Chiseliţă, D; Cantemir, Alina; Epifanov, Lucia; Huţuleac, Alexandra; Irod, Alexandra
To evaluate the incidence of IFIS in male patients whith alfa 1-AB treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who underwent cataract surgery and also the pre and intraoperatory management and IFIS profilaxy. Iasi "Sf Spiridon" Emergency Hospital and "Oftaprof" private practice Observational retrospective study that took place over a period of 2 years (july 2009-july 2011) and reviewed 2484 eyes that underwent cataract surgery. A number of 1199 eyes were from 1049 male patients. Out of the 1049 male patients, 139 (13,25%) underwent treatment for BHP using the medication as follows: 119 used tamsulosin (85,6%); 18 used doxazosin, (12,94%); 2 used alfuzosin (1,43%). Out of the 139 men, 32 (23,02%) showed IFIS but only the ones treated with tamsulosin. After introducing a surgical protocol that comprised of the use of large amounts of vascoelastic material (Viscoat), intracamerular fenilefrin (Mezaton), the use of iris retractors and low faco parameters the incidence and severity of IFIS was significantly reduced. Correct evauation before surgery is necessary in order to anticipate the condition as its frequency and severity can be reduced by a proactive behavior which demands experience and adequate endowment.
Sharif A Issa
Full Text Available Sharif A Issa, Omar H Hadid, Oliver Baylis, Margaret DayanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKBackground: To determine occurrence of features of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-antagonists (AA.Methods: We prospectively studied patients on AA and who underwent phacoemulsification. The following were recorded: pupil diameter preoperatively, iris flaccidity, iris prolapse and peroperative miosis.Results: We studied 40 eyes of 31 subjects. Mean age was 78 years. Overall, 14 eyes (13 patients showed signs of IFIS: 9/13 (69% eyes of patients on tamsulosin, 1/18 (6% eyes in the doxazosin group, 2/2 prazosin patients, 1/4 eyes in the indoramin group, and 1/2 eyes in two patients on a combination of doxazosin and tamsulosin. Most cases (92% had only one or two signs of IFIS. Bilateral cataract surgery was undertaken in 9 patients but only one patient (on tamsulosin had features of IFIS in both eyes, while 4 patients (2 on tamsulosin and 2 on other AA showed signs of IFIS in one eye only, and 4 patients did not show IFIS in either eye.Conclusion: Most AA were associated with IFIS, but it tends to present as a spectrum of signs rather than full triad originally described. Tamsulosin was most likely to be associated with IFIS; however, its intake does not necessarily mean that IFIS will occur. For patients on AA, the behavior of the iris intraoperatively in one eye is a poor predictor of the other eye. Surgeons should anticipate the occurrence of IFIS in any patient on AA.Keywords: alpha blocker, alpha antagonist, cataract surgery, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, tamsulosin.
Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Popescu, Raluca
is to evaluate the incidence and typical signs of floppy iris syndrome intraoperatory revealed in patients diagnosed with cataracts. We studied a total of 15 eyes diagnosed with cataracts, belonging to 14 patients who had been treated chronically with Tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. In 80% of cases we have seen a preoperative semimidriasis which required iris hooks in 5 eyeballs. On 1 eye preoperative semimidriasis was sufficient for capsulorhexis, but later pupil became miotic, requiring iris hooks. On 4 eye flaccid iris was noticed, that prolabated in corneal incision. floppy iris syndrome occurs in patients treated with Tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia, generating a series of difficulties during cataract surgery.
Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Børme, Kim Kamp
Abstract. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery is characterized by iris fluttering, iris prolapse towards the incisions, and a progressive pupillary constriction leading to high rates of complications. The syndrome has been reported following the treatment of benign ...... prostatic hyperplasia with alpha-1(a) adrenergic receptor inhibitors, especially tamsulosin. The present paper describes the syndrome and discusses its pharmacological background. Several techniques to prevent and to deal with the syndrome are presented....
Vollman, David E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Chomsky, Amy; Daly, Mary K; Baze, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Mary
To estimate the prevalence of untoward events during cataract surgery with the use of pupillary expansion devices and intraoperative floppy iris (IFIS). Retrospective analysis of 4923 cataract surgery cases from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. Outcomes from 5 Veterans Affairs medical centers were analyzed, including use of alpha-blockers (both selective and nonselective), IFIS, intraoperative iris trauma, intraoperative iris prolapse, posterior capsular tear, anterior capsule tear, intraoperative vitreous prolapse, and use of pupillary expansion devices. P values were calculated using the χ(2) test. A total of 1254 patients (25.5%) took alpha-blockers preoperatively (selective, 587; nonselective, 627; both, 40). Of these 1254 patients, 428 patients (34.1%) had documented IFIS. However, 75.2% of patients with IFIS (428/569) had taken alpha-blockers preoperatively (P < .00001). A total of 430 patients (8.7%) had a pupillary expansion device used during their cataract surgery, of which 186 patients (43.4%) had IFIS (P < .0001). Eighty-six patients with IFIS had at least 1 intraoperative complication and 39 patients with IFIS had more than 1 intraoperative complication (P < .001). The use of either selective or nonselective alpha-antagonists preoperatively demonstrated a significant risk of IFIS. Nonselective alpha-antagonists caused IFIS at a higher prevalence than previously reported. This study did demonstrate statistically significant increased odds of surgical complications in patients with IFIS vs those without IFIS in all groups (those taking selective and nonselective alpha-antagonists and also those not taking medications). Published by Elsevier Inc.
Prata, Tiago Santos; Palmiero, Pat-Michael; Angelilli, Allison; Sbeity, Zaher; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert
To identify iris structural alterations associated with intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients using systemic alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-1ARA). Cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine patients with current or past treatment with any systemic alpha-1ARA and 22 untreated controls. Consecutive eligible patients underwent slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography in a masked fashion under standardized lighting conditions. Iris thickness at the dilator muscle region (DMR; measured at half of the distance between the scleral spur and the pupillary margin) and at the sphincter muscle region (SMR; 0.75 mm from the pupillary margin), the ratio between the DMR/SMR (to compensate for possible intersubject variability), and pupillary diameter. Most treated patients were on tamsulosin (27/29). Mean age was similar in study and control groups (70.6+/-7.6 vs 67.1+/-9.1 years; P = 0.061). Photopic pupil diameter was reduced in the study group (2.06+/-0.5 vs 2.5+/-0.6 mm; P = 0.001). The SMR was similar between groups (P = 0.53). Significantly lower values were found in treated subjects for the DMR and the DMR/SMR ratio (Pcolor were not significant in this model. Patients using systemic alpha-1ARA have significantly lower values of DMR thickness and DMR/SMR ratio and smaller pupil diameter when compared with age-matched controls. These differences seem to be related to the duration of drug exposure and provide evidence of structural alterations to the iris dilator muscle from this class of agents in IFIS. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
Matsuo, Masato; Sano, Ichiya; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko; Tanito, Masaki
We report 3 cases of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery in patients without a history of selective α1-blocker use but with a long-term history of antipsychotic drug use. We reviewed previously reported cases of antipsychotic drug-associated IFIS cases. Observational case series. In case 1, bilateral IFIS developed in a 39-year-old man with chronic angle-closure glaucoma. He had used several classes of antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia, including the first-generation antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and chlorpromazine, the dopamine system stabilizer aripiprazole, the dopamine serotonin antagonists olanzapine and quetiapine, and the serotonin dopamine antagonists risperidone and blonanserin for 7 years. In case 2, a 63-year-old woman with schizophrenia had used aripiprazole, quetiapine, and risperidone for more than 10 years. In case 3, a 65-year-old woman with an organic mental disorder had used haloperidol for more than 10 years. At least 5 cases of antipsychotic drug-induced IFIS have been reported in the literature. Any class of antipsychotic drugs can cause IFIS. Although antipsychotic drug-induced IFIS can be mild, surgeons should be alert to the possibility of IFIS when they treat patients with current and past use of antipsychotic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AIM: To determine the incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome(IFISin patients undergoing phacoemulsification in a Chinese hospital, and to assess new risk factors and predictive factors for IFIS. METHODS: A prospective, observational case series. In the consecutive cataract surgeries performed in one year, the medicine administration, pupil size(PSbefore and after mydriasis, and signs of IFIS were recorded. RESULTS: Totally 807 patients(1 068 eyesunderwent cataract surgeries. Among the 1 068 eyes, signs of IFIS were noted in 34 eyes. Strong positive correlations were showed between finasteride(6.4%, OR=5.885, tamsulosin(25%, OR=21.578, reserpine(16.7%, OR=12.947, clozapine(66.7%, OR=139.467, post-panretinal photocoagulation(14.3%, OR=10.789and IFIS. Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence(PPCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of IFIS was 3.18%. Reserpine, clozapine and post-panretinal photocoagulation emerged as new risk factors for IFIS. A small dilated pupil may imply IFIS occurrence.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and impact of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS on surgical performance. Materials and Methods : Consecutive cataract surgeries from October 2010 to Feb 2011 (1003 eyes, 980 patients; 568 males, 412 females were analyzed prospectively. Operating surgeon, masked about medication history, noted the intraoperative details. Cases were identified as IFIS or non-IFIS. Multivariate analysis was performed to find risk factors for IFIS. Results : Prevalence of tamsulosin use among men undergoing cataract surgery was 7.0% (41 with incidence of IFIS 4.78% (48. On multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.39-6.57; P = 0.005, use of tamsulosin (OR: 133.32, 95% CI: 50.43-352.48; P < 0.0001, or alfuzosin (OR: 9.36, 95% CI: 2.34-37.50; P = 0.002 were the factors associated with IFIS. Among men taking tamsulosin (n = 41 and alfuzosin (n = 28, 68.3% and 16.6% developed IFIS, respectively. In subgroup analysis of men on tamsulosin, no factor added to the risk posed by tamsulosin. Seventeen of 944 eyes not exposed to any drug had IFIS (0.018%. On subgroup analysis, only risk factor for IFIS was hypertension (OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.63-13.35; P = 0.002. Of 48 IFIS eyes, the surgeon observed increased difficulty in 57.1% (21 and additional measures were required in 9 eyes. Mean operative time was increased in IFIS eyes (11.68 ± 3.46 vs. 10.01 ± 0.22 min; P = 0.001. Surgical outcome was good in all cases. Conclusion : The prevalence of tamsulosin intake and IFIS incidence is higher in India. Current tamsulosin/alfuzosin use and hypertension are important risk factors. IFIS makes the surgery more difficult, significantly prolongs the operative time, and predisposes for other intraoperative complications. However, with appropriate management, final operative outcome is not affected.
... of color granules in the iris determines the iris color (pigment). The amount of pigment is often related to a person's genes, skin type, and hair color. Inflammation of the iris is called iritis. Rarely, tumors can form in ...
Malfaro, W.; Zygmont, A.
This paper discusses development of ISOLATION RESET INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS), an expert system to aid nuclear plant operators during plant transients known as automatic containment isolations. IRIS is implemented using the Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell, taking advantage of the dBase III Plus interface. The design of IRIS is discussed as well as the system's current state of development. The use of expert systems for training operators is discussed. The importance of gaining regulatory acceptance of expert systems is presented. This issue will ultimately determine the extent of expert system use in nuclear applications
Shtein, Roni M; Hussain, Munira T; Cooney, Theresa M; Elner, Victor M; Hood, Christopher T
To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). Academic multispecialty practice. Case series. Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was statistically significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P=.009 and P=.003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P=.05) but not in the control group (P=.3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shtein, Roni M.; Hussain, Munira T.; Cooney, Theresa M.; Elner, Victor M.; Hood, Christopher T.
PURPOSE To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). SETTING Academic multispecialty practice. DESIGN Case series. METHODS Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. RESULTS Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P = .009 and P = .003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P = .05) but not in the control group (P = .3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. CONCLUSIONS Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. PMID:24631201
The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.
CLINICAL APPROACH TO THE. FLOPPY CHILD. The floppy infant syndrome is a well-recognised entity for paediatricians and neonatologists and refers to an infant with generalised hypotonia presenting at birth or in early life. ... ily members in order to reach a definitive diagnosis, using a detailed family pedigree to assist ...
The replacement of paper tape output facilities on neutron beam equipment on DIDO and PLUTO reactors by floppy discs will improve reliability and provide a more manageable data storage medium. The cost of floppy disc drives is about the same as a tape punch and printer and less than other devices such as a magnetic tape. Suitable floppy disc controllers are not at present available and a unit was designed as a directly pluggable replacement for paper tape punches. This design was taken as the basis in the development of a prototype unit for use in neutron beam equipment. The circuit operation for this prototype unit is described. (author)
Parrish, J.; Burgess, H. K.
Marine debris is a world-wide problem threatening the health and safety of marine organisms, ecosystems, and humans. Recent and ongoing research shows that risk of harm is not associated with identity, but rather with a set of specific character states, where the character state space intersection is defined by the organism of interest. For example, intersections of material, color, rigidity and size predict the likelihood of an object being ingested: plastic, clear-white, floppy objects risks to sea turtles whereas yellow-red, rigid objects risks to albatrosses. A character state space approach allows prioritization of prevention and removal of marine debris informed by risk assessments for species of interest by comparing species ranges with spatio-temporal hotspots of all debris with characteristics known to be associated with increased risk of harm, regardless of identity. With this in mind, the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) developed and tested a 20 character data collection approach to quantifying the diversity and abundance of marine debris found on beaches. Development resulted in meta-analysis of the literature and expert opinion eliciting harmful character state space. Testing included data collection on inter-rater reliability and accuracy, where the latter included 75 participants quantifying marine debris characteristics on monthly surveys of 30 beaches along the Washington and Oregon coastlines over the past year. Pilot work indicates that characters must be simply and operationally defined, states must be listed, and examples must be provided for color states. Complex characters (e.g., windage, shape) are not replicable across multiple data collectors. Although data collection takes longer than other marine debris surveys for a given amount of debris and area surveyed, volunteer rapidity and accuracy improved within 3-5 surveys. Initial feedback indicated that volunteers were willing to continue collecting data as long as they
Othman, Asem; Ross, Arun
We consider the problem of generating a biometric image from two different traits. Specifically, we focus on generating an IrisPrint that inherits its structure from a fingerprint image and an iris image. To facilitate this, the continuous phase of the fingerprint image, characterizing its ridge flow, is first extracted. Next, a scheme is developed to extract "minutiae" from an iris image. Finally, an IrisPrint, that resembles a fingerprint, is created by mixing the ridge flow of the fingerprint with the iris minutiae. Preliminary experiments suggest that the new biometric image (i.e., IrisPrint) (a) can potentially be used for authentication by an existing fingerprint matcher, and (b) can potentially conceal and preserve the privacy of the original fingerprint and iris images.
Kara, G.; Aras, G.; Kir, M.
Aim: Aim of this study was to retrieve datasets from a Starcam format archive floppy which was widely used in nuclear medicine imaging systems and image processing by personal computer without their operational system and equipment Star/Starcam 2000/3000/3200/4000, Camstar, Maxxus and Optimas-GE Medical Systems. Materials and Methods:Datasets of two patients involving floppy with was formatted by Starcam format in Starcam 3200 XCT one head SPECT camera was used for this study.Datasets contained whole body bone scans and planar cisternography images.Floppy disk reader software for starcam floppy, RMX v1,53 (GE Medical System Software) and image displaying with processing software (Medic imaging, University of Geneva Hospital) were used for retrieved datasets from floppy with starcam format for personal computer with 600 MHz Intel CPU, 256 MB SDRAM 100 MHz and Windows ME operating system (Microsoft Co.). Retrieved datasets were not recognizable by PC. We removed dataset summary header which contain patient and study data for the patients by hexeditor. Results: Retrieved datasets of two patients without summary header were diagnosed and processed with medical imaging software and easily converted to other imaging format like DICOM, raw etc. Conclusion:Floppy and optical disks formatted by starcam format cannot be easily recognizable by PC.Retrieved datasets cannot be imaging without commercial Medvision and NEMA software. We offer free a displaying and processing method for this problem by removing dataset summary header for personal computer that can be routinely used in daily practice
Hu, Hao; Ruiz, Pablo Sampedro; Ni, Ran
Grafting linkers with open ends of complementary single-stranded DNA makes a flexible tool to tune interactions between colloids, which facilitates the design of complex self-assembly structures. Recently, it has been proposed to coat colloids with mobile DNA linkers, which alleviates kinetic barriers without high-density grafting, and also allows the design of valency without patches. However, the self-assembly mechanism of this novel system is poorly understood. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we obtain phase diagrams for the system in both two and three dimensional spaces, and find stable floppy square and CsCl crystals when the binding strength is strong, even in the infinite binding strength limit. We demonstrate that these floppy phases are stabilized by vibrational entropy, and "floppy" modes play an important role in stabilizing the floppy phases for the infinite binding strength limit. This special entropic effect in the self-assembly of mobile DNA-coated colloids is very different from conventional molecular self-assembly, and it offers a new axis to help design novel functional materials using mobile DNA-coated colloids.
Szurman, P; Jaissle, G
The flexible iris prosthesis according to Koch with a customized iris design serves for anterior segment reconstruction in patients with partial or complete aniridia. It is designed for implantation in the ciliary sulcus and is recommended only for pseudophakic or aphakic eyes. The multilayered implant consists of a core of a silicone matrix with incorporated color pigment coated with another layer of medical grade silicone. As a design variant the implant is available with or without an additionally embedded tissue layer. Without tissue the implant is more flexible, can be easily folded and perfectly adapts to the anatomical course of the sulcus. In contrast, implants with tissue show a greater rigidity and provide a better grip for sutures. This article describes various techniques for implantation of partial and full prostheses and gives instructions for calculating the implant size. Full prostheses can be combined with other reconstructive measures, such as sutured intraocular lenses and are particularly helpful in silicone oil surgery by avoiding endothelial contact. With careful consideration of the indications and application the flexible iris prosthesis is a valuable extension of the spectrum of reconstructive anterior segment surgery.
Schlapbach, L J; Schütz, B; Nuoffer, J M; Brekenfeld, C; Müller, G; Fluri, S
We report the case of a 7 month-old girl that presented with acute anemia, generalized muscular hypotonia and failure to thrive. Laboratory evaluation revealed cobalamin deficiency, due to a vegan diet of the mother. The clinical triad of an acquired floppy baby syndrome with megaloblastic anemia and failure to thrive is pathognomic for infantile cobalamin deficiency. Neurological abnormalities are often irreversible and may be associated with delayed myelinization in the MRI. A normal cobalamin level in maternal serum and absence of anemia do not exclude subclinical deficiency. If cobalamin deficiency is suspected, e.g. in pregnant women on vegan diet, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion and plasma homocysteine levels should be determined and cobalamin substitution should be started at an early stage to avoid potentially irreversible damage of the fetus.
Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.
DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D
Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will
This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.
Muşat, Ovidiu; Mahdi, Labib; Gheorghe, Andreea; Burcea, Marian; Cernat, Corina; Cristescu, Răzvan; Toma, Oana; Radu, Asandi
Small pupil and Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (lFIS) has always been a challenge in cataract surgery. Iris dilation and mechanical stabilization can be achieved by using intraoperative iris retractors, preferably before capsulorhexis. Malyugin ring is a mechanical iris expansion device, which presents many advantages (gently relaxes the iris tissue, implants easier and less traumatic). The disadvantages of using Malyugin ring consists primarily in the high cost and in an increased duration of surgical procedure.
Bruno ePoletto Rodrigues
Full Text Available The theory of temperature-dependent topological constraints has been used to successfully explain the compositional dependence of glass properties for oxide and non-oxide compositions. It relates the number of topological degrees of freedom with the glass transition temperature through the configurational entropy of the system. Based on this, we estimated the number of degrees of freedom directly from viscosity measurements of binary alkali borate and silicate glasses. Both approaches exhibit a strong decoupling, which we suggest can be traced to the presence of medium- and long-range constraints that are not taken into account by bond constraint counting. The observed variation of the energy barrier for structural rearrangement and floppy mode degeneracy also corroborate our interpretation. We provide evidence that the degeneracy of floppy modes changes with chemical composition and that the parameter K(x of the MYEGA viscosity equation could be used to assess changes in the medium-range order.
A revised set of rules is in use at Gentilly-2 NGS for the selection of channels for refuelling. Traditional hard channel rejection rules (of go/no-go type) have been replaced by a more efficient set of soft evaluation rules based on concepts borrowed to the Fuzzy Logic. New evaluation rules, labelled as 'Floppy Rules', enable to assess and rate the channel suitability for refuelling by using a smooth and natural continuum of values qualifying excellent, good, fair and poor choices. Global channel suitability for refuelling is measured by combining separate ratings obtained from individual evaluation rules. Each evaluation rule is based on a specific control parameter related to local or lumped core properties. Two new software codes (NEWRULES and REFUEL) designed around the concept of Floppy Rules enable to perform a very efficient selection of optimized channel refuelling sequences either in manual and automatic mode. (author)
Nagaria, J; Chan, Cc; Kamel, Mh; McEvoy, L; Bolger, C
Intradural disc herniation (IDDH) is a rare complication of intervertebral disc disease and comprises 0.26-0.30% of all herniated discs, with 92% of them located in the lumbar region (1). We present a case of IDDH that presented with intermittent symptoms and signs of cauda equina compression. We were unable to find in the literature, any previously described cases of intermittent cauda equina compression from a herniated intradural disc fragment leading to a "floppy disc syndrome". © JSCR.
Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold
The human iris is a circular curtain over the light entrance pupil which is controlled directly by the intensity of blue light from photosensitive ganglions in the retina within the eye. The human iris dynamic is remarkable in that it is capable of shrinking concentrically along the radial direction by a factor 4 from 8mm to 2mm, and constantly oscillates in 1/2 second periodicity. Pupil dilation and contraction causes the iris texture to undergo nonlinear deformation with discrete components and minutia features. Thus, iris recognition must be scale invariant due to the pupil dynamics. We propose the Mandelbrot fractal dimension count of minutia iris details, at different intensity thresholds, in dilation-invariant wedge-boxes, formed at specific angular sizes, but spatially varying over 4 90° quadrants due to the cellular growth under the gravity. Despite the concentric dynamic, we have sought an invariant fractal dimensionality in the circular direction and discovered the non-isotropic effect, departed from the simple Richardson fractal law. Furthermore, we choose an optimum Rayleigh criterion λ/D matching the robust fine resolution scale for the given lens aperture D and the illumination wavelength λ for a potential application from a distant, with the help of comprehensive biometric including iris.
Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.
Alandkar, Lajari; Gengaje, Sachin
Iris recognition system is the biometric identification system. Iris has an intricate structure, uniqueness, stability, and natural protection. Due to these features of the iris it can be used for biometric identification. This system gives better performance than other biometric identification systems. A novel eyelash removal method for preprocessing of human iris images in a human iris recognition system is presented.. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) method is used for feature extraction. For matching of two-iris code Hamming distance calculation is used. EER value must be less for the optimum performance of the system.
Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-
Briti kirjanikust Iris Murdochist pajatava inglise-ameerika mängufilmist "Iris" eesti videolevisse jõudmise puhul. Võrreldakse inglise teatrilavastaja Richard Eyre filmidebüüti Elmo Nüganeni debüütfilmiga "Nimed marmortahvlil"
Chua, Jacqueline; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Tun, Tin A; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Tan, Marcus Chiang Lee; Girard, Michael J A; Wong, Tien Yin; Quah, Joanne Hui Min; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To determine the association of iris surface features with iris volume change after physiologic pupil dilation in adults. Cross-sectional observational study. Chinese adults aged ≥ 50 years without ocular diseases. Digital iris photographs were taken from eyes of each participant and graded for crypts (by number and size) and furrows (by number and circumferential extent) following a standardized grading scheme. Iris color was measured objectively, using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L* color parameter (higher value denoting lighter iris). The anterior segment was imaged by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) (Casia; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) under bright light and dark room conditions. Iris volumes in light and dark conditions were measured with custom semiautomated software, and the change in iris volume was quantified. Associations of the change in iris volume after pupil dilation with underlying iris surface features in right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. Iris volume change after physiologic pupil dilation from light to dark condition. A total of 65 Chinese participants (mean age, 59.8±5.7 years) had gradable data for iris surface features. In light condition, higher iris crypt grade was associated independently with smaller iris volume (β [change in iris volume in millimeters per crypt grade increment] = -1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.26 to -0.59; P = 0.001) and greater reduction of iris volume on pupil dilation (β [change in iris volume in millimeters per crypt grade increment] = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.06-0.40; P = 0.010), adjusting for age, gender, presence of corneal arcus, and change in pupil size. Iris furrows and iris color were not associated with iris volume in light condition or change in iris volume (all P > 0.05). Although few Chinese persons have multiple crypts on their irides, irides with more crypts were significantly thinner and lost more volume on pupil dilation. In view that
Paramonov, D.V.; Carelli, M.D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States); Miller, K. [BNFL, Inc., (United Kingdom); Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E. [Polytechnic of Milan, Polimi (Italy); Todreas, N.E. [Masachussets Institute of Technology, MIT (United States); Greenspan, E. [University of California at Berkeley, UCB (United States); Yamamoto, K. [JAPC Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Nagano, A. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institut of Technology, TIT (Japan); Robertson, J. [Westinghouse and bechtel (United States); Oriolo, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy)
The development progress of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear power system is presented. IRIS is currently being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. It is aimed at achieving the four major objectives of the Generation IV nuclear systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness and reduced waste. The project first year activities, which are summarized here, were focused on core neutronics, in-vessel configuration, steam generator and containment design, safety approach and economic performance. Details of these studies are provided in parallel papers in these proceedings. (author)
Matey, James R.; Kennell, Lauren R.
Iris recognition Iris recognition is, arguably, the most robust form of biometric Biometrics identification. It has been deployed in large-scale systems that have been very effective. The systems deployed to date make use of iris Remote Biometric cameras that require significant user cooperation; that in turn imposes significant constraints on the deployment scenarios that are practical.
Bach, Austin; McGowan, Sara; Gold, Aaron S; Villegas, Victor M; Wildner, Andrea C; Ehlies, Fiona J; Thompson, Jordan M; Bermudez-Magner, Jose Antonio; Dubovy, Sander R; Murray, Timothy G
A case of a teenage girl with tapioca melanoma of the iris is presented. This case is unusual, as the patient did not have heterochromia and did not present with elevated intraocular pressure. A 14-year-old female patient presented with an amelanotic, multinodular, multifocal lesion of the right iris. Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of tapioca melanoma using immunohistologic staining. The patient underwent enucleation of her right eye and has been free of metastatic disease 3 years later. Tapioca melanoma of the iris must be included among the other differential diagnoses when examining patients with amelanotic iris lesions, even when iris heterochromia is not clearly evident.
IRIS is a Monte Carlo generator of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy (≥50 GeV per nucleon for the projectile on a fixed target). The physics basis of the generator is the exchange of colour. (orig./HSI)
The topside segment of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) electron density model (and also of the Bent model) is based on the limited amount of topside data available at the time (approx 40,000 Alouette 1 profiles). Being established from such a small database it is therefore not surprising that these models have well-known shortcomings, for example, at high solar activities. Meanwhile a large data base of close to 200,000 topside profiles from Alouette 1, 2, and ISIS 1, 2 has become available online. A program of automated scaling and inversion of a large volume of digitized ionograms adds continuously to this data pool. We have used the currently available ISIS/Alouette topside profiles to evaluate the IRI topside model and to investigate ways of improving the model. The IRI model performs generally well at middle latitudes and shows discrepancies at low and high latitudes and these discrepancies are largest during high solar activity. In the upper topside IRI consistently overestimates the measur...
Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Kumagai, Y.
Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is its safety-by-designTM philosophy and within this framework the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. The most ambitious risk-related goal for IRIS is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. As a first step, a model has been developed to provide a first order approximation of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) as a surrogate predictor of the off-site doses. A key-aspect of the LERF model development is the characterization of the possible paths of release. Four main categories have been historically pointed out: (1) Core Damage (CD ) sequences with containment bypass, (2) CD sequences with containment isolation failure, (3) CD sequences with containment failure at low pressure and (4) CD sequences with containment failure at high pressure. They have been reevaluated to account for the IRIS design features
Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.
Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.
Roche, A F; Mukherjee, D; Chumlea, W C; Siervogel, R M
Data from 160 White children were used to analyze possible associations between iris pigmentation and AC pure-tone thresholds. Iris pigmentation was graded from iris color using glass models of eyes, and AC thresholds were obtained under carefully controlled conditions. Analyses of variance using two groupings of iris color grades showed no evidence of an association between iris color grade and AC thresholds. Furthermore, inspection of arrays of the actual glass eye models, in conjunction with the order of mean thresholds at each test frequency, did not indicate the presence of an association between iris color grades and thresholds. It was concluded that while iris pigmentation may be related to some aspects of hearing ability, it does not appear to be related to AC thresholds in children.
Odabasi, Mehmet; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Arslan, Cem; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, Tolga
Short gastric vessels are divided during the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication resulting in splenic infarct in some cases. We report a case of laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication with splenic infarct that was recognized during the procedure and provide a brief literature review. The patient underwent a laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication. We observed a partial infarction of the spleen. She reported no pain. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed an infarct, and a 3-month abdominal ultrasound showed complete resolution. Peripheral splenic arterial branches have very little collateral circulation. When these vessels are occluded or injured, an area of infarction will occur immediately. Management strategies included a trial of conservative management and splenectomy for persistent symptoms or complications resulting from splenic infarct. In conclusion, we believe that the real incidence is probably much higher because many cases of SI may have gone undiagnosed during or following an operation, because some patients are asymptomatic. We propose to check spleen carefully for the possibility of splenic infarct. PMID:24833155
Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.
Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.
Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V. [Westinghouse Electric Comp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cinotti, L. [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)
IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)
Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)
The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).
IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It
Kimmle, Christina; Doering, Christoph; Steuer, Anna; Fouckhardt, Henning
A dynamic microfluidic iris is realized. Light attenuation is achieved by absorption of an opaque liquid (e.g. black ink). The adjustment of the iris diameter is achieved by fluid displacement via a transparent elastomer (silicone) half-sphere. This silicone calotte is hydraulically pressed against a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate as the bottom window, such that the opaque liquid is squeezed away, this way opening the iris. With this approach a dynamic range of more than 60 dB can be achieved with response times in the ms to s regime. The design allows the realization of a single iris as well as an iris array. So far the master for the molded silicone structure was fabricated by precision mechanics. The aperture diameter was changed continuously from 0 to 8 mm for a single iris and 0 to 4 mm in case of a 3 x 3 iris array. Moreover, an iris array was combined with a PMMA lens array into a compact module, the distance of both arrays equaling the focal length of the lenses. This way e.g. spatial frequency filter arrays can be realized. The possibility to extend the iris array concept to an array with many elements is demonstrated. Such arrays could be applied e.g. in light-field cameras.
Wilk, van der Dymphy; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Hijmans, Juha Markus
Background: People with floppy ankle muscles paresis use ankle foot orthoses to improve their walking ability. Ankle foot orthoses also limit ankle range of motion thereby introducing additional problems. Insight in effects of ankle foot orthoses on body functions and activities in people with
Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA), incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%), 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%), and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method. PMID:23050659
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.
Full Text Available Recurrences of symptoms after the surgery for achalasia cardia are not uncommon. There are several causes of recurrences but the early recurrences are speculated to be secondary to incomplete myotomy and late recurrence due to fibrosis after the myotomy or megaesophagus. These recurrences can be managed by regular dilation failing which a redo surgery is indicated. Laparoscopic approach is now standard because of the obvious benefits for patients and surgeons. Extent of myotomy and addition of fundoplication are debatable issue in the management of achalasia cardia but evidence suggests that some kind of fundoplication would be necessary after the complete division of lower esophageal sphincter. We present our experience in a case of recurrent achalasia, secondary to incomplete myotomy managed laparoscopically by extended myotomy and a floppy anterior fundoplication. Patient is asymptomatic six months after the surgery and radiologically there is free passage of barium in the stomach.
Arjmand, Parnian; Gooi, Patrick; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K
The Newcoloriris is a silicone implant for cosmetic alteration of iris color. Implantation is associated with significant ocular complications of decreased vision, glaucoma, and corneal edema. Although removal of the implant also entails risks, it is ultimately necessary to preserve vision. We describe a technique for removing the implant that may also reduce intraoperative complications. The implant is explanted using a bimanual technique with small incisions in 3 sections via a "slicing-the-pie" technique using iris microforceps, microscissors, and microinstrumentation. Our patient required removal 5 years after implantation, which is the longest reported interval in the literature. This suggests that as long as these implants are present, ocular structures are at risk. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, K.; Paramonov, D.
IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals a single module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as and when the circumstances are right
Full Text Available Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.
Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar
Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.
Sperling, J; Kauffels, A; Grade, M; Alves, F; Kühn, P; Ghadimi, B M
Modern intraoperative techniques of visualization are increasingly being applied in general and visceral surgery. The combination of diverse techniques provides the possibility of multidimensional intraoperative visualization of specific anatomical structures. Thus, it is possible to differentiate between normal tissue and tumor tissue and therefore exactly define tumor margins. The aim of intraoperative visualization of tissue that is to be resected and tissue that should be spared is to lead to a rational balance between oncological and functional results. Moreover, these techniques help to analyze the physiology and integrity of tissues. Using these methods surgeons are able to analyze tissue perfusion and oxygenation. However, to date it is not clear to what extent these imaging techniques are relevant in the clinical routine. The present manuscript reviews the relevant modern visualization techniques focusing on intraoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as augmented reality, fluorescence imaging and optoacoustic imaging.
Tonn, J C; Schichor, C; Schnell, O; Zausinger, S; Uhl, E; Morhard, D; Reiser, M
Intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) has gained increasing impact among modern neurosurgical techniques. Multislice CT with a sliding gantry in the OR provides excellent diagnostic image quality in the visualization of vascular lesions as well as bony structures including skull base and spine. Due to short acquisition times and a high spatial and temporal resolution, various modalities such as iCT-angiography, iCT-cerebral perfusion and the integration of intraoperative navigation with automatic re-registration after scanning can be performed. This allows a variety of applications, e.g. intraoperative angiography, intraoperative cerebral perfusion studies, update of cerebral and spinal navigation, stereotactic procedures as well as resection control in tumour surgery. Its versatility promotes its use in a multidisciplinary setting. Radiation exposure is comparable to standard CT systems outside the OR. For neurosurgical purposes, however, new hardware components (e.g. a radiolucent headholder system) had to be developed. Having a different range of applications compared to intraoperative MRI, it is an attractive modality for intraoperative imaging being comparatively easy to install and cost efficient.
...-FF03E00000] Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment AGENCY: Fish and... lacustris (dwarf lake iris), a species that is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species... the course of implementing approved recovery plans. Dwarf Lake Iris The dwarf lake iris was listed as...
Johnston, R.; Grace, W.
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.
Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.
Schildberg, Hans-Peter; Hibst, Hartmut
The tribological interaction between a commercial floppy disk catamaran glider and flexible magnetic thin film media is investigated on a tribometer under floppy disk drive conditions. Apart from the usual wear scars which develop in the metallic thin film due to abrasion and microploughing, one observes elevations of the medium (up to 15 μm) along the track of the head. The profile of these elevations in directions perpendicular to the track reflects the two rails of the catamaran glider and strongly depends on the thickness of the polymer substrate, its elastic properties and on the frictional force between head and medium. The observations are explained by the distribution of shear forces in that region of the polymer substrate which is directly underneath and besides the rails of the sliding R/W-head. Consequences for magnetic recording, the selection of substrate films and the head/tape interface are considered.
