cannot satisfy the travellers’ needs. Since the assumptions of traditional route choice model based on Expected Utility Theory conflict with the actual situation, a route choice model based on Game Theory is proposed to provide reliable route choice to commuters in actual situation in this paper. The proposed model treats the alternative routes as game players and utilizes the precision of predicted information and familiarity of traffic condition to build a game. The optimal route can be generated considering Nash Equilibrium by solving the route choice game. Simulations and experimental analysis show that the proposed model can describe the commuters’ routine route choice decisionexactly and the provided route is reliable.

  13. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: What the literature says?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs plays a significant role in the field of environment-oriented monitoring, traffic monitoring, etc. Here, wide contributions that are made toward routing in WSN are explored. The paper mainly aims to categorize the routing problems and examines the routing-related optimization problems. For achieving the motive, 50 papers from the standard journals are collected and primarily reviewed in a chronological way. Later, various features that are related to energy, security, speed and reliability problems of routing are discussed. Subsequently, the literature is analyzed based on the simulation environment and experimental setup, awareness over the Quality of Service (QoS and the deployment against various applications. In addition, the optimization of the routing algorithms and the meta-heuristic study of routing optimization are explored. Routing is a vast area with numerous unsolved issues and hence, various research gaps along with future directions are also presented.

  14. Optimum Route Planning and Scheduling for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonmezocak, Erkan; Kurt, Senol

    2008-01-01

    .... The route planning of UAVs is the most critical and challenging problem of wartime. This thesis will develop three algorithms to solve a model that produces executable routings in order to dispatch three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV...

  15. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...

  16. Challenges in Enzymatic Route of Mannitol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Sheelendra Mangal; Mohan, Anand; Srivastava, Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Mannitol is an important biochemical often used as medicine and in food sector, yet its biotechnological is not preffered in Industry for large scale production, which may be due to the multistep mechanism involved in hydrogenation and reduction. This paper is a comparative preview covering present chemical and biotechnological approaches existing today for mannitol production at industrial scale. Biotechnological routes are suitable for adaptation at industrial level for mannitol production,...

  17. Routes towards supplier and production network internationalisation

    OpenAIRE

    A. CAMUFFO; FURLAN A; ROMANO P; VINELLI A

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate routes towards supplier and production network internationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – Multiple case-study analysis has been applied to a sample of 11 Italian footwear and apparel companies with headquarters located in the North-east of Italy. Within and cross-case analyses illustrate and compare how these firms relocated one or more segments of their supplier and production networks to Romania. Findings – The...

  18. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... the chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...

  19. Route survey periodicity for mine warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Coke, Hartwell F.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited One of the Navy's most long standing challenges has been conquering the mine warfare threat. As mines and mine warfare techniques evolve and become more sophisticated, so does the United States' ability to counter the threat. The United States newest technique for countering a potential mined harbor, or route, is a process known as "change detection." This concept uses previous side scan sonar images of the area prior to a mining event an...

  20. PROPOSAL OF ALGORITHM FOR ROUTE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Ramon de Carvalho Sousa; Abimael de Jesus Barros Costa; Eliezé Bulhões de Carvalho; Adriano de Carvalho Paranaíba; Daylyne Maerla Gomes Lima Sandoval

    2016-01-01

    This article uses “Six Sigma” methodology for the elaboration of an algorithm for routing problems which is able to obtain more efficient results than those from Clarke and Wright´s (CW) algorithm (1964) in situations of random increase of product delivery demands, facing the incapability of service level increase . In some situations, the algorithm proposed obtained more efficient results than the CW algorithm. The key factor was a reduction in the number of mistakes (on...