Sakuta, Hideki; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Itsuo; Nakamura, Toshiki; Hirata, Koichi
In multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep-related breathing disorders are commonly observed, including vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP), which can cause sudden death. In its early stage, VCAP occurs only during sleep, but as the disease progresses, it appears when both awake and asleep. We encountered a 59-year-old obese woman who had been under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) for approximately one year but later developed acute respiratory failure because of VCAP. VCAP was the predominant finding that led to the diagnosis of MSA in our patient. On laryngoscopic examination, the movement of the patient's larynx was normal during wakefulness, but VCAP, paradoxical movements of the vocal cord and a floppy arytenoid were observed during drug-induced sleep. We suggest that detection of VCAP and laryngopharyngeal abnormalities such as floppy arytenoid in the early stage of MSA is important for determining treatment options.
Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah
In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate.
Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...
Kovalev V. M.
Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the
Nischler, Christian; Michael, Ralph; Wintersteller, Christine; Marvan, Patrick; van Rijn, Laurentius J; Coppens, Joris E; van den Berg, Thomas J T P; Emesz, Martin; Grabner, Günther
The aim of this study was to evaluate if iris color is associated with differences in visual functions such as intraocular straylight (IOSL), contrast sensitivity (CS), or best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). In this retrospective cohort study, which is a subgroup analysis of a large prospective trial about visual impairments in European car drivers, we included 853 persons between 20 and 80 years of age and without a history of ocular surgery or any eye disease including cataract. Subjects participated in an ophthalmological examination, grading of lens opacity, and the measurement of visual functions such as IOSL, CS, and BCVA. Dependent on iris color, participants were divided into four groups: light-blue, blue-grey, green-hazel, and brown. Independent of age, IOSL was significantly (all p values colored iris (1.14 log(IOSL) [95 % CI: 1.11-1.17]) compared to participants with blue-grey (1.07 log(IOSL) [95 % CI: 1.05-1.09]), green-hazel (1.06 log(IOSL) [95 % CI: 1.04-1.08]) or brown (1.06 log(IOSL) [95 % CI: 1.04-1.08]) iris color. CS was also lower in participants with light-blue pigmented irises (1.60 log(CS) [95 % CI: 1.58-1.62]) than in the other groups, but statistically significant (p = 0.013, Fisher's LSD test) only compared to brown iris color. For BCVA we could not found any difference between the four groups. We could show in this study that iris color has a significant impact on IOSL and to a lower degree on CS, but not on BCVA. Persons with light-blue iris color who showed significantly higher IOSL values therefore may experience disability glare in daily situations such as driving at night more often than others.
McCoy, Anne B.; Ford, Jason E.; Marlett, Melanie L.; Petit, Andrew S.
In this work, an extension to diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is proposed, allowing for the simultaneous calculation of the energy and wave function of multiple rotationally excited states of floppy molecules. The total wave function is expanded into a set of Dirac δ-functions called walkers, while the rotational portion of the wave function is expanded in a symmetric top basis set. Each walker is given a rotational state vector containing coefficients for all states of interest. The positions of the atoms and the coefficients in the state vector evolve according to the split operator approximation of the quantum propagator. The method was benchmarked by comparing calculated rotation-vibration energies for H_3^+, H_2D^+, and H_3O^+ to experimental values. For low to moderate values of J, the resulting energies are within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation. Rotation-vibration coupling is captured through flexibility introduced in the form of the vibrational wave function. This coupling is found to increase with increasing J-values. Based on the success achieved through these systems, the method was applied to CH_5^+ and its deuterated isotopologues for v = 0, J ≥ 10. Based on these calculations, the energy level structure of CH_5^+ is found to resemble that for a of a spherical top, and excitations up to J = 10 displayed insignificant rotation-vibration coupling. Extensions of this approach that explicitly account for vibrations will also be discussed. ` A. S. Petit, J. E. Ford and A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A, in press, K. D. Jordan Festschrift, DOI: 10.1021/jp408821a
Velasco, J.; Manzanares, R.; Fernandez, L.; Hernando, A.; Ramos, M. del Mar; Garcia, R.
The present work is a review of the major indications for intraoperative ultrasound in the field of neurosurgery, stressing the exploratory method and describing what we consider to be the most illustrative cases. We attempt to provide a thorough view of this constantly developing technique which, despite its great practical usefulness, may be being underemployed. (Author) 47 refs
Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.
Doroodgar, Farideh; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Niazi, Feizollah; Niazi, Sana; Sanginabadi, Azad
To evaluate probable complications of ArtificialIris implantation with iris fixated intraocular lens. Development of photophobia, glare, and psychological strain during face-to-face communication in a 23-year-old man with a widespread traumatic iris defect terminate to make a decision for performing implantation of an ArtificialIris (Humanoptics, Erlangen, Germany) under the remnant iris without removing the patient's existing Artisan lens. Without any intraoperative or postoperative complications, the patient's visual acuity increased by 1 line, the endothelial cell loss was comparable with the cell loss associated with standard cataract surgery, and the anterior-chamber depth and anterior-chamber anatomy did not change. At the final follow-up examination, the mean intraocular pressure did not differ from baseline, and we achieved high level of patient satisfaction and subjective vision improvement. We discuss the particular importance of considering the patient's expectations, the appropriate measurements, ways to perfect color evaluation, and the types of ArtificialIris products. The implantation of the ArtificialIris in patients with aphakic iris-supported lenses (ie, pre-existing Artisan lenses) is a feasible approach and a useful option for patients with thin irises and iris hypoplasia who are at risk of subluxation or the dislocation of the posterior-chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL), and also those with sclerally fixed PCIOLs.
EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.
Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...
Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.
Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.
An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation, the ...... is completely data driven and it can divide a group of eye images into classes based on structure, colour or a combination of the two. The methods have been tested on a large set of photos with promising results....... regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...
The research thesis reports a detailed study of the Report Writer of the COBOL language in order to integrate it into the IRIS 50 COBOL compiler. In order to use existing compiler processing, the author developed a simulation of the Report Writer by using Cobol statements generated in the declarative part of the Division procedure. After a brief presentation of the IRIS 50 computer, the author presents the general plan of the compiler with modifications and adjunctions exclusively due to the Report Writer. The next part addresses the practical implementation and the problems met and solved during this implementation
Dryja, T.P.; Kimball, G.P.; Albert, D.M.
This paper presents evidence that light stimulates tyrosinase activity in iris melanocytes in rabbits. Levels of iris tyrosinase were found to be greater in eyes of rabbits exposed to light for 6 weeks than in eyes of rabbits maintained in darkness. Despite increasing tyrosinase levels, exposure to light produced no clinically observable change in iris color
Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter
Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...
Schmiedt, Hanno; Schlemmer, Stephan; Jensen, Per
conclusion, we show that the prototypical, extremely floppy molecule CH 5+ represents a new class of molecules, where customary group theoretical methods for determining selection rules and spectral assignments fail so that new methods have to be developed.
Schmiedt, Hanno; Schlemmer, Stephan; Jensen, Per
In the customary approach to the theoretical description of the nuclear motion in molecules, the molecule is seen as a near-static structure rotating in space. Vibrational motion causing small structural deformations induces a perturbative treatment of the rotation-vibration interaction, which fails in fluxional molecules, where all vibrational motions are large compared to the linear extension of the molecule. An example is protonated methane (CH_5^+). For this molecule, customary theory fails to simulate reliably even the low-energy spectrum. Within the traditional view of rotation and vibration being near-separable, rotational and vibrational wavefunctions can be symmetry classified separately in the molecular symmetry (MS) group. In the present contribution we discuss a fundamental group theoretical approach to the problem of determining the symmetries of molecular rotation-vibration states. We will show that all MS groups discussed so far are subgroups of the special orthogonal group in three dimensions SO(3) This leads to a group theoretical foundation of the technique of equivalent rotations. The MS group of protonated methane (G240) represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first example of an MS group which is not a subgroup of SO(3) (nor of O(3) nor of SU(2)). Because of this, a separate symmetry classification of vibrational and rotational wavefunctions becomes impossible in this MS group, consistent with the fact that a decoupling of vibrational and rotational motion is impossible. We want to discuss the consequences of this. In conclusion, we show that the prototypical floppy molecule CH_5^+ represents a new class of molecules, where usual group theoretical methods for determining selection rules and spectral assignments fail so that new methods have to be developed. P. Kumar and D. Marx, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 8, 573 (2006) Z. Jin, B. J. Braams, and J. M. Bowman, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110, 1569 (2006) A. S. Petit, J. E
da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A
The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.
Carelli, M. D.; Cobian, J.
IRIS(International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a novel light water reactor with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept, initially developed in response to the first NERI solicitation, is now being pursued by an international consortium of 20 participants from seven countries. IRIS is designed to satisfy the four key requirements for Generation IV systems: enhanced safety, improved economics, proliferation resistance and waste minimization. Its main features are: small-to-medium power (100-335 MWe/module); long life core 5 to 10 years) without shuffling or refueling; optimized maintenance with repair shutdown intervals of a least four years; simplified compact design with the primary vessel housing steam generators, pressurizer and pumps; safety by design where accidents are positively eliminated by design rather than engineering to cope with their consequences; loss of coolant accidents of any size and loss of low accidents are eliminated as major safety concerns; estimated power generation total cost is projected to be competitive with other power options. IRIS is one of four new reactor designs currently under NRC review. Projected schedule calls for design certification by 2008 and being ready for deployment by 2001 or later. This rather short schedule is made possible by the fact that IRIS is based on proven light water technology and new technology development is not required. (Author)
Yang, Kai; Sui, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Zou, Xukai
The iris is a stable and reliable biometric for positive human identification. However, the traditional iris recognition scheme raises several privacy concerns. One's iris pattern is permanently bound with him and cannot be changed. Hence, once it is stolen, this biometric is lost forever as well as all the applications where this biometric is used. Thus, new methods are desirable to secure the original pattern and ensure its revocability and alternatives when compromised. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme which incorporates iris features, non-invertible transformation and data encryption to achieve "cancelability" and at the same time increases iris recognition accuracy.
Full Text Available Iris biometrics is considered one of the most accurate and robust methods of identity verification. Individually unique iris features can be presented in a compact binary form easily compared with reference template to confirm identity. However, when templates or features are disclosed, iris biometrics is no longer suitable for verification. Therefore, there is a need to perform iris feature matching without revealing the features itself and reference template. The paper proposes an extension of the standard iris-based verification protocol that introduces features and a template locking mechanism, which guarantees that no sensitive information is exposed.Article in English
M. D. Carelli
OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed
Jennifer M Gambino
Full Text Available Case summary A 10-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for severe esophagitis and protracted vomiting and regurgitation secondary to a sliding (type I hiatal hernia. The hernia and concurrent upper airway obstruction (nasopharyngeal polyp were diagnosed with a multi-modality approach, including thoracic and abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopy. Following unsuccessful attempts at medical management, lower esophageal incompetence was successfully treated by employing a combination of surgical techniques, including herniorrhaphy, esophagopexy and modified (floppy Nissen fundoplication. Relevance and novel information A multi-modality imaging approach was valuable in completely assessing the extent of this cat’s disease. Although an untraditional approach, the authors report herein the first clinical description of the use of combined surgical techniques with the floppy Nissen fundoplication technique (an antireflux procedure in a cat. This procedure was used as a first-line surgical technique in this cat with severe lower esophageal incompetence, and may be a viable option for cases non-responsive to other therapeutic interventions. Further investigation of this surgical technique is warranted.
Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J
Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions.
Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu; Qiu, Xianchao
Iris image acquisition is the fundamental step of the iris recognition, but capturing high-resolution iris images in real-time is very difficult. The most common systems have small capture volume and demand users to fully cooperate with machines, which has become the bottleneck of iris recognition's application. In this paper, we aim at building an active iris image acquiring system which is self-adaptive to users. Two low resolution cameras are co-located in a pan-tilt-unit (PTU), for face and iris image acquisition respectively. Once the face camera detects face region in real-time video, the system controls the PTU to move towards the eye region and automatically zooms, until the iris camera captures an clear iris image for recognition. Compared with other similar works, our contribution is that we use low-resolution cameras, which can transmit image data much faster and are much cheaper than the high-resolution cameras. In the system, we use Haar-like cascaded feature to detect faces and eyes, linear transformation to predict the iris camera's position, and simple heuristic PTU control method to track eyes. A prototype device has been established, and experiments show that our system can automatically capture high-quality iris image in the range of 0.6m×0.4m×0.4m in average 3 to 5 seconds.
Birker, I L; Boons, L S T M; Luyten, G P M
A 20-year-old woman with congenital iris heterochromia presented with loss of vision of her right eye. We made de diagnosis of a large 'uvea melanoma' and enucleated the eye. Pathological examination showed an underlying oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM). The life-time risk of uveal melanoma in the general population is 0.7:100,000, but 1:400 in patients with ODM. Therefore, annual fundoscopy is recommended in these patients.
Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin
This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.
Dunia Cruz Izquierdo
Full Text Available Para la corrección quirúrgica de la afaquia existen en la actualidad varias técnicas quirúrgicas que permiten fijar los lentes intraoculares plegables o rígidos en cámara posterior suturados al iris o al sulcus ciliar. En estas circunstancias el cirujano determinará cuándo, dónde y el tipo de lente mejor a implantar. Se presenta un paciente con una afaquia traumática del ojo izquierdo, con agudeza visual sin corrección de movimiento de mano a 1 m. Se le realizó implante secundario de lente intraocular plegable de cámara posterior suturada al iris. En el examen biomicroscópico en lámpara de hendidura del ojo izquierdo se observó midriasis media paralítica, refracción dinámica de +11,00 (0,6 y tensión ocular normal. Se le realizó examen por bimicroscopía indirecta sin alteración. Al mes de operado la agudeza visual mejor corregida alcanzó la unidad de visión. Las complicaciones presentadas fueron ovalización de la pupila y depósitos de pigmentos de iris en el lente intraocular.
Gupta, Anand; Kumari, Anita; Kundu, Boris; Agarwal, Isha
Biometrics is an automated approach of measuring and analysing physical and behavioural characteristics for identity verification. The stability of the Iris texture makes it a robust biometric tool for security and authentication purposes. Reliable Segmentation of Iris is a necessary precondition as an error at this stage will propagate into later stages and requires proper segmentation of non-ideal images having noises like eyelashes, etc. Iris Segmentation work has been done earlier but we feel it lacks in detecting iris in low contrast images, removal of specular reflections, eyelids and eyelashes. Hence, it motivates us to enhance the said parameters. Thus, we advocate a new approach CDIS for Iris segmentation along with new algorithms for removal of eyelashes, eyelids and specular reflections and pupil segmentation. The results obtained have been presented using GAR vs. FAR graphs at the end and have been compared with prior works related to segmentation of iris.
Koblova, Ekaterina V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Sinichkin, Yuri P.; Kamenskikh, Tatyana G.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.
Based on the presented two-layer eye iris model, the iris diffuse reflectance has been calculated by Monte Carlo technique in the spectral range 400-800 nm. The diffuse reflectance spectra have been recalculated in L*a*b* color coordinate system. Obtained results demonstrated that the iris color coordinates (hue and chroma) can be used for estimation of melanin content in the range of small melanin concentrations, i.e. for estimation of melanin content in blue and green eyes.
Bodade, Rajesh M
The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.
Maingon, P; Fraisse, J; Brun, O; Salas, S; Naudy, S; Bernard, A; Goudet, P; Chalencon, J L; Minello, C; Pillet, M
We report a series of 40 patients treated by intraoperative radiotherapy between 1988 and 1992 (18 primary tumors, 13 local recurrences and 9 nodal extensions). The doses delivered were 15 Gy to 25 Gy, completed by external radiotherapy (15 to 45 Gy) in 13 cases. The local tumor control rate was 61% for initial therapy in primary tumors (70% for adenocarcinoma of the stomach) and 80.9% after complete en bloc surgery. The local control rate after palliative surgery for local recurrences is 38% and 33% for nodal extension. Two patients died (5%) during the postoperative period. We observed 2 hemorrhages and 3 cases of stone-free cholecystitis. The value of this approach must be confirmed in rigorous indications in comparison with surgery alone in controlled and randomised clinical trials.
Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.
McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath
Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.
Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika
In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of phakic iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for correction of high myopia with clear corneal incision. METHODS: Implantation of phakic iris-claw intraocular lens through clear corneal incision was performed on 28 eyes of 20 high myopic patients under topical anaesthesia. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refractive diopter, corneal endothelium, the stable of intraocular lens and the turbid level of lens were observed. RESULTS: All cases were smoothly implanted iris-claw intraocular lens. No complications were found during the operation. The uncorrected visual acuity of post-operation was better than the best corrected visual acuity of pre-operation. The follow-up time lasted for 6mo, and the intraocular lens in all the eyes were basically in the normal position without tilting and obvious deviation. No serious complications such as cataract, uveitis, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment were seen in all cases. CONCLUSION: On the basis of having adept microsurgery technology, phakic iris-claw intraocular lens implantation is predictable and stable, and post-operation visual acuity is satisfying with few complications. It is a safe and effective way to treat high myopia.
Wu, Wen-Jie; Zheng, Dan-ying; Zheng, Ying-feng; Cai, Xiao-yu
To evaluate clinical efficiency and safety of the iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring (MCTR) for the treatment of subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome. This study comprised 5 patients (7 eyes) with Marfan's syndrome and subluxation lens. After 3.2 mm clear cornea incision and continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC), 2 - 4 disposable nylon iris hooks were inserted through the stab incisions and placed in the capsulorhexis to support the capsule and enlarged the CCC. Following irrigation/aspiration, a MCTR with suture in its eyelet was placed in the capsule bag. After tightening and tying the suture of MCTR, the capsular bag was centered and fixed. A foldable AcrySof one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) was then placed in the capsule bag. Twelve months after the operation, the best corrected visual acuity was >/= 0.8 in six eyes and 0.7 in one eye. The scheimpflug images obtained from the Pentacam demonstrated that the IOL were well centered. UBM showed that all the MCTR and the haptics of the IOL were in the capsule bag, the eyelet of the MCTR was rested stably between the capsulorhexis margin and the iris. The retroillumination photograph indicated that only one eye had obvious posterior capsular opacification. No intraoperative and postoperative complications such as prolapse of vitreous and retina detachment was occurred. The iris hooks can provide excellent intraoperative capsule-lens stability and facilitate the manipulation during operation. MCTR allows additional suture fixation to the eye wall without damaging the capsular bag and maintains the long-term stability of the intraocular lens. Furthermore, MCTR is helpful for avoiding dislocation of the IOL due to progressive weakening of the zonular fibers in some patients and provides long-term safety.
Quillen, Ellen E; Guiltinan, Jenna S; Beleza, Sandra; Rocha, Jorge; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Shriver, Mark D
This study seeks to identify associations among genomic biogeographic ancestry (BGA), quantitative iris color, and iris texture traits contributing to population-level variation in these phenotypes. DNA and iris photographs were collected from 300 individuals across three variably admixed populations (Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Two raters scored the photos for pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and Wolflinn nodes. Iris color was quantified from RGB values. Maximum likelihood estimates of individual BGA were calculated from 176 ancestry informative markers. Pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and iris color show significant positive correlation with increasing European BGA. Only contraction furrows are correlated with iris color. The relationship between BGA and iris texture illustrates a genetic contribution to this population-level variation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.
One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.
Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T
This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.
features obtained from one's face , finger , voice  and/or iris [4, 5]. Iris recognition system is widely used in high security areas. A number of researchers have proposed various algorithms for feature extraction. A little work [6,. 7] however, has been reported using statistical techniques directly on pixel values in order to ...
Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Park, Kang Ryoung
For the purpose of biometric person identification, iris recognition uses the unique characteristics of the patterns of the iris; that is, the eye region between the pupil and the sclera. When obtaining an iris image, the iris's image is frequently rotated because of the user's head roll toward the left or right shoulder. As the rotation of the iris image leads to circular shifting of the iris features, the accuracy of iris recognition is degraded. To solve this problem, conventional iris recognition methods use shifting of the iris feature codes to perform the matching. However, this increases the computational complexity and level of false acceptance error. To solve these problems, we propose a novel iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images. Our method is novel in the following five ways compared with previous methods. First, to detect both eyes, we use Adaboost and a rapid eye detector (RED) based on the iris shape feature and integral imaging. Both eyes are detected using RED in the approximate candidate region that consists of the binocular region, which is determined by the Adaboost detector. Second, we classify the detected eyes into the left and right eyes, because the iris patterns in the left and right eyes in the same person are different, and they are therefore considered as different classes. We can improve the accuracy of iris recognition using this pre-classification of the left and right eyes. Third, by measuring the angle of head roll using the two center positions of the left and right pupils, detected by two circular edge detectors, we obtain the information of the iris rotation angle. Fourth, in order to reduce the error and processing time of iris recognition, adaptive bit-shifting based on the measured iris rotation angle is used in feature matching. Fifth, the recognition accuracy is enhanced by the score fusion of the left and right irises. Experimental results on the iris open database of low-resolution images showed that the
Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik
Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative technology for clinicians.
Crihalmeanu, Simona G.; Ross, Arun A.
In this work, we study the possibility of indexing color iris images. In the proposed approach, a clustering scheme on a training set of iris images is used to determine cluster centroids that capture the variations in chromaticity of the iris texture. An input iris image is indexed by comparing its pixels against these centroids and determining the dominant clusters - i.e., those clusters to which the majority of its pixels are assigned to. The cluster indices serve as an index code for the input iris image and are used during the search process, when an input probe has to be compared with a gallery of irides. Experiments using multiple color spaces convey the efficacy of the scheme on good quality images, with hit rates closes to 100% being achieved at low penetration rates.
EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of tetrahydrofuran (THF) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for tetrahydrofuran. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.
Full Text Available Iris localization is one of the most important processes in iris recognition. Because of different kinds of noises in iris image, the localization result may be wrong. Besides this, localization process is time-consuming. To solve these problems, this paper develops an efficient iris localization algorithm via optimization model. Firstly, the localization problem is modeled by an optimization model. Then SIFT feature is selected to represent the characteristic information of iris outer boundary and eyelid for localization. And SDM (Supervised Descent Method algorithm is employed to solve the final points of outer boundary and eyelids. Finally, IRLS (Iterative Reweighted Least-Square is used to obtain the parameters of outer boundary and upper and lower eyelids. Experimental result indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.
detected HIV DNA on polymerase chain reaction. (PCR). Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART): Infants initiated on. ART on the ward or follow up clinics are reviewed fortnightly in the first month in out-patient clinic run by the unit. Those infants who were found to have. BGC reactivation which was defined as swelling or ulceration at ...
Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman
To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.
IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals an optimum power rating for a single module of 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years or less and a minimum plant life of 60 years. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as
Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.
Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL
In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.
Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi（AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.
... makes codes to feature points and figures the iris pattern by iris codes. Finally, sorts the different iris patterns by auto accommodated pattern matching method and gives the recognition results. Many experiments show the recognition rates of this method can reach 99.687% that can meet the demand of iris recognition.
Çakir, Hanefi; Genç, Selim; Güler, Emre
The authors report a case with multiple iris burns after conductive keratoplasty to correct hyperopia. Case report. A 52-year-old woman with hyperopia had a previous conductive keratoplasty procedure and underwent a conductive keratoplasty re-treatment 6 months later. Postoperatively, she presented with 360-degree iris burns in both eyes that were correlated with the corneal conductive keratoplasty scars. In addition, specular microscopy revealed decreased endothelial cell density for both eyes. This is the first reported case of iris burns associated with conductive keratoplasty. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):776-778.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Chang, R; Barile, P A; Maslen, P E
Traditional geometry optimization methods require the gradient of the potential surface, together with a Hessian which is often approximated. Approximation of the Hessian causes difficulties for large, floppy molecules, increasing the number of steps required to reach the minimum. In this article, the costly evaluation of the exact Hessian is avoided by expanding the density functional to second order in both the nuclear and electronic variables, and then searching for the minimum of the quadratic functional. The quadratic search involves the simultaneous determination of both the geometry step and the associated change in the electron density matrix. Trial calculations on Taxol indicate that the cost of the quadratic search is comparable to the cost of the density functional energy plus gradient. While this procedure circumvents the bottleneck coupled-perturbed step in the evaluation of the full Hessian, the second derivatives of the electron-repulsion integrals are still required for atomic-orbital-based calculations, and they are presently more expensive than the energy plus gradient. Hence, we anticipate that the quadratic optimizer will initially find application in fields in which existing optimizers breakdown or are inefficient, particularly biochemistry and solvation chemistry. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
Dr M V Bramhananda Reddy; Dr V Goutham
Biometric features are widely used in real time applications for unique human identification. Iris is one of the physiological biometric features which are regarded as highly reliable in biometric identification systems. Often iris is combined with other biometric features for robust biometric systems. It is also observed that biometrics is combined with cryptography for stronger security mechanisms. Since iris is unique for all individuals across the globe, many researchers focused on using ...
Full Text Available Existing iris recognition systems are heavily dependent on specific conditions, such as the distance of image acquisition and the stop-and-stare environment, which require significant user cooperation. In environments where user cooperation is not guaranteed, prevailing segmentation schemes of the iris region are confronted with many problems, such as heavy occlusion of eyelashes, invalid off-axis rotations, motion blurs, and non-regular reflections in the eye area. In addition, iris recognition based on visible light environment has been investigated to avoid the use of additional near-infrared (NIR light camera and NIR illuminator, which increased the difficulty of segmenting the iris region accurately owing to the environmental noise of visible light. To address these issues; this study proposes a two-stage iris segmentation scheme based on convolutional neural network (CNN; which is capable of accurate iris segmentation in severely noisy environments of iris recognition by visible light camera sensor. In the experiment; the noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II training database (selected from the UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE dataset were used. Experimental results showed that our method outperformed the existing segmentation methods.
Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S
BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (p......RBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. METHODS: We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month...... period in 2013. RESULTS: The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone...
The high variability of iris structures can be used for diagnostic purposes. An overview of the numerous changes visible at the slit lamp and possible diagnosis. Short description of possible irispathology with hints on pathology and treatment.
Gunderson, Leonard L.; Willett, Christopher G.; Harrison, Louis B.
Purpose/Objective: Intraoperative irradiation (IORT) in its broadest sense refers to the delivery of irradiation at the time of an operation. This refresher course will discuss the use of both electrons (IOERT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) in conjunction with surgical exploration and resection ± external irradiation/chemotherapy. Both IORT methods have evolved with similar philosophies as an attempt to achieve higher effective doses of irradiation while dose limiting structures are surgically displaced. The rationale for each is supported by excellent local control ± survival results achieved with brachytherapy alone or as a boost to external irradiation in organ preservation efforts in traditional sites (head and neck, breast, gynecologic) wherein a boost dose could be delivered to smaller volumes than could usually be accomplished with external irradiation alone. IOERT has been a tool in modern radiotherapy in Japan since the 1960's and in the U.S. since the mid 1970's. Results from randomized and nonrandomized trials will be presented in the refresher course with major emphasis on GI sites (gastric, pancreas, colorectal) since the data is more mature. While the largest clinical experience with IOERT (± external irradiation/chemotherapy, maximal resection) has been with gastrointestinal cancers in adults, moderate experience has also been obtained with locally advanced retroperitoneal sarcomas and recurrent genitourinary and gynecologic cancers. With primary colorectal cancers that are unresectable for cure or for locally recurrent colorectal cancers, both local control and long-term survival appear to be improved with the aggressive combinations including IOERT when compared to results achieved with conventional treatment. When residual disease exists after resection of gastric cancers, IOERT ± external radiation has achieved optimistic survival results in trials in Japan, the U.S., Spain and China. With locally unresectable pancreatic cancer, an
Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Gupta, Preeti; Liao, Jiemin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Y; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To assess iris surface features in Asian eyes and examine their associations with iris thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT). Cross-sectional study. We recruited 250 subjects from the Singapore Malay Eye Study. We obtained standardized slit-lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of the anterior chamber were imaged using AS OCT. Intragrader and intergrader agreements in the grading of iris surface were assessed by weighted κ (κ(w)) statistic. Associations of the average iris thickness with the grade of iris features were assessed using linear regression analysis. Frequency and size of iris crypts, furrows, and color; iris thickness at 750 μm (IT750) and 2000 μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur; and maximum iris thickness (ITM) averaged from the 4 quarters. Three hundred sixty-four eyes had complete and gradable data for crypts and color; 330 eyes were graded for furrows. The grading scheme showed good intragrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.919, furrow κ(w) =0.901, color κ(w) = 0.925) and intergrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.775, furrow κ(w) = 0.836, color κ(w) = 0.718) agreements. Higher crypt grade was associated independently with thinner IT750 (β [change in iris thickness per grade higher] = -0.007; P = 0.029), IT2000 (β = -0.018; P iris was also associated with thicker IT750 (β = 0.014; P = 0.001). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlate well with iris thickness. Irises with more crypts are thinner; irises with more extensive furrows and darker color are thicker peripherally. These findings may provide another means to assess angle closure risk based on iris features. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung
Biometrics is a method of identifying individuals by their physiological or behavioral characteristics. Among other biometric identifiers, iris recognition has been widely used for various applications that require a high level of security. When a conventional iris recognition camera is used, the size and position of the iris region in a captured image vary according to the X, Y positions of a user's eye and the Z distance between a user and the camera. Therefore, the searching area of the iris detection algorithm is increased, which can inevitably decrease both the detection speed and accuracy. To solve these problems, we propose a new method of iris localization that uses wide field of view (WFOV) and narrow field of view (NFOV) cameras. Our study is new as compared to previous studies in the following four ways. First, the device used in our research acquires three images, one each of the face and both irises, using one WFOV and two NFOV cameras simultaneously. The relation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is determined by simple geometric transformation without complex calibration. Second, the Z distance (between a user's eye and the iris camera) is estimated based on the iris size in the WFOV image and anthropometric data of the size of the human iris. Third, the accuracy of the geometric transformation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is enhanced by using multiple matrices of the transformation according to the Z distance. Fourth, the searching region for iris localization in the NFOV image is significantly reduced based on the detected iris region in the WFOV image and the matrix of geometric transformation corresponding to the estimated Z distance. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed iris localization method is better than that of conventional methods in terms of accuracy and processing time.
The evidence base for the administration of intraoperative fluids in neonates is poor and extrapolated from adults and children. Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our practice. Keywords: fluid ..... compromise lung function and wound healing. The EGL develops early in ...
Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N
To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2-15q22-ter, CYP1B1-2p21, CYP2C8-10q23, CYP2C9-10q24, and MAOA-Xp11.4 regions as significantly associated with iris colors. Half of the associated SNPs were located on chromosome 15, which corresponds with results that others have previously obtained from linkage analysis. We identified 5 additional genes (ASIP, MC1R, POMC, and SILV) and one additional region (GSTT2-22q11.23) with haplotype and/or diplotypes, but not individual SNP alleles associated with iris colors. For most of the genes, multilocus gene-wise genotype sequences were more strongly associated with iris colors than were haplotypes or SNP alleles. Diplotypes for these genes explain 15% of iris color variation. Apart from representing the first comprehensive candidate gene study for variable iris pigmentation and constituting a first step toward developing a classification model for the inference of iris color from DNA, our results suggest that cryptic population structure might serve as a leverage tool for complex trait gene mapping if genomes are screened with the appropriate ancestry informative markers.
Carelli, Mario D.
The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor is described in the first part of the presentation. IRIS is a light water cooled reactor with an integral configuration, where steam generators, pumps and pressurizer are inside the reactor vessel. Partially funded by the DOE NERI program, IRIS is being developed by an international consortium of 16 organizations from seven countries. A key IRIS characteristic is its 'safety by design' approach which strives to eliminate, by design, as many accidents as possible rather than coping with their consequences. Initial returns are very positive; out of the eight Class IV accidents considered in the AP600 only one remains as a Class IV in IRIS, and at much reduced probability. Small-to-medium LOCAs have minimal consequences as the core remains safely under water for days, without the need for safety injection or water makeup. In spite of its novelty IRIS is firmly grounded on proven LWR technology and therefore a prototype is not needed to assure design certification. Rather, very extensive scaled tests will be performed to investigate the performance of in-vessel components such as steam generators and pumps, both individually and as interactive systems. Accident sequences will also be simulated and tested to prove IRIS safety by design claims. The first core fuel is less than 5% enriched and the fuel assembly is very similar to existing PWR assemblies, so there is no licensing challenge regarding the fuel. Because of the safety by design approach, yielding simplifications In design and accident management (e.g., IRIS does not have an emergency core cooling system), some accident scenarios are eliminated and others have lesser consequences. Thus, simplification and streamlining of the regulatory process might be possible. Risk informed regulation will be coupled with safety by design to show lower accident and damage probabilities. This could lead to a relaxation of siting regulatory requirements. It is
Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Sheen, Martin A.; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas
Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control
Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga
Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.
In August 2013, EPA submitted a revised draft IRIS assessment of ammonia to the agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB) and posted this draft on the IRIS website. EPA had previously released a draft of the assessment for public comment, held a public meeting about the draft, and then revised it based on the comments received. The SAB CAAC-Ammonia panel will review this draft assessment. Details about the meeting dates, times, and location are available via the Federal Register Notice posted on March 25, 2014. The SAB provided information on how the public can participate in the external peer review meetings, as well as instructions about how to provide comments to the SAB in the notice. Additional information on the SAB review of ammonia is on the SAB website. Report Information: The Toxicological Review of Ammonia was originally released for a 60-day public comment period on June 8, 2012. [Federal Register Notice Jun 8, 2012] EPA revised the toxicological review in response to the public comments received. EPA has released the revised external review draft ammonia assessment and the SAB CAAC is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the assessment that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Information regarding the peer review can be found at the SAB review of ammonia website. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for ammonia. IRIS is an EPA database cont
Widhianto, Benedictus Yohanes Bagus Y. B.; Nasution, Aulia M. T.
An identity recognition system is a vital component that cannot be separated from life, iris biometric is one of the biometric that has the best accuracy reaching 99%. Usually, iris biometric systems use infrared spectrum lighting to reduce discomfort caused by radiation when the eye is given direct light, while the eumelamin that is forming the iris has the most flourescent radiation when given a spectrum of visible light. This research will be conducted by detecting iris wavelengths of 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm, where the detection algorithm will be using Daugman algorithm by using a Gabor wavelet extraction feature, and matching feature using a Hamming distance. Results generated will be analyzed to identify how much differences there are, and to improve the accuracy of the multispectral biometric system and as a detector of the authenticity of the iris. The results obtained from the analysis of wavelengths 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm respectively has an accuracy of 99,35 , 97,5 , 64,5 with a matching score of 0,26 , 0,23 , 0,37.
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL
Iris recognition has been proven to be an accurate and reliable biometric. However, the recognition of non-ideal iris images such as off angle images is still an unsolved problem. We propose a new biometric targeted eye model and a method to reconstruct the off-axis eye to its frontal view allowing for recognition using existing methods and algorithms. This allows for existing enterprise level algorithms and approaches to be largely unmodified by using our work as a pre-processor to improve performance. In addition, we describe the `Limbus effect' and its importance for an accurate segmentation of off-axis irides. Our method uses an anatomically accurate human eye model and ray-tracing techniques to compute a transformation function, which reconstructs the iris to its frontal, non-refracted state. Then, the same eye model is used to render a frontal view of the reconstructed iris. The proposed method is fully described and results from synthetic data are shown to establish an upper limit on performance improvement and establish the importance of the proposed approach over traditional linear elliptical unwrapping methods. Our results with synthetic data demonstrate the ability to perform an accurate iris recognition with an image taken as much as 70 degrees off-axis.
This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking a new health assessment for biphenyl for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The outcome of this project will be a Toxicological Review and IRIS and IRIS Summary of biohenyl that will be entered on the IRIS database. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information to evaluate potential public health risks associated with exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risks associated with environmental contaminants. The IRIS database is relied on for the development of risk assessments sites-specific environmental decisions, and rule making.
Conclusion: Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.
This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...
Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...
Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm
The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs......) and the 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively...
Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel
Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... and intends to find, extract, collect and index HTML documents with standardised META tags that are widely spread across web servers on the Internet. This paper presents the structure of IRIS, the software tools, and gives one example of how to categorise and prepare web-sites with product information...
Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.
Burge, Mark J.; Monaco, Matthew K.
Traditionally, only a narrow band of the Near-Infrared (NIR) spectrum (700-900nm) is utilized for iris recognition since this alleviates any physical discomfort from illumination, reduces specular reflections and increases the amount of texture captured for some iris colors. However, previous research has shown that matching performance is not invariant to iris color and can be improved by imaging outside of the NIR spectrum. Building on this research, we demonstrate that iris texture increases with the frequency of the illumination for lighter colored sections of the iris and decreases for darker sections. Using registered visible light and NIR iris images captured using a single-lens multispectral camera, we illustrate how physiological properties of the iris (e.g., the amount and distribution of melanin) impact the transmission, absorbance, and reflectance of different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and consequently affect the quality of the imaged iris texture. We introduce a novel iris code, Multispectral Enhanced irisCode (MEC), which uses pixel-level fusion algorithms to exploit texture variations elicited by illuminating the iris at different frequencies, to improve iris matcher performance and reduce Failure-To-Enroll (FTE) rates. Finally, we present a model for approximating an NIR iris image using features derived from the color and structure of a visible light iris image. The simulated NIR images generated by this model are designed to improve the interoperability between legacy NIR iris images and those acquired under visible light by enabling cross wavelength matching of NIR and visible light iris images.
Rao, Rajesh C.; Ballard, Tiffany N.S.; Chen, Teresa C.
An 87-year-old female with a history of open-angle glaucoma presented with longer, thicker eyelashes on the right side compared to the left. Her irides were also different colors, as the right iris was brown and the left was hazel (green-brown). The patient had noticed a gradual darkening of her right iris and lengthening of her eyelashes over the last year, but denied visual changes or foreign-body sensation. Past medical history included a remote history of breast cancer treated by lumpecto...
EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of carbon tetrachloride that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of carbon tetrachloride that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of trimethylbenzenes that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is reassessing its IRIS toxicological review of Trimethylbenzenes (1,2,3-;1,2,4-;1,3,5-). This trimethylbenzene reassessment consists of an oral reference dose (RfD), an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), an inhalation unit risk (IUR) and a cancer weight of evidence descriptor. This is the first assessment developing an RfC or IUR for this compound. This assessment is intended to provide human health data to support agency regulatory decisions.
Daniel J. Scanderbeg
Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.
Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A
Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.
Full Text Available and eyelashes that corrupt the iris region of interest. An accurate segmentation algorithm must localize and remove these noise components. Texture features are considered in this paper for describing iris and non-iris regions. These regions are classified using...
Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.
Scherrer, Deborah K.
We will overview NASA’s IRIS mission EPO program, which includes a nationwide spectroscopy contest, K-12 resources, a summer program for undergraduates, informal outreach elements, and a dynamic social media program based on the highly successful Camilla/Little SDO program for NASA’s SDO mission.
Performance of the proposed iris recognition system (IRS) has been measured by recording false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) at differentthresholds in the distance metric. System performance has been evaluated by computing statistical features along two directions, namely, radial direction of ...
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of chloroprene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Chloroprene (CASRN 126-99-8) or 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene is a volatile liquid monomer used exclusively in the manufacture of polychloroprene (neoprene) elastomer.
Full Text Available This project has been created to develop a biometric identification system through a man’s iris using a computer to perform the processing of the pictures. To develop this application, and to differentiate the project from others who have already implemented, we have used the image processing library JAVAVis and JAVA as a programming language.
Hurlburt, N. E.; Title, A. M.; De Pontieu, B.; Lemen, J. R.; Wuelser, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wolfson, C. J.; Schrijver, C. J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Bush, R. I.
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph generates a complex set of data products that the IRIS team has strived to deliver to the community in forms that are easy to find and use. We review the results of these efforts and invite the community to explore the data and tools. All standard IRIS data products are based on calibrated images are corrected for a variety of instrumental effects. The resulting products are incorporated into the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) as annotated data sets accessible through the HEK Coverage Registry (HCR). Annotations include descriptions of the data products themselves (pointing, field of view, cadence...) as well as references to coordinated observations from the Hinode mission and other observatories, and to solar events identified in the HEK Event Registry (HER). IRIS data products are available at the LMSAL and Stanford (JSOC) data centers in Palo Alto and the Hinode Data Center in Oslo. Portals that can help users to select data products include the LMSAL iSolsearch, the Virtual Solar Observatory and Helioviewer. Supporting analysis software is available in the IRIS branch of SolarSoft.
Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei infection is an endemic opportunistic infection for AIDS patients that can be found in south Asia. Fever and typical skin lesions are the most commonly seen symptoms. Our case describes an AIDS patient with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS presented with liver masses and skin lesions whose blood, bone marrow and ascites culture were all identified with P. marneffei.
Abstract. Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Ham-.
This June 2016 public meeting is made available to solicit comments on the public comment draft of the IRIS Assessment of tert-Butanol. The draft document was re-opened in the docket for a 60-day public comment period closing on July 16, 2016.
Fachin, Débora Raquel Rigon Narciso; Prestes, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Cariello, Angelino Julio; Nóbrega, Mário Junqueira
Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris (BADI) is a new clinical entity of unknown etiology and is characterized by bilateral, symmetrical, and simultaneous depigmentation of the iris with focal or diffuse stromal atrophy; this condition generally has a good prognosis. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who noted a spontaneous change in the iris color in both eyes in the last 2 months. The ophthalmological findings were atrophy of the iris stroma and pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, without affecting the pigmented epithelium of the iris. Her intraocular pressure was normal and the visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes.
Full Text Available Maria Garcia-Pous1, Patricia Udaondo2, Salvador Garcia-Delpech2, David Salom1, Manuel Díaz-Llopis21Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, SpainAbstract: We report a case of an acute endothelial failure after the implantation of a new cosmetic, colored, artificial iris diaphragm implant called NewIris®. A 21-year-old woman came to us complaining of progressive loss of vision and pain after NewIris lenses had been implanted. Decreased visual acuity, corneal edema, and increased intraocular pressure in both eyes appeared only 3 weeks after the surgery. The lenses were removed as soon as possible but had already severely affected the endothelial cell count. NewIris implants are an alternative to cosmetic contact lenses, but they are not as safe as other phakic anterior chamber intraocular lenses, nor are they a good option for the patient.Keywords: NewIris, endothelial failure, cosmetic iris implants
Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.D.; Kling, C.L.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.
The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled, pressurized reactor of smaller generating capacity (1000 MWt, or 335 MWe). It is being developed through a strong international partnership by a team lead by Westinghouse and including organizations from 10 countries. The main objective of the project is to offer a simple nuclear power plant with outstanding safety, attractive economics and enhanced proliferation resistance characteristics ready for deployment within the next decade. IRIS embodies the requirements set forth by the recently announced US DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program for worldwide deployment of a smaller-scale reactors and provides a viable bridge to Generation IV reactors. IRIS is designed to address the needs of both developed and emerging markets. Its smaller power level provides deployment flexibility in larger developed markets, and makes it in particular well suited for markets with limited grids or where the annual energy demand growth is moderate. Due to its short construction time and the staggered build option, IRIS significantly reduces the required financing, improves cash flow, and provides a viable solution for economies with limited resources. While based on proven and worldwide accepted LWR technology, IRIS introduces a number of innovative solutions to simplify its design and improve safety and operational characteristics, including the integral primary system and its components, as well as the safety-by-design approach. These features will be tested and demonstrated in a testing program that has been initiated. As its centerpiece, the program will include the integral test facility. Results of this program will support licensing with the US NRC. A multinational licensing is considered to facilitate worldwide deployment. (author)
Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.
The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations
Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G
Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.
Rizky Faundra, M.; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi
In this paper, we proposed iris segmentation and normalization algorithm based on the zigzag collarette. First of all, iris images are processed by using Canny Edge Detection to detect pupil edge, then finding the center and the radius of the pupil with the Hough Transform Circle. Next, isolate important part in iris based zigzag collarette area. Finally, Daugman Rubber Sheet Model applied to get the fixed dimensions or normalization iris by transforming cartesian into polar format and thresholding technique to remove eyelid and eyelash. This experiment will be conducted with a grayscale eye image data taken from a database of iris-Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation (CASIA). Data iris taken is the data reliable and widely used to study the iris biometrics. The result show that specific threshold level is 0.3 have better accuracy than other, so the present algorithm can be used to segmentation and normalization zigzag collarette with accuracy is 98.88%
Berger, M S
Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term".
Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.
Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.; Kling, C.L.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Collado, J.M.; Cinotti, L.; Storai, S.; Berra, F.; Todreas, N.E.; Ninokata, H.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.; Oriolo, F.; Moraes, M.M.; Frederico, C.; Henning, F.; Griffith, W.; Love, J.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Wood, R.; Alonso, G.; Kodochigov, N.; Polunichev, V.; Augutis, J.; Alzbutas, R.; Boroughs, R.D.; Naviglio, A.; Panella, B.
The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light-water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or ∼335 MWe), geared at near term deployment (2012- 2015). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international consortium--led by Westinghouse--that includes 21 organizations from 10 countries, and it is currently in the pre-application licensing process with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper describes its integral design (i.e., steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms are all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique ('safety-by-design') TM IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ('safety by- design') TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant without the need for off-site emergency response planning--an objective which is part of the pre-application with NRC and is also pursued within an international research project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This would allow IRIS to be treated as any other industrial facility, located closer to population centers, and enable its effective dual-purpose use for electricity production and co-generation (district heating, desalination, industrial steam). The modular IRIS--with each module rated at ∼335 MWe--is an ideal size for developing countries as it allows to easily introducing single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs, or a moderate amount of power on limited electric grids. IRIS can be also deployed in
Skalet, Alison H; Li, Yan; Lu, Chen D; Jia, Yali; Lee, ByungKun; Husvogt, Lennart; Maier, Andreas; Fujimoto, James G; Thomas, Charles R; Huang, David
To evaluate tumor vasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in malignant iris melanomas and benign iris lesions. Cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with iris lesions and healthy volunteers. Eyes were imaged using OCTA systems operating at 1050- and 840-nm wavelengths. Three-dimensional OCTA scans were acquired. Iris melanoma patients treated with radiation therapy were imaged again after I-125 plaque brachytherapy at 6 and 18 months. OCT and OCTA images, qualitative evaluation of iris and tumor vasculature, and quantitative vessel density. One eye each of 8 normal volunteers and 9 patients with iris melanomas or benign iris lesions, including freckles, nevi, and an iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cyst, were imaged. The normal iris has radially oriented vessels within the stroma on OCTA. Penetration of flow signal in normal iris depended on iris color, with best penetration seen in light to moderately pigmented irides. Iris melanomas demonstrated tortuous and disorganized intratumoral vasculature. In 2 eyes with nevi there was no increased vascularity; in another, fine vascular loops were noted near an area of ectropion uveae. Iris freckles and the IPE cyst did not have intrinsic vascularity. The vessel density was significantly higher within iris melanomas (34.5%±9.8%, P iris nevi (8.0%±1.4%) or normal irides (8.0%±1.2%). Tumor regression after radiation therapy for melanomas was associated with decreased vessel density. OCTA at 1050 nm provided better visualization of tumor vasculature and penetration through thicker tumors than at 840 nm. But in very thick tumors and highly pigmented lesions even 1050-nm OCTA could not visualize their full thickness. Interpretable OCTA images were obtained in 82% of participants in whom imaging was attempted. This is the first demonstration of OCTA in iris tumors. OCTA may provide a dye-free, no-injection, cost-effective method for monitoring a variety of tumors, including iris
SCHONBERGER, JPAM; BREDEE, JJ; TJIAN, D; EVERTS, PAM; WILDEVUUR, CRH
The merits of reinfusing prebypass-removed autologous blood (intraoperative predonation) to salvage blood and improve postoperative hemostasis are still debated, specifically for patients at a higher risk for bleeding. To evaluate the effect of intraoperative predonation on the platelet count, blood
Objective: To determine if intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging improves surgical resection and postoperative outcome of intracranial meningioma. Study design: Prospective, non-randomized, cohort study. Method: Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (iMRI) was used to evaluate patients with meningioma ...
Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.
Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.
Schwab, Christoph; Mayer, Christoph; Zalaudek, Iris; Riedl, Regina; Richtig, Markus; Wackernagel, Werner; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Richtig, Georg; Langmann, Gerald; Tarmann, Lisa; Wedrich, Andreas; Richtig, Erika
To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation. We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Six hundred thirty-two participants (n = 360; 57% female) were examined. Mean age of all participants was 38.4 ± 18.4 years (range, 4-84 years). Of all individuals, 76.1% (n = 481) exhibited at least one iris freckle. Most freckles were observed in the inferior temporal quadrant. The presence of iris freckles was associated with higher age (participants with iris freckles: 41.8 ± 16.8 years versus participants without iris freckles: 27.6 ± 19.2 years), a high number of sunburns during lifetime (>10: 31% vs. 19%), sunlight-damaged skin (26% vs. 11%), presence of actinic lentigines (72% vs. 45%), and a high total nevus body count (>10; 78% vs. 67%). The association of iris freckles, behavioral factors, and dermatologic findings, as well as the topographical distribution, indicate that sunlight exposure may trigger the formation of iris freckles. The evaluation of iris freckles offers an easily accessible potential biomarker, which might be helpful in indicating sun damage on the skin associated with cutaneous malignancies. Furthermore, the evaluation of iris freckles could also be helpful in understanding the role of sunlight in several ophthalmologic diseases.
Bell, K.; Reifsteck, J.E.; Binet, E.F.; Fleisher, H.J.
Intraoperative digital angiography is the procedure of choice for the peripheral vascular surgeon who wishes to evaluate his results before terminating anesthesia. Two operating suites at the John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital are equipped with permanent ceiling-mounted Philips C-arm fluoroscopes and share an ADAC 4100 digital angiographic system. In the last 18 months, 40 peripheral vascular intraoperative digital angiographic procedures have been performed, in all but two cases using direct arterial puncture. In 65% of cases, the intraoperative study showed no significant abnormality. In 12.5%, minor abnormalities not requiring reoperation were seen. In 22.5% of cases, the intraoperative digital angiogram revealed a significant abnormality requiring immediate operative revision. None of the patients who underwent reoperation experienced postoperative sequelae. Intraoperative digital angiography is useful in identifying complications of peripheral vascular operations
Alfaro Hidalgo, Sabrina A.
A literature review was performed on intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer. The strength and attractiveness is established of techniques of partial irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. The benefit is originated to restrict the area immediate of radiotherapy to the tumor bed or quadrant index and identifying the benefit of being applied during the radiotherapy while surgical lumpectomy. The impact of local recurrence has been established using intraoperative radiotherapy. The advantages of intraoperative radiotherapy was compared in the management of the conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer with external radiotherapy. Different methods of intraoperative radiotherapy have been compared and individual impact on local recurrence ranges. Intraoperative radiotherapy has had many advantages: radiobiological, technical, clinical, psychological and economical in the handling of conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer, compared with external radiotherapy [es
Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.
This paper provides an overview of fuel management approach employed in IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). It introduces the initial, rather ambitious, fuel management goals and discusses their evolution that reflected the fast pace of progress of the overall project. The updated objectives rely on using currently licensed fuel technology, thus enabling near-term deployment of IRIS, while still providing improved fuel utilization. The paper focuses on the reference core design and fuel management strategy that is considered in pre-application licensing, which enables extended cycle of three to four years. The extended cycle reduces maintenance outage time and increases capacity factor, thus reducing the cost of electricity. Approaches to achieving this goal are discussed, including use of different reloading strategies. Additional fuel management options, which are not part of the licensing process, but are pursued as long-term research for possible future implementation, are presented as well. (Author)
Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N
To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2...
EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of trichloroacetic acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.
Haindl, Michal; Krupička, Mikuláš
Roč. 57, č. 5 (2015), s. 60-65 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Iris recognition * Color * Markov random field * Texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0444723.pdf
Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil
High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician
Di Cecilia, Luca; Marazzi, Francesco; Rovati, Luigi
We describe an optical system and a method for measuring the human iris spectral reflectance in vivo by hyperspectral imaging analysis. It is important to monitor age-related changes in the reflectance properties of the iris as they are a prognostic factor for several eye pathologies. In this paper, we report the outcomes of our most recent research, resulting from the improvement of our imaging system. In particular, a custom tunable light source was developed: the images are now acquired in the spectral range 440 - 900 nm. With this system, we are able to obtain a spectral resolution of 20nm, while each image of 2048 x 1536 pixels has a spatial resolution of 10.7 μm. The results suggest that the instrument could be exploited for measuring iris pigmentation changes over time. These measurements could provide new diagnostic capabilities in ophthalmology. Further studies are required to determine the measurements' repeatability and to develop a spectral library for results evaluation and to detect differences among subsequent screenings of the same subject.
Niggemann, Birgit; Weinbauer, Gerhard; Vogel, Friedhelm; Korte, Rainhart
Latanoprost, the phenyl-substituted prostaglandin F2alpha, has been found to be an effective agent for glaucoma therapy. This prostaglandin derivative exerts ocular hypotensive activity but is also associated with an untoward side effect, namely iris color changes. Latanoprost provoked iris color changes in cynomolgus monkeys and in multicenter clinical trials. Until now photographs were taken and compared with color plates to document these changes. The disadvantage of this method is obvious, i.e., the color luminance varies between measurements due to changes in the developer. Furthermore, subjective comparison of color changes relative to color plates rendered judgment subject to impression and opinion rather than to objective data. Therefore, a computerized method using a 3-CCD video camera attached to a slit lamp was developed. The signals were transferred to a computer and a single frame, which was "frozen" by means of a "grabber card." Camera and the computer had previously been calibrated and color plates were measured to check the standard conditions. They were evaluated by a software program displaying average color (as red, green, and blue values) of the selected area. This method provides a fast and accurate way to quantify color changes in the iris of both experimental animals and clinical trials.
Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.
Bahavar, M.; Trabant, C.; Hutko, A. R.; Karstens, R.
In 2011 infrasound sensors were installed at some existing USArray Transportable Array (TA) sites and became a standard component of all new sites. Currently there are over 400 sites with infrasound sensors with an average spacing of 70 kilometers. To promote and facilitate the use of these data the IRIS Data Management Center has developed two new data products: an infrasound reference event database and an infrasound signal detector. The TA Infrasound Reference Event Database (TAIRED) is a user-supported database that contains information on events of interest for which there are associated USArray microbarograph recordings. This database is initially populated with a few events from observations on the USArray infrasound data, event bulletins, news on explosions, meteorological events and rocket launches. As a user-supported resource, we ask users to submit events of interest to be included in the database or submit their alternate solutions to the existing events. The second data product is an infrasound signal detector that regularly scans the USArray broadband infrasound data (BDF channel sampled at 40 Hz) and produces detections that highlight time intervals containing potential signals of interest. The detection product includes two components, standard signal-to-noise ratio based detections and spectral power based detections. No attempt is made to categorize detections or associate them to events. These data products join the growing collection of products produced and managed at the IRIS DMC, for the complete list please visit http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/.
Verona Ugando, Leticia; Landrian Iglesias, Beatriz; Padierne Gonzalez, Naysa
Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male patient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology
Rahulkar, Amol D
This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc. that will...
Hook, S. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Hulley, G. C.; Anderson, M. C.; French, A. N.; Hain, C.; Allen, R. G.
In 2007 the National Research Council (NRC) released the results from the first Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS) in a report titled Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the next Decade and Beyond [NRC 2007]. The purpose of DS study was to provide NASA with a mission roadmap for the subsequent 10 years together with the high priority science and societal questions that needed to be addressed. One of the missions recommended was The Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission includes a visible-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) scanner together with an onboard data processing/downlink system referred to as the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM). The TIR instrument will acquire data in 8 discrete spectral bands between 4 and 12 μm for each pixel, have a revisit of 5 days and a spatial resolution of 60 m. Both instruments will provide global observations over the land surface and surrounding shallow waters. Over the deeper oceans the data will be resampled to 1 km spatial resolution. The HyspIRI-TIR instrument is a multispectral TIR scanner with 8 spectral bands. Seven of the eight bands are between 7.5 and 12 um and the remaining band is at 4 μm and designed specifically for the detection of hot targets. As part of the TIR risk reduction studies the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) supported the development of the Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) for engineering risk reduction. The PHyTIR instrument was developed to demonstrate that the HyspIRI-TIR hardware would perform correctly in a space environment. PHyTIR was a space-flight ready laboratory engineering model. In 2014 PHyTIR was selected for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on the Space Station (ECOSTRESS) mission. ECOSTRESS will use 6 of the 8 available bands from PHyTIR. It will have a
Elliot, R R; Saxby, T S; Whitehouse, S L
This prospective study investigates the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy in hallux valgus surgery. To our knowledge there have been no studies questioning the benefit and reliability of intraoperative fluoroscopy in hallux valgus surgery. We performed a prospective investigation of 28 consecutive cases undergoing hallux valgus surgery. Fluoroscopic images were examined intraoperatively and any significant findings documented. A comparison was made between these images and weight bearing films 6 weeks postoperatively to examine their reliability. We excluded those patients that went on to have an Akin osteotomy. There were no unforseen intraoperative events that were revealed by the use of fluoroscopy and no surgical modifications were made as a result of the intraoperative images. The intraoperative films were found to be a reliable representation of the postoperative weight bearing films but a small increase in the hallux valgus angle was noted at 6 weeks and this is thought to be due to stretching of the medial soft tissue repair. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is a reliable technique. This study was performed at a centre which performs approximately 100 hallux valgus operations per year and that should be taken into consideration when reviewing our findings. We conclude that there may be a role for fluoroscopy for surgeons in the early stages of the surgical learning curve and for those that infrequently perform hallux valgus surgery. We cannot, however, recommend that fluoroscopy be used routinely in hallux valgus surgery. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yuan-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Huo, Guang; Liu, Wen-Tao; Feng, Jia-Kai
Aiming at multicategory iris recognition under illumination and noise interference, this paper proposes a method of iris double recognition based on a modified evolutionary neural network. An equalization histogram and Laplace of Gaussian operator are used to process the iris to suppress illumination and noise interference and Haar wavelet to convert the iris feature to binary feature encoding. Calculate the Hamming distance for the test iris and template iris , and compare with classification threshold, determine the type of iris. If the iris cannot be identified as a different type, there needs to be a secondary recognition. The connection weights in back-propagation (BP) neural network use modified evolutionary neural network to adaptively train. The modified neural network is composed of particle swarm optimization with mutation operator and BP neural network. According to different iris libraries in different circumstances of experimental results, under illumination and noise interference, the correct recognition rate of this algorithm is higher, the ROC curve is closer to the coordinate axis, the training and recognition time is shorter, and the stability and the robustness are better.
Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Tan, Shi Zhuan; Dhillon, Baljean
Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort of 54 patients with anterior segment eye disease who were seen at the acute referral unit of the Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh. Iris camera images were obtained from patients before treatment was commenced and again at follow-up appointments after treatment had been given. The principal outcome measure was that of mathematical difference in the iris recognition templates obtained from patients' eyes before and after treatment of the eye disease. Results showed that the performance of iris recognition was remarkably resilient to most ophthalmic disease states, including corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. Problems were, however, encountered in some patients with acute inflammation of the iris (iritis/anterior uveitis). The effects of a subject developing anterior uveitis may cause current recognition systems to fail. Those developing and deploying iris recognition should be aware of the potential problems that this could cause to this key biometric technology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.
Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens
Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.
Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B
The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.
Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik
A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition
Bourennane, Salah; Fossati, Caroline; Ketchantang, William
Among existing biometrics, iris recognition systems are among the most accurate personal biometric identification systems. However, the acquisition of a workable iris image requires strict cooperation of the user; otherwise, the image will be rejected by a verification module because of its poor quality, inducing a high false reject rate (FRR). The FRR may also increase when iris localization fails or when the pupil is too dilated. To improve the existing methods, we propose to use video sequences acquired in real time by a camera. In order to keep the same computational load to identify the iris, we propose a new method to estimate the iris characteristics. First, we propose a new iris texture characterization based on Fourier-Mellin transform, which is less sensitive to pupil dilatations than previous methods. Then, we develop a new iris localization algorithm that is robust to variations of quality (partial occlusions due to eyelids and eyelashes, light reflects, etc.), and finally, we introduce a fast and new criterion of suitable image selection from an iris video sequence for an accurate recognition. The accuracy of each step of the algorithm in the whole proposed recognition process is tested and evaluated using our own iris video database and several public image databases, such as CASIA, UBIRIS, and BATH.
Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.
Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL
The accuracy of iris recognition depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Off-angle iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics that tries to address several issues including corneal refraction, complex 3D iris texture, and blur. In this paper, we present an additional significant challenge that degrades the performance of the off-angle iris recognition systems, called the limbus effect . The limbus is the region at the border of the cornea where the cornea joins the sclera. The limbus is a semitransparent tissue that occludes a side portion of the iris plane. The amount of occluded iris texture on the side nearest the camera increases as the image acquisition angle increases. Without considering the role of the limbus effect, it is difficult to design an accurate off-angle iris recognition system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the limbus effect in detail from a biometrics perspective. Based on results from real images and simulated experiments with real iris texture, the limbus effect increases the hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 depending upon the limbus height.
Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher
It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.
McCartney, A. C.; Riordan-Eva, P.; Howes, R. C.; Spalton, D. J.
Electron microscopy was performed on the irides of a man with a history of a long standing Horner's syndrome which resulted in iris heterochromia. Comparison of his normal brown iris with the depigmented blue iris showed depletion of anterior border cells and absence of sympathetic nerve fibres. Stromal melanocyte numbers were also diminished but melanosome numbers within the residual cells were not significantly different. Postnatal maintenance of stromal and anterior border zone pigmentation, derived from the neural crest, would appear to be dependent on an intact sympathetic nerve supply in contrast to the iris pigment epithelium which remains normally unaffected in Horner's syndrome. Images PMID:1486079
Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is characterized by the presence of hyperpigmentation in the skin areas innervated by the first or the second branches of the trigeminal nerve. Women are affected three times as often as men. Although nevus of Ota is a congenital disorder, it can be seen in puberty or adulthood. Herein a case of nevus of Ota was reported accompanying iris heterochromia and rare iris mammillation. Because of the relationship between iris heterochromia and iris mammillation with glaucoma and especially uveal melanoma, all the patients with nevus of Ota should be monitored closely with regular ophthalmologic examination.
Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo
Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)
Eleanor E. R. Harris
Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of
macular edema were not observed.Conclusion: The presented long-term results demonstrate that retropupillary iris-claw lens implantation is a safe and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients without capsule support. This surgical procedure has the advantages of a posterior chamber implantation with a low intraoperative and postoperative risk profile.Keywords: aphakia, iris-claw lens, Artisan IOL, retropupillary fixated IOL
Zhong, Liu-Xueying; Zheng, Dan-Ying; Sun, Yi
To study the clinical effects and safety of the auxiliary management with iris retractor for subluxated lens combined with cataract. Thirty-one eyes lens subluxation with cataract come from 27 patients were reviewed, all of them were 30 - 78 years old and III - IV grade of nuclear. Among these patients, 14 were traumatic cataracts, 12 Marfan syndromes, two over-mature phase of cataracts, one caused suspensory ligament broken during phacoemulsification, and one unclear reason. 1 to 4 iris retractors were used during surgeries, according to the extension of zonular loss and nuclear hardness. Anterior vitrectomy would be taken if vitreous prolapsed. Visual acuities and reactions post-operative were observed, too. And correlation analysis would be used to study the relationship of those objections. There were no serious complications during the surgeries such as tearing of capsular, falling of nuclear, bleeding of intraocular, and so on. Only 9 of 31 eyes (29.0%) had vitreous prolapsed interoperation, which appeared a significant correlated with range of zonular loss (Spearman r = 0.453, P = 0.010). However, none of them happened during the phacoemulsification for lens nucleus and only 6 eyes took the anterior vitrectomy. The best corrected postoperative visual acuity of these patients attended to 0.2 - 1.2 at a half to 1 month, increased by 1 - 12 lines [average of (6.0 ± 2.7) lines] compared with preoperative. Twenty-three eyes visual acuity of them were no less than 0.5. Corneal edema postoperatively appeared a significant correlated with vitrectomy (Spearman r = 0.398, P = 0.026), while seemed no associated with the range of zonular loss, the number of iris retractors, energy and duration of ultrasound burst or type of intraocular lens (IOL) (P > 0.05). Phacoemulsification assists with iris retractor can simplify the process of cataract surgery of subluxated lens. Individualized surgical planning and flexible and decisive measures intra-operative achieved good
seyedeh zeinab attari
Full Text Available Introduction: Some of Iris species are growing in different parts of the Iran as wild species. Iris species have important medicinal and horticultural properties. Understanding of the genetic variation within and between populations is essential for the establishment of effective and efficient methods for conservation of the plants. Genetic variation studies are fundamental for the management and conservation of this species. The use of molecular markers is a powerful tool in the genetic study of populations. The use of DNA marker, such as AFLP, SSR, RAPD and ISSR represents an alternative method in detection of polymorphism. ISSRs are highly variable, require less investment in time, money and labor than other methods. ISSR can generate higher percentages of polymorphic loci than other PCR methods. These can serve as an efficient tool for phylogenetic studies. ISSRs had reported that used in studies of cultivated species to produce genetic linkage maps and to determine the relatedness of lines of agriculturally important species. ISSR analysis involves the PCR amplification of regions between adjacent, inversely oriented microsatellites, using a single simple sequence repeat (SSR motifs (dinucleotide, trinucleotide, tetranucleotide or penta nucleotides. Therefore, little is known about the genetic variability of the Iranian Iris ssp .The objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic diversity among genotypes using ISSR markers and the degree of polymorphism generated from ISSR technique as a pre-requisite for their applicability to population genetics studies in Iris ssp. Materials and Methods: To evaluate genetic variations in some wild Iris genotypes, Iris kopetdaghensis ،Iris songarica and Iris fosteriana were collected from some parts of Khorasan province. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves following the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB procedure. Extracted DNA concentration was quantified by using the spectrophotometer
Bordes, Brianne; Martin, David; Schloss, Brian; Beebe, Allan; Samora, Walter; Klamar, Jan; Stukus, David; Tobias, Joseph D
When hemodynamic or respiratory instability occurs intraoperatively, the inciting event must be determined so that a therapeutic plan can be provided to ensure patient safety. Although generally uncommon, one cause of cardiorespiratory instability is anaphylactic reactions. During anesthetic care, these most commonly involve neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, or latex. Floseal is a topical hemostatic agent that is frequently used during orthopedic surgical procedures to augment local coagulation function and limit intraoperative blood loss. As these products are derived from human thrombin, animal collagen, and animal gelatin, allergic phenomenon may occur following their administration. We present 2 pediatric patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion who developed intraoperative hemodynamic and respiratory instability following use of the topical hemostatic agent, Floseal. Previous reports of such reactions are reviewed, and the perioperative care of patients with intraoperative anaphylaxis is discussed.
Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Universida Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear
Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)
EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Bromobenzene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Bromobenzene provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to subchronic and chronic exposure to bromobenzene.
EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.
Mohamed, Magdi A.; Sarkis, Michel; Bi, Ning; Zhong, Xin; Qi, Yingyong
A novel transform called Gradient Direction Transform for fast detection of naturally curved items in digital images is described in this article. This general purpose image transform is defined to suit platforms with limited memory and processing footprints by utilizing only additions and simple shift and bitwise operations. We present this unique algorithmic approach in application to real world problems of iris detection. The new approach is tested on a large data set and the experiments show promising and superior performance compared to existing techniques.
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bolme, David S; Boehnen, Chris Bensing
Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by correcting input images with an off-angle gaze. A variety of techniques, from limbus modeling, corneal refraction modeling, optical flows, and genetic algorithms can be used. A variety of techniques, including aspherical eye modeling, corneal refraction modeling, ray tracing, and the like can be employed. Precomputed transforms can enhance performance for use in commercial applications. With application of the technologies, images with significantly unfavorable gaze angles can be successfully recognized.
Conway, L.E.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.; Oriani, L.
The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a 100 - 300 MW modular type pressurized water reactor supported by the U.S. DOE NERI Program. IRIS features a long-life core to provide proliferation resistance and to reduce the volume of spent fuel, as well as reduce maintenance requirements. IRIS utilizes an integral reactor vessel that contains all major primary system components. This integral reactor vessel makes it possible to reduce containment size; making the IRIS more cost competitive. IRIS is being designed to enhance reactor safety, and therefore a key aspect of the IRIS program is the development of the safety and containment systems. These systems are being designed to maximize containment integrity, prevent core uncover following postulated accidents, minimize the probability and consequences of severe accidents, and provide a significant simplification over current safety system designs. The design of the IRIS containment and safety systems has been identified and preliminary analyses have been completed. The IRIS safety concept employs some unique features that minimize the consequences of postulated design basis events. This paper will provide a description of the containment design and safety systems, and will summarize the analysis results. (author)
An excessive trauma of the iris at the time of lens implantation in the posterior chamber can lead to a change in color of a blue iris because of a diffuse pigmentary dispersion syndrome and possibly a pigmentary glaucoma. The clinical signs of the syndrome are illustrated and the possible causes and preventions of this surgical complication are discussed.
EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-dioxane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. IRIS Assessment
Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.
It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or
Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.
Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of
Iris recognition and authentication has a major issue in its code generation and verification accuracy, in order to enhance the authentication process, a binary bit sequence of iris is generated, which contain several vital information that is used to calculate the Mean Energy and Maximum Energy that goes into the eye with an ...
Boguszakova, J.; Dubska, Z.
Fluorescence angiography of the iris was performed in 12 eyes with malignant uveal melanoma. Tumors localized in front of the equator, without respect to their cellular types, caused secondary fluoroangiographic changes in the iris corresponding to the location of these tumors. The character and degree of changes corresponded to the mechanical effect of the malignant melanoma. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs
Conclusion: The new method is promising to be more accurate than existing iris color classification systems in clinical situations where objective colorimetry-based systems are not available. The method may be useful to assess iris translucency and fundus reflectance as sources of variation in retinal straylight.
EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....
Full Text Available Abstract Uniqueness of iris patterns among individuals has resulted in the ubiquity of iris recognition systems in virtual and physical spaces, at high security facilities around the globe. Traditional methods of acquiring iris patterns in commercial systems scan the iris when an individual is at a predetermined location in front of the scanner. Most state-of-the-art techniques for unconstrained iris acquisition in literature use expensive custom equipment and are composed of a multicamera setup, which is bulky, expensive, and requires calibration. This paper investigates a method of unconstrained iris acquisition and recognition using a single commercial off-the-shelf (COTS pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ camera, that is compact and that reduces the cost of the final system, compared to other proposed hierarchical multicomponent systems. We employ state-of-the-art techniques for face detection and a robust eye detection scheme using active shape models for accurate landmark localization. Additionally, our system alleviates the need for any calibration stage prior to its use. We present results using a database of iris images captured using our system, while operating in an unconstrained acquisition mode at 1.5 m standoff, yielding an iris diameter in the 150–200 pixels range.
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ammonia that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for ammonia. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of n-butanol that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.
Campos, Sergio; Salas, Rodrigo; Allende, Hector; Castro, Carlos
This work presents a new method for feature extraction of iris images to improve the identification process. The valuable information of the iris is intrinsically located in its natural texture, and preserving and extracting the most relevant features is of paramount importance. The technique consists in several steps from adquisition up to the person identification. Our contribution consists in a multimodal algorithm where a fragmentation of the normalized iris image is performed and, afterwards, regional statistical descriptors with Self-Organizing-Maps are extracted. By means of a biometric fusion of the resulting descriptors, the features of the iris are compared and classified. The results with the iris data set obtained from the Bath University repository show an excellent accuracy reaching up to 99.867%.
Full Text Available In a progressively more digital society, the demandfor secure identification has led to amplified development ofbiometric systems. Iris biometric systems are becoming widelyadopted and accepted as one of the most effective ways topositively identify people. In this paper, the Segmentation phasesof Iris recognition has been examined. The performance of theSegmentation phase could be amplified by the proposedoptimization technique- Optimized Iris Segmentation using SobelEdge Detection. By the proposed method, the overall rank-onerecognition rate of 90% is being achieved which is much betterthan reported accuracies for iris recognition in the literature.Also the proposed approach makes the overall iris recognitionsystem performance by the improvement factor of 10 fold as well.
Full Text Available This paper presents biometric personal identification based on iris recognition using artificial neural networks. Personal identification system consists of localization of the iris region, normalization, enhancement and then iris pattern recognition using neural network. In this paper, through results obtained, we have shown that a person’s left and right eye are unique. In this paper, we also show that the network is sensitive to the initial weights and that over-training gives bad results. We also propose a fast algorithm for the localization of the inner and outer boundaries of the iris region. Results of simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the neural system in personal identification. Finally a hardware iris recognition model is proposed and implementation aspects are discussed.
Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc
Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.
Haan, V.O. de
Although neutron diffraction is a basic and relatively simple technique and should be available at a neutron source, it is not possible to perform neutron diffraction measurements at IRI at this moment. Until recently a neutron diffractometer with a relatively small flux at the sample position and a relaxed resolution (designed for liquid diffraction) was operated at IRI. Due to the modest neutron source intensity and the relatively old design (flat monochromator and single detector) this diffractometer was outdated. However, at a contemporary reactor source an instrument to perform neutron diffraction experiments cannot be missed. This study shows that thanks to recent developments in neutron diffraction optics it is possible to increase the flux, to enhance the resolution and to get a better flexibility. If also the number of detectors is increased or a position-sensitive detector is used to performance can be increased at least a thousand fold. A preliminary design is given to indicate how this gain can be realized. (orig.).
Pickuth, D; Leutloff, U
Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still widely advocated and standard in many departments; however, it is controversial. We have developed a new diagnostic strategy for the detection of bile duct stones. The concept is based on an ultrasound examination and on screening for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis. A total of 120 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively screened for the presence of these six risk indicators: history of jaundice, history of pancreatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperamylasemia, dilated bile duct, and unclear ultrasound findings. The sensitivity of ultrasound and intraoperative cholangiography in diagnosing bile duct stones was also evaluated. For the detection of bile duct stones, the sensitivity was 77% for ultrasound and 100% for intraoperative cholangiography. Twenty percent of all patients had at least one risk indicator. The presence of a risk indicator correlated significantly with the presence of choledocholithiasis (P concept, we would have avoided 80% of intraoperative cholangiographies without missing a stone in the bile duct. This study lends further support to the view that routine use of intraoperative cholangiography is not necessary.
Page, Joshua Cody; Cox, Matthew D; Hollowoa, Blake; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana; Trinidade, Aaron; Dornhoffer, John L
No consensus guidelines exist regarding intraoperative testing during cochlear implantation and wide variation in practice habits exists. The objective of this observational study was to survey otologists/neurotologists to understand practice habits and overall opinion of usefulness of intraoperative testing. Cross-sectional survey. A web-based survey was sent to 194 practicing Otologists/Neurotologists. Questions included practice setting and experience, habits with respect to electrodes used, intraoperative testing modalities used, overall opinion of intraoperative testing, and practice habits in various scenarios. Thirty-nine of 194 (20%) completed the survey. For routine patients, ECAPs and EIs were most commonly used together (38%) while 33% do not perform testing at all. Eighty-nine percent note that testing "rarely" or "never" changes management. Fifty-one percent marked the most important reason for testing is the reassurance provided to the family and/or the surgeon. Intraoperative testing habits and opinions regarding testing during cochlear implantation vary widely among otologic surgeons. The majority of surgeons use testing but many think there is minimal benefit and that surgical decision-making is rarely impacted. The importance of testing may change as electrodes continue to evolve.
Full Text Available Iris recognition system is one of biometric based recognition/identification systems. Numerous techniques have been implemented to achieve a good recognition rate, including the ones based on Phase Only Correlation (POC. Significant and higher correlation peaks suggest that the system recognizes iris images of the same subject (person, while lower and unsignificant peaks correspond to recognition of those of difference subjects. Current POC methods have not investigated minimum iris point that can be used to achieve higher correlation peaks. This paper proposed a method that used only one-fourth of full normalized iris size to achieve higher (or at least the same recognition rate. Simulation on CASIA version 1.0 iris image database showed that averaged recognition rate of the proposed method achieved 67%, higher than that of using one-half (56% and full (53% iris point. Furthermore, all (100% POC peak values of the proposed method was higher than that of the method with full iris points.
Bishop, Daniel A.; Yezzi, Anthony, Jr.
In order to make biometric systems faster and more user-friendly, lower-quality images must be accepted. A major hurdle in this task is accurate segmentation of the boundaries of the iris in these images. Quite commonly, circle-fitting is used to approximate the boundaries of the inner (pupil) and outer (limbic) boundaries of the iris, but this assumption does not hold for off-axis or otherwise non-circular boundaries. In this paper we present a novel, foundational method for elliptical segmentation of off-axis iris images. This method uses active contours with constrained flow to achieve a simplified form of shape prior active contours. This is done by calculating a region-based contour evolution and projecting it upon a properly chosen set of vectors to confine it to a class of shapes. In this case, that class of shapes is ellipses. This serves to regularize the contour, simplifying the curve evolution and preventing the development of irregularities that present challenges in iris segmentation. The proposed method is tested using images from the UBIRIS v.1 and CASIA-IrisV3 image data sets, with both near-ideal and off-axis images. Additional testing has been performed using the WVU Off Axis/Angle Iris Dataset, Release 1. By avoiding many of the assumptions commonly used in iris segmentation methods, the proposed method is able to accurately fit elliptical boundaries to off-axis images.
...-FF03E00000] Approved Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Lake Iris AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), announce the availability of the approved recovery plan for the dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris), a species... draft dwarf lake iris recovery plan to the public and solicited comments from May 30, 2012, through June...
Rolighed, L; Heickendorff, L; Hessov, I
BACKGROUND: With the development of rapid assays and intraoperative measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), new strategies in the handling of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) have evolved. AIM: The aim of our study was to illustrate the performance of the intraoperative PTH...... measurement as a predictor of successful cure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From September 1999 to April 2002 143 patients with pHPT underwent a parathyroid operation (bilateral neck exploration with identification of all parathyroid glands) with intraoperative measurements of plasma PTH (immediately prior...... to surgery (T0) and 5 minutes after gland excision (T5)). A positive test result was defined as plasma PTH values at T5 below 20% of T0 or a value in the normal range below 7.6 pmol/l. Hence T5 values above 20% of T0 and above 7.6 pmol/l were considered test negative. RESULTS: 122 patients (85%) were test...
Jenkin, Michael R. M.; Milios, Evangelos E.; Tsotsos, John K.
This paper introduces and motivates the design of a controllable stereo vision head. The Toronto IRIS stereo head (TRISH) is a binocular camera mount consisting of two AGC, fixed focal length color cameras forming a verging stereo pair. TRISH is capable of version (rotation of the eyes about the vertical axis so as to maintain a constant disparity), vergence (rotation of the eyes about the vertical axis so as to change the disparity), pan (rotation of the entire head about the vertical axis), and tilt (rotation of the eyes about the horizontal axis). One novel characteristic of the design is that the two cameras can rotate about their own optical axes (torsion). Torsion movement makes it possible to minimize the vertical component of the two-dimensional search which is associated with stereo processing in verging stereo systems.
Munnoz, D. P.; Silva Mata, F. J.; Talavera, I.; Hernandez, N.; Augier, A.
The main goal of this work is the texture representation of the iris original image by means of functional data. The essence of the method consists in obtaining an adjusted vector of coefficients by means of a least square approximation starting from the representation of the original image by the expansion on the two-dimensional Zernike basis. This type of representation provides remarkable advantages regarding other representations e.g. the appreciable reduction of the dimension of the data, the simplification of the general process of the image and those characteristics of the functional data analysis. The carried out experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and they allowed determining the optimal dimension of the coefficients vectors by means of the minimization of the residual errors. To corroborate the effectiveness of this representation, some experiments on identification were carried out on international databases whose initial results are annexed in the work. (Author)
This vanadium pentoxide reassessment consists of an oral reference dose (RfD), an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), an inhalation unit risk (IUR) and a cancer weight of evidence descriptor. This is the first assessment developing an RfC or IUR for this compound. This assessment is intended to provide human health data to support agency regulatory decisions. EPA is reassessing its IRIS toxicological review of vanadium pentoxide (CASRN 1314-62-1). This vanadium pentoxide reassessment consists of an oral reference dose (RfD), an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), an inhalation unit risk (IUR) and a cancer weight of evidence descriptor. This is the first assessment developing an RfC or IUR for this compound. This assessment is intended to provide human health data to support agency regulatory decisions.
Sahni, Vishal; Patvardhan, C.
Quantum computing is a novel paradigm that promises to be the future of computing. The performance of quantum algorithms has proved to be stunning. ANN within the context of classical computation has been used for approximation and classification tasks with some success. This paper presents an idea of quantum neural networks along with the training algorithm and its convergence property. It synergizes the unique properties of quantum bits or qubits with the various techniques in vogue in neural networks. An example application of Fisher's Iris data set, a benchmark classification problem has also been presented. The results obtained amply demonstrate the classification capabilities of the quantum neuron and give an idea of their promising capabilities
Muhammad I. Choudhary
Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations of methanol extract of rhizome of Iris germanica L. resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 6,6-ditetradecyl-6,7-dihydrooxepin-2(3H-one (1 and five known compounds, 1-(2-(6′-hydroxy-2′-methylcyclohex-1′-enyloxy-5-methoxyphenylethanone (2 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (3, irisolone (4 irisolidone (5 and 2-acetoxy-3,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (6 .The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The antifungal activity of different soluble portions was measured. The hexane soluble portion of the methanol extract showed significant antifungal activity where as the ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble portions showed moderate activity. The methanol extract showed no antifungal activity.
Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam
Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.
Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet
We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women with HER2(+ or triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL breast cancers succumb to their cancer rapidly due, in part to acquired Herceptin resistance and lack of TN/BL-targeted therapies. BRCA1-IRIS is a recently discovered, 1399 residue, BRCA1 locus alternative product, which while sharing 1365 residues with the full-length product of this tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1/p220, it has oncoprotein-like properties. Here, we examine whether BRCA1-IRIS is a valuable treatment target for HER2(+ and/or TN/BL tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining of large cohort of human breast tumor samples using new monoclonal anti-BRCA1-IRIS antibody, followed by correlation of BRCA1-IRIS expression with that of AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT, survivin and BRCA1/p220, tumor status and age at diagnosis. Generation of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice using human mammary epithelial (HME cells overexpressing TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS, followed by comparing AKT, survivin, and BRCA1/p220 expression, tumor status and aggressiveness in these tumors to that in tumors developed using TERT/LT/Ras(V12-overexpressing HME cells. Induction of primary and invasive rat mammary tumors using the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU, followed by analysis of rat BRCA1-IRIS and ERα mRNA levels in these tumors. High BRCA1-IRIS expression was detected in the majority of human breast tumors analyzed, which was positively correlated with that of AKT1-, AKT2-, p-AKT-, survivin, but negatively with BRCA1/p220 expression. BRCA1-IRIS-positivity induced high-grade, early onset and metastatic HER2(+ or TN/BL tumors. TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS overexpressing HME cells formed invasive subcutaneous tumors that express high AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT and vimentin, but no CK19, p63 or BRCA1/p220. NMU-induced primary and invasive rat breast cancers expressed high levels of rat BRCA1-IRIS mRNA but low levels of rat ERα mRNA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1-IRIS overexpression triggers aggressive
Sunil Kumar Singla
Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.
Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G
Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER.
Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P
Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...
EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.
EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.
The IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene was released for external peer review in September 2014. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the benzo[a]pyrene assessment and released a final report of their review in April 2016. Information regarding the peer review can be found at the SAB's website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.
van Well, A. A.; de Haan, V.-O.; Fredrikze, H.
A description is given of the neutron reflectometer ROG, recently installed at IRI. The neutron wavelength is determined by time of flight. Wavelengths from 0.08 to 0.8 nm can be used. First experimental results are presented.
UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing ...
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hexavalent chromium that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.
EPA conducted a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Methanol (noncancer) , this is finalized and posted on the IRIS Web site.
Full Text Available In view of the limitation of traditional identification, it is easy to lose and copy keys, cards or ID cards, and it is easy to forget the password, so we designed an embedded application system based on the iris identification technology, which can realize the functions of gathering, inputting, and registering the iris information and identification. The hardware circuit was designed by using advanced RISC machines (ARM embedded microprocessor as the core. The iris sensor was used to gather the iris information, and the development of software was accomplished with the embedded OS Windows CE. The system can be used on the company entrance guard system, customs security of airport and criminal identification.
Attachment to IRIS file for benzene, January 19, 2000, RESPONSE TO THE PEER REVIEW COMMENTS, II. Extrapolation of the Benzene Inhalation Unit Risk Estimate to the Oral Route of Exposure (EPA/NCEA-W-0517, July 1999)
Citations and acknowledgements in scientific journals can be an indicator of the role an organization has on the research of that field. Since its formation and incorporation in May 1984, the IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) is mentioned more and more as a valuable source of data, instruments and programs in the literature of earth sciences. As a large organization with more than 100 member domestic institutes and about 40 international affiliates, obviously IRIS has a direct impact on the earth sciences through all its programs, projects, workshops, symposia, and news¬letters and as a lively forum for exchanging ideas. In order to maintain support from National Science Foundation (NSF) and the research community, it is important to document the continued use of IRIS facilities in basic research programs. IRIS maintains a database of articles that are based on the use of IRIS facilities or which reference use of IRIS data and resources. Articles in this database have been either been provided to IRIS by the authors or selected through an annual search of a number of prominent journals. A text version of the full bibliographic database is available on the IRIS website and a version in EndNote format is also provided. To provide a more complete bibliography and a consistent evaluation of temporal tends in publications, a special annual search began in 2000 which focused on a subset of key seismology and Earth science journals: Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Journal of Geophysical Research, Seismological Research Letters, Geophysical Research Letters, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Tectonophysics, Geophysical Journal International, Nature, Science, Geology and EOS. Using different search engines as Scirus, ScienceDirect, GeoRef, OCLC First Search, EASI Search, NASA Abstract Service etc. for online journals and publishers' databases, we searched for key words (IRIS
Objectives: To identify and quantitate anaesthesia related complications in the intraoperative period and in the post anaesthesia recovery room. Design: A prospective study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching Hospital; a University - affiliated tertiary centre. Subjects: Patients scheduled for elective and emergency surgery ...
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has become the gold standard for the monitoring of functional nervous tissue and mapping of eloquent brain tissue during neurosurgical procedures. The multimodal use of somatosensory-evoked potentials and motor-evoked potentials ensures adequate monitoring of ...
Objective: To review the role of intraoperative blood salvage and autologous blood transfusion in the management of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Data sources: A complete review of relevant current and old literature using the MEDLINE search strategy. Study selection: Papers were selected for their relevance to the topic.
Sanpachai, H.; Settapong, M.
Biometrics is a promising technique that is used to identify individual traits and characteristics. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric methods. As iris texture and color is fully developed within a year of birth, it remains unchanged throughout a person's life. Contrary to fingerprint, which can be altered due to several aspects including accidental damage, dry or oily skin and dust. Although iris recognition has been studied for more than a decade, there are limited commercial products available due to its arduous requirement such as camera resolution, hardware size, expensive equipment and computational complexity. However, at the present time, technology has overcome these obstacles. Iris recognition can be done through several sequential steps which include pre-processing, features extractions, post-processing, and matching stage. In this paper, we adopted the directional high-low pass filter for feature extraction. A box-counting fractal dimension and Iris code have been proposed as feature representations. Our approach has been tested on CASIA Iris Image database and the results are considered successful.
Kashima, Hideki; Hongo, Hitoshi; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko
We propose a high speed iris detection method for man-machine interface. In order to communicate between humans and computers comfortably, it is required that high speed processing and adapting the changes of the face direction and the individual variation of the face. Our iris detection method consists of a face detection function, a facial parts extraction function and an iris detection function. The face detection function adapts to individual variation or a light condition by using standard skin color method which decides the standard skin color by a color histogram every frame. The facial parts extraction function adapts to changes of face direction and the individual variation in order to by using the hybrid template matching which consists the four directional features field and the color different features. The iris detection function performs high speed and stable detection by segmentation of iris region using color information and the Hough transform. We conducted the comparison experiment with our past method which uses the least approximation method. By this result, processing time of our method realized equivalent to our past method. In addition, accuracy rate of iris detection with our method improved.
Frudakis, Tony; Terravainen, Timothy; Thomas, Matthew
Human iris color is a quantitative, multifactorial phenotype that exhibits quasi-Mendelian inheritance. Recent studies have shown that OCA2 polymorphism underlies most of the natural variability in human iris pigmentation but to date, only a few associated polymorphisms in this gene have been described. Herein, we describe an iris color score (C) for quantifying iris melanin content in-silico and undertake a more detailed survey of the OCA2 locus (n = 271 SNPs). In 1,317 subjects, we confirmed six previously described associations and identified another 27 strongly associated with C that were not explained by continental population stratification (OR 1.5-17.9, P = 0.03 to iris color, we selected sets of SNPs by parsing P values among possible combinations and identified four discontinuous and non-overlapping sets across the LD blocks (p-Selected SNP sets). In a second, partially overlapping sample of 1,072, samples with matching diplotypes comprised of these p-Selected OCA2 SNPs exhibited a rate of C concordance of 96.3% (n = 82), which was significantly greater than that obtained from randomly selected samples (62.6%, n = 246, Piris color gene and suggest that using an empirical database-driven system, genotypes from a modest number of SNPs within this gene can be used to accurately predict iris melanin content from DNA.
Full Text Available Image super-resolution, a process to enhance image resolution, has important applications in biometrics, satellite imaging, high definition television, medical imaging, etc. The long range captured iris identification systems often suffer from low resolution and meager focus of the captured iris images. These degrade the iris recognition performance. This paper proposes enhanced iterated back projection (EIBP method to super resolute the long range captured iris polar images. The performance of proposed method is tested and analyzed on CASIA long range iris database by comparing peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity index (SSIM with state-of-the-art super resolution (SR algorithms. It is further analyzed by increasing the up-sampling factor. Performance analysis shows that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms, the peak signal-to-noise ratio improved about 0.1-1.5 dB. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is well suited to super resolve the iris polar images captured at a long distance
Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.
Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi
Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI
Bahavar, M.; Trabant, C. M.; Hutko, A. R.
The Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) is an IRIS DMC data product that serves as a community-supported repository of Earth models. The aim is to provide access to various Earth models with a uniform format and visualization tools for model preview and comparison. EMC currently contains 23 3-D seismic velocity models, one 3-D electrical conductivity model, one 3-D seismic attenuation (Q) model and seven 1-D reference Earth models. New contributions are encouraged and instructions are provided for model authors who wish to share their model via EMC. All contributed Earth models are hosted in their original format and a version in netCDF format (network Common Data Form). The EMC model overview pages provide summaries of the contributed models and links to more detailed metadata and description pages. Taking advantage of the unified netCDF format of the models, EMC provides a set of online 2D visualization tools that allow users to produce a variety of horizontal slices, vertical slices and velocity profiles from the Earth models. Auxiliary data such as topography, earthquake locations, plate boundaries, etc. may also be included on these plots. Extension of the EMC visualization tools to 3D is currently underway. The intention is to bridge the gap between 2D model slices and advanced 3D modeling packages, such as IDV and ParaView, with simple 3D visualization capabilities that can be learned and applied within minutes.
Diniz Filho, Alberto; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Ferreira, Dollores Martins; Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Calixto, Nassim
To investigate, through ultrasound biomicroscopy images, the presence of plateau iris configuration in eyes with narrow-angle from patients with open-angle glaucoma and in eyes with previous acute primary angle-closure and compare the biometric features of eyes with plateau iris configuration with those of normal eyes. Ultrasound biomicroscopic images from 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and 32 patients with acute primary angle-closure were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion and specific criteria for the diagnosis of plateau iris configuration was the presence of an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes, supporting the peripheral iris so that it was parallel to the trabecular meshwork; the iris root had a steep rise from its insertion point, followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall; presence of a central flat iris plane; an absent (complete plateau iris configuration) or partially absent (incomplete plateau iris configuration) ciliary sulcus. The ultrasound biomicroscopic parameters were compared between complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration. The same parameters of both groups were compared with those of normal eyes. The following measurements were performed: anterior chamber depth; angle opening distance at 500 microm from the scleral spur; peripheral iris thickness at 500 microm from the scleral spur; iris-ciliary process distance; trabecular-ciliary process distance and angle recess area. Plateau iris configuration was found in 33 eyes of 20 (10.2%) out of 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and in 4 eyes of 2 (6.3%) out of 32 patients with acute primary angleclosure. Seventeen (77.3%) patients with plateau iris configuration were female and 5 (22.7%) male. Twenty-three (62.2%) out of 37 eyes had complete plateau iris configuration, and 14 (37.8%) had incomplete plateau iris configuration. Complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration presented similar biometric
Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Glatstein, E.
Studies of normal tissue tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy were done upon 65 dogs subjected to laparotomy and 11 million electron volt electron irradiation in doses ranging from zero to 5,000 rads. Results of studies indicated that intact aorta and vena cava tolerate up to 5,000 rads without loss of structural integrity. Ureteral fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 3,000 rads or more. Arterial anastomoses heal after doses of 4,500 rads, but fibrosis can lead to occlusion. Intestinal suture lines heal after doses of 4,500 rads. Bile duct fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 2,000 rads or more. Biliary-enteric anastomoses fail to heal at any dose level. A clinical trial of intraoperative radiotherapy combined with radical surgery was performed upon 20 patients with advanced malignant tumors which were considered unlikely to be cured by conventional therapies and which included carcinomas of the stomach, carcinomas of the pancreas, carcinomas involving the hilus of the liver, retroperitoneal sarcomas and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. All patients underwent resection of gross tumor, followed by intraoperative irradiation of the tumor bed and regional nodal basins. Some patients received additional postoperative external beam radiotherapy. Treatment mortality for combined operation and radiotherapy occurred in four of 20 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in four of the 16 surviving patients. Local tumor control was achieved in 11 of the 16 surviving patients, with an over-all median follow-up period of 18 months. The clinical trial suggested that intraoperative radiotherapy is a feasible adjunct to resection in locally advanced tumors, that the resulting mortality and morbidity is similar to that expected from operation alone and that local tumor control may be improved
I. V. Chernyshev
Full Text Available Based on the experience of photodynamic diagnosis with a photosensitizer «Alasens» during the execution of open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were obtained and analyzed the clinical results of the study. The method of photodynamic diagnostics enables intraoperative detection of tumor-affected areas of the bed of the prostate with subsequent resection. The method is promising for reducing the incidence of positive surgical margins.
Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.
In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications
Behrooz, Ali; Waterman, Peter; Vasquez, Kristine O; Meganck, Jeff; Peterson, Jeffrey D; Faqir, Ilias; Kempner, Joshua
Intraoperative fluorescence imaging informs decisions regarding surgical margins by detecting and localizing signals from fluorescent reporters, labeling targets such as malignant tissues. This guidance reduces the likelihood of undetected malignant tissue remaining after resection, eliminating the need for additional treatment or surgery. The primary challenges in performing open-air intraoperative fluorescence imaging come from the weak intensity of the fluorescence signal in the presence of strong surgical and ambient illumination, and the auto-fluorescence of non-target components, such as tissue, especially in the visible spectral window (400-650 nm). In this work, a multispectral open-air fluorescence imaging system is presented for translational image-guided intraoperative applications, which overcomes these challenges. The system is capable of imaging weak fluorescence signals with nanomolar sensitivity in the presence of surgical illumination. This is done using synchronized fluorescence excitation and image acquisition with real-time background subtraction. Additionally, the system uses a liquid crystal tunable filter for acquisition of multispectral images that are used to spectrally unmix target fluorescence from non-target auto-fluorescence. Results are validated by preclinical studies on murine models and translational canine oncology models.
L. А. Vashakmadze
Full Text Available The results of treatment in 17 patients with morphologically confirmed resectable primary or recurrent retroperitoneal tumor using intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photogem (5 patients, radaсhlorin (7 patients and photodithazine (5 patients. The drugs were administered intravenously in following regimen: photogem 48 h before surgery in dose 2.5–3.0 mg/kg, radaсhlorin and photodithazine – 0.7 and 0.7–1.0 mg/kg, respectively, 2–3 h before resection. Irradiation was performed to tumor bed after complete radical removal from one or several positions depending on tumor localization. The light dose accounted for 30 J/cm2, duration of treatment session depended on area of irradiation. Two patients with recurrent tumor had two reoperations with session of photodynamic therapy. One patient had repeated recurrence requiring third surgery with photodynamic therapy. Thus, 17 patients underwent 25 sessions of intraoperative photodynamic therapy. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient had an early post-operative complication in the form of pancreonecrosis which could be associated with extended resection. The recurrence rate was 17.6%. The results showed safety of the method and affinity of utilized photosensitizers to retroperitoneal tumors of different histological types (sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and others.
Amit Kumar Mittal
Full Text Available In the era of evidence-based medicine, ultrasonography has emerged as an important and indispensable tool in clinical practice in various specialties including critical care. Lung ultrasound (LUS has a wide potential in various surgical and clinical situations for timely and easy detection of an impending crisis such as pulmonary edema, endobronchial tube migration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion, and various other causes of desaturation before it clinically ensues to critical level. Although ultrasonography is frequently used in nerve blocks, airway handling, and vascular access, LUS for routine intraoperative monitoring and in crisis management still necessitates recognition. After reviewing the various articles regarding the use of LUS in critical care, we found, that LUS can be used in various intraoperative circumstances similar to Intensive Care Unit with some limitations. Except for few attempts in the intraoperative detection of pneumothorax, LUS is hardly used but has wider perspective for routine and crisis management in real-time. If anesthesiologists add LUS in their routine monitoring armamentarium, it can assist to move a step ahead in the dynamic management of critically ill and high-risk patients.
Büchel, Gabriel E.
Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Howe, John; Lu, Xiaoying; Thompson, Zoe; Peterson, Gordon W; Losey, Travis E
An acute symptomatic seizure is a clinical seizure occurring at the time of or in close temporal association with a brain insult. We report an acute symptomatic seizure occurring during a surgical procedure in a patient who did not have a prior history of epilepsy and who did not have a lesion associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. To characterize the incidence and clinical features of intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia, we reviewed cases where continuous EEG was acquired during craniotomy. Records of 400 consecutive cases with propofol as general anesthesia during craniotomy were reviewed. Demographic data, indication for surgery, clinical history, history of prior seizures, duration of surgery and duration of burst suppression were recorded. Cases where seizures were observed were analyzed in detail. Two out of 400 patients experienced intraoperative seizures, including one patient who appeared to have an acute symptomatic seizure related to the surgical procedure itself and a second patient who experienced two seizures likely related to an underlying diagnosis of epilepsy. This is the first report of an acute symptomatic seizure secondary to a neurosurgical procedure. Overall, 0.5% of patients monitored experienced seizures, indicating that intraoperative seizures are rare, and EEG monitoring during craniotomies is of low yield in detecting seizures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gold, M; Swartz, J S; Braude, B M; Dolovich, J; Shandling, B; Gilmour, R F
Latex products have recently been identified as the cause of severe intraoperative anaphylactic reactions. We have identified a group of pediatric patients who appear to be at increased risk for such reactions. Fifteen patients with either spina bifida or congenital urologic abnormalities experienced 19 intraoperative anaphylactic reactions. All patients had frequent previous exposures to rubber materials since infancy as part of their management and/or investigative procedures. Seven of 15 patients had a previous history of local skin reactions to rubber. Only four patients were atopic. All patients had undergone multiple (two of 26) operative procedures before their reactions, the onset of which ranged from 40 to 290 minutes after induction of anesthesia. The reactions varied in intensity from urticaria to severe cardiorespiratory collapse. All these patients subsequently had positive allergy skin tests and positive RAST to latex antigen. We conclude that this group is at risk when they are exposed to latex intraoperatively as a result of frequent past exposure to these materials. Allergic evaluation for latex allergy may assist in the preoperative evaluation of similar patients. In sensitized patients, appropriate prophylactic measures, particularly the avoidance of latex, is required.
Büchel, Gabriel E; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jörg; Reiner, Thomas
Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce(4+) in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9 pmol cm(-2) of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the in vivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pfeiffer, Norbert; Nickels, Stefan; Schulz, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Blettner, Maria; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E.; Münzel, Thomas; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs
Purpose To report the distribution of iris conicity (steepness of the iris cone), investigate associated factors, and test whether pseudophakia allows the iris to sink back. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out. Ophthalmological examination including objective refraction, biometry, noncontact tonometry, and Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam®, Oculus) was performed including automated measurement of iris conicity. 3708 phakic subjects, 144 subjects with bilateral and 39 subjects with unilateral pseudophakia were included. Multivariable analyses were carried out to determine independently associated systemic and ocular factors for iris conicity in phakic eyes. Results Mean iris conicity was 8.28° ± 3.29° (right eyes). Statistical analysis revealed associations between steeper iris conicity and shallower anterior chamber depth, thicker human lens and higher corneal power in multivariable analysis, while older age was related to a flatter iris conicity. Refraction, axial length, central corneal thickness, pupil diameter, and intraocular pressure were not associated with iris conicity. Pseudophakia resulted in a 5.82° flatter iris conicity than in the fellow phakic eyes. Conclusions Associations indicate a correlation between iris conicity with risk factors for angle-closure, namely, shallower anterior chamber depth and thicker human lens. In pseudophakic eyes, iris conicity is significantly lower, indicating that cataract surgery flattens the iris. PMID:29085672
Alexander K. Schuster
Full Text Available Purpose. To report the distribution of iris conicity (steepness of the iris cone, investigate associated factors, and test whether pseudophakia allows the iris to sink back. Methods. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out. Ophthalmological examination including objective refraction, biometry, noncontact tonometry, and Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam®, Oculus was performed including automated measurement of iris conicity. 3708 phakic subjects, 144 subjects with bilateral and 39 subjects with unilateral pseudophakia were included. Multivariable analyses were carried out to determine independently associated systemic and ocular factors for iris conicity in phakic eyes. Results. Mean iris conicity was 8.28° ± 3.29° (right eyes. Statistical analysis revealed associations between steeper iris conicity and shallower anterior chamber depth, thicker human lens and higher corneal power in multivariable analysis, while older age was related to a flatter iris conicity. Refraction, axial length, central corneal thickness, pupil diameter, and intraocular pressure were not associated with iris conicity. Pseudophakia resulted in a 5.82° flatter iris conicity than in the fellow phakic eyes. Conclusions. Associations indicate a correlation between iris conicity with risk factors for angle-closure, namely, shallower anterior chamber depth and thicker human lens. In pseudophakic eyes, iris conicity is significantly lower, indicating that cataract surgery flattens the iris.
Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart
IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.
Takamoto, T; Schwartz, B; Cantor, L B; Hoop, J S; Steffens, T
To develop a standardized method for measuring from iris photographs, light and dark segments of areas and densities of iris color. Computerized image analysis was used to measure the iris photographs. The reproducibility of this method was studied in 30 normal eyes with three different colored irides, green-brown, blue-grey brown and yellow-brown. Three photographs were taken of each iris with a slit lamp camera at three different exposures at baseline. The photographs were repeated with exposure providing for the best reproducibility at 6.5 +/- 1.7 months as a first follow-up after baseline and 3.6 +/- 0.8 months following the first follow-up visit. At least one measurement was made for each photograph. The mean percent coefficient of variation (standard deviation of triplicate measurements/mean x 100) ranged from 1.0 to 4.1% for area and density measurements. Furthermore, the range of mean percent differences between baseline and follow-up visits ranged from 1.2 to 6.3%. We have developed a standardized method which appears suitable for measuring changes over time in iris color.
Mitchell, Robert; Rochtchina, Elena; Lee, Anne; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul
To assess the relationship between iris color and intraocular pressure (IOP). Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3,654 largely Caucasian participants, aged 49 to 97 years, from 1992 to 1994. Information was collected about glaucoma risk factors, and Goldmann applanation IOP measurements were taken. Iris color was assessed by comparing the undilated appearance of each eye with three standard photographs. Participants who had previous cataract or glaucoma surgery and those using glaucoma medications were excluded. Mean IOP measurements increased with increasing grades of iris pigmentation. After simultaneous adjustment for variables associated with IOP, mean measurements were 15.92 mm Hg for blue iris color, 16.04 mm Hg for hazel or green, 16.11 mm Hg for tan-brown, and 16.49 mm Hg for dark brown (P for trend = .001). This study demonstrates a modest but statistically significant association between increasing iris color and IOP. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.
Trixler, Dániel; Tényi, Tamás
This study compared five human iris characteristics and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) between patients with schizophrenia (n = 32) and controls (n = 31). Correlations between iris characteristics and MPAs were expected, due to their same ectodermic origin. Iris macro photos were taken and quantified in five categories mentioned before. MPAs were also examined in both groups. Our results show significant differences in the frequency of pigment dots of the iris and total number of MPAs between groups. Other significant differences were found in the extension of concentric furrows, as they were more common in healthy subjects, while Wolfflin nodules occurred significantly more often in patients with schizophrenia. Expected difference in Fuch's crypts could not be observed between groups. Light eye color was positively correlated to pigment dots and Wolfflin nodules, and negatively correlated with concentric furrows. Dark eye color showed positive correlation with concentric furrows, and negative correlation with pigment dots and concentric furrows. A gender effect could also been observed: male individuals showed moderate positive correlations between pigment dots and total MPAs frequency, while this couldn't be observed in the female group. Our findings suggest possible connections between iris characteristics and MPAs, where males are more prone to deviations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This ICTP Internal Report contains the list of papers presented, activity report and the write up of a number of presentations delivered during the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Task Force Activity 2001 which took place at the Abdus Salam ICTP during May 2001, particularly centred in the week from 21-25 May. The 2001 Task Force Activity is the eighth successful encounter of specialists organized by the URSI-Cospar IRI Working Group and the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics of Trieste, Italy. This project continues the IRI Task Force Activities at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy. The primary focus of this activity was the development of a specification model for ionospheric variability. Such a model is high on the wish list of users of ionospheric models. Climatological models like IRI provide monthly mean values of ionospheric parameters. Understandably a satellite designer or operator needs to know not only the monthly average conditions but also the expected deviations from these mean values. The main discussions and presentations took place during the week 21-25 May. The format was similar to last year's activity with presentations and round-table discussions in the morning and follow-on work in small subgroups in front of computer terminals in the afternoon. This Proceedings contains also four papers of the previous IRI Task Force Activity which were omitted
Schmid, Natalia A; Zuo, Jinyu
Iris biometric is one of the most reliable biometrics with respect to performance. However, this reliability is a function of the ideality of the data. One of the most important steps in processing nonideal data is reliable and precise segmentation of the iris pattern from remaining background. In this paper, a segmentation methodology that aims at compensating various nonidealities contained in iris images during segmentation is proposed. The virtue of this methodology lies in its capability to reliably segment nonideal imagery that is simultaneously affected with such factors as specular reflection, blur, lighting variation, occlusion, and off-angle images. We demonstrate the robustness of our segmentation methodology by evaluating ideal and nonideal data sets, namely, the Chinese Academy of Sciences iris data version 3 interval subdirectory, the iris challenge evaluation data, the West Virginia University (WVU) data, and the WVU off-angle data. Furthermore, we compare our performance to that of our implementation of Camus and Wildes's algorithm and Masek's algorithm. We demonstrate considerable improvement in segmentation performance over the formerly mentioned algorithms.
Chen, Yuan-Lin; Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Hung, Kuo-En; Yang, Shi-Wen; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao
Using biometric signatures for identity recognition has been practiced for centuries. Recently, iris recognition system attracts much attention due to its high accuracy and high stability. The texture feature of iris provides a signature that is unique for each subject. Currently most commercial iris recognition systems acquire images in less than 50 cm, which is a serious constraint that needs to be broken if we want to use it for airport access or entrance that requires high turn-over rate . In order to capture the iris patterns from a distance, in this study, we developed a telephoto imaging system with image processing techniques. By using the cubic phase mask positioned front of the camera, the point spread function was kept constant over a wide range of defocus. With adequate decoding filter, the blurred image was restored, where the working distance between the subject and the camera can be achieved over 3m associated with 500mm focal length and aperture F/6.3. The simulation and experimental results validated the proposed scheme, where the depth of focus of iris camera was triply extended over the traditional optics, while keeping sufficient recognition accuracy.
Annelie N Tan
Full Text Available Annelie N Tan1, Juliette GMM Hoevenaars1, Carroll AB Webers1, Bertil Damato2, Henny JM Beckers11University Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Ocular Oncology Service Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United KingdomBackground: Proton beam therapy (PBT is effective in the treatment of iris melanoma. Reported complications after PBT are radiation-induced cataract and raised intraocular pressure (IOP. Filtering glaucoma surgery has generally been avoided because of fears of seeding.Case report: A 37-year-old man presented with a self-discovered, pigmented lesion on his right iris. Four years later, the pigmented lesion was diagnosed as an iris melanoma, because of documented growth. The patient was treated with PBT but developed secondary glaucoma one month later. The IOP could not be controlled despite maximal medical therapy and selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Finally, Baerveldt implant surgery was performed, resulting in an IOP lowering to 10 mmHg and stabilization of the glaucomatous visual field loss.Conclusion: Our case demonstrates that Baerveldt implant surgery is a reasonable therapy for glaucoma following successful radiotherapy of iris melanoma.Keywords: iris melanoma, proton beam therapy, secondary glaucoma, Baerveldt implant surgery
Rives Sanz, R.; Montesino Otero, M.E.; Gonzalez Mantecon, J.; Rojas Mazaira, L.
International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) excels other Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs due to its innovative characteristics regarding safety. IRIS integral pressurizer makes the design of larger pressurizer system than the conventional PWR, without any additional cost. The IRIS pressurizer volume of steam can provide enough margins to avoid spray requirement to mitigate in-surge transient. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial finite volume Computational Fluid Dynamic code CFX 14. A symmetric tridimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of three phases: liquid, steam, and vapor bubbles in liquid volume. Additionally, it takes into account the heat losses between the pressurizer and primary circuit. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX by using expressions in CFX Command Language (CCL) format. Moreover, several additional variables are defined for improving the convergence and allow monitoring of boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rate in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences such as the in/out-surge transients and boron dilution sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)
Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri
With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.
Full Text Available The prediction and classification of ethnicity based on iris texture patterns using image processing, artificial intelligence and computer vision techniques is still a recent topic in iris biometrics. While the large body of knowledge and research...
Kodituwakku, S. R.; Fazeen, M. I. M.
Among many biometric identification methods iris recognition is more attractive due to the unique features of the human eye . There are many proposed algorithms for iris recognition. Although all these methods are based on the properties of the iris, they are subject to some limitations. In this research we attempt to develop an algorithm for iris recognition based on Fuzzy logic incorporated with not only the visible properties of the human iris but also considering the iris function. Visible features of the human iris such as pigment related features, features controlling the size of the pupil, visible rare anomalies, pigment frill and Collarette are considered . This paper presents the algorithm we developed to recognize iris. A prototype system developed is also discussed.
Full Text Available iris identification systems. Low cost devices used under uncontrolled environments acquire poor iris images with inconsistent illumination and specular reflections. These factors inflict challenges towards the accurate identification and extraction...
Khan, Yaser Daanial; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed
This paper presents a biometric technique for identification of a person using the iris image. The iris is first segmented from the acquired image of an eye using an edge detection algorithm. The disk shaped area of the iris is transformed into a rectangular form. Described moments are extracted from the grayscale image which yields a feature vector containing scale, rotation, and translation invariant moments. Images are clustered using the k-means algorithm and centroids for each cluster are computed. An arbitrary image is assumed to belong to the cluster whose centroid is the nearest to the feature vector in terms of Euclidean distance computed. The described model exhibits an accuracy of 98.5%.
Ma, Lin; Li, Naimin
Appling computer aided techniques in iris image processing, and combining occidental iridology with the traditional Chinese medicine is a challenging research area in digital image processing and artificial intelligence. This paper proposes an iridology model that consists the iris image pre-processing, texture feature analysis and disease classification. To the pre-processing, a 2-step iris localization approach is proposed; a 2-D Gabor filter based texture analysis and a texture fractal dimension estimation method are proposed for pathological feature extraction; and at last support vector machines are constructed to recognize 2 typical diseases such as the alimentary canal disease and the nerve system disease. Experimental results show that the proposed iridology diagnosis model is quite effective and promising for medical diagnosis and health surveillance for both hospital and public use.
Rives Sanz, Ronny; Montesinos Otero, Maria Elena; Gonzalez Mantecon, Javier
Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system; which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and help to boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer using the CFX code searching for designs alternatives that guaranteed its intrinsic security, focused on the phenomena before mentioned. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The relationships are programmed and incorporated into the code. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of the analyzed IRIS transients could be applied to the design of the pressurizer internal structures and components. (Author)
Yaser Daanial Khan
Full Text Available This paper presents a biometric technique for identification of a person using the iris image. The iris is first segmented from the acquired image of an eye using an edge detection algorithm. The disk shaped area of the iris is transformed into a rectangular form. Described moments are extracted from the grayscale image which yields a feature vector containing scale, rotation, and translation invariant moments. Images are clustered using the k-means algorithm and centroids for each cluster are computed. An arbitrary image is assumed to belong to the cluster whose centroid is the nearest to the feature vector in terms of Euclidean distance computed. The described model exhibits an accuracy of 98.5%.
Koh, Victor; Chua, Jacqueline; Shi, Yuan; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Lee, Ryan; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To determine the relationship between iris surface features and acute primary angle closure (APAC) in eyes with angle closure. Case-control study involving Asian patients diagnosed with previous APAC, primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) at an eye centre in Singapore between August 2012 and January 2015. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination and digital slit-lamp iris photography. Iris surface features were graded based on crypts, furrows and colour. Fellow eyes of APAC were compared with PACS and PAC/PACG eyes with regard to their iris surface features. Occurrence of APAC. A total of 309 patients (71 APAC, 139 PACS, 47 PAC and 52 PACG) were included (mean age: 67.7±7.2 years and 36.6% male). Compared with PACS, higher crypt grade was significantly associated with lower odds of APAC (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.027, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and pupil diameter). The results remained similar when compared with PAC/PACG group (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.043). We did not observe any significant associations between iris furrows or colour with presence of APAC. Our study comprising Asian eyes with angle closure suggests that the presence of a higher crypt grading may be protective for APAC. As such, assessing iris surface architecture for crypts could be a new measure for risk stratification of developing APAC in eyes with angle closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Nguchu, Benedictor A.; Li, Li
The study takes advantage of several new breakthroughs in computer vision technology to develop a new mid-irisbiomedical platform that processes iris image for early detection of heart-disease. Guaranteeing early detection of heart disease provides a possibility of having non-surgical treatment as suggested by biomedical researchers and associated institutions. However, our observation discovered that, a clinical practicable solution which could be both sensible and specific for early detection is still lacking. Due to this, the rate of majority vulnerable to death is highly increasing. The delayed diagnostic procedures, inefficiency, and complications of available methods are the other reasons for this catastrophe. Therefore, this research proposes the novel IFB (Iris Features Based) method for diagnosis of premature, and early stage heart disease. The method incorporates computer vision and iridology to obtain a robust, non-contact, nonradioactive, and cost-effective diagnostic tool. The method analyzes abnormal inherent weakness in tissues, change in color and patterns, of a specific region of iris that responds to impulses of heart organ as per Bernard Jensen-iris Chart. The changes in iris infer the presence of degenerative abnormalities in heart organ. These changes are precisely detected and analyzed by IFB method that includes, tensor-based-gradient(TBG), multi orientations gabor filters(GF), textural oriented features(TOF), and speed-up robust features(SURF). Kernel and Multi class oriented support vector machines classifiers are used for classifying normal and pathological iris features. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method, not only has better diagnostic performance, but also provides an insight for early detection of other diseases.
Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Ahern, T. K.; Anderson, K. R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Evers, B.; Frassetto, A.; Hafner, K.; Simpson, D. W.; Sweet, J. R.; Taber, J.
The United States academic seismology community, through the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Consortium, has promoted and encouraged a rich environment of innovation and experimentation in areas such as seismic instrumentation, data processing and analysis, teaching and curriculum development, and academic science. As the science continually evolves, IRIS helps drive the market for new research tools that enable science by establishing a variety of standards and goals. This has often involved working directly with manufacturers to better define the technology required, co-funding key development work or early production prototypes, and purchasing initial production runs. IRIS activities have helped establish de-facto international standards and impacted the commercial sector in areas such as seismic instrumentation, open-access data management, and professional development. Key institutional practices, conducted and refined over IRIS' thirty-year history of operations, have focused on open-access data availability, full retention of maximum-bandwidth, continuous data, and direct community access to state-of-the-art seismological instrumentation and software. These practices have helped to cultivate and support a thriving commercial ecosystem, and have been a key element in the professional development of multiple generations of seismologists who now work in both industry and academia. Looking toward the future, IRIS is increasing its engagement with industry to better enable bi-directional exchange of techniques and technology, and enhancing the development of tomorrow's workforce. In this presentation, we will illustrate how IRIS has promoted innovations grown out of the academic community and spurred technological advances in both academia and industry.
EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 2-hexanone that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. 2-Hexanone was nominated for IRIS assessment because of its frequent detection at sites nation-wide and its occurrence as a byproduct of certain industrial processes.
Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B.
The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO 2 or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce
Full Text Available Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 2002. Digital Image Processing 2nd Edition, Instructor?s manual .Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, pp 17-36. Proen?a, H. and Alexandre, L.A. 2007. Toward Noncooperative Iris Recognition: A classification approach using... multiple signatures. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. IEEE Computer Society, 29 (4): 607-611. Sazonova, N. and Schuckers, S. 2011. Fast and efficient iris image enhancement using logarithmic image processing. Biometric...
Carelli, M.; Petrovic, B.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.
Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice
EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.
Coisson, P; Radicella, S M
The Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) produced at CODE are used in this work as experimental reference to evaluate the performance of IRI in predicting global vertical TEC during a period of high solar activity. The analysis has been done for the four seasons of year 2001, comparing monthly median GIMs for 12 different UTs. The attention is focused on the correct reproduction of large scale features like the equatorial anomaly or behavior at high latitudes, to understand where and under which conditions the IRI model could present unexpectable features.
... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY... literature search results and submit additional information to EPA. Request for Public Involvement in IRIS... ). The public is invited to review the literature search results and submit additional information to EPA...
Sazonova, Nadezhda; Hua, Fang; Liu, Xuan; Remus, Jeremiah; Ross, Arun; Hornak, Lawrence; Schuckers, Stephanie
Although human iris pattern is widely accepted as a stable biometric feature, recent research has found some evidences on the aging effect of iris system. In order to investigate changes in iris recognition performance due to the elapsed time between probe and gallery iris images, we examine the effect of elapsed time on iris recognition utilizing 7,628 iris images from 46 subjects with an average of ten visits acquired over two years from a legacy database at Clarkson University. Taken into consideration the impact of quality factors such as local contrast, illumination, blur and noise on iris recognition performance, regression models are built with and without quality metrics to evaluate the degradation of iris recognition performance based on time lapse factors. Our experimental results demonstrate the decrease of iris recognition performance along with increased elapsed time based on two iris recognition system (the modified Masek algorithm and a commercial software VeriEye SDK). These results also reveal the significance of quality factors in iris recognition regression indicating the variability in match scores. According to the regression analysis, our study in this paper helps provide the quantified decrease on match scores with increased elapsed time, which indicates the possibility to implement the prediction scheme for iris recognition performance based on learning of impact on time lapse factors.
Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua
Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.
Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Liu, Shu; Weinreb, Robert N; Liu, Jing; Li, Haitao; Leung, Dexter Yu-lung; Dorairaj, Syril; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert; Lam, Dennis Shun Chiu; Leung, Christopher Kai-shun
To evaluate dynamic changes in iris configuration and their association with anterior chamber angle width by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Forty-six normal subjects with open angles and 40 with narrow angles (Shaffer grade dark room gonioscopy) were analyzed. The dynamic ASOCT dark-light changes of iris bowing were captured with real-time video recording and nasal iris bowing, nasal anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter were measured in serial image frames selected from the video capture. The associations between iris bowing, iris thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), age, anterior chamber angle, and pupillary diameter measurements were evaluated with univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The relationship between iris bowing and pupil diameter was largely linear, with three dynamic patterns observed: (1) convex-to-convex (iris remains convex in dark and light); (2) concave-to-convex (iris changes from concave to convex from light to dark); and (3) concave-to-concave (iris remains concave in dark and light). All the subjects with narrow angles had convex-to-convex anatomy, although 43% of the subjects with open angles also demonstrated this pattern. These individuals were older and had shorter axial length (both with P dark (r = 0.472, P dark. ACD and iris bowing were independently associated with anterior chamber angle width. Independent of ACD, iris bowing is an important biometric parameter that determines angle width. Investigation of iris dynamics may offer a new perspective in understanding the risk and mechanism of primary angle closure.
Walsh, Susan; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Zuniga, Sofia B; Sijen, Titia; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Ballantyne, Kaye N
The IrisPlex system consists of a highly sensitive multiplex genotyping assay together with a statistical prediction model, providing users with the ability to predict blue and brown human eye colour from DNA samples with over 90% precision. This 'DNA intelligence' system is expected to aid police investigations by providing phenotypic information on unknown individuals when conventional DNA profiling is not informative. Falling within the new area of forensic DNA phenotyping, this paper describes the developmental validation of the IrisPlex assay following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines for the application of DNA-based eye colour prediction to forensic casework. The IrisPlex assay produces complete SNP genotypes with only 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents, and is therefore more sensitive than commercial STR kits currently used in forensics. Species testing revealed human and primate specificity for a complete SNP profile. The assay is capable of producing accurate results from simulated casework samples such as blood, semen, saliva, hair, and trace DNA samples, including extremely low quantity samples. Due to its design, it can also produce full profiles with highly degraded samples often found in forensic casework. Concordance testing between three independent laboratories displayed reproducible results of consistent levels on varying types of simulated casework samples. With such high levels of sensitivity, specificity, consistency and reliability, this genotyping assay, as a core part of the IrisPlex system, operates in accordance with SWGDAM guidelines. Furthermore, as we demonstrated previously, the IrisPlex eye colour prediction system provides reliable results without the need for knowledge on the bio-geographic ancestry of the sample donor. Hence, the IrisPlex system, with its model-based prediction probability estimation of blue and brown human eye colour, represents a useful tool for
Alberto Diniz Filho
Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao
A. D. Kaprin
Full Text Available Abstract Results of application of a new technology of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (IOFDT in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma developed at P. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute are presented. The study included 8 patients. 3 patients underwent surgery in various amount: 1 – limited peritonectomy in the volume of tumor foci resection and resection of a large omentum, 1 – limited peritonectomy in the volume of tumor foci resection and atypical resection of the right lobe of the liver, 1 – only resection of the large omentum due to the fact that the tumor was located only in a large omentum and no signs of lesions of the parietal peritoneum was revealed by intraoperative revision. Surgical intervention in these patients was concluded by IOPDT. The remaining 5 patients underwent only IOPDT. After the treatment, two patients underwent additional courses of laparoscopic IOPDT. Of the 8 patients enrolled in the study, 4 died from the underlying disease, 1 from cardiovascular disease with recurrence of the disease, 1 from cardiovascular disease without signs of recurrence, 2 were monitored for 6 months and 146 months (12 years. Thus, in the group of patients with peritoneal mesothelioma, the maximum observation period was 146.44 months, the median survival was 48.4 months, the total specific 1-year survival was 85.7±13.2%, the three-year survival was 68.5±18.6%, the 5-year survival was 45.7 ± 22.4 %. The average life expectancy after treatment of patients with repeated courses of laparoscopic IOPDT was 87 months, without repeated courses – 35.8 months. Thus, life expectancy was higher in patients with repeated courses of laparoscopic IOPDT. Small sample size caused to the rarity of this pathology does not allow for statistically significant conclusions. However, the results of the study indicate the prospects of multi-course intraoperative photodynamic therapy in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma.
Han, Seunghoon; Kim, Sehui; Kim, Jeehyun; Lee, Changho; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chulhong
We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo
Vyas, Krishna; Wong, Lesley
Intraoperative management of hemodynamic instability during microvascular flap reconstruction is often based on anecdotal experience. Randomized controlled trials are difficult to perform when overall success rates are high. This study seeks to determine current practices for management of intraoperative hypotension during microsurgical free tissue transfer. An anonymous, 17-question, multiple choice, and open response online survey was distributed to university surgeons identified from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgeons online membership listing. Responses were collected from April 1, 2012, to May 1, 2012. Questions included number of years of microsurgery experience, number of flaps performed yearly, acceptable lower limits of blood pressure, preferences for treatment of hypotension, intraoperative conditions (hemodilution, temperature, and regional anesthesia), preferred methods of postoperative flap monitoring, and timing/method of prophylaxis of thromboembolic complications. Anonymous responses were analyzed individually as well as per respondent's experience. The response rate was 26.7% (145/544), with 88.3% performing microsurgery. Sixty-two percent performed 24 or less free flaps per year (low volume). Thirty-seven percent performed greater than 24 per year (high volume). The acceptable lower limit (SD) of systolic blood pressure was 92.6 (11.3) mm Hg for the low-volume group and 86.9 (16.2) for the high volume group (P = 0.035). The treatment of choice for hypotension was fluid administration (94.5%). Vasopressors were used by 50.0% of low-volume respondents and 38.1% of high-volume respondents (P = 0.312). Twenty-two respondents (23.2%) stated they had a flap loss due to administration of vasopressors. There was no significant difference between high- and low-volume surgeons' responses. A national survey of microsurgeons demonstrates that many would not use vasopressors to treat intraoperative
Honchar, M H; Hlushchuk, O M
During 10-year period (2001-2010) in the clinic there were operated on 3648 patients, suffering cholelithic disease. Most frequent intraoperative complications, especially in an acute calculous cholecystitis, were: hemorrhage from the bed of gallbladder and its artery, bile leakage, common biliary duct and internal organs damage. A casuistic case was depicted--the rubber tube migration from the wound into the intestinal lumen and its exile per vias naturalis. The authors consider, that aiming to warn the operative complications during performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the operation must be performed by surgeons, experienced in laparoscopic surgery.
Donovan Post, M.J.; Montalvo, B.M.; Quencer, R.M.; Katz, B.H.; Green, B.A.; Elsmont, F.
MR spine images and/or intraoperative US scans in 15 patients were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with clinical and pathologic data to determine the diagnostic value of these modalities in spinal infection. In osteomyelitis and retrospinal abscess MR imaging was definitive; in myelitis it was positive but nonspecific. In epidural abscess concomitant with meningitis, myelography with CT and intraoperative US were superior to MR imaging. Intraoperative US could be used to distinguish these processes and to monitor surgical decompression. The authors recommend that MR imaging be performed at the screening examination in cases of spinal infection, accompanied by intraoperative US in all surgical cases
Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T
Rabah M. Shawky
Dec 5, 2013 ... Bilateral iris, choroid, optic nerve colobomas and retinal detachment in an Egyptian patient with mild Baraitser–Winter syndrome. Rabah M. Shawky *, Heba Salah Abd-Elkhalek Elabd, Radwa Gamal. Pediatric Department, Genetics Unit, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Received 26 October 2013; accepted 4 ...
Background: Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a malformation syndrome, characterized by facial dysmorphism, ocular colobomata, pachygyria, and intellectual defects. Case report: A 3.5 year old female child with BRWS has bilateral congenital ptosis, microcornea, iris, choroid, and optic nerve coloboma, retinal ...
Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.
Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering
EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.
Saar, S. H.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Bush, R. I.; Boerner, P.; Wuelser, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lites, B. W.; De Pontieu, B.
We discuss the development of flat-field and dark frame corrections for Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. Flat-fields for IRIS were taken prior to launch using a lamp filtered to NUV wavelengths; following launch the Sun itself was used as a flat-field source. The solar flat-field for the slit-jaw imagers is constructed using the Chae method, which extracts the moving object and fixed gain patterns from a set of dithered images. The spectrographic flat-fields are produced by significantly defocusing the telescope and averaging many images in a scan to remove solar structure, so that the average spectral profile can be removed. A given dark frame consists of pedestal and dark current components. In IRIS, both are temperature dependent, though they respond to different measured temperatures; the dark current is also exposure time dependent. Each CCD readout port has a slightly different temperature and exposure time response. We have analyzed a series of dark frames over an IRIS orbit to calibrate for these effects. We plan to continue to monitor the flat-field and dark frames regularly for any changes.
Antiracist Moral Identities, or Iris Murdoch in South Africa. ... South African Journal of Philosophy ... I argue that Samantha Vice understates the moral resources white people have available to them to minimize their falling into distorted ways of perceiving and responding to the world caused by bare white advantage. In doing ...
Full Text Available GPS radio occultation measurements on board low Earth orbiting satellites can provide vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere from satellite orbit heights down to the bottomside. Ionospheric radio occultation (IRO measurements carried out onboard the German CHAMP satellite mission since 11 April 2001 were used to derive vertical electron density profiles (EDP’s on a routine basis. About 150 vertical electron density profiles may be retrieved per day thus providing a huge data basis for testing and developing ionospheric models. Although the validation of the EDP retrievals is not yet completed, the paper addresses a systematic comparison of about 78 000 electron density profiles derived from CHAMP IRO data with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001. The results are discussed for quite different geophysical conditions, e.g. as a function of latitude, local time and geomagnetic activity. The comparison of IRO data with corresponding IRI data indicates that IRI generally overestimates the upper part of the ionosphere whereas it underestimates the lower part of the ionosphere under high solar activity conditions. In a first order correction this systematic deviation could be compensated by introducing a height dependence correction factor in IRI profiling.
Mendoza G, G.; Viais J, J.; Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.
Westinghouse is currently pursuing the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) on behalf of the IRIS Consortium. As part of this effort, an IRIS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is being generated. The frontline system models have been developed based on the current system design information. To the extent practicable, AP1000 information was used to support the development of the models because of the degree of similarity between the non-safety active system functions of the two reactors as well as some passive safety functions. The AP1000 PRA is also the key source of failure rate information for IRIS. Standard modeling techniques were used to develop the fault tree models for the Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS). The models include pumps, valves, heat exchangers, motive and control power, and actuation signals. Modeled failure modes include demand failures, run failures, standby failures and common cause failures, as appropriate. For the fluid support systems such as cooling water, the PRA analysts developed simplified system design diagrams based on system descriptions in the Safety Analysis report and the system P and IDs from the equivalent AP1000 systems. These PRA designs were reviewed by the system designers to ensure that they were consistent with the designers understanding of the intended design and operation of the system. The PRA designs were then used to develop the needed fault tree models. (Author)
Pak, C.; Doorn, van W.G.
asterisk inside a circle sign Visible senescence of the flag tepals in Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) was preceded by a large increase in endoprotease activity. Just before visible senescence about half of total endoprotease activity was apparently due to cysteine proteases, somewhat less than
On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...
EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of methanol (non-cancer) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.
Sahala M-Lumbanraja; Rr-Arum P-Rijanti; Imam Bustori
Disturbance of security of electricity supply in Indonesia, especially In Jawa-Madura-Bali grid system should be addressed wisely. The disturbance in electricity supply may be resulted from the rise of hydrocarbon fuel prices as well as only a few of power plants in operation. This problem may impose negative effect to the national socioeconomic system. NPP maybe come one of viable options to support the security of electricity supply, and therefore. Some studies regarding the feasibility of NPP operation in Indonesia should be done. This study on techno-economic of an Innovative reactor IRIS-350 is aimed to access technical and economical aspects of the reactor. IRIS-350(International Reactor Innovative and Secure)Is an advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an International consortium led by Westinghouse. This reactor is based on simplified operation & maintenance, enhanced safety, easy to Inspect, short construction time, small Investment cost, competitive generating cost, and easily suited to the Infrastructures. IRIS main characteristic is integral reactor concept, being all the major reactor coolant system components located Inside the pressure vessel. IRIS-350 reactor is very interesting if operated in Indonesia because investment cost less than the large NPP type, but the national participation is very small. (author)
EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A
OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four
Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan
Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.
Delgado, G.; Goldson, A.L.; Ashayeri, E.; Petrilli, E.S.
Conventional treatment of cervical cancer, such as radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy or pelvic exenteration, is limited to the pelvis. Standard radio-therapeutic treatment is a combination of external-beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and intracavitary applications. However, there is a group of patients for whom external radiotherapy alone has limitations. This group consists primarily of patients with large pelvic lymph nodes containing metastatic cancer, metastatically involved paraaortic lymph nodes outside the usual pelvic radiation field, or large central tumors with parametrial involvement. In patients with cancer of the cervix, the incidence of metastasis to paraaortic lymph nodes is high. Attempts to treat paraaortic nodes with external radiotherapy have resulted in high complication rates because the treatment field includes the highly sensitive gastrointestinal tract. External radiation therapy after retroperitoneal exploration of lymph nodes does not seem to improve survival. In an attempt to circumvent the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional external-beam irradiation, the authors initiated a pilot study of intraoperative electron-beam irradiation of the paraaortic nodes and of the large metastatic lymph nodes in the pelvis. The intraoperative boost was followed by conventional fractionated external-beam irradiation. The theoretical advantages of this procedure include a higher radiation tumor dose without a concomitant increase in treatment morbidity and mortality
Choudhri, Asim F.; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A.
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)
Trabant, C. M.; Van Fossen, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Weekly, R. T.
In 2013 the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) approved a specification for web service interfaces for accessing seismological station metadata, time series and event parameters. Since then, a number of seismological data centers have implemented FDSN service interfaces, with more implementations in development. We have developed a new system called the IRIS Federator which leverages this standardization and provides the scientific community with a service for easy discovery and access of seismological data across FDSN data centers. These centers are located throughout the world and this work represents one model of a system for data collection across geographic and political boundaries.The main components of the IRIS Federator are a catalog of time series metadata holdings at each data center and a web service interface for searching the catalog. The service interface is designed to support client-side federated data access, a model in which the client (software run by the user) queries the catalog and then collects the data from each identified center. By default the results are returned in a format suitable for direct submission to those web services, but could also be formatted in a simple text format for general data discovery purposes. The interface will remove any duplication of time series channels between data centers according to a set of business rules by default, however a user may request results with all duplicate time series entries included. We will demonstrate how client-side federation is being incorporated into some of the DMC's data access tools. We anticipate further enhancement of the IRIS Federator to improve data discovery in various scenarios and to improve usefulness to communities beyond seismology.Data centers with FDSN web services: http://www.fdsn.org/webservices/The IRIS Federator query interface: http://service.iris.edu/irisws/fedcatalog/1/
Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya
Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.
Zett, Claudio; Stina, Deborah M Rosa; Kato, Renata Tiemi; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Allemann, Norma
The aim of this study is to perform imaging of irises of different colors using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA) and iris fluorescein angiography (IFA) and compare their effectiveness in examining iris vasculature. This is a cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with no vascular iris alterations and different pigmentation levels were recruited. Participants were imaged using OCTA adapted with an anterior segment lens and IFA with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) adapted with an anterior segment lens. AS-OCTA and IFA images were then compared. Two blinded readers classified iris pigmentation and compared the percentage of visible vessels between OCTA and IFA images. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with different degrees of iris pigmentation were imaged using AS-OCTA and IFA. Significantly more visible iris vessels were observed using OCTA than using FA (W = 5.22; p Iris pigmentation was negatively correlated to the percentage of visible vessels in both imaging methods (OCTA, rho = - 0.73, p iris vasculature. In both AS-OCTA and IFA, iris pigmentation caused vasculature imaging blockage, but AS-OCTA provided more detailed iris vasculature images than IFA. Additional studies including different iris pathologies are needed to determine the most optimal scanning parameters in OCTA of the anterior segment.
Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.
Li, Wei; Jiang, Lin-Hua
Iris recognition is a reliable and accurate biometric technique used in modern personnel identification system. Segmentation of the effective iris region is the base of iris feature encoding and recognition. In this paper, a novel method is presented for fast iris segmentation. There are two steps to finish the iris segmentation. The first step is iris location, which is based on rotation average analysis of intensity-inversed image and non-linear circular regression. The second step is eyelid detection. A new method to detect the eyelids utilizing a simplified mathematical model of arc with three free parameters is implemented for quick fitting. Comparatively, the conventional model with four parameters is less optimal. Experiments were carried out on both self-collected images and CASIA database. The results show that our method is fast and robust in segmenting the effective iris region with high tolerance of noise and scaling.
Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika
To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris.
van Merkesteyn, J. P.; Groot, R. H.; van Leeuwaarden, R.; Kroon, F. H.
In orthognatic surgery of the mandibular ramus, intra-operative complications as a lesion of the inferior alveolar nerve, fractures of the osteotomised segments, incomplete sectioning, malpositioning of segments and haemorrhage may occur. In this report, intra-operative complications in 124 sagittal
Perception of Nigerian anaesthetists on intra-operative death. SOA Olateju, AT Adenekan, BB Osinaike, OM Fatungase, ON Akanmu, AA Adebayo. Abstract. Background: Intra-operative death is an unusual devastating occurrence in anaesthetic practice, and it is of serious concern when it happens. Objectives: To assess the ...
Five patients who had intraoperative ventricular bigeminy while undergoing various orthopaedic procedures are reported. Diagnosis of pulsus bigeminus was established by continuous intraoperative ECG monitoring of lead 11 using a Micromon 7142 (L&T Medical) ECG machine. Causes of these arrhythmias were traced ...
Jul 2, 2015 ... Objective. To audit results from intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after the introduction of a cytotechnologist. Study design. Since 2010, a cytotechnologist has been involved in the intraoperative assessment of SLNB in our breast cancer patients. The data from patients over ...
Molecular image-based techniques are widely used in medicine to detect specific diseases. Look diagnosis is an important issue but also the analysis of the eye plays an important role in order to detect specific diseases. These topics are important topics in medicine and the standardization of these topics by an automatic system can be a new challenging field for machine vision. Compared to iris recognition has the iris diagnosis much more higher demands for the image acquisition and interpretation of the iris. One understands by iris diagnosis (Iridology) the investigation and analysis of the colored part of the eye, the iris, to discover factors, which play an important role for the prevention and treatment of illnesses, but also for the preservation of an optimum health. An automatic system would pave the way for a much wider use of the iris diagnosis for the diagnosis of illnesses and for the purpose of individual health protection. With this paper, we describe our work towards an automatic iris diagnosis system. We describe the image acquisition and the problems with it. Different ways are explained for image acquisition and image preprocessing. We describe the image analysis method for the detection of the iris. The meta-model for image interpretation is given. Based on this model we show the many tasks for image analysis that range from different image-object feature analysis, spatial image analysis to color image analysis. Our first results for the recognition of the iris are given. We describe how detecting the pupil and not wanted lamp spots. We explain how to recognize orange blue spots in the iris and match them against the topological map of the iris. Finally, we give an outlook for further work.
Lim, Dong Hui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Han, Gyule; Chung, Eui Sang; Chung, Tae Young
In the present study, the incidence and risk factors of lens-iris diaphragm retropulsion syndrome (LIDRS) were evaluated. Patients who underwent cataract surgery using phacoemulsification between June 2014 and December 2014 were included in the study. The preoperative ocular biometric and intraoperative surgical parameters were examined. The incidence of LIDRS and various risk factors were analyzed using an independent t-test, Pearson's chi-square test, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Among 124 eyes of 124 patients, 100 (80.6%) had no LIDRS and 24 (19.4%) had LIDRS. LIDRS occurred in 13 of 31 vitrectomized eyes (41.9%) and 11 of 93 non-vitrectomized eyes (11.8%). Based on univariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.920; p = 0.001), vitrectomized eye (OR, 5.038; p = 0.001), spherical equivalent (OR, 0.778; p < 0.001), axial length (OR, 1.716; p < 0.001), anterior chamber depth (OR, 3.328; p = 0.037), and 3.0 mm vs. 2.2 mm incision size (OR, 4.964; p = 0.001) were statistically significant risk factors associated with the development of LIDRS. Conditional multivariable logistic regression showed that vitrectomized eye (OR, 3.865; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.201 to 12.436; p = 0.023), long axial length (OR, 1.709; 95% CI, 1.264 to 2.310; p = 0.001), and 3.0 vs. 2.2 mm incision size (OR, 3.571; 95% CI, 1.120 to 11.393; p = 0.031) were significant independent risk factors associated with LIDRS. LIDRS is a relatively common occurrence and was found to be associated with vitrectomized eye, long axial length, and larger incision size. Evaluating risk factors prior to cataract surgery can help reduce associated morbidity.
Abaza, Ronney; Ghani, Khurshid R; Sood, Akshay; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Kumar, Ramesh K; Jeong, Wooju; Bhandari, Mahendra; Kher, Vijay; Menon, Mani
To describe a novel and reproducible technique of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) that requires no repositioning, and permits intraoperative regional hypothermia. A GelPOINT™ (Applied Medical, Santa Ranchero, CA, USA) access port was used for delivery of ice-slush and introduction of the graft kidney. The new RKT technique using ice-slush has been performed in 39 patients. At a mean follow-up of 3 months all of the grafts functioned. There was a marked reduction in pain and analgesic requirement compared with patients undergoing open KT, with a propensity towards quicker graft recovery and lower complication rate. RKT has been shown to be safe and feasible in patients undergoing living-donor related KT. A prospective trial is underway to assess outcomes definitively. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.
Calvo, F.A.; Santos, M. (Clinica Universitaria, Dept. of Oncology, Service of Radiotherapy, Pamplona (Spain)); Brady, L.W. (Hahnemann Univ., Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)) (eds.)
This monograph reports on the largest clinical series to date in which intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been used in mulitdisciplinary treatment programs for tumors of various sites and differing histological sybtype. It represents the product of 5 years' intensive work by physicians active at a leading European institution. The findings are supplemented by a thorough review of the data presented worldwide during the last two decades. The results in this book are meticulously presented and focus on the most important features of clinical research reports based on phase I-II studies (toxicity, local tumor control, and survival data). The tumor sites and histologies analyzed are: head and neck cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gynecologic cancer, soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities, retroperitoneal and other central soft issue sarcomas, Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and intracranial tumors. (orig./MG) With 60 figs.
Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Solassol, C.; Pujol, H.
Intra-operative radiation treatment (I.O.R.T.) is concerning the treatment either of an unresectable tumor or of tumor bed after complete excision of a primary tumor and its first draining lymph nodes. We describe X-ray and electrons techniques and we discuss the delivered doses according to experimental and clinical data. According to the residual disease (macroscopic or microscopic), to the healthy tissues in the target volume, and the histological type, single doses from 20 Gy to 40 Gy can be delivered. Our preliminary results are reported: 25 patients with resectable tumors of the cardia, the stomach and the pancreas, 5 patients with pelvic recurrences of colon and rectum carcinomas. Therapeutic results of the I.O.R.T. providing from the literature are discussed. The I.O.R.T. indications are defined as palliative (unresectable tumors) and curative (irradiation of tumor bed after complete excision of the tumor) [fr
Bolufer, Sergio; Coves, María Dolores; Gálvez, Carlos; Villalona, Gustavo Adolfo
Laryngotracheal surgery has an inherent risk of injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN). These complications go from minor dysphonia to even bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The intraoperative neuromonitoring of the RLN was developed in the field of thyroid surgery, in order to preserve nerve and vocal cord function. However, tracheal surgery requires in-field intubation of the distal trachea, which limits the use of nerve monitoring using conventional endotracheal tube with surface electrodes. Given these challenges, we present an alternative method for nerve monitoring during laryngotracheal surgery through the insertion of electrodes within the endolaryngeal musculature by bilateral puncture. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shiino, Akihiko; Matsuda, Masayuki
This review describes usefulness, prospect and present problems of intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery. MRI equipments for the surgery have to have a wide, open space and have those magnets of short cylindrical, biplanar (clam shell), dual air core superconducting solenoidal (double doughnut) and targeted FOV (field of view) type. Devices required for the surgery are specific and in author's facility, they are classified into 4 zones depending on the region of their use. Application of the surgery involves biopsy, drainage of cyst and abscess, hematoma evacuation, nerve block, thermotherapy (interstitial laser, RF ablation, focused untrasonic and cryosurgery), local drug therapy, chemoablation, vascular intervention and tumor extraction, of which actual procedures and pictures are presented together with, in particular, MR-guided thermotherapy, ablation therapy of brain tumors, endoscopic surgery and minimally invasive therapy of the spine. A navigation software, 3D SlicerTM system, is introduced for interventional imaging. Safety measures are emphasized for the operation. (K.H.)
Shiino, Akihiko; Matsuda, Masayuki [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)
This review describes usefulness, prospect and present problems of intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery. MRI equipments for the surgery have to have a wide, open space and have those magnets of short cylindrical, biplanar (clam shell), dual air core superconducting solenoidal (double doughnut) and targeted FOV (field of view) type. Devices required for the surgery are specific and in author's facility, they are classified into 4 zones depending on the region of their use. Application of the surgery involves biopsy, drainage of cyst and abscess, hematoma evacuation, nerve block, thermotherapy (interstitial laser, RF ablation, focused untrasonic and cryosurgery), local drug therapy, chemoablation, vascular intervention and tumor extraction, of which actual procedures and pictures are presented together with, in particular, MR-guided thermotherapy, ablation therapy of brain tumors, endoscopic surgery and minimally invasive therapy of the spine. A navigation software, 3D SlicerTM system, is introduced for interventional imaging. Safety measures are emphasized for the operation. (K.H.)
Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W
The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.
Gaujoux, Sébastien; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Goudard, Geoffrey; Khayat, Antoine; Leconte, Mahaut; Massault, Pierre-Philippe; Balagué, Julie; Dousset, Bertrand
Intraoperative photography is used extensively for communication, research, or teaching. The objective of the present work was to define, using a standardized methodology and literature review, the best technical conditions for intraoperative photography. Using either a smartphone camera, a bridge camera, or a single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, photographs were taken under various standard conditions by a professional photographer. All images were independently assessed blinded to technical conditions to define the best shooting conditions and methods. For better photographs, an SLR camera with manual settings should be used. Photographs should be centered and taken vertically and orthogonal to the surgical field with a linear scale to avoid error in perspective. The shooting distance should be about 75 cm using an 80-100-mm focal lens. Flash should be avoided and scialytic low-powered light should be used without focus. The operative field should be clean, wet surfaces should be avoided, and metal instruments should be hidden to avoid reflections. For SLR camera, International Organization for Standardization speed should be as low as possible, autofocus area selection mode should be on single point AF, shutter speed should be above 1/100 second, and aperture should be as narrow as possible, above f/8. For smartphone, use high dynamic range setting if available, use of flash, digital filter, effect apps, and digital zoom is not recommended. If a few basic technical rules are known and applied, high-quality photographs can be taken by amateur photographers and fit the standards accepted in clinical practice, academic communication, and publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.
Sun, Hong-Peng; Lin, Yi; Pan, Chen-Wei
To elucidate the associations of iris color with major eye diseases. A systematic search on Medline with coverage up to August 2013 was conducted. Assessment of the quality of studies based on their levels of evidence was in accordance with the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom. A relationship between darker iris color and an increased risk of age-related cataract has been reported from cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies. There was no consistent evidence supporting a major role of iris color in the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration. The association of iris color with ocular uveal melanoma has been confirmed by a meta-analysis of observational studies previously. The etiologic synergism between light iris color and environmental exposure such as UV the exposure of UV radiation was found. There were no studies evaluating the refractive associations with iris color but there may be a possible link between iris color and myopia. Darker iris color is associated with an increased risk of cataract and a reduced risk of ocular uveal melanoma. The association of iris color with age-related macular degeneration is not confirmed. Ophthalmologists should be aware that the risk of ocular disorders appears to vary by differences in iris color.
Full Text Available AIM:To elucidate the associations of iris color with major eye diseases.METHODS:A systematic search on Medline with coverage up to August 2013 was conducted. Assessment of the quality of studies based on their levels of evidence was in accordance with the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom.RESULTS:A relationship between darker iris color and an increased risk of age-related cataract has been reported from cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies. There was no consistent evidence supporting a major role of iris color in the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration. The association of iris color with ocular uveal melanoma has been confirmed by a meta-analysis of observational studies previously. The etiologic synergism between light iris color and environmental exposure such as UV the exposure of UV radiation was found. There were no studies evaluating the refractive associations with iris color but there may be a possible link between iris color and myopia.CONCLUSION:Darker iris color is associated with an increased risk of cataractand a reduced risk ofocular uveal melanoma. The association of iris color with age-related macular degeneration is not confirmed. Ophthalmologists should be aware that the risk of ocular disorders appears to vary by differences in iris color.
Dat Tien Nguyen
Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.
Bang, Seung Pil; Jun, Jong Hwa
A large iris defect or extensive iridodialysis can be an intractable cause of visual disturbance, photophobia, glare, monocular diplopia, or cosmetic deformity. The implantation of an artificial iris substitute could be an effective option, but this can cause a reduction in endothelial cell density. We succeeded in the anatomical restoration of iris tissue that was totally dialyzed out of the eye, and was preserved in cold balanced salt solution for 8 h. Engrafted iris tissue was maintained within the aqueous humor. A 71-year-old man was referred to our clinic for management of an iatrogenic total iridodialysis. The totally dialyzed iris tissue was immediately preserved in sterile cold balanced salt solution and packed in a sterile biopsy bottle that was surrounded with ice cubes. Under general anesthesia, a pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the remaining lens cortex and vitreous fiber anterior to the equator. A sulcus-positioned intraocular lens (IOL) was repositioned and fixed by ab externo scleral sutures. Preserved iris tissue was inserted and ironed using both iris spatula and ocular viscoelastic devices. Five-point ab interno scleral sutures were made 1.0 mm posterior to the limbus. The engrafted iris was successfully maintained for 6 months and did not undergo any atrophic change or depigmentation, which may be caused by primary implantation failure due to a blocked blood supply.
Zou, P.; Xiao, L.; Sun, X.; Gai, W.
One disadvantage of conventional iris-loaded accelerating structures is the high ratio of the peak surface electric field to the peak axial electric field useful for accelerating a beam. Typically this ratio E s /E a ≥ 2. The high surface electric field relative to the accelerating gradient may prove to be a limitation for realizing technologies for very high gradient accelerators. In this paper, we present a scheme that uses a hybrid dielectric and iris loaded periodic structure to reduce E s /E a to near unity, while the shunt impedance per unit length r and the quality factor Q compare favorably with conventional metallic structures. The analysis based on MAFIA simulations of such structures shows that we can lower the peak surface electric field close to the accelerating gradient while maintaining high acceleration efficiency as measured by r/Q. Numerical examples of X-band hybrid accelerating structures are given
Full Text Available Iris recognition a relatively new biometric technology has great advantages such as variability stability and security thus it is the most promising for high security environments. The proposed system here is a simple system design and implemented to find the iris from the image using Hough Transform Algorithm. Canny Edge detector has been used to get edge image to use it as an input to the Hough Transform. To get the general idea of Hough Transform the Hough Transform for circle is also implemented. RGB value of 3-D accumulator array of peaks of inner circle and outer circle has been performed. And at the end some suggestions are made to improve the system and performance gets discussed.
This paper describes the changes that were implemented in the new version of the COSPAR/URSI International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2000). These changes are: (1) two new options for the electron density in the D-region, (2) a better functional description of the electron density in the E-F merging region, (3) inclusion of the F1 layer occurrence probability as a new parameter, (4) a new model for the bottomside parameters B 0 and B 1 that greatly improves the representation at low and equatorial latitudes during high solar activities, (5) inclusion of a model for foF2 storm-time updating, (6) a new option for the electron temperature in the topside ionosphere, and (7) inclusion of a model for the equatorial F region ion drift. The main purpose of this paper is to provide the IRI users with examples of the effects of these changes. (author)
Pettai, Iris, 1947-
Presidendi juures asuva vähemusrahvuste ümarlaua ning poliitikute ja ekspertide kohtumisel esinenud sotsioloogi Iris Pettai hinnangul on riigile ohtlik, kui kaks kogukonda elavad paralleelselt, puutuvad vähe kokku. Mida väiksem on sallivus või tolerantsus põhirahva hulgas, seda rohkem tõukab ta ühiskonnast eemale teistest rahvustest inimesi. Sallivuse viiest arengufaasist
Marsden, Emma Josephine; Key, Julia; Mackey, Alison
Instruments for Research Into Second Language Learning and Teaching (IRIS) is a digital repository of materials used to collect data for research into second and foreign language learning and teaching. Since its launch in August 2012, it has attracted considerable interest internationally, with more than 10,000 hits and around 2,500 downloads. One of the aims of the project, which benefits from a wide support network of leading journal editors, research and teaching associations, is to make i...
Lumbanraja, Sahala Maruli; Rijanti, Arum Puni; Bastori, Imam
THE TECHNO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF INNOVATIVE REACTOR IRIS-350. Disturbance of security of electricity supply in Indonesia, especially in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid system should be addressed wisely. The disturbance in electricity supply maybe resulted from the rise of hydrocarbon fuel prices as well as only a few of power plants in operation. This problem may impose negative effect to the national socio economic system. NPP may become one of viable options to support the security of electricity supply,...
EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. The draft Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.
The report contains the programme, conclusions and the write up of 11 presentations delivered during the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Task Force Activity 1995 that took place at the ICTP Trieste between 13-17 November 1995. The presentations included have been grouped in three chapters: Status report and data availability (2 presentations), Electron density profile shape below Nmax (5 presentations) and Intermediate regions (F1) electron density profile (4 presentations). Each presentation was indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs
EPA conducted a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis of a draft report supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Urea that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of Urea provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to Urea.
K.Suresh,; R.Madana Mohana; A.RamaMohanReddy
In this paper we present clustering method is very sensitive to the initial center values, requirements on the data set too high, and cannot handle noisy data the proposal method is using information entropy to initialize the cluster centers and introduce weighting parameters to adjust the location of cluster centers and noise problems. The improves clustering on web data efficiently using fuzzy c-means(FCM)clustering with iris data sets.
Lim, K.Y.; Matyášek, Roman; Kovařík, Aleš; Leitch, A.
Roč. 100, č. 2 (2007), s. 219-224 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0687; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : allopolyploidy * evolution * rDNA * Iris Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2007
Full Text Available In the successive development phases the nitrogen and protein fractions were determined and ion exchanger chromatography of globulins was performed on DEAE cellulose in the endosperm of the chalasal and micropylar poles of Iris pseudoacorus seeds. The phosphorus fraction were also analysed and RNA was separated by means of electrophoresis on coloured agar gel. Wide quantitative differences were found in the content of the compounds investigated between the two poles and the successive development phases.
Annelie N Tan; Juliette GMM Hoevenaars; Carroll AB Webers; et al
Annelie N Tan1, Juliette GMM Hoevenaars1, Carroll AB Webers1, Bertil Damato2, Henny JM Beckers11University Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Ocular Oncology Service Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United KingdomBackground: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is effective in the treatment of iris melanoma. Reported complications after PBT are radiation-induced cataract and raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Filtering glaucoma surgery has generally been avoided because of fears of...
Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex; Marino, Meghan J; Reese, Jamie; Ehlers, Justis P
Optimal placement of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) is critical. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for intrasurgical visualization and confirmation of array placement. In this study, two different OCT systems were evaluated to assess the feasibility and utility of this technology during Argus II surgery. Intraoperative OCT was performed on five patients undergoing Argus II implantation at Cole Eye Institute from June 2015 to July 2016. The EnVisu portable OCT (Bioptigen, Morrisville, NC) and microscope-integrated RESCAN 700 (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) intraoperative OCT systems were utilized. The EnVisu was used in three patients and the RESCAN 700 in three of the five patients. Following array tacking, intraoperative OCT was performed over the entire array including the edges and tack. Intraoperative OCT allowed for visualization of the array/retina interface. Microscope integration of the OCT system facilitated ease of focusing, real-time feedback, surgeon-directed OCT scanning to the areas of interest, and enhanced image quality at points of interest. Intraoperative imaging of the Argus II electrode array is feasible and provides information about electrode array-retina interface and distance to help guide a surgeon. Microscope integration of OCT appears to provide an optimal and efficient approach to intraoperative OCT during Argus II array placement. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:999-1003.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Petridis, Athanasios K; Anokhin, Maxim; Vavruska, Jan; Mahvash, Mehran; Scholz, Martin
There is a number of different methods to localize a glioma intraoperatively. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as intraoperative sonography. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Low grade gliomas do not show a specific signal with 5-aminolevulinic acid and are difficult to distinguish macroscopically from normal tissue. In the present study we stress out the importance of intraoperative diagnostic ultrasound for localization of low grade gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated the charts and MRIs of 34 patients with low grade gliomas operated in our department from 2011 until December 2014. The efficacy of ultrasound as an intraoperative navigational tool was assessed. In 15 patients ultrasound was used and in 19 not. Only histologically proven low grades gliomas (astrocytomas grade II) were evaluated. In none of the patients where ultrasound (combined with neuronavigation) was used (N=15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortical low grade gliomas. Intraoperative ultrasound is an excellent tool in localizing low grade gliomas intraoperatively. It is an inexpensive, real time neuronavigational tool, which overcomes brain shift. Even when identifying the tumors with ultrasound is very reliable, the extend of resection and the decision to remove any residual tumor with the help of ultrasound is at the moment unreliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bolaji, O. S.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Adewale, A. O.; Wu, Q.; Okoh, D.; Doherty, P. H.; Kaka, R. O.; Abbas, M.; Owolabi, C.; Jidele, P. A.
In Africa, we assessed the performance of all the three options of International Reference Ionosphere 2012, IRI-2012 (i.e. IRI-2001, IRI-2001COR and IRI-NeQuick), NeQuick-2 and IRI-Plas 2015 models prior to and during 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event to predict equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest locations and their magnitudes using total electron content (TEC) from experimental records of Global Positioning System (GPS). We confirmed that the IRI-Plas 2015 that appeared as the best compared to all of the models as regard prediction of the EIA crest locations in the northern hemisphere of Africa is due to discontinuities in the GPS data between ∼8° N and 22° N. As regard the predictions of EIA crest magnitudes and the location of EIA crests in the southern hemisphere of Africa, they are not present in all the models. The NeQuick-2 model does not have the capability to predict either the EIA crest location in the northern or southern hemisphere. The SSW effect on the low latitude was able to modify a single EIA crest to pre-noon and post noon EIA crests in the northern hemisphere during the SSW peak phase and significantly reduced the GPS TEC magnitudes over the hemispheres as well. These SSW effects and delays of plasma transportation to higher latitudes in GPS TEC were absent in all the models. For future improvements of IRI-2012, NeQuick-2 and IRI-Plas 2015 models, SSW conditions should be included in order to characterize the effect of lower atmosphere on the ionosphere. The EIA trough modeling is only present in IRI-2001COR and IRI-2001NeQuick options. In the middle latitude, all the model could not predict the location of highest TEC magnitudes found at RBAY (Richardsbay, South Africa).
Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M
Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.
Bilitza, D.; Papitashvili, N.; King, J.
NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) provides internet access to a large number of space physics data sets and models. We will review and explain the different products and services that might be of interest to the IRI community. Data can be obtained directly through anonymous ftp or through the SPyCAT WWW interface to a large volume of space physics data on juke-box type mass storage devices. A newly developed WWW system, the ATMOWeb, provides browse and sub-setting capabilities for selected atmospheric and thermospheric data. NSSDC maintains an archive of space physics models that includes a subset of ionospheric models. The model software can be retrieved via anonymous ftp. A selection of the most frequently requested models can be run on-line through special WWW interfaces. Currently supported models include the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) atmospheric model, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the AE-8/AP-8 radiation belt models. In this article special emphasis will be given to the IRI interface and its various input/output options. Several new options and a Java-based plotting capability were recently added to the Web interface.
van Doorn, Wouter G; Dole, Isabelle; Celikel, Fisun G; Harkema, Harmannus
Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
,; Mars, John
From October 21-23, 2008, NASA held a three-day workshop to consider the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission recommended for implementation by the 2007 report from the U.S. National Research Council Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, also known as the Earth Science Decadal Survey. The open workshop provided a forum to present the initial observational requirements for the mission and assess its anticipated impact on scientific and operational applications as well as obtain feedback from the broader scientific community on the mission concept. The workshop participants concluded the HyspIRI mission would provide a significant new capability to study ecosystems and natural hazards at spatial scales relevant to human resource use. In addition, participants confirmed that the proposed instrument designs could meet the measurement requirements and be implemented through the use of current technology. The workshop participants, like the Decadal Survey itself, strongly endorsed the need for the HyspIRI mission and felt the mission, as defined, would accomplish the intended science.
Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.
To optimize plant operation, reduce scheduled maintenance outage, and increase capacity factor, IRIS is designed to enable extended cycles of up to four years. However, due to the enrichment licensing limitation (less than 5% enriched uranium oxide) there is a tradeoff between the achievable cycle length and fuel utilization, i.e., the average fuel discharge burnup. The longest individual cycle may be achieved with the single-batch straight burn, but at the expense of a lower burnup. Considering the IRIS basic performance requirements, a cycle length in the range of three to four years is deemed desirable. This paper examines different fuel management options, i.e., the influence of the required cycle length on the corresponding reloading strategy, including a two-batch and a three-batch reloading. A reference two-batch core design has been developed for the first cycle, as well as for the transition cycles leading to equilibrium. Main core performance parameters are evaluated. This core design provides the framework for the safety analyses needed to prepare the IRIS safety evaluations. Alternate designs are also considered.(author)
Schmieder, Brigitte; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Mein, Pierre; Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Zapior, Maciek
Several prominences were observed during campaigns in September 2013 and July 2014 with the IRIS spectrometer and the vector magnetograph THEMIS (Tenerife). SDO/AIA and IRIS provided images and spectra of prominences and tornadoes corresponding to different physical conditions of the transition region between the cool plasma and the corona. The vector magnetic field was derived from THEMIS observations by using the He D3 depolarisation due to the magnetic field. The inversion code (PCA) takes into account the Hanle and Zeeman effects and allows us to compute the strength and the inclination of the magnetic field which is shown to be mostly horizontal in prominences as well as in tornadoes. Movies from SDO/AIA in 304 A and Hinode/SOT in Ca II show the highly dynamic nature of the fine structures. From spectra in Mg II and Si IV lines provided by IRIS and H-alpha observed by the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass (MSDP) spectrograph in the Meudon Solar Tower we derived the Doppler shifts of the fine structures and reconstructed the 3D structure of tornadoes. We conclude that the apparent rotation of AIA tornadoes is due to large-scale quasi-periodic oscillations of the plasma along more or less horizontal magnetic structures.
Choragiewicz, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Ozimek, Małgorzata; Jünemann, Anselm G M
Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2). The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21). The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27). No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was -0.27 Dsph (-3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28). The mean postoperative astigmatism was -1.82 Dcyl (min -0.25, max -5.5; median -1.25, SD 1.07). Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4). Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction.
Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2. The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21. The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27. No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was −0.27 Dsph (−3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28. The mean postoperative astigmatism was −1.82 Dcyl (min −0.25, max −5.5; median −1.25, SD 1.07. Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4. Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction.
On a sample of n = 25,346 individuals from Vienna (10,855 males, 14,491 females) the iris pigmentation has been typed by the author. In this sample 65 cases of different types of heterochromia were found. The frequency of the occurrence of the different types of this anomaly could be calculated for the first time. Neglecting age, sex, and type of heterochromia the total frequency amounts to 0.256 (males: 0.157; females: 0.37) %. The variants of heterochromia very from cases of total heterochromia to those of various size; in addition to it a number of special types could be observed. The localization of the heterochrome parts of the iris shows certain variations; mostly, however, it is seen in the lower half of the iris. The nasal part is concerned in only one case; the temporal region never. Thus, the partial heterochromia is characteristic by a marked dependency of its localization. The colour of heterochromia varies from 2 a-14 according to the Martin-Schultz standard set of coloured eyes. However, No. 9 (ca. 50%) and No. 7 (ca. 20%) were the most frequent colours. The age variations are considerable. 5/6 of all heterochromias were found between the age from 2-19 years. Finally, a marked sexual dimorphism was observed, as in females heterochromia is much more frequent than in males.
Irene Rojas Rondón
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el comportamiento de la rubeosis del iris luego de la aplicación de triamcinolona subtenoniana. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte longitudinal con 25 pacientes para un total de 32 ojos con diferentes afecciones oculares. Se efectuaron pruebas estadísticas con las variables del estudio y en algunas se utilizó la prueba de los signos de comparación para datos pareados y en otras se aplicó chi cuadrado. Se caracterizaron las variables: edad, sexo, causa de rubeosis del iris y sus estadios, síntomas y tratamiento con láser de panfotocoagulación retiniana. RESULTADOS: La retinopatía diabética proliferativa fue la afección más frecuente en el 76 % de los pacientes, seguida de la oclusión de la vena central retiniana. Del total de pacientes tratados, el 37,5 % evolucionó satisfactoriamente el estado de la rubeosis del iris. Fue mayor el número de pacientes que mejoraron el grado de la rubeosis con tratamiento combinado de láser y triamcinolona subtenoniana, aunque estadísticamente no fue significativo. El estado de la rubeosis mejoró en más de la mitad de los pacientes con tiempo de evolución menor de 6 meses. En aquellos con un tiempo mayor de 6 meses y neovascularización del iris grado III, se pudo estabilizar el glaucoma neovascular. CONCLUSIÓN: Se plantea que la triamcinolona subtenoniana constituye una alternativa para el manejo de este tipo de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the behaviour of iris rubeosis after using intravitreal triamcinolone. METHODS: A longitudinal descriptive study was performed on 25 patients for a total number of 32 eyes with several ocular diseases. Statistical tests were made with the study variables; sign comparison for paired data and Chi square tests were applied. The variables were age, sex, cause of iris rubeosis and its staging, symptoms and treatment with retinal photocoagulation laser. RESULTS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the most common
Camras, C B; Neely, D G; Weiss, E L
To determine the effect on iris color of discontinuing latanoprost (LP) treatment in a patient with pronounced iris color darkening, and to assess the possible role of sympathetic innervation. In a patient demonstrating pronounced iris color darkening in both eyes after treatment with LP for 6 months, magnified iris color photographs were taken at 3- to 6-month intervals for 5 years after discontinuation of LP treatment. Pupillary testing for sympathetic insufficiency was performed with cocaine 10% or hydroxyamphetamine 1%. The iris color did not appreciably change after discontinuing LP. The cocaine-induced increase in pupillary diameter was considerably greater for the control subject than for the patient who demonstrated the LP-induced color change. Latanoprost-induced iris color darkening does not appreciably change for several years after discontinuing treatment. Some eyes that show LP-induced darkening may have relative ocular sympathetic insufficiency.
Nesher, Ronit; Mechoulam, Hadas; Zamir, Ehud; Pe'er, Jacob
Cyclophotoablation for glaucoma treatment is dependent on the amount of laser energy absorbed by the ciliary body and related to the degree of its pigmentation. Iris color may be assessed by observing the eye, but it is unknown whether it correlates with ciliary body pigmentation. We evaluated whether ciliary pigmentation correlates with iris color. The pigmented epithelium of the ciliary processes of 31 enucleated eyes was qualitatively scored for six histological parameters and correlated with iris color. The dark iris group (n = 19) had significantly increased histological parameters of pigmentation such as aggregation of melanosomes, compared to the light iris group (n = 12) (p Iris color correlates with ciliary pigmentation and may serve as one of the factors determining laser power needed for cyclophotoablation.
Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang
Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions
Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang
Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions.
Syömishäiriöt ovat mielenterveydenhäiriöitä, joihin liittyy poikkeavan syömiskäyttäytymisen lisäksi psyykkisen, fyysisen tai sosiaalisen toimintakyvyn heikkeneminen. Nuorten ja nuorten naisten keskuudessa kyseessä on yleinen mielenterveydenhäiriö; noin 7 % naisista kärsii jostain syömishäiriöstä nuoruusiän tai nuoren aikuisuuden aikana. Syömishäiriöt uhkaavat usein vakavasti nuoren kehitystä ja lisäävät kuolleisuutta. Varhainen tunnistaminen ja hoitoon pääsy parantavat syömishäiriöpotilaan en...
Tsai, J C; Sivak-Callcott, J A; Haik, B G; Zhang, J; McLean, I W
To report the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings from the iridectomy specimen of a patient with acquired unilateral iris heterochromia due to latanoprost. A 45-year-old woman with open-angle glaucoma and unilateral iris heterochromia was evaluated for uncontrolled intraocular pressure increase. Subsequently, the patient underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and an iridectomy specimen was obtained for analysis. The histopathologic analysis of the iridectomy specimen did not reveal any nuclear atypia, nuclear crowding, or mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the iris melanocytes were negative for HMB45 and S-100, and weakly positive for Melan A. Latanoprost-associated iris color change may exhibit a diffuse, uniform, dark velvet-brown appearance, thereby simulating diffuse iris melanoma. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the benign characteristics of the affected iris melanocytes.
Cammi, A.; Ricotti, M. E.; Casella, F.; Schiavo, F.
The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002 and IRIS is one of the designs considered by US utilities as part of the ESP (Early Site Permit) process. In this paper the development of an adequate modeling and simulation tool for Dynamics and Control tasks is presented. The key features of the developed simulator are: a) Modularity: the system model is built by connecting the models of its components, which are written independently of their boundary conditions; b) Openness: the code of each component model is clearly readable and close to the original equations and easily customised by the experienced user; c) Efficiency: the simulation code is fast; d) Tool support: the simulation tool is based on reliable, tested and well-documented software. To achieve these objectives, the Modelica language was used as a basis for the development of the simulator. The Modelica language is the results of recent advances in the field of object-oriented, multi-physics, dynamic system modelling. The language definition is open-source and it has already been successfully adopted in several industrial fields. To provide the required capabilities for the analysis, specific models for nuclear reactor components have been developed, to be applied for the dynamic simulation of the IRIS integral reactor, albeit keeping general validity for PWR plants. The following Modelica models have been written to satisfy the IRIS modelling requirements and are presented in this paper: neutronics point kinetic, fuel heat transfer, control rods model, including the innovative internal drive mechanism type, and a once-through type steam generator, thus
Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao
Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code
Full Text Available To take the employees’ absences in a company, a variety of invented tools or technologies are and already used, for example, attendance cards, fingerprints attendance tool, and attendance tool that uses facial recognition. Attendance tool with a facial recognition uses iris recognition of those employees. Iris code has many properties that hard to forge. Thus, the detection and iris recognition is one of the most secure and accurate for identification.
Halinen, Erika; Pulkkinen, Sari
Lantionpohjan toimintahäiriöt ovat merkittävä naisten elämänlaatua heikentävä vaiva. Lantionpohjan toimintahäiriöitä ovat virtsaamiseen, ulostamiseen ja seksuaalitoimintoihin liittyvät häiriöt sekä laskeumat ja lantionpohjan alueen kiputilat. Suurimmat riskitekijät toimintahäiriöiden synnylle ovat raskauksien, synnytysten ja ikääntymisen mukanaan tuomat lantionpohjan lihas-, sidekudos- ja hermovauriot tai -muutokset. Lantionpohjan eri rakenteet ja toiminnat ovat läheisessä yhteydessä toisiins...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set contains Saturn atmospheric parameters derived from spectra obtained with the Voyager infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS). The data set is...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set contains Jovian atmospheric parameters derived from spectra obtained with the Voyager infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS). The data set is...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set contains Jovian atmospheric parameters derived from spectra obtained with the Voyager infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS). The data set is...
Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J
The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.
Chen, Yu-Yen; Chu, Dachen; Chou, Pesus
To distinguish the frequently misdiagnosed plateau iris eyes from pupillary block group and normal group, we compared the ocular biometrical parameters of them by A-scan ultrasongraphy. In total, we retrospectively reviewed general characteristics and ocular findings including ocular biometric measurements of 71 normal, 39 plateau iris, and 83 pupillary block eyes. The normal controls, plateau iris group and pupillary block group were significantly different in age, but not in gender. The anterior chamber depth tended to decrease and the lens thickness tended to increase from normal to plateau iris to pupillary block eyes. Compared to those of plateau iris group, the pupillary block group had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (2.90mm vs. 2.33mm; piris and normal eyes, only axial length and lens/axial length factor were significantly different (23.16 vs. 23.54; pbiometrics of plateau iris were significantly different from those of pupillary block eyes. However, our A-scan ultrasongraphy generally found no significant biometric differences between plateau iris and normal eyes. These findings suggest that while A-scan ultrasonography might be used as a practical tool for differentiating plateau iris and papillary block eyes, a more meticulous gonioscopy and other assessments may be necessary to distinguish plateau iris from normal eyes.
Hassfeld, S; Muehling, J; Wirtz, C R; Knauth, M; Lutze, T; Schulz, H J
The authors' experiences with intraoperative computer assisted guidance in interventions in oromaxillofacial and craniofacial surgery are reported. The guidance system SPOCS (Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer Systems, Aesculap, Germany) consists of an infrared light emitting system of diodes and camera, an imaging workstation and assorted freehand instruments. The software is an updated version of the well-known Viewing Wand software (ISG Technologies, Canada). In tests on phantoms, the system proved a mean accuracy of less than 1.5 mm. Within the last 15 clinical tests, the system has achieved an accuracy better than 3 mm which, at the moment, the authors estimate to be sufficient to proceed with its clinical evaluation. Using bone screws to register the patient's position, an accuracy in the range of less than 2 mm in relation to bony reference points has been achieved. By visualizing the tip of the instrument in real time, this technique allows surgical interventions, even in anatomically complicated situations, without endangering vital neighbouring structures. The 'offset' function of the software, by which the surgeon can elongate the tip of the instrument virtually, allows the surgeon to analyse structures before they are penetrated by the instrument as in a 'look ahead' operation. The authors expect computer assisted simulation and guidance systems to improve surgical quality and reduce the risks associated with surgical interventions.
Roberts, T.P.L.; Ferrari, P.; Perry, D.; Rowley, H.A.; Berger, M.S.
We compare noninvasive preoperative mapping with magnetic source imaging to intraoperative cortical stimulation mapping. These techniques were directly compared in 17 patients who underwent preoperative and postoperative somatosensory mapping of a total of 22 comparable anatomic sites (digits, face). Our findings are presented in the context of previous studies that used magnetic source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging as noninvasive surrogates of intraoperative mapping for the identification of sensorimotor and language-specific brain functional centers in patients with brain tumors. We found that magnetic source imaging results were reasonably concordant with intraoperative mapping findings in over 90% of cases, and that concordance could be defined as 'good' in 77% of cases. Magnetic source imaging therefore provides a viable, if coarse, identification of somatosensory areas and, consequently, can guide and reduce the time taken for intraoperative mapping procedures. (author)
Conclusion: Flap-related complications are common intraoperative event during LASIK surgery performed by in-training ophthalmologists. Keratometries and surgeon's first procedure represent a higher probability for flap related complications than some other biometric parameters of patient's eye.
Roberts, T.P.L.; Ferrari, P.; Perry, D.; Rowley, H.A.; Berger, M.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)
We compare noninvasive preoperative mapping with magnetic source imaging to intraoperative cortical stimulation mapping. These techniques were directly compared in 17 patients who underwent preoperative and postoperative somatosensory mapping of a total of 22 comparable anatomic sites (digits, face). Our findings are presented in the context of previous studies that used magnetic source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging as noninvasive surrogates of intraoperative mapping for the identification of sensorimotor and language-specific brain functional centers in patients with brain tumors. We found that magnetic source imaging results were reasonably concordant with intraoperative mapping findings in over 90% of cases, and that concordance could be defined as 'good' in 77% of cases. Magnetic source imaging therefore provides a viable, if coarse, identification of somatosensory areas and, consequently, can guide and reduce the time taken for intraoperative mapping procedures. (author)
Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus
PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... of the findings by the surgeon. The presence of metastases was further assessed by ultrasonography three months postoperatively, as well as additional surgery and liver biopsy in some of the patients. RESULTS: The sensitivity of intraoperative ultrasonography (62/64) was significantly superior to that of surgical...... exploration (54/64) and that of preoperative ultrasonography (45/64). The lowest sensitivity was presented by liver enzymes. Bilobar metastases were detected in 42 of 46 patients by intraoperative ultrasonography but in only 33 patients by the surgeon. Intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrated the highest...
Ozores Suarez, Francisco Javier; Perez de Ordaz, Luis Bravo
The intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography is very used in pediatric cardiovascular surgery. The aim of present paper was to determine its impact on the surgery immediate results after a previous experience of authors with this type of procedure
Ferenschild, Floris T. J.; Vermaas, Maarten; Nuyttens, Joost J. M. E.; Graveland, Wilfried J.; Marinelli, Andreas W. K. S.; van der Sijp, Joost R.; Wiggers, Theo; Verhoef, Cornelis; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the results of a multimodality treatment using preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2002, 123 patients with initial unresectable
Knobben, Bas A. S.; Engelsma, Yde; Neut, Danielle
Intraoperative bacterial contamination increases risk for postoperative wound-healing problems and periprosthetic infection, but to what extent remains unclear. We asked whether bacterial contamination of the instruments and bone during primary prosthesis insertion was associated with prolonged
Celik, S; Almalı, N; Aras, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Kızıltan, R
Intraoperative testing of gastrointestinal anastomosis effectively ensures anastomotic integrity. This study investigated whether the routine use of methylene blue intraoperatively identified leaks to reduce the postoperative proportion of clinical leaks. This study retrospectively analyzed consecutive total gastrectomies performed from January 2007 to December 2014 in a university hospital setting by a general surgical group that exclusively used the methylene blue test. All surgeries were performed for gastric or junctional cancers (n = 198). All reconstructions (Roux-en Y esophagojejunostomy) were performed using a stapler. The methylene blue test was used in 108 cases (group 1) via a nasojejunal tube. No test was performed for the other 90 cases (group 2). Intraoperative leakage rate, postoperative clinical leakage rate, length of hospitalization, and mortality rate were the outcome measures. The intraoperative leakage rate was 7.4% in group 1. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 8.6%. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 3.7% in group 1 and 14.4% in group 2 (p = 0.007). There were no postoperative clinical leaks when an intraoperative leak led to concomitant intraoperative repair. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days in group 1 and 8 days in group 2 (p methylene blue test for esophagojejunostomy is a safe and reliable method for the assessment of anastomosis integrity, especially in cases with difficult esophagojejunostomic construction.
van Lindert, Erik J; Arts, Sebastian; Blok, Laura M; Hendriks, Mark P; Tielens, Luc; van Bilsen, Martine; Delye, Hans
OBJECTIVE Minimal literature exists on the intraoperative complication rate of pediatric neurosurgical procedures with respect to both surgical and anesthesiological complications. The aim of this study, therefore, was to establish intraoperative complication rates to provide patients and parents with information on which to base their informed consent and to establish a baseline for further targeted improvement of pediatric neurosurgical care. METHODS A clinical complication registration database comprising a consecutive cohort of all pediatric neurosurgical procedures carried out in a general neurosurgical department from January 1, 2004, until July 1, 2012, was analyzed. During the study period, 1807 procedures were performed on patients below the age of 17 years. RESULTS Sixty-four intraoperative complications occurred in 62 patients (3.5% of procedures). Intraoperative mortality was 0.17% (n = 3). Seventy-eight percent of the complications (n = 50) were related to the neurosurgical procedures, whereas 22% (n = 14) were due to anesthesiology. The highest intraoperative complication rates were for cerebrovascular surgery (7.7%) and tumor surgery (7.4%). The most frequently occurring complications were cerebrovascular complications (33%). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative complications are not exceptional during pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Awareness of these complications is the first step in preventing them.
Kim, Kye Jun; Park, Kyung Ran; Lee, Jong Young; Kim, Hie Yeon; Sung, Ki Joon; Chu, Sung Sil
We have studied the dosimetric properties of electron beam using Lyon intraoperative device for intraoperative radiation therapy. The dosimetry data had compiled in such a way that a quick and correct decision regarding the cone shape, energy, and accurate calculations could be made. Using 3 dimensional water phantom, we have got the following data: cone output ratios, surface dose, dmax, dgo, flatness, symmetry, beam profiles, isodose curve, and SSD correction factors. The cone output ratios were measured with straight and bevelled cone, respectively. As the cone size and the energy were reduced, the cone output ratios decreased rapidly. With the flattening filter, the surface dose increased by electron beam to 85.3%, 89.2%, and 93.4%, for 6MeV, 9MeV, and 12MeV, respectively. It is important to increase the surface dose to 90% or more. Inspite of diminishing dose rate and beam penetration, this flattening filter increases the treatment volume significantly. With the combination of the three levels collimation and the flattening filter, we achieved good homogeneity of the beam and better flatness and the diameter of the 90% isodose curve was increased. It is important to increase the area that is included in the 90% isodose level. The value of measured and calculated SSD correction factors did not agree over the clinically important range from 100 cm to 110 cm
Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Mineo Ozaki,2,3 Harumi Wakiyama,1,4 Nobuchika Ogino1,51Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Ozaki Eye Clinic Miyazaki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; 4The Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan; 5Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Nagoya, JapanPurpose: To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters.Results: Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects or PACG (33 subjects and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2 and 72.6 (7.3, respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6% of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5% had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25% had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5% had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris
Thilen, Stephan R; Hansen, Bradley E; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Kent, Christopher D; Treggiari, Miriam M; Bhananker, Sanjay M
Residual paralysis is common after general anesthesia involving administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs). Management of NMBDs and reversal is frequently guided by train-of-four (TOF) monitoring. We hypothesized that monitoring of eye muscles is associated with more frequent residual paralysis than monitoring at the adductor pollicis. This prospective cohort study enrolled 180 patients scheduled for elective surgery with anticipated use of NMBDs. Collected variables included monitoring site, age, gender, weight, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class, type and duration of surgery, type of NMBDs, last and total dose administered, TOF count at time of reversal, dose of neostigmine, and time interval between last dose of NMBDs to quantitative measurement. Upon postanesthesia care unit admission, we measured TOF ratios by acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis. Residual paralysis was defined as a TOF ratio less than 90%. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for unbalances between the two groups and to adjust for covariates. 150 patients received NMBDs and were included in the analysis. Patients with intraoperative TOF monitoring of eye muscles had significantly greater incidence of residual paralysis than patients monitored at the adductor pollicis (P paralysis was observed in 51/99 (52%) and 11/51 (22%) of patients, respectively. The crude odds ratio was 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.4), and the adjusted odds ratio was 5.5 (95% CI: 2.1-14.5). Patients having qualitative TOF monitoring of eye muscles had a greater than 5-fold higher risk of postoperative residual paralysis than those monitored at the adductor pollicis.
Cuttica, Daniel J; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C
The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of the Thompson sign and determine whether the deep flexors of the foot can produce a falsely intact Achilles tendon.Ten unmatched above-the-knee lower extremity cadaveric specimens were studied. In group 1, the Achilles tendon was sectioned into 25% increments. The Thompson maneuver was performed after each sequential sectioning of the Achilles tendon, including after it had been completely sectioned. If the Thompson sign was still intact after complete release of the Achilles tendon, we proceeded to release the tendon, and tendon flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and posterior tibial tendons. The Thompson test was performed after the release of each tendon. In group 2, the tendon releases were performed in a reverse order to that of group 1, with the Thompson test performed after each release. In group 1, the Thompson sign remained intact in all specimens after sectioning of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tendon. After complete (100%) release of the tendon, the Thompson sign was absent in all specimens. In group 2, the Thompson sign remained intact after sectioning of the posterior tibial, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus tendons in all specimens. The Thompson sign remained intact in all specimens after sectioning of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the Achilles tendon. After complete release of the tendon, the Thompson sign was absent in all specimens.The Thompson test is an accurate clinical test for diagnosing complete Achilles tendon ruptures. However, it might not be a useful test for diagnosing partial Achilles tendon ruptures. Our findings also call into question the usefulness of the Thompson test in the intraoperative setting. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pilar, Avinash; Gupta, Meetakshi; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; Laskar, Siddhartha
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a technique that involves precise delivery of a large dose of ionising radiation to the tumour or tumour bed during surgery. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed and ability to space out the normal tissues from the tumour bed allows maximisation of the dose to the tumour while minimising the dose to normal tissues. This results in an improved therapeutic ratio with IORT. Although it was introduced in the 1960s, it has seen a resurgence of popularity with the introduction of self-shielding mobile linear accelerators and low-kV IORT devices, which by eliminating the logistical issues of transport of the patient during surgery for radiotherapy or building a shielded operating room, has enabled its wider use in the community. Electrons, low-kV X-rays and HDR brachytherapy are all different methods of IORT in current clinical use. Each method has its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages, its own set of indications where one may be better suited than the other, and each requires a specific kind of expertise. IORT has demonstrated its efficacy in a wide variety of intra-abdominal tumours, recurrent colorectal cancers, recurrent gynaecological cancers, and soft-tissue tumours. Recently, it has emerged as an attractive treatment option for selected, early-stage breast cancer, owing to the ability to complete the entire course of radiotherapy during surgery. IORT has been used in a multitude of roles across these sites, for dose escalation (retroperitoneal sarcoma), EBRT dose de-escalation (paediatric tumours), as sole radiation modality (early breast cancers) and as a re-irradiation modality (recurrent rectal and gynaecological cancers). This article aims to provide a review of the rationale, techniques, and outcomes for IORT across different sites relevant to current clinical practice.
Kuiran Chen, Thomas; Heffter, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Pinter, Csaba; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Burdette, E. Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor
Purpose: Prostate cancer brachytherapy relies on an accurate spatial registration between the implant needles and the TRUS image, called ''calibration''. The authors propose a new device and a fast, automatic method to calibrate the brachytherapy system in the operating room, with instant error feedback. Methods: A device was CAD-designed and precision-engineered, which mechanically couples a calibration phantom with an exact replica of the standard brachytherapy template. From real-time TRUS images acquired from the calibration device and processed by the calibration system, the coordinate transformation between the brachytherapy template and the TRUS images was computed automatically. The system instantly generated a report of the target reconstruction accuracy based on the current calibration outcome. Results: Four types of validation tests were conducted. First, 50 independent, real-time calibration trials yielded an average of 0.57 ± 0.13 mm line reconstruction error (LRE) relative to ground truth. Second, the averaged LRE was 0.37 ± 0.25 mm relative to ground truth in tests with six different commercial TRUS scanners operating at similar imaging settings. Furthermore, testing with five different commercial stepper systems yielded an average of 0.29 ± 0.16 mm LRE relative to ground truth. Finally, the system achieved an average of 0.56 ± 0.27 mm target registration error (TRE) relative to ground truth in needle insertion tests through the template in a water tank. Conclusions: The proposed automatic, intraoperative calibration system for prostate cancer brachytherapy has achieved high accuracy, precision, and robustness.
Invernizzi, Alessandro; Giardini, Piero; Cigada, Mario; Viola, Francesco; Staurenghi, Giovanni
We analyzed by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) the three-dimensional iris morphology in a Caucasian population, and correlated the findings with iris color, iris sectors, subject age, and sex. One eye each from consecutive healthy emmetropic (refractive spherical equivalent ± 3 diopters) volunteers were selected for the study. The enrolled eye underwent standardized anterior segment photography to assess iris color. Iris images were assessed by SS-ASOCT for volume, thickness, width, and pupil size. Sectoral variations of morphometric data among the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal sectors were recorded. A total of 135 eyes from 57 males and 78 females, age 49 ± 17 years, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All iris morphometric parameters varied significantly among the different sectors (all P Iris total volume and thickness were significantly correlated with increasingly darker pigmentation (P iris color. Age did not affect iris volume or thickness; iris width increased and pupil diameter decreased with age (rs = 0.52, rs = -0.58, respectively). There was no effect of sex on iris volume, thickness, or pupil diameter; iris width was significantly greater in males (P = 0.007). Morphology of the iris varied by iris sector, and iris color was associated with differences in iris volume and thickness. Morphological parameter variations associated with iris color, sector, age, and sex can be used to identify pathological changes in suspect eyes. To be effective in clinical settings, construction of iris morphological databases for different ethnic and racial populations is essential.
Xu, W.; Davis, P.; Auerbach, D.; Klimczak, E.
Trustworthy data quality assurance has always been one of the goals of seismic network operators and data management centers. This task is considerably complex and evolving due to the huge quantities as well as the rapidly changing characteristics and complexities of seismic data. Published metadata usually reflect instrument response characteristics and their accuracies, which includes zero frequency sensitivity for both seismometer and data logger as well as other, frequency-dependent elements. In this work, we are mainly focused studying the variation of the seismometer sensitivity with time of IRIS/IDA seismic recording systems with a goal to improve the metadata accuracy for the history of the network. There are several ways to measure the accuracy of seismometer sensitivity for the seismic stations in service. An effective practice recently developed is to collocate a reference seismometer in proximity to verify the in-situ sensors' calibration. For those stations with a secondary broadband seismometer, IRIS' MUSTANG metric computation system introduced a transfer function metric to reflect two sensors' gain ratios in the microseism frequency band. In addition, a simulation approach based on M2 tidal measurements has been proposed and proven to be effective. In this work, we compare and analyze the results from three different methods, and concluded that the collocated-sensor method is most stable and reliable with the minimum uncertainties all the time. However, for epochs without both the collocated sensor and secondary seismometer, we rely on the analysis results from tide method. For the data since 1992 on IDA stations, we computed over 600 revised seismometer sensitivities for all the IRIS/IDA network calibration epochs. Hopefully further revision procedures will help to guarantee that the data is accurately reflected by the metadata of these stations.
David Ibitayo LANLEGE
Full Text Available This manuscript presents a method for segmentation of iris images based on a deformable contour (active contour paradigm. The deformable contour is a novel approach in image segmentation. A type of active contour is the Snake. Snake is a parametric curve defined within the domain of the image. Snake properties are specified through a function called energy functional. This means they consist of packets of energy which expressed as partial Differential Equations. The partial Differential Equation is the controlling engine of the active contour since this project, the Finite Element Method (Standard Galerkin Method implementation for deformable model is presented.
Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Bilek, S. L.; Woodward, R.
Thirty years have passed since establishment of the IRIS Program for the Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL). PASSCAL was part of a coordinated plan proposed to the National Science Foundation (NSF) defining the instrumentation, data collection and management structure to support a wide range of research in seismology. The PASSCAL program has surpassed the early goal of 6000 data acquisition channels with a current inventory of instrumentation capable of imaging from the near surface to the inner core. Here we present the evolution of the PASSCAL program from instrument depot to full service community resource. PASSCAL has supported close to 1100 PI driven seismic experiments since its inception. Instruments from PASSCAL have covered the globe and have contributed over 7400 SEED stations and 242 assembled data sets to the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Since the combination in 1998 of the Stanford and Lamont instrument centers into the single PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) at New Mexico Tech, the facility has grown in scope by adding the EarthScope Array Operations Facility in 2005, the incorporation of the EarthScope Flexible Array, and a Polar support group in 2006. The polar support group enhances portable seismic experiments in extremely harsh polar environments and also extends to special projects such as the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) and the recent development effort for Geophysical Earth Observatory for Ice Covered Environments (GEOICE). Through these support efforts the PIC has established itself as a resource for field practices, engineered solutions for autonomous seismic stations, and a pioneer in successful seismic recording in polar environments. We are on the cusp of a new generation of instrumentation driven in part by the academic community's desire to record unaliased wavefields in multiple frequency bands and industry's interest in utilizing lower frequency data. As part of the recently
Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu; Ufuk Kolak
The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg), and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg). Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC metho...
Radicella, Sandro M.
This internal report of the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) contains presentations delivered during the International Reference Ionosphere Task Force Activity 2000 which took place at the Abdus Salam ICTP during July 2000. The 2000 Task Force Activity is the seventh successful encounter of specialists organized by the URSI-COSPAR IRI Working Group and the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the ICTP of Trieste, Italy. The main topic of this task force activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability
Simpson, Sarah M; Yau, Gary; Nischal, Kanwal K; Strube, Yi Ning J
Birth-associated ocular trauma is common and often minor, including subconjunctival and retinal haemorrhage and eyelid edema. Significant ocular trauma during birth, usually associated with forceps-assisted delivery, is rarer and can include Descemet's membrane rupture, lid lacerations, hyphema, Purtcher retinopathy, facial nerve palsy, corneal edema, and corneal laceration. We report the first case of ocular birth trauma from forceps presenting as isolated iris heterochromia and a pseudo rubeosis iridis, which completely resolved by 1 month of age with no known adverse ocular sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. All rights reserved.
Brazel, S M; Sullivan, T J; Thorner, P S; Clarke, M P; Hunter, W S; Morin, J D
A 6-month-old female infant with biopsy-proved Hirschsprung's disease had associated sector heterochromia of the irides. The association between sector heterochromia and Hirschsprung's disease has been previously reported and both conditions have been ascribed to neural crest defects. Histologic characteristics of the ocular involvement have not previously been reported, to our knowledge. Histopathologic examination of the globes revealed decreased iris stroma, decreased pigmentation in the anterior stroma, and reduced numbers of pigment-producing cells in the affected areas. Both the ocular and gastrointestinal findings reflect abnormalities in tissues of neural crest origin.
Nalla, Pattabhi Ramaiah; Chalavadi, Krishna Mohan
De-duplication of biometrics is not scalable when the number of people to be enrolled into the biometric system runs into billions, while creating a unique identity for every person. In this paper, we propose an iris classification based on sparse representation of log-gabor wavelet features using on-line dictionary learning (ODL) for large-scale de-duplication applications. Three different iris classes based on iris fiber structures, namely, stream, flower, jewel and shaker, are used for faster retrieval of identities. Also, an iris adjudication process is illustrated by comparing the matched iris-pair images side-by-side to make the decision on the identification score using color coding. Iris classification and adjudication are included in iris de-duplication architecture to speed-up the identification process and to reduce the identification errors. The efficacy of the proposed classification approach is demonstrated on the standard iris database, UPOL.
.... Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric...
Edwards, Melissa; Gozdzik, Agnes; Ross, Kendra; Miles, Jon; Parra, Esteban J
Our understanding of the genetic architecture of iris color is still limited. This is partly related to difficulties associated with obtaining quantitative measurements of eye color. Here we introduce a new automated method for measuring iris color using high resolution photographs. This method extracts color measurements in the CIE 1976 L*a*b* (CIELAB) color space from a 256 by 256 pixel square sampled from the 9:00 meridian of the iris. Color is defined across three dimensions: L* (the lightness coordinate), a* (the red-green coordinate), and b* (the blue-yellow coordinate). We applied this method to a sample of individuals of diverse ancestry (East Asian, European and South Asian) that was genotyped for the HERC2 rs12913832 polymorphism, which is strongly associated with blue eye color. We identified substantial variation in the CIELAB color space, not only in the European sample, but also in the East Asian and South Asian samples. As expected, rs12913832 was significantly associated with quantitative iris color measurements in subjects of European ancestry. However, this SNP was also strongly associated with iris color in the South Asian sample, although there were no participants with blue irides in this sample. The usefulness of this method is not restricted only to the study of iris pigmentation. High-resolution pictures of the iris will also make it possible to study the genetic variation involved in iris textural patterns, which show substantial heritability in human populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ceulemans, Ann; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc; Loembé, Marguerite Massinga; Mayanja, Harriet; Mascart, Francoise; van den Bergh, Rafael; Locht, Camille; Reiss, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Ondoa, Pascale; Pakker, Nadine; Mugerwa, Roy
Background: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of
... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY... the literature search results and submit additional information to EPA. Request for Public Involvement... information to EPA. Literature searches are now available for cobalt (CAS No. 7440-48-4) and inorganic cobalt...
... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY... is invited to review the literature search results and submit additional information to EPA. Request... additional information to EPA. Literature searches are now available for acetaldehyde (CAS No. 75-07-0...
In January 2018, EPA released the Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation). As part of developing a draft IRIS assessment, EPA presents a methods document, referred to as the protocol, for conducting a chemical-specific systematic revie...
In April 2018, EPA released the draft IRIS Assessment Plan for Ammonia and Ammonium Salts Noncancer Oral. The IAP communicates to the public the plan for assessing each individual chemical and includes summary information on the IRIS Program’s scoping and initial proble...
Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.
Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) depends on elongation of the pedicel + ovary. This elongation lifts the bud above the point where the sheath leaves no longer mechanically inhibit lateral tepal movement. We here report on the effects on flower opening of storage at various temperatures, of
Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher
Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.
Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.
This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.
Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie
Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.
Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL
Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.
Kong, Adams Wai-Kin
IrisCode, developed by Daugman, in 1993, is the most influential iris recognition algorithm. A thorough understanding of IrisCode is essential, because over 100 million persons have been enrolled by this algorithm and many biometric personal identification and template protection methods have been developed based on IrisCode. This paper indicates that a template produced by IrisCode or its variants is a convex polyhedral cone in a hyperspace. Its central ray, being a rough representation of the original biometric signal, can be computed by a simple algorithm, which can often be implemented in one Matlab command line. The central ray is an expected ray and also an optimal ray of an objective function on a group of distributions. This algorithm is derived from geometric properties of a convex polyhedral cone but does not rely on any prior knowledge (e.g., iris images). The experimental results show that biometric templates, including iris and palmprint templates, produced by different recognition methods can be matched through the central rays in their convex polyhedral cones and that templates protected by a method extended from IrisCode can be broken into. These experimental results indicate that, without a thorough security analysis, convex polyhedral cone templates cannot be assumed secure. Additionally, the simplicity of the algorithm implies that even junior hackers without knowledge of advanced image processing and biometric databases can still break into protected templates and reveal relationships among templates produced by different recognition methods.
In September 2016, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release in June 2016. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment d...
The material basis of this investigation consists of empirical findings and colour photographs of the irises of 200 pairs of twins and 100 control pairs. For the morphological investigation first-born twins and control persons are combined to constitute a comparative group of 400 non-related testees. Research by means of the iris microscope and the evaluation of standardized iris photographs led to the development of a catalogue of features which describes 10 iris characteristics for the iris colour and 20 for the iris structure. For each feature different degrees of markedness are defined and their frequency is determined. Similarly, intraindividual right/left and sex differences as well as age-dependencies and the relation between the features are examined. The setting-up of features includes outlining an iris-colour class system in order to render a better and more practicable determination of eye colour possible. As a substitute for Martin/Schulz's table of eye-colour, which describes only eye-colour phenomena, 4 iris-colour classes are set up whose main criterion of classification is the quantity of pigment. When we consider the testees of all age classes, sex differences have no statistical relevance as for iris colour. Only in the case of male testees may an intensive decrease of blue and brown iris colour in favour of combination colours (yellow pigment colours in particular) be observed during the phase of puberty. Therefore, the brightening postulated in the relevant literature can be confirmed. With regard to female testees, in contrast, pigment shifting is of no statistical relevance. After a slight brightening the irises numerically re-darken at the adult-stage to the initial child level, i.e. they become "dark again" rather than just become "darker". Within the iris structure only the characteristics of the anterior stroma leaf show sex differences. They are, however, only weakly marked and can be described merely as a trend. Over the whole range of
Sheth, Viral; Gottlob, Irene; Mohammad, Sarim; McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail D E; Kumar, Anil; Degg, Christopher; Proudlock, Frank A
To characterize in vivo anatomic abnormalities of the iris in albinism compared with healthy controls using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to explore the diagnostic potential of this technique for albinism. We also investigated the relationship between iris abnormalities and other phenotypical features of albinism. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 55 individuals with albinism and 45 healthy controls. We acquired 4.37×4.37-mm volumetric scans (743 A-scans, 50 B-scans) of the nasal and temporal iris in both eyes using AS-OCT (3-μm axial resolution). Iris layers were segmented and thicknesses were measured using ImageJ software. Iris transillumination grading was graded using Summers and colleagues' classification. Retinal OCT, eye movement recordings, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual evoked potential (VEP), and grading of skin and hair pigmentation were used to quantify other phenotypical features associated with albinism. Iris AS-OCT measurements included (1) total iris thickness, (2) stroma/anterior border (SAB) layer thickness, and (3) posterior epithelial layer (PEL) thickness. Correlation with other phenotypical measurements, including (1) iris transillumination grading, (2) retinal layer measurements at the fovea, (3) nystagmus intensity, (4) BCVA, (5) VEP asymmetry, (6) skin pigmentation, and (7) hair pigmentation (of head hair, lashes, and brows). The mean iris thickness was 10.7% thicker in controls (379.3 ± 44.0 μm) compared with the albinism group (342.5 ± 52.6 μm; P>0.001), SAB layers were 5.8% thicker in controls (315.1 ± 43.8 μm) compared with the albinism group (297.7 ± 50.0 μm; P=0.044), and PEL was 44.0% thicker in controls (64.1 ± 11.7 μm) compared with the albinism group (44.5 ± 13.9 μm; Palbinism. Phenotypic features of albinism, such as skin and hair pigmentation, BCVA, and nystagmus intensity, were significantly correlated to AS-OCT iris thickness measurements. We have
Hohl, Diana María; Bezus, Brenda; Ratowiecki, Julia; Catanesi, Cecilia Inés
The aim of this work was to describe the phenotypic and genotypic variability related to iris color for the population of Buenos Aires province (Argentina), and to assess the usefulness of current methods of analysis for this country. We studied five Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the IrisPlex kit, in 118 individuals, and we quantified eye color with Digital Iris Analysis Tool. The markers fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the whole sample, but not for rs12913832 within the group of brown eyes (LR=8.429; p=0.004). We found a remarkable association of HERC2 rs12913832 GG with blue color (p iris color. The results for the Buenos Aires population differ from those of other populations of the world for these polymorphisms (p iris color.
Dorofeeva, A A; Khrustalev, A V; Krylov, Iu V; Bocharov, D A; Negasheva, M A
Digital images of the iris were received for study peculiarities of the iris color during the anthropological examination of 578 students aged 16-24 years. Simultaneously with the registration of the digital images, the visual assessment of the eye color was carried out using the traditional scale of Bunak, based on 12 ocular prostheses. Original software for automatic determination of the iris color based on 12 classes scale of Bunak was designed, and computer version of that scale was developed. The software proposed allows to conduct the determination of the iris color with high validity based on numerical evaluation; its application may reduce the bias due to subjective assessment and methodological divergences of the different researchers. The software designed for automatic determination of the iris color may help develop both theoretical and applied anthropology, it may be used in forensic and emergency medicine, sports medicine, medico-genetic counseling and professional selection.
Ortiz, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo
To study the influence of iris-coloring soft contact lenses, designed for changing apparent iris color, on optical quality and vision. Eighty subjects were included in this study. All participants were classified as emmetropic, with monocular best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better. For 40 subjects, we measured the optical quality (aberrations, the Strehl ratio, and the objective scattering index) and visual performance before and after wearing the cosmetic soft contact lenses. We also measured the optical quality and visual performance for the other 40 subjects but with a different kind of lens (fantasy soft contact lenses). Iris-coloring soft contact lenses significantly increased coma-like and total higher-order aberrations and objective scattering index (p Iris-coloring soft contact lenses deteriorate the optical quality and worsen the contrast sensitivity function. Iris-coloring soft contact lens wearers should be informed about the effects on optical quality and visual function.
The iris image is easily polluted by noise and uneven light. This paper proposed an improved extreme learning machine (ELM) based iris recognition algorithm with hybrid feature. 2D-Gabor filters and GLCM is employed to generate a multi-granularity hybrid feature vector. 2D-Gabor filter and GLCM feature work for capturing low-intermediate frequency and high frequency texture information, respectively. Finally, we utilize extreme learning machine for iris recognition. Experimental results reveal our proposed ELM based multi-granularity iris recognition algorithm (ELM-MGIR) has higher accuracy of 99.86%, and lower EER of 0.12% under the premise of real-time performance. The proposed ELM-MGIR algorithm outperforms other mainstream iris recognition algorithms.
Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K
Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.
Full Text Available Iris pattern Recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-Recognition techniques on images of one or both of the irises of an individual’s eyes, whose complex random patterns are unique, stable, and can be seen from some distance. Iris recognition uses video camera technology with subtle near infrared illumination to acquire images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the iris which are visible externally. In this narrative research paper the input image is captured and the success of the iris recognition depends on the quality of the image so the captured image is subjected to the preliminary image preprocessing techniques like localization, segmentation, normalization and noise detection followed by texture and edge feature extraction by using Gabor filters and wavelets then the processed image is matched with templates stored in the database to detect the Iris Patterns.
Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.
Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun
Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.
Matsumoto, Kazuo; Jin, Hua-Rong; Kobatake, Hidefumi
This paper presents a study on detecting malignant tumors in DR (digital radiography) images. Tumors can be recognized as lower density areas than their neighborhood in DR image and contrast enhancement method such as difference filters have been widely used to detect them. This paper presents a new filter named Iris Filter to detect tumors. It evaluates distribution pattern of gradient vectors in a relatively wide neighborhood area. It is designed so that its output does not depend on the contrast substantially. The proposed filter is robust against disturbances of long and slender patterns such as blood vessels and/or rib edges. The region of support of the proposed filter is adapted optimally to the local pattern of the processed image. The name 'iris' filter originates from this adaptivity. Experiments to test the performance of the proposed filter have been performed. Chest X-ray images and mammograms were used whether the proposed filter is effective to detect lung cancer and breast cancer. Experimental results show that the proposed filter is very effective in detecting tumors with weak contrast. (author)
Bilitza, Dieter; Brown, Steven A.; Wang, Mathew Y.; Souza, Jonas R.; Roddy, Patrick A.
Cycle 23 was exceptional in that it lasted almost two years longer than its predecessors and in that it ended in an extended minimum period that proved all predictions wrong. Comparisons of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) with CHAMP and GRACE in-situ measurements of electron density during the minimum have revealed significant discrepancies at 400-500 km altitude. Our study investigates the causes for these discrepancies with the help of ionosonde and Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) data from the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. Our C/NOFS comparisons confirm the earlier CHAMP and GRACE results. But the ionosonde measurements of the F-peak plasma frequency (foF2) show generally good agreement throughout the whole solar cycle. At mid-latitude stations yearly averages of the data-model difference are within 10% and at low latitudes stations within 20%. The 60-70% differences found at 400-500 km altitude are not seen at the F peak. We will discuss how these seemingly contradicting results from the ionosonde and in situ data-model comparisons can be explained and which parameters need to be corrected in the IRI model.
Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. Michael; Fisher, Brendan
Retrievals run on Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data obtained during the distant Jupiter flyby have been used to generate global temperature maps of the planet in the troposphere and stratosphere. Similar retrievals were performed on Voyager 1 IRIS data and have provided the first detailed IRIS map of the stratosphere. In both data sets, high latitude troposphere temperatures are presented for the first time, and the meridional gradients indicate the presence of circumpolar jets. Thermal winds were calculated for each data set and show strong vertical shears in the zonal winds at low latitudes. The temperatures retrieved from the two spacecraft were also compared with yearly ground-based data obtained over the intervening two decades. Tropospheric temperatures reveal gradual changes at low latitudes, with little obvious seasonal or short-term variation (Orton et al. 1994). Stratospheric temperatures show much more complicated behavior over short timescales, consistent with quasi-quadrennial oscillations at low latitudes, as suggested in prior analyses of shorter intervals of ground- based data (Orton et al. 1991, Friedson 1999). A scaling analysis indicates that meridional motions, mechanically forced by wave or eddy convergence, play an important role in modulating the temperatures and winds in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on seasonal and shorter time scales. At latitudes away from the equator, the mechanical forcing can be derived simply from a temporal record of temperature and its vertical derivative. Ground-based observations with improved vertical resolution and/or long-term monitoring from spacecraft are required for this purpose.
Lee, Kwan Yong; Lim, Shin Young [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea); Cho, Seong Won [Hongik University (Korea)
The popular methods to check the identity of individuals include passwords and ID cards. These conventional methods for user identification and authentication are not altogether reliable because they can be stolen and forgotten. As an alternative of the existing methods, biometric technology has been paid much attention for the last few decades. In this paper, we propose an efficient system for recognizing the identity of a living person by analyzing iris patterns which have a high level of stability and distinctiveness than other biometric measurements. The proposed system is based on wavelet transform and a competitive neural network with the improved mechanisms. After preprocessing the iris data acquired through a CCD camera, feature vectors are extracted by using Haar wavelet transform. LVQ(Learning Vector Quantization) is exploited to classify these feature vectors. We improve the overall performance of the proposed system by optimizing the size of feature vectors and by introducing an efficient initialization of the weight vectors and a new method for determining the winner in order to increase the recognition accuracy of LVQ. From the experiments, we confirmed that the proposed system has a great potential of being applied to real applications in an efficient and effective way. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.
Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.
Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Sterling, Alphonse C.
Recent observations from Hinode (SOT/FG) revealed the presence of large penumbral jets (widths = 500 km, larger than normal penumbral microjets, which have widths sunspot penumbra, at the tail of a filament or where the tails of several penumbral filaments apparently converge (Tiwari et al. 2016, ApJ). These locations were observed to have mixed-polarity flux in Stokes-V images from SOT/FG. Large penumbral jets displayed direct signatures in AIA 1600, 304, 171, and 193 channels; thus they were heated to at least transition region temperatures. Because large jets could not be detected in AIA 94 Å, whether they had any coronal-temperature plasma remains unclear. In the present work, for another sunspot, we use IRIS Mg II k 2796 Å slit jaw images and spectra and magnetograms from Hinode SOT/FG and SOT/SP to examine: whether penumbral jets spin, similar to spicules and coronal jets in the quiet Sun and coronal holes; whether they stem from mixed-polarity flux; and whether they produce discernible coronal emission, especially in AIA 94 Å images. The few large penumbral jets for which we have IRIS spectra show evidence of spin. If these have mixed-polarity at their base, then they might be driven the same way as coronal jets and CMEs.
Pohlenz, Philipp; Blessmann, Marco; Blake, Felix; Gbara, Ali; Schmelzle, Rainer; Heiland, Max
This study investigated 3-dimensional (3D) imaging with intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in major mandibular reconstruction procedures. The study group was comprised of 125 patients (83 males, 42 females) admitted for surgical treatment of the mandible. The patients ranged in age from 3 months to 91 years (average age, 40.72 +/- 22.843 years). Surgical procedures of the mandible were subdivided into repair of body fractures (17 patients), angle fractures (21 patients), condylar fractures (14 patients), and multiple fractures (30 patient). In addition, the study group included 21 patients undergoing orthognatic surgery and 22 undergoing reconstructive surgery on the mandible. Intraoperatively, 3D images were generated with a mobile CBCT scanner (Arcadis Orbic 3D; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). During open reduction of mandibular fractures, not all fracture sites can be readily exposed for direct visual control. For example, the lingual cortical bone of the mandible is difficult to assess intraoperatively. This structure and others can be effectively visualized using the 3D mode of CBCT. Furthermore, screw placement can be evaluated, specifically in insertions near the alveolar nerve. The intraoperative acquisition of the data sets is uncomplicated, and the image quality is sufficient to allow evaluation of the postoperative result in all cases. Intraoperative CBCT has proven to be a reliable imaging technique for providing visual control during major mandibular procedures.
Edwards, Michael; Agha, Riaz; Coughlan, Jane
Expert surgeons use a mass of intra-operative information, as well as pre- and post-operative information to complete operations safely. Trainees acquired this intra-operative knowledge at the operating table, now largely diminished by the working time directive. Wikis offer unexplored approaches to capturing and disseminating expert knowledge to further promote safer surgery for the trainee. Grafting an abdominal aortic aneurysm represents a potentially high-risk operation demanding extreme safety measures. Operative details, presented on a surgical wiki in the form of a script and content analysed to classify types of safety information. The intra-operative part of the script contained 2,743 items of essential surgical information, comprising 21 sections, 405 steps and 2,317 items of back-up information; 155 (5.7%) of them were also specific intra-operative safety checks. Best case scenarios consisted of 1,077 items of intra-operative information, 69 of which were safety checks. Worse case and rare scenarios required a further 1,666 items of information, including 86 safety checks. Wikis are relevant to surgical practice specifically as a platform for knowledge sharing and optimising the available operating time of trainees, as a very large amount of minutely detailed information essential for a safe major operation can be captured.
Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still widely advocated and standard in many departments, however, this is discussed controversially. We have developed a new diagnostic strategy to detect bile duct stones. The concept is based on an ultrasound examination and on a screening for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis. 120 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively screened for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis: history of jaundice; history of pancreatitis; hyperbilirubinemia; hyperamylasemia; dilated bile duct; unclear ultrasound findings. The sensitivity of ultrasound and of intraoperative cholangiography in diagnosing bile duct stones was also evaluated. For the detection of bile duct stones, the sensitivity was 77% for ultrasound and 100% for intraoperative cholangiography. 20% of all patients had at least one risk indicator. The presence of a risk indicator correlated significantly with the presence of choledocholithiasis (p concept, we would have avoided 80% of intraoperative cholangiographies without missing a stone in the bile duct. This study lends further support to the view that the routine use of intraoperative cholangiography in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.
Zanzonico, P; Heller, S
By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the value of intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS for evaluating the grade of glioma and the correlation between microvessel density (MVD and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Methods. We performed intraoperative conventional ultrasound (CUS and CEUS on 88 patients with gliomas. All of the patients have undergone surgery and obtained the results of pathology. All patients have undergone intraoperative CUS and CEUS to compare the characteristics of different grade gliomas and the results of CUS and CEUS were compared with pathological results. Results. The time to start (TTS and time to peak (TTP of low grade glioma (LGG were similar to those of edema and normal brain surrounding glioma. The enhanced extent of LGG was higher than that of the normal brain and edema. The TTS and TTP of high grade glioma were earlier than those of the edema and normal brain surrounding glioma. The enhancement of HGG was higher than that of LGG. The absolute peak intensity (API was correlated with MVD and VEGF. Conclusion. Intraoperative CEUS could help in determining boundary of peritumoral brain edema of glioma. Intraoperative CEUS parameters in cerebral gliomas could indirectly reflect the information of MVD and VEGF.
Kumagai, K; Ogino, N; Demizu, S; Atsumi, K; Kurihara, H; Iwaki, M; Ishigooka, H; Tachi, N
To evaluate the factors of intraoperative retinal breaks in macular hole surgery. This study included 558 eyes of 506 patients who underwent idiopathic macular hole surgery by one surgeon. Multiple regression was performed using the variables of gender, age, affected eye, lens status, stage, duration of symptoms, hole size, axial length, and lattice degeneration. The rate of retinal breaks was higher in stage 3 (16.0%) than in stage 4 (8.2%) (p = 0.014). In eyes with lattice degeneration intraoperative retinal breaks occurred in about 40% of the cases. Major factors were as follows: lattice degeneration (r = 0.24, p lattice degeneration, and gender (r = -0.18, p = 0.035) in eyes of stage 4 without lattice degeneration. The factors of intraoperative retinal breaks in macular hole surgery were lattice degeneration in all eyes and stage 3 in eyes without lattice degeneration. The high incidence of intraoperative retinal breaks in stage 3 was mainly due to the occurrence of posterior vitreous detachment. Male gender was a significant factor associated with intraoperative retinal breaks.
Full Text Available Background: Hyperparathyroidism is treated by surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. In case of adenoma the single abnormal gland is removed, while in hyperplasias, a subtotal excision, that is, three-and-a-half of the four glands are removed. This therapeutic decision is made intraoperatively through frozen section evaluation and is sometimes problematic, due to a histological overlap between hyperplasia and the adenoma. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH assay, propogated in recent years, offers an elegant solution, with a high success rate, due to its ability to identify the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. Aim: To study the feasibility of using IOPTH in our setting. Materials and Methods: Seven patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism had their IOPTH levels evaluated, along with the routine frozen and paraffin sections. Results: All seven patients showed more than a 50% intraoperative fall in serum PTH after excision of the abnormal gland. This was indicative of an adenoma and was confirmed by histopathological examination and normalization of serum calcium postoperatively. Conclusion: The intraoperative parathyroid hormone is a sensitive and specific guide to a complete removal of the abnormal parathyroid tissue. It can be incorporated without difficulty as an intraoperative guide and is superior to frozen section diagnosis in parathyroid surgery.
Bertholdt, Charline; Menard, Sophie; Delorme, Pierre; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Goffinet, François; Le Ray, Camille
At the same time as survival is increasing among premature babies born before 26 weeks of gestation, the rates of cesarean deliveries before 26 weeks is also rising. Our purpose was to compare the frequency of intraoperative adverse events during cesarean deliveries in two gestational age groups: 24-25 weeks and 26-27 weeks. This single-center retrospective cohort study included all women with cesarean deliveries performed before 28 +0 weeks from 2007 through 2015. It compared the frequency of intraoperative adverse events between two groups: those at 24-25 weeks of gestation and at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events were a classical incision, transplacental incision, difficulty in fetal extraction (explicitly mentioned in the surgical report), postpartum hemorrhage (≥500 mL of blood loss), and injury to internal organs. A composite outcome including at least one of these events enabled us to analyze the risk factors for intraoperative adverse events with univariate and multivariable analysis. Stratified analyses by the indication for the cesarean were performed. We compared 74 cesarean deliveries at 24-25 weeks of gestation and 214 at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events occurred at higher rates in the 24-25-week group (63.5 vs. 30.8%, p cesarean. These results should help obstetricians and women making decisions about cesarean deliveries at these extremely low gestational ages. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available To distinguish the frequently misdiagnosed plateau iris eyes from pupillary block group and normal group, we compared the ocular biometrical parameters of them by A-scan ultrasongraphy.In total, we retrospectively reviewed general characteristics and ocular findings including ocular biometric measurements of 71 normal, 39 plateau iris, and 83 pupillary block eyes.The normal controls, plateau iris group and pupillary block group were significantly different in age, but not in gender. The anterior chamber depth tended to decrease and the lens thickness tended to increase from normal to plateau iris to pupillary block eyes. Compared to those of plateau iris group, the pupillary block group had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (2.90mm vs. 2.33mm; p<0.001, thicker lens (4.77mm vs. 5.11mm; p<0.001, shorter axial length (23.16mm vs. 22.63mm; p<0.001, smaller relative lens position (2.28 vs. 2.16; p<0.001 and larger lens/axial length factor (2.06 vs. 2.26; p<0.001. However, when comparing plateau iris and normal eyes, only axial length and lens/axial length factor were significantly different (23.16 vs. 23.54; p<0.05 and 2.06 vs. 1.96; p<0.05.Measured by A-scan ultrasonography, the ocular biometrics of plateau iris were significantly different from those of pupillary block eyes. However, our A-scan ultrasongraphy generally found no significant biometric differences between plateau iris and normal eyes. These findings suggest that while A-scan ultrasonography might be used as a practical tool for differentiating plateau iris and papillary block eyes, a more meticulous gonioscopy and other assessments may be necessary to distinguish plateau iris from normal eyes.
Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H
A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P < 0.01) and in patients with skin cancer (P < 0.01), and the lightness (L*) values of sun-exposed skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P < 0.05). Iris colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.
Ku, Judy Y; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Park, Judy; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Kumar, Rajesh S; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin
To qualitatively analyze anterior chamber structures imaged by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in primary angle-closure patients. Subjects diagnosed as primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and previous acute primary angle closure (APAC) were recruited prospectively along with a group of normal controls. UBM was performed under standardized dark room conditions and qualitative assessment was carried out using a set of reference photographs of standard UBM images to categorize the various anatomic features related to angle configuration. These included overall and basal iris thicknesses, iris convexity, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary sulcus. A total of 60 PACS, 114 PACG, 41 APAC, and 33 normal controls were included. Patients were predominantly older Chinese females. After controlling the confounding effect of age and sex, eyes with overall thicker irides [medium odds ratio (OR) 3.58, thick OR 2.84] when compared with thin irides have a significantly higher likelihood of having PACS/PACG/APAC versus controls. Thicker basal iris component (medium OR 4.13, thick OR 3.39) also have higher likelihood of having angle closure when compared with thin basal iris thickness. Subjects with basal iris insertion, mild iris angulation, and large ciliary body have a higher OR of having angle closure. In contrast, the presence/absence of a ciliary sulcus did not influence the likelihood of angle closure. Eyes with thicker overall and basal iris thicknesses are more likely to have angle closure than controls. Other features that increase the likelihood of angle closure include basal iris insertion, mild iris angulation, and large ciliary body.
Raab, M.; Schroeder, A.
521 patients with benign disorders of the extrahepatic bile duct system were examined retrospectively. Bile duct stones suspected by pre-operative intravenous cholangiography could be verified by surgery in but 41,6% of the cases. Routine intra-operative cholangiography was not performed in those cases with pre-operative indication of choledocus revision and with rare failure of cystic duct cannulation. Evaluation of 448 intra-operative cholangiographies revealed the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis to be false positive in 3,3% and false negative in 1,1%. Intra-operative X-ray examination allowed to diagnose 45 cases of choledocholithiasis subsequently verified by surgery. Most of these patients exhibited clinical signs (transient jaundice, changes in blood chemistry). Follow-up identified two patients whose bile duct stones had been overlooked. (orig.) [de
Raab, M.; Schroeder, A.
521 patients with benign disorders of the extrahepatic bile duct system were examined retrospectively. Bile duct stones suspected by pre-operative intravenous cholangiography could be verified by surgery in but 41,6% of the cases. Routine intra-operative cholangiography was not performed in those cases with pre-operative indication of choledocus revision and with rare failure of cystic duct cannulation. Evaluation of 448 intra-operative cholangiographies revealed the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis to be false positive in 3,3% and false negative in 1,1%. Intra-operative X-ray examination allowed to diagnose 45 cases of choledocholithiasis subsequently verified by surgery. Most of these patients exhibited clinical signs (transient jaundice, changes in blood chemistry). Follow-up identified two patients whose bile duct stones had been overlooked.
Pacreu, S; Vilà, E; Moltó, L; Bande, D; Rueda, M; Fernández Candil, J L
Epilepsy surgery is a well-established treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. The success of surgery depends on precise presurgical localisation of the epileptogenic zone. There are different techniques to determine its location and extension. Despite the improvements in non-invasive diagnostic tests, in patients for whom these tests are inconclusive, invasive techniques such intraoperative electrocorticography will be needed. Intraoperative electrocorticography is used to guide surgical resection of the epileptogenic lesion and to verify that the resection has been completed. However, it can be affected by some of the anaesthetic drugs used by the anaesthesiologist. Our objective with this case is to review which drugs can be used in epilepsy surgery with intraoperative electrocorticography. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Torne, Ramon; Chocron, Ivette; Rodriguez-Tesouro, Ana; Sahuquillo, Juan
Ischemic lesions related to surgical procedures are a major cause of postoperative morbidity in patients with cerebral vascular disease. There are different systems of neuromonitoring to detect intraoperative ischemic events, including intraoperative monitoring of oxygen tissue pressure (PtiO2). The aim of this article was to describe, through the discussion of 4 cases, the usefulness of intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring during vascular neurosurgery. In presenting these cases, we demonstrate that monitoring PtiO2 is a reliable way to detect early ischemic events during surgical procedures. Continuous monitoring of PtiO2 in an area at risk allows the surgeon to resolve the cause of the ischemic event before it evolves to an established cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng
Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Precise preoperative assessment of aortic annulus diameter is essential for sizing of aortic valve especially in patients planned for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Computed Tomographic (CT and echocardiographic measurements of the aortic annulus vary because of elliptical shape of aortic annulus. This study was undertaken to compare the measurement of aortic annulus intraoperatively with preoperative noninvasive methods in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Aortic annulus diameter was measured with cardiac CT and Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE prior to open aortic valve replacement in 30 patients with aortic valve stenosis. In CT, aortic annulus dimensions were measured in coronal plane, sagittal oblique plane and by planimetry. Both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional TEE were used. These were compared with intraoperative measurements done by valve sizers and Hegar dilators. Pearson analysis was applied to test for degree of correlation. RESULTS CT in coronal and sagittal oblique plane tends to overestimate the diameter of aortic annulus when compared with intraoperative measurements (coefficient of relation, r = 0.798 and 0.749, respectively. CT measurements in single oblique plane showed a weaker correlation with intraoperative measurements than 3D TEE and 2D TEE (r = 0.917 and 0.898, respectively. However, CT measurements by planimetry method were most correlating with the intraoperative measurements (r = 0.951. CONCLUSION Noninvasive investigations with 3-dimensional views (CT-based measurement employing calculated average diameter assessment by planimetry and 3-dimensional TEE showed better correlation with intraoperative measurement of aortic annulus. CT-based aortic annulus measurement by planimetry seems to provide adequate dimensions most similar to operative measurements.
Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra
Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.
Smith, Matthew E; Riffat, Faruque; Berman, Laurence H; Jani, Piyush
A 61-year-old man with a history of fish bone ingestion and poorly localized symptoms was seen. His clinical examination was unremarkable, but CT demonstrated a foreign body deeply embedded within his tongue. Intraoperative ultrasound (US) guidance facilitated identification of a bone, allowing a needle to be placed as a guide to dissection. Repeat US scanning through the incision permitted precisely targeted surgery. CT and US are the most effective imaging techniques for localizing fish bones. Intraoperative US can be used to accurately locate a submucosal fish bone in mobile tissue such as the tongue, and focused, image-guided dissection can reduce surgical tissue trauma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reis, Ricardo César dos; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Mesquita Carvalho, Jose Carlos
Accurate iris reproduction in the fabrication of ocular prosthesis in order to match the remaining eye is a key factor to mask the loss and achieve an esthetic outcome for anophthalmic patients. This study evaluated the stability of acrylic paints used for replicating iris color in ocular prostheses by the analysis of two factors: the temperature of the acrylic resin polymerization cycle during prosthesis fabrication and the incidence of sun light, which is the main photodegrading agent undermining the longevity of ocular prostheses. An accelerated aging assay was used for both analyses. Specimens simulating the prosthetic iris in the colors blue, yellow, black, brown and green were fabricated, and were submitted to a colorimetric reading before and after undergoing the thermal conditions of acrylic resin polymerization. Next, the specimens were submitted to an artificial accelerated aging assay with ultraviolet radiation A and weekly colorimetric readings during a 3-week period. The color change (Delta E*) values for the four specimens painted with the same color paint were averaged and the resulting values were considered for statistical analysis. Levine's test and Student's t-test were used to analyze the influence of the temperature of the polymerization cycle during prosthesis fabrication on the color stability of each acrylic resin paint. Friedman's test for three dependent samples was used for analysis of color photodegradation as function of time. Significance level was set at 0.05 for all analyses. It was observed that, after the action of the temperature of the polymerization cycle, alteration above clinically acceptable level of Delta E*> 3.3 was observed only for the yellow color. After the accelerated aging assay, there were statistically significant differences (pcolors. Changes were clinically acceptable for the brown and black colors; slightly above the clinically acceptable limit for the green color; and significantly high and impracticable from a
Gary D Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani
This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section
Stansberry, John A.; Spencer, John; Linscott, Ivan
The New Horizons Pluto encounter data set includes unique observations obtained using the Radio Science experiment to measure the night-side thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths, well beyond the emission peak (in the 70 to 100 micron range). 26 years ago the Voyager 2 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) obtained spectra in the 30 - 50 micron wavelength range to try and detect thermal emission from Pluto's sibling, Triton. Conrath etal. (1989) analyzed 16 of the IRIS spectra of Triton's dayside and derived a weak limit of 36 K - 41 K. We have analysed those, and an additional 75 spectra, to refine the limits on the temperature of Triton's surface, and to explore diurnal differences in the thermal emission. Triton results from other Voyager instruments provide important constraints on our interpretation of the IRIS data, as do Spitzer measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.For unit-emissivity, average temperature is 34 K, inconsistent with the pressure of Triton's atmosphere (13 - 19 microbar), the presence of beta-phase nitrogen ice on the surface, and the likely presence ofwarm regions on the surface. The atmospheric pressure requires nitrogen ice temperatures of 37.4 K - 38.1 K, which in turn requires emissivity of 0.31--0.53. Such a low emissivity in this spectral region might be expected if the surface is dominated by nitrogen or methane ice. Averages of data subsets show evidence for brightness temperature variations across Triton's surface. Surprisingly, the data seem to indicate that Triton's nightside equatorial region was warmer than on the dayside.These Voyager results for Triton provide a useful context for interpreting New Horizons and ALMA observations of emission from Pluto in the sub-millimeter and centimeter region. JWST will be capable of detecting Triton's and Pluto's 10 - 28 micron thermal emission, although scattered light from Neptune may be an issue for the Triton. Combined with new capabilities of ALMA to measure the sub
Muiños Díaz, Yerena; Saornil, Maria A; Almaraz, Ana; Muñoz-Moreno, Mari F; García, Ciro; Sanz, Ruperto
To design and validate a standard, simple, and reliable iris color classification and to study its distribution in a Spanish population. Iris color has a geographic distribution and has been correlated with different ocular diseases. However, there is no standard and validated iris color classification allowing comparison among different studies. Classification was made in three grades (blue-gray, hazel-green, brown) and was validated by 3 independent readers. Initially, a preliminary study was made in 50 iris photographs to detect technical hitches. Afterwards, based on this procedure, 221 iris photographs were graded. Measures of interobserver reliability were 0.786 by kappa index with an agreement of 89.6%.Iris color distribution in the Spanish cohort was blue-grey 16.29%, hazel-green 55.2%, and brown 28.5%. This classification is simple, reliable, and easy to use in clinical research and by ophthalmologists or generalists in practice. The Spanish cohort from this study shows a different iris color distribution from those previously published in other countries.
Bradley, Jay C; Bentley, Karl C; Mughal, Aleem I; Bodhireddy, Hari; Young, Rockefeller S L; Brown, Sandra M
The aims of this study were to assess the utility of digital color sensing to quantify iris color using digital photographs and to determine whether gender or iris color affects the dark-adapted pupil diameter (DAPD). Subjects aged 18-80 years (N = 263) with no eye disease had their right DAPD measured after 2 min of dark adaptation at 1 lux using the NeurOptics pupillometer. A high-resolution digital slit lamp photograph of the iris was taken, and iris color was subjectively classified as blue, blue-green, green-brown, light brown, or dark brown. The digital photographs were objectively measured on-screen with the Minolta TV Color Analyzer II using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage system of color description. Regression analyses were performed to identify correlations between subjective iris color, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage measurements, and DAPD. Gender and iris color had no effect on the DAPD. The Minolta TV Color Analyzer could discriminate all blue eyes (blue and blue-green) from all brown eyes (light and dark) but could not distinguish between shades of blue or shades of brown. Green-brown irises had no unique chromatic properties and could not be distinguished from other colors using our technique of digital color analysis. The Minolta device was simple and efficient to use. Contrary to long-held beliefs, female patients and blue-eyed patients do not have larger DAPD. Digital color sensing is a useful technique for objectively describing iris color.
Fabian, Ido Didi; Hildebrand, G. Darius; Wilson, Shaun; Foord, Tina; Sagoo, Mandeep S.
Intraocular iris rhabdomyosarcoma is extremely rare, and in the 3 cases reported to date occurred as the primary site of tumour growth. We report a case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the foot metastasizing to the iris. An 18-year-old white female was referred to the London Ocular Oncology Service for management of a metastatic rhabdomyosarcomatous deposit in the iris, a metastasis from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the foot. She was diagnosed nearly 2 years earlier with the primary sarcoma with extensive systemic spread and treated by resection of the foot lesion and chemotherapy, and achieved a partial remission. The left iris deposit was noted while she was receiving systemic chemotherapy, heralding a relapse. However, anterior uveitis and raised intraocular pressure developed and she was referred to our service for further management. A left iris secondary rhabdomyosarcoma deposit was noticed and in addition a lacrimal gland mass, as indicated by ultrasound B scan of the eye and orbit. The patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy to the globe and orbit, but died 2 months after treatment completion. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the iris is very rare and was previously documented only as a primary malignancy in this location. We report that secondary spread to the iris can also occur, in this case as the first sign of widely disseminated systemic relapse
Laurino, O.; Budynkiewicz, J.; D'Abrusco, R.; Bonaventura, N.; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Doe, S. M.; Ebert, R.; Evans, J. D.; Norris, P.; Pevunova, O.; Refsdal, B.; Thomas, B.; Thompson, R.
Iris is an extensible application that provides astronomers with a user-friendly interface capable of ingesting broad-band data from many different sources in order to build, explore, and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Iris takes advantage of the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, but hides the technicalities of such standards by implementing different layers of abstraction on top of them. Such intermediate layers provide hooks that users and developers can exploit in order to extend the capabilities provided by Iris. For instance, custom Python models can be combined in arbitrary ways with the Iris built-in models or with other custom functions. As such, Iris offers a platform for the development and integration of SED data, services, and applications, either from the user's system or from the web. In this paper we describe the built-in features provided by Iris for building and analyzing SEDs. We also explore in some detail the Iris framework and software development kit, showing how astronomers and software developers can plug their code into an integrated SED analysis environment.
He, Fei; Han, Ye; Wang, Han; Ji, Jinchao; Liu, Yuanning; Ma, Zhiqiang
Gabor filters are widely utilized to detect iris texture information in several state-of-the-art iris recognition systems. However, the proper Gabor kernels and the generative pattern of iris Gabor features need to be predetermined in application. The traditional empirical Gabor filters and shallow iris encoding ways are incapable of dealing with such complex variations in iris imaging including illumination, aging, deformation, and device variations. Thereby, an adaptive Gabor filter selection strategy and deep learning architecture are presented. We first employ particle swarm optimization approach and its binary version to define a set of data-driven Gabor kernels for fitting the most informative filtering bands, and then capture complex pattern from the optimal Gabor filtered coefficients by a trained deep belief network. A succession of comparative experiments validate that our optimal Gabor filters may produce more distinctive Gabor coefficients and our iris deep representations be more robust and stable than traditional iris Gabor codes. Furthermore, the depth and scales of the deep learning architecture are also discussed.
Kostin, V. I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V. I.; Fateev, S. A.; Gureeva, L. V.
This paper has been prepared as a result of Russian activities on the development of nuclear power desalinating complex (NPDC) with the IRIS reactor plant (RP). The purpose of the activities was to develop the conceptual design of power desalinating complex (PDC) and to evaluate technical and economical indices, commercial attractiveness and economical efficiency of PDC based on an IRIS RP with distillation desalinating plants. The paper presents the main results of studies as applied to dual-purpose PDC based on IRIS RP with different types of desalinating plants, namely: characteristics of nuclear power desalinating complex based on IRIS reactor plant using Russian distillation desalinating technologies; prospective options of interface circuits of the IRIS RP with desalinating plants; evaluations of NPDC with IRIS RP output based on selected desalinating technologies for water and electric power supplied to the grid; cost of water generated by NPDC for selected interface circuits made by the IAEA DEEP code as well as by the Russian TEO-INVEST code; cost evaluation results for desalinated water of PDC operating on fossil fuel and conditions for competitiveness of the nuclear PDC based on IRIS RP compared with analog desalinating complexes operating on fossil fuel.(author)
Vajpayee, Rasik B; Singhvi, Arun; Sharma, Namrata; Sinha, Rajesh
This study was designed to study an alternative technique of lamellar separation of corneal layers for therapeutic keratoplasty in place of an en bloc removal of host corneal button in eyes with perforated corneal ulcers with pseudocornea. Twelve eyes with perforated corneal ulcers with pseudocornea in which therapeutic keratoplasty was planned were included in the study. A new technique was used in which the host corneal tissue was removed in layers by lamellar dissection started peripherally and proceeding centripetally with care taken to prevent perforation at the site of iris incarceration. After injection of viscoelastic into the anterior chamber with a 26-gauge needle entered tangentially, the deeper layer of the cornea was then gently dissected and peeled away from the iris tissue, with care not to avulse the fragile iris and the overlying fibrotic membrane. Adjunctive procedures were performed, and the donor tissue was secured over the host bed. A complete separation of the iris tissue from corneal button and the fibrous membrane was achieved in 9 eyes. In 3 eyes, iris was partly trimmed along with the fibrous membrane, because the membrane was totally adherent to the iris tissue. Eight patients required pupilloplasty. Apart from minimal bleeding, no other complication was encountered. At the end of 3 months, 9 of 12 grafts remained clear. Debulking and layer-by-layer removal of host corneal tissue is effective in preservation of iris while performing therapeutic keratoplasty in eyes with perforated corneal ulcers with pseudocornea.
Wolkow, Natalie; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Gragoudas, Evangelos S
To report a unique case of a pulmonary carcinoid tumor unilaterally metastatic to the iris and ciliary body and bilaterally to the choroid that was conservatively followed. A 46-year-old woman presented with bilateral choroidal lesions and a left iris tumor. Ultrasound biomicroscopy disclosed a ciliary body component. A diagnosis of metastatic carcinoid tumor was made based on the clinical features. Rather than an excision, photodynamic therapy, or radiation treatment, as has been reported in all previous cases of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the iris, the patient was observed. Excellent vision was maintained for 8 years. The iris tumor gradually enlarged, but the choroidal lesions remained unchanged. The iris with the carcinoid tumor gradually acquired a brown pigmentation; this is the first reported case of acquired iris heterochromia in the setting of carcinoid tumor. We conclude, in cases of metastatic carcinoid in which visual acuity is excellent and the patient is asymptomatic, that observation of the ocular lesions is an acceptable course of action. The iris heterochromia is believed to have been caused by secretory factors produced by the tumor.
Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Boggess, Kim A; Manuck, Tracy A; Stamilio, David M
Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between maternal obesity and postoperative complications, but there is a dearth of information about the impact of obesity on intraoperative complications. To estimate the association between maternal obesity at delivery and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery (CD). This is a secondary analysis of the deidentified Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry of women with singleton pregnancies. Maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery was categorized as BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 , and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 . The primary outcome, any intraoperative complication, was defined as having at least 1 major intraoperative complication, including perioperative blood transfusion, intraoperative injury (bowel, bladder, ureteral injury; broad ligament hematoma), atony requiring surgical intervention, repeat laparotomy, and hysterectomy. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios of intraoperative complication in 2 models: model 1 adjusting for maternal race, and preterm delivery <37 weeks; and model 2 adjusting for confounders in Model 1 as well as emergency CD, and type of skin incision. A total of 51,218 women underwent CD; 38% had BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , 47% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , 12% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 and 3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 . Having at least 1 intraoperative complication was uncommon (3.4%): 3.8% for BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , 3.2% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , 2.6% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 and 4.3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 (P < .001). In the fully adjusted model 2, women with BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 had a lower risk of any intraoperative complication (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89) compared with women with BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 . Women with BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 (ARR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03) had a similar risk of any intraoperative complication compared with nonobese women. Among super obese women
Doaa A. Rashwan
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion in patients undergoing open nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia was associated with intraoperative hemodynamic stability, which decreases intraoperative blood loss and the need for intraoperative blood transfusion.
Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Nongpiur, Monisha Esther; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. A total of 464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5 ± 8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P = 0.023), ARA750 (β = 0.022, P = 0.049), and TISA750 (β = 0.011, P = 0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β = -0.025, P = 0.044) and TISA750 (β = -0.013, P = 0.011). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Sng, Chelvin C; Allen, John C; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Foo, Li-Lian; Zheng, Yingfeng; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S; Wong, Tien Y; Aung, Tin
We determined the ocular biometric and demographic factors associated with iris parameters in Singaporean Chinese persons from a population-based sample. Subjects were participants in the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of eye disease. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images were analyzed using customized software to measure iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris area (I-Area), and iris curvature (I-Curv). Regression analyses were performed to assess the association between iris measurements with a range of demographic and ocular variables. The contribution of each independent variable to the iris parameter of interest was determined sequentially using a stepwise selection algorithm. We included 1473 participants with a mean age of 57.7 + 8.68 years, and 50.6% were men. The mean IT750, I-Area, and I-Curv were 0.46 ± 0.10 mm, 1.49 ± 0.24 mm(2), and 0.25 ± 0.13 mm, respectively. Statistical regression models, including a range of demographic and ocular parameters, explained 59.3%, 41.9%, and 34.3% of the variability in I-Curv, IT750, and I-Area, respectively. Angle opening distance at 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD750) was the single factor associated most strongly with I-Curv, and explained 46.6% of its variation. A significant proportion of the variation in iris area, curvature, and thickness was not explained by other ocular and demographic parameters. Iris curvature was associated strongly with angle width, and of all parameters investigated, AOD750 was most highly correlated with iris curvature.
Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji
The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of
Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Gillette, Sharon M.; Powers, Barbara E.; Stukel, Therese A.; LaRue, Susan M.; Gillette, Edward L.; Borak, Thomas B.; Scott, Robert J.; Weiss, Julia; Colacchio, Thomas A.
Purpose: Late radiation injury to peripheral nerve may be the limiting factor in the clinical application of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The combination of IORT with intraoperative hyperthermia (IOHT) raises specific concerns regarding the effects on certain normal tissues such as peripheral nerve, which might be included in the treatment field. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of IORT alone to the effect of IORT combined with IOHT on peripheral nerve in normal beagle dogs. Methods and Materials: Young adult beagle dogs were randomized into five groups of three to five dogs each to receive IORT doses of 16, 20, 24, 28, or 32 Gy to 5 cm of surgically exposed right sciatic nerve using 6 MeV electrons and six groups of four to five dogs each received IORT doses of 0, 12, 16, 20, 24, or 28 Gy simultaneously with 44 deg. C of IOHT for 60 min. IOHT was performed using a water circulating hyperthermia device with a multichannel thermometry system on the surgically exposed sciatic nerve. Neurologic and electrophysiologic examinations were done before and monthly after treatment for 24 months. Electrophysiologic studies included electromyographic (EMG) examinations of motor function, as well as motor nerve conduction velocities studies. Results: Two years after treatment, the effective dose for 50% complication (ED 50 ) for limb paresis in dogs exposed to IORT only was 22 Gy. The ED 50 for paresis in dogs exposed to IORT combined with IOHT was 15 Gy. The thermal enhancement ratio (TER) was 1.5. Electrophysiologic studies showed more prominent changes such as EMG abnormalities, decrease in conduction velocity and amplitude of the action potential, and complete conduction block in dogs that received the combination of IORT and IOHT. The latency to development of peripheral neuropathies was shorter for dogs exposed to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The probability of developing peripheral neuropathies in a large animal model was higher
Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.
PREFACE This report has been prepared to provide information to organizations that may be asked to participate in a program to upgrade the global seismographic network. In most cases, the organizations that will be offered new instrumentation by the U.S. Geological Survey currently operate stations in the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) or the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The deployment of the WWSSN in the 1960's and the subsequent equipping of some WWSSN stations with digital equipment and borehole seismometers during the 1970's has been a remarkably successful program that generated the high- quality data needed to fuel an unprecedented period of progress in earthquake and tectonic research. The success of the WWSSN can be attributed to the importance of the data, to the strong commitment by participating organizations to international scientific cooperation, to the dedication and skill of the station operators, and to the resourcefulness of the staff supporting the network. Benefits have been widespread. The community of scientists world-wide has benefited from unrestricted access to a standardized base of calibrated data, and the participating stations have benefited from the donation of modern observatory instruments that have been useful for local earthquake studies and for the training of scientists and engineers. Now, an exciting opportunity has arisen to deploy a new generation of seismograph systems to replace the outdated equipment at many of the WWSSN and GDSN stations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is cooperating with the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) in a program to upgrade the global seismograph network. The equipment development phase is nearly complete with a prototype of the new broadband seismograph system currently undergoing final testing at the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. Deployment of the new equipment is expected to begin in early 1990. As this report will
Scotty, Nicole C; Barrie, Kathleen B; Brooks, Dennis E; Taylor, David
A 7-year-old gray Mustang gelding weighing 454 kg was presented for evaluation of a brown mass within the left eye (OS) of 1 year's duration with recent enlargement. A nonpainful, 8 mm diameter, brown, vascularized mass was identified in the anterior chamber of the OS. Ocular B-scan ultrasound confirmed iris involvement and corneal endothelial contact. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of a uveal melanocytic neoplasm, and revealed 1-3 mitotic figures per high power (400x) field. The mass was removed via sector iridectomy without complications, but without complete margins. Three cutaneous melanocytomas noted 1.5 months postoperatively were completely excised. No tumor regrowth was noted 15 months postoperatively, supporting a diagnosis of melanocytoma for the iridal mass. Sector iridectomy is a reasonable treatment option for uncomplicated iridal melanocytomas in horses. Mitotic index and presence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms may be irrelevant to the prognosis of equine iridal melanocytic neoplasms.
EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), and Office of Water (OW) requested the SAB to provide advice to the Agency on several issues about the mode of carcinogenic action of various arsenic species and the implications of these issues for EPA's assessment of the cancer hazard and risks of organic and inorganic arsenic. The panel will review an OPP Science Issue Paper (with an attachment prepared by ORD) and a revised hazard and dose response assessment/characterization for inclusion in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) prepared by OW. Inorganic arsenic is used for hardening copper and lead alloys. It also is used in glass manufacturing as a decolorizing and refining agent, as a component of electrical devices, in the semiconductor industry, and as a catalyst in the production of ethylene oxide.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new isoflavonoid glycoside, iridin A (9, along with eight known isoflavonoids: irilone 4'-methyl ether (1, irilone (2, irisolidone (3, irigenin S (4, irigenin (5, irilone 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, iridin S (7, and iridin (8 were separated from Iris × germanica L., Iridaceae, rhizomes. The structural elucidation of these flavonoids was achieved with the aid of extensive spectroscopic techniques and comparing with the published data. They were estimated for their α-amylase and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory capacities. Compounds 3, 5, and 9 showed α-amylase inhibitory activities with % inhibition 70.8, 67.5, and 70.5, respectively compared to acarbose (a reference α-amylase inhibitor. Moreover, 9 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 8.91 µM.
Well, A.A. van; Gibcus, H.P.M.; Gommers, R.M.; Haan, V.O. de; Labohm, F.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.
One of the main facilities of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) at the Delft University of Technology is the swimming-pool type research reactor HOR. In 1963 it was critical for the first time. The power raised from 100 kW in 1963 to 500 kW in 1965. In 1968, forced cooling was introduced. From that time on, the reactor is operated at 2 MW, 5 days per week. The reactor comprises a variety of irradiation facilities, used among others for radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. It is equipped with six horizontal radial beam tubes, originally used for neutron-scattering experiments. Throughout the years, the research activities have grown steadily, both in the development of new techniques and in applying these techniques in new research areas. (orig.)
Quelques vies de la Tarentule réunit une série de dessins d'Iris Levasseur et un texte inédit de Célia Houdart. Moins léché que les grandes compositions de l'artiste, cet ensemble dont les petits formats sont reproduits à l'échelle 1, exacerbe l’aspect brut des corps mis en scène. Le papier rose délimite l'espace de soixante dessins répondant aux six chapitres de La Vie enfantine de la tarentule noire par la tarentule noire, de Kathy Acker, poètesse punk et romancière au féminisme ultra-sexua...
Full Text Available Biometric represents the human identification method development using natural characteristic of humanbeing as its bases. Every iris has the detail and unique texture, even differ between right and left eye.Theeye iris identification process in this research are data acquisition, early processing, feature exctractionand classification. Algorithm used for classification of texture slice the eye is Gabor wavelet filtering, andclassification process of slice the eye texture will be used by a Artificial Neural Network LVQ. Recognitionthe value of feature vektor in each iris obtained from to the number of right recognition value or thepercentage of right one. The best recognition percentage is 87,5 %.
Lumbanraja, Sahala M.; Wibowo
System and prospect of the small innovative reactor IRIS-50 in Indonesia have been studied. IRIS-50 (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is an advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse. This reactor is specifically developed to match market demands, or to developing country. This reactor is based on simplified operation and maintenance, enhanced and safety, easy to inspect, short construction time, small investment cost, competitive generating cost, and easily suited to the infrastructures. IRIS main characteristic is integral reactor concept, being all the major reactor coolant system components located inside the pressure vessel
Full Text Available The paper presents a rigorous analysis of iris biometric information for the synthesis of an optimized system for the extraction of a high quality cryptology key. Estimations of local entropy and mutual information were identified as segments of the iris most suitable for this purpose. In order to optimize parameters, corresponding wavelets were transformed, in order to obtain the highest possible entropy and mutual information lower in the transformation domain, which set frameworks for the synthesis of systems for the extraction of truly random sequences of iris biometrics, without compromising authentication properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32054 i br. III44006
Conclusion: Preoperative Lugol solution treatment was found to be a significant independent determinant of intraoperative blood loss. Moreover, preoperative Lugol solution treatment decreased the rate of blood flow, and intraoperative blood loss during thyroidectomy